Wartime Responses and Subjective Feelings of Interned Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

wartime responses and subjective feelings of interned Japanese-Americans to demand that they prove their loyalty to the United States? In answering, this question relies primarily upon the novel, No-no Boy, the relevant class lectures, and the video "Conscience and the Constitution."

The novel No-No boy has a different approach on the suburbia issue one closer to the look of an outsider in contrast to internal entrapment feelings of Yates. The novel talks about Ichiro who comes out of jail feeling confused and insecure about his place in post war settings. He did not serve the war, and his survival serves as a commentary as a non-white American living around suburban America. He leaves in the city, and all he wants is to be part of the American Dream taking place around him. For some reason, he does not fit in and spends the rest of the time persecuting and blaming himself. Ichiro desperately wanted to be a part of America until he was willing to take Kenji place. Such an elusive ideal commitment demonstrates both the isolation and sadness that Ichiro felt as well as the crippling pretence of the whole situation.

This novel answers tackle two important issues of Japanese emperor and the U.S. military. Ichiro, the novel's protagonist is a "no-no boy" as most of the internal feelings he experiences results from being one. He constantly questions government, himself, his country and his friends and this make him experience emotional turmoil. "Surprisingly, Ichiro felt relieved. Eto's anger seemed to serve as a release to his own naked tensions. As he stooped to lift the suitcase, a wet wad splattered over his hand and dripped onto the black leather. The legs of his accuse were in front of him. God in a pair of green fatigues, U.S. Army style. They were the legs of the jury that had passed sentence upon him. Beseech me, they seemed to say, throw your arms about me and bury your head between my knees and seek pardon for your great sin."

This passage represents the universal feelings of confusion, shame and guilt that the incarcerated Japanese-Americans were facing at that time. In the above example, following being spit on, Ichiro asserts that he felt an uncommon reaction of relief and the reason as to why he felt relieved is that he shamefully thought that he deserved such a treatment. Given the way, Ichiro completely focused on matters of shame and the way the issue is characteristic for Japanese-Americans to dwell on during that time, it is reasonable that Ling would state that Ichiro only argues through the "dominant discourse." However, the point is basing his arguments on such identity of conflicted and self-hating persona, reflects the character of Ichiro as an individual whose experience during the wartime was on the conflicting side of the spectrum. Okada, a 'yes-yes boy' had served in U.S. military and possibly not experienced any identity crisis as Ichiro.

Okada had to try to be on purpose with the actions of his characters in order to bring out the lack of experience as far as the central character was concerned. His characters had to replicate the things that he was familiar with, things that a person like Ichiro will have to experience as he intentionally touched only on accurate features of Ichiro's character. This worked in Okada's favour as the readers thoroughly became identifiable with Ichiro. Although this may be a 'dominant discourse', it is essential for Okada to have, his character entrenched in those feelings that the Japanese-Americans possessed at the time. The initial narrow-mindedness of Ichiro is deliberate just as every character in the novel depicts various feelings that different Japanese-American Members hold. It may be a feeling of confusion like Ichiro, weak like papa or seemingly helpless and hurt like Emi. Kenji is also an important character in that he represents the interesting part of the Japanese-American population.

A population that had become identical with the American dream. Kenji is accepting and contemplating quietly. He is a symbol of those who have achieved the ideal American Dream, which Ichiro and many other characters desire. Kenji attaining his achievements helps the writer reveal to the reader the ambiguous notion of being American. This is evident during a get together at his house. "No one said much during the first part of the dinner. Tom ate ravenously. Hanako seemed about to say something several times but could not bring herself to speak. The father kept looking at Kenji without having to say what it was that he felt for his son. Surprisingly, it was tom who broached the subject which was on all their minds." There is more to this section such as a reference to basketball, pie and so on, which solidifies this feeling. There is a high level of hidden dissatisfaction despite having attained the American dream. In this context, the author might have seen the disappointment as cultural.

The largest amount of stress at the family gathering was due to the illness that Kenji had but what is the reason behind the writer contextualising it in that manner if not to make the reader question the meaning of being American. The reason for the writer using Kenzi's character was to communicate the message that the American dream differs for everyone. It is not a rigid value but a fluid perpetually moving ideal especially for his Japanese-American relatives of that time. The writer uses this rationale to juxtapose with the narrow mindedness belief of Ichiro. On Ichiro's part, these believes shape much of the novel and the writer does not exclusively defines "acts," as Ms. Lowe thinks when she generalises on the Asian-Americans in literature, but also inactions. One may argue that naturally, inactions are acts but basing on the No-No Boy case, one may look at Ichiro's decision not to join the army as 'inaction' rather than an 'act'.

The difference may be inconsequential, but the way one views the issue may change the perspective. Viewing it through the 'action' lenses indicates the belief that the choice of Ichiro not to join the army was a pre-meditated and conscious, when in fact, the actions were unintentional. The two things ultimately come together, the Japanese-America's slice that every character represents, and the inactions of Ichiro Ichiro's inaction, and fall under deliberation theme. Whether it was deliberate for on Okada's part to join the army or on Okada's part as the author in his stable handed depiction of Japanese-Americans, his choices were always evident. This is so since whatever Ichiro stands for in the Japanese-American context is both a young man who has trouble in seeing through the Americana stereotyping haze and a young man who has no idea on what to do about those troubles.

The documentary "Conscience and the Constitution," explores the Japanese-Americans who resisted the attempts of the U.S. government to draft them into the duties of Warfare even when they were locked up during that time. The movie seeks to redefine the representation of these men, not as traitors but heroic and loyal men with masculinity and courage contradicting emasculating discourses regarding draft resistance. The exploration of the film produces a broad picture of the experience of the Japanese America imprisonment. The film redefines the Japanese-American men as powerful, courageous, masculine and heroic. The video explores the story of draft resisters who persisted in the effort of challenging the incarnation of the Japanese-Americans during the World War II despite the difficulties they underwent. The lone hero in the narrative has the moral courage to fight for unpopular principles despite the overwhelming opposition and obstacles. The movie addresses the issue of the experiences of the individuals who resisted the incarceration through refusing to serve the military.

The emergence of Emi as the film's primary hero is consistent with one hero here who stands out to the system despite the obstacles. The first conversation between Frank Emi and Mits Koshiyama draws the attention of the readers to the experiences and many humiliating scenes the two men face. There are scenes of police parting down the men, the government functionaries inspecting the men, and the military personnel dragging the people after protesting. There are pictures in the courtroom of young men some of them putting on high school leather jackets. The film's main message is that the incarceration was degrading and humiliating the Japanese-American masculinity, but the acts of the draft resisters like Frank Emi offered some redemption hope to the people.

Question 2

What position will you take about the purpose of national museums on war?

The national museum contributes to the Japanese community in various ways. The museum offers an individual historical information and many services both to the Japanese and non-Japanese community on the role that the Japanese played throughout the Asia Pacific War. The presence and the history of many Japanese museums are the significance as most of them serve as landmarks for the Japanese ancestry people and as a…

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