Evaluate claim migration positively valued UK-essay Sources:Chapter 4 main source information material Chapter 5 Exploring Social Lives, Milton Keynes, Tne Open University. Illustrate support arguments..
Migration is the process by which humans move physically from one location to another, in order to stay there permanently or semi-permanently. There is voluntary migration where an individual moves at their own will within their own region, country or overseas. Involuntary migration includes human trafficking where humans are taken to other countries to work without the right papers for migration, and against their own will. Slave trade and ethnic cleansing are also part of the involuntary migration. Migration may be intercontinental where people move from one continent to another; intercontinental is where people move from one country to another, within the same continent. Interregional migration is where people from one country to another within the same region and rural to urban migration is the movement of people from the rural to urban areas in search of job opportunities Gordon, 1995()
People who move into a new region or country are called immigrants while those who move out of a country are called emigrants. Some people migrate into a new territory so as to be able to develop it. Such people are called settlers or colonists. The people who move out of their country into another for fear of persecution because of their race, or due to political instability in their country are called refugees Gordon, 1995()
Types of migration
There are several types of migration. Internal migration involves moving from one home into a new one within the same country. External migration is the movement of people into new homes but in different countries. Emigration is when a certain person leaves his or her country and moves into another. Immigration is the entry into a new country. Population transfer is where a large group of people are forced to move by the government of their countries mostly due to religion or ethnicity. Imposed migration is when people move from their country of residence into another due to unfavorable situations like war, drought and political instability Gordon, 1995()
Chain migration involves the movement of a family from their country into a new country. This process happens slowly because few people of the family go at a time. Those in the new country work and send money home to bring more members of the family into the new country. Return migration is where the immigrants go back to their home countries of birth. Migration can also be permanent or temporary. Permanent migration is where people move to a new area and stay there permanently while temporary migration is where people move to a new place for a short time, such as the tourists Gordon, 1995()
Reasons for migration
Factors that cause migration of people are divided into pull and push factors. Push factors are those that make people emigrate from their own country. Pull factors are those that attract people into moving to a desired country. Political instability in country may lead to war causing people to migrate in search for peace. Environmental factors such as drought and natural disasters such as earth quakes and floods can cause people to migrate. People migrate in such for job opportunities and for better education. Some people move into new countries in search for religious freedom, better climatic conditions and increased supply of food Laczko, 2002()
Studies on Immigration into the United Kingdom
Immigrants who move into the United Kingdom are mostly from Ireland and from countries which Britain colonized such as India, South Africa, Pakistan, Kenya, Bangladesh and Hong Kong. Some immigrants come in as asylums. These are people who come in through the United Nations as refugees.
According to a recent United Kingdom's census, which was done in April 2001, the percentage population of foreign born immigrants was 8.3%. This means that about 4.9 million people were born abroad. It is estimated that about 567000 people arrived in the UK in 2009 and 371000 people left the country in the same year. This brings to net migration of people into the country to about 196000 Open University Worldwide, 2010()
After World War II, a great number of people from the countries controlled by the Soviet Union settled in Britain. This contributed to the huge increase in the number of immigrants. The right to free movement of people which is one of the four freedoms of the European Union and it has led to the increase in the number of immigrants mostly from the Eastern and Central Europe, Cyprus and Malta. Managed migration refers to Student migration and legal labour from countries which are outside of the EU (European Union) into the UK. This form of migration is controlled by the United Kingdom Border Agency which is one of the many departments of the Home Office. Another factor that contributes to increase in the number of immigrants is illegal migration, where people enter into the UK without being authorized by the government, those whom their visas have expired but still continue to stay in the country and those who have entered using fake documents.
Advantages of migration in UK
Immigration is positively valued in the United Kingdom. The immigrants bring new skills into the country. They teach the native born workers their new skills thus increasing the productivity of the country. Immigrants take up the niches left behind by people in the UK. These jobs are mostly low paying or looked down upon by the native-born individuals. The low paying jobs taken up by the immigrants include construction, nursing, catering and domestic services. They thus improve the economy of the country.
Immigration into the United Kingdom has led to intermarriage between the immigrants and the natives. This has led to increased cultural diversity in the country. People have been able to learn about the cultures of different ethnic groups from different countries. This has created understanding between individuals and has decreased discrimination Moser and Beesley, 1973.
Understanding other people's cultures and way of life builds respect and people are able to work together towards a common goal.
Immigrants who come into the country as tourists increase the country's revenue. This contributes to a positive effect in the country's economy. Immigration also leads to improved standards of living for the citizens of the country. The skills gained by the natives from the immigrants help them to be able to get better paying jobs thus increasing income per head. This helps them be able to improve their living standards.
Immigrants contribute largely to the public service. Records show that the net fiscal contribution of immigrants was 31.2 billion in 2002. The reports from Home Office show that Immigrants contribute 10% in the net fiscal contribution. Immigration has a positive impact on inflation as it lowers it Open University Worldwide, 2010.
Immigration has been considered to have a huge impact on the social cohesion in the UK. Social cohesion is where people in a community are sharing a common vision and there are positive relationships that exist between the different people from different ethnic groups in all sectors. Social cohesion enables people to have a keen and passionate sense of belonging in a particular community. Immigration has improved education and productivity in the places of work. People from different backgrounds have learnt how to interact and respect each other, thus working towards a common goal.
As skilled people migrate from the UK to other countries for example doctors, nurses, other scientists, they are able bring positive effects in the countries they move to thus bringing global development. When emigrants from the UK move to other countries, they are able to build the economy of other countries thus improving on their economy. This makes the United Kingdom be…