Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model
A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).
Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the risk of mental illnesses. Furthermore, the body grows weak and pale. This paper analyzes the relationship between mental health and ageing. The paper looks into the unending scientific researches and years of clinical trials of Daniel L. Segal in his book " Ageing and Mental health." The aim of this paper is to vitally discuss the issue of aging and mental health amongst the older population. In depth, this paper discusses aspects of mental health and old age and associates them to various models presented by Daniel L. Segal.
The models employed in the discussion of mental health and the ageing process explain what happens to old people. They explain the behavioral and personality disorders associated with the ageing process. Each framework offers a set of assumptions on mental health as well as the development of mental health disorders. They also offer recommendations for assessment and treatment of disorders. The assumptions shape the direction toward specific tenets of the functioning of older adults. For instance, the behavioral model helps explain the origin of memory loss amongst adults. Several other models of mental disorder and mental health feature in the following sections of the paper. In each discussion, the models attempt to reveal the relevance of each approach to older adults. This also includes the problems they face in their lifetime.
The psychodynamic model
The psychodynamic model is one of the most basic comprehensive frameworks of psychological disorder and well-being. However, in terms of mental health, it is amongst the late contributors. The model makes attempts in presenting a rough picture of what takes place in an individual's mind. The model tries to offer an explanation of the relationships, experiences and perceptions of human beings (Stuart-Hamilton, 2012). The model gives rise to the psychodynamic approach. The psychodynamic framework discusses theories that perceive human functioning in relation to the interaction of drives and forces around the person. Much emphasis is on the unconscious mind, and between the various structures of the personality. The psychic energy is the force that drives the personality. Thus, the psychodynamic model studies the exchanges and transformations of the psychic energy. The model explains behaviors through the interaction of the forces of emotions (Kerry Kelly & Jack, n.d). Precisely, it looks at the interaction between the super-ego, the ego, and the id. Some of the key ideas presented by the psychodynamic model are child/parent relationships, as well as their influence on behaviors and feelings. This also includes the ideas suggesting that major events in one's life shape the unconscious mind.
The brain is a map maker, constructing neural maps that depict real life experiences. It constitutes the unique trait of each of perspectives and subjective. The brain constantly compares the moment maps against those of the past, in order to arrive at the most accurate prediction over the next action to be taken (Stuart-Hamilton, 2012). As one grows older, the brain functions deteriorate, as well. The brain changes in various ways in the course of the life span. Firstly, it generates energetic growth during the initial stages of life (the first two years). This constitutes approximately 15% of the adult brain capacity. This receives ample pruning before puberty. Thanks to evolution, there is the creation of neural strategy that is able to respond to an extraordinary series of environmental constraints. As they get specified, the unutilized neuronal extensions wither and fade. During puberty, another dendritic growth takes place. A pruning process follows, and that could take years (Stuart-Hamilton, 2012). The neurons reorganize themselves and create faster and efficient connections within the various areas of the brain. This takes place up to the mid twenties. The series of transformations occurs throughout the life of an individual. The brain continues to change in relation to one's experiences, consequently, as one grows older, the functioning of the brain wears out. This leads to the impairment in personalities associated with old age.
The model employs logical assumptions about human beings. The assumptions are the main constructs that explain human behavior. The basic personality, the inter- personal, and the developmental processes are the key variables in the theory. The model emphasizes the intricate interaction among emotion, motivation, and cognition in the formation of personality. The complexity of the organization of the structures causes the distinction between human beings and animals (Kerry Kelly & Jack, n.d). Nevertheless, the quest to survive, alongside the knowledge of tenuous survival lead to anxiety. Managing anxiety is the main task of the paramount function of the personality. Anxiety represents conflicts between the libido and the superego. The ego's role is to harmonize the conflict between the two.
The model exposes the level of continuity between the child and adult growth processes. The distinctions are mainly in form and content. The major structures through which processes feature and revoke remain the same. Consequently, adults reach their last stage of their lives highly influenced by childhood events, as well as adaptations and the events of old age. The adult development process features in terms of the tasks which provoke change, for instance marriage and childbirth. Consequently, the culmination of life's events presents new challenges to the development process. Some of the events include grief over the loss of loved ones, loss of physical energy and the resulting dependability, loss of roles, and the loss of opportunities to change one's life course. The notion that the loss theme dominates the ageing process forms the view that the ageing process causes high rates of depression (Stuart-Hamilton, 2012).
Proponents of the psychodynamic theory focus assessment on interior personality structures. This includes beliefs, emotional responses, behavioral patterns, values, meanings, and narratives. The developmental history of an individual Lifecycle should form the crucial starting point. This comprises of tasks, developmental stages, and themes. Past childhood experiences are important within the framework (Kerry Kelly & Jack, n.d). This is because early childhood experiences may constrain later developmental forms. The latter emanate from the attachment trauma and critical events within which early experiences took place.
Cognitive behavioral model
The cognitive behavioral model focuses on how a person thinks. It combines aspects of the cognitive approach and behavioral approach. The model centers its analysis on one's thoughts towards the events in one's life. The major variables in this framework are beliefs, thoughts, images, and attitudes. All these combine to form one's cognitive processes. The model extends its efforts in relating a person's cognitive processes to his actions. One assumption about the framework is that all human behavior originates from the thought process (Zonneveld, Duivenvoorden, Passchier & van't Spijker, 2010). The framework recommends an assessment and treatment that focuses on changing the thought pattern. This in turn results to a change in a person's actions, behaviors, and the subsequent difficult situations at hand.
The cognitive behavioral model is an analysis that focuses on the short-term, objective oriented psychotherapy treatment of the old members of the family. It explains how the patterns of thinking result to behaviors and situations in a person's life. The approach explains the root of anxiety and depression and recommends diagnostic procedures. A crucial advantage of the model is that it offers a short-term analysis of the subject. This includes relating the subject to the immediate situation and/or environment (Stuart-Hamilton, 2012).
The theory insinuates that it is not the events that cause anxiety but the human reaction. A negative thought pattern could hinder the perception and prevent the flow of positive thoughts. The old thought pattern usually prevents the learning process. Thoughts of sickness could result to a person falling ill. Thoughts of weakness prevent people from achieving their goals. This is because the thought pattern results in negative behavior of failure. The negative though the pattern originate from childhood and past experiences. They become relatively fixed and automatic with time. The thought pattern lead to a situation referred as dysfunctional assumption. Dysfunctional functions are the principles for living, usually expressed in terms of "should" statements or "if…then." They originate from the deep well of core beliefs. Automatic thoughts are thus, localized areas of commotion in the lake formed. The commotions represent the behaviors and they…