Life Situation Can Create a Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

The objective is to impede rumination. 3. In the third stage -- relapse prevention or rehabilitation -- Mr. Thomas will be encouraged to participate in activities (such as hobbies that he enjoys, listening to music, socializing, his work and so forth) and to move towards increased interest in his work, and other components of his life outside of his depressing domestic situation. The whole model would focus around prevention and intervention where prevention aims at reducing the individual's psychobiological vulnerability (via for instance reducing the stress facing Mr. Thomas by enlisting the aid, for instance, of his children and coworkers) whilst intervention seeks to strengthen that same vulnerability (via for instance cognitive-behavioral techniques or other depression-reducing interventions).

Soemtiems, conflicts in commucantion occur inthis type sof stiaution when ethical condudresm are invoeld such as a perosn wishing to die whislt eveyroen else wants her to live on, or the gnawing unceratiny about whehtre or not teo tell a perosn tha the is fatllay ill. All of this is aggravated in the case of a child. In all, the patient's wishes should come before all else and this concerns child as well as adult. The United Nations Convention that states that children should have a voice. Indeed, Article 12 of the United, United Nations Convention on the rights of the child, talks about children having a voice in all matters that affect their welfare (CDA6002 Transcripts). The conflict is between parental rights and that of child; if the parents feel it is damaging for child to be told, (or if the parents -- knowing the child better than anyone else may know the individual -- feel that the child will opt out of the procedure due to the pain) whose wishes take precedence?

For the nustes, e this too is a conflict paritucalry sicne her nature desire is to cure and when a child is ivovked the cionfklcuit is intenisified. Ultimately, the nurse is there to make the last few days of the patient as comfortable and as painless as possible., a nd this has to be done according to the wishes of the patient.

Characteristics of te commucaniton in a conflict sitution according to game theory.

game theory proposes that interpersonal communication is marked by people trying to guess each other's decisions and outsmart one the other. It may also act as a tool for predicting the outcome of the game.

many aspects of communication could be explained by the game theory approach, where players (in strategic manipulations) compete against the other, each desiring and aiming to receive their own outcome.

There are various games in game theory. One may be that existent between genders (the 'gender' game) where men and women have different ways of communicating and of attempting to persuade the other. For instance, Tannen (1996) believes that males "try to achieve and maintain the upper hand if they can, and protect themselves from others' attempts to put them down." (Tannen, 1996, 25), whereas females play that game that "conversations are negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give confirmation and support, and to reach consensus" (ibid.). The objective is for controlling the conversation ('being in the driver's seat') and for power.

Each of the communication styles are bounded and guided by 'information' or rules. For instance, communication games, howsoever much the intent of the participant is otherwise, is controlled by the 'rule' of politeness. According to Cook (1997), for instance, females have "learned to cajole and please." In situations when this rule is broken, women are, consequently, perceived as being 'unwomanly'.

Non-zero-sum ness is another example of another sort of game that exists in communication where the players' interests overlap one another. Their separate goals are congruent one with the other, and, therefore, there is no disagreement, but an atmosphere of good will. Zero sumness on the other hand, represents the reverse situation; here players vociferously compete with one another, whilst the 'equilibrium' situation represents a case where each player has adopted a strategy that they are unlikely to change. Other categories of games are: cooperative and non-cooperative where players do, or do not, form commitment to playing / agreeing; symmetric and asymmetric, where the game's outcome (or the communication's outcome) depends, or does not, depend on the identity of the players); simultaneous and sequential where players either move simultaneously (not having information about the other player's earlier actions or intentions), or where players move sequentially (where one player possesses knowledge of the other's intentions); perfect information and imperfect information (where all players do, or do not, know the moves made by other players; in other words whether they are, or are not, in sync with other players); infinitely long game (the focus here being not so much on winning, but on knowing whether one of the players has a certain strategy); discrete and continuous games (possessing only certain rules or extensive rules); one-player or many-player games; and metagames (where this game formulates or assesses the rules of another communication game).


Jaffe and Ehrlich's book, All kinds of love: Experiencing hospice, rells a story that shows better thatn anything else how I mproatn open commucnaiton, acceptance and lsuitenign is to te h moraltly ill. Sandy was gay and revealed this fact to his parents when he was 23 who, shocked by the news, rejected him. Shortly after, Sandy was diagnosed with a terminal illness and was hospitalized demoralized and depressed. Janice, the hospice nurse was summoned by his boyfriend to the scene and she was followed by Sandy's grandmother, who arranged to help Sandy through the illness. Existentialist questions on Sandy's part gave Janice the original idea of adding a chaplain to their team. Chaplain Frank suggested that the patient's parents be contacted. Sandy's mother soon came and, in the hospital environment, the two female family members acknowledged Sandy's lover as part of their family. After a ten-day interval of Sandy finding respite, the chaplain prepared the family for the end, and Janice instructed the grandmother and Joe regarding symptoms of death and how they should deal with it. Janice's innovation was bringing the chaplain into the case. Doing so resulted in ramifications that helped Sandy achieve closure and, accordingly, die in peace.

What communcaiton is

Communcaiton entails the give and take so that each side understands, is open with, and directly communcaites their perspective and sittuion to the other so that potential conflict is broken theorugh and a stae oof peaceful transparency exists.

How to best do this is illustrated by the follwoign stoy:

Jon the dying preacher is an example of where dying in peace and comfort is the most important aspect that a hospice nurse can gift a patient. Both Rose and Jon had adjusted to Jon's imminent death and attempted to encourage their daughters, Susan and Joan to show Jon that they could easily communicate and come to grips with his transition to death. Joan was the least able, but realizing that Jon wanted to make the most of his last moments on earth and that he, as terminally-ill patient wanted to live each and every one of those moments to the fullest without remorse and pain, Janice, the hospice nurse, enabled the daughters to express their feelings, to be mutually open with their feelings, and, letting themselves feel the pain, to savor each moment to the fullest.

Communication is a process between sender and recipient. It is meant to be effective so that the process is as smooth as possible with both recipient and sender, regardless of different context, background and experience, sending and receiving the message in a way that each intends the message to be deciphered. The goal of the communication process is to accomplish a certain bond of shared meaning and understanding to transpire between sender and recipient for message, and that this message come across intact and be rebounded time and again intact, without any breaks and conflict; at least until the end of the session.

Active or emphatic listening, on the other hand, involves a state of mind where the recipient fully engages himself to tuning it to the other's words and gestures, and accords the message and messenger his/her fullest attention.

Skills of listening are achieved by paraphrasing, reflecting, and summarizing the other's words in order to ascertain that one understands and that one has been understood as intended; to intermittently investigate by asking whether the other has understood the content of one's words and agrees with the content and structure; to openly state that one feels misunderstood (if one feels so) and request feedback; to absorb gestures and emotions of the other as one is listening; to lean forward in order to convey interest and so forth. In short, active listening requires the ability to attend which means focusing in on the message and screening out distracting elements.


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