# Fallacies Logical Fallacies Slippery Slope Is a Term Paper

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Fallacies

Logical Fallacies

Slippery slope is a logical fallacy where one event is said to lead to another event, which in turn leads to another event, which in turn has significant consequences. For example, a person might argue that if one person is given a pay rise, everyone else will expect a pay rise, and that everyone will expect continual pay rises, and that the organization will go bankrupt. The fallacy occurs because there is no definite link between the initial event and the ones that are said to follow it. The problem in relation to critical thinking is that there is no validity to the reasons. This is especially problematic because the reasons are based on what might happen, with the possibilities of what might happen almost endless. This means that for every event there will be the possibility of coming up with a series of chain reactions that lead to some terrible consequence. However, just because the consequence is a possibility does not mean that it will happen. The other problem in regards to critical thinking is that a slippery slope argument can be effective because many people will react to the possibility of the final consequence. This means that even though the argument is not valid, it can still be effective because it draws on people's fears. An individual can then agree with the argument based on an emotional response linked to their fear.

Hasty generalization is another logical fallacy. Hasty generalization occurs when a conclusion is made based on a sample that does not represent the norm. This can include a sample that is too small to make a general conclusion, or a sample that does not represent the conclusion that is being made. An example might involve stating that 50% of consumers do not like a product based on a sample of only four people, where two said they like a product and two said they did not. In this case, the sample size is not large enough to establish that 50% of all consumers dislike a product. Another example might involve saying that most employees prefer having a male boss, with this conclusion based on interviewing the employees of one male boss and the employees of one female boss. This conclusion is a hasty generalization because the sample does not represent the whole population and because the sample may not be a measure of whether male or female is preferred. Instead, the preferences of the sample may be based on the nature of the individual and not on whether they are male or female. Another example might involve concluding that employee stress levels have decreased in recent years, based on a sample that only includes part-time workers. This is a hasty generalization because the sample does not match the conclusion being made, but represents only a portion of the population. The problem with the hasty generalization fallacy is that the reasons for the conclusion are not a valid support for the conclusion. This is especially problematic because in some cases the reasons for the conclusion will not be stated. For example, an author might say that 1 in 10 people are unhappy with their working conditions, but not provide the details of what sample this is based on. This can result in people accepting the statistic without questioning whether or not it is valid. Even if the sample information is provided, many people will notice the statistic more than the sample and not notice that the sample makes the statistic invalid.

Post hoc is a fallacy where a connection is assumed between two events simply because one happened before the other. For example, an organization might achieve record sales in a certain month. It might be assumed that this is because a new manager was hired the month before. While this is possible, if there is no definite link to show that the new manager caused the increased sales, than this is a post hoc fallacy. As another example, an employee might make an error one morning and be told that they are being retrenched in the afternoon. They might assume that they are being retrenched because of the error just because it happened previous to being retrenched. In reality, they may be…

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