Accounting Information Systems Essays (Examples)

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Watts's and Zimmerman's Research in the Late

Words: 1518 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85936681

Watts's and Zimmerman's research in the late 70s gave way to the positive accounting theory and to their book, Positive Accounting Theory, published in 1986. In order to refer to political costs and how they may influence accounting standards and the way profit is regulated in order to fit individual needs, we first need to briefly refer to social responsibility, as it appears in the positive accounting theory.

Most important, Watts and Zimmerman assume that "individuals act to maximize their own utility"

It is clear, in this sense, that managers within a company will act in order to influence accounting standards to their own interest. There are two reward forms that may be influenced: cash bonuses (compensation plans) and changes in share prices (via stock and stock options)

The reported earnings influence both these reward forms. As such, increases in reported earnings will most likely increase the managerial cash reward,…… [Read More]

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Enron Sham and Shame the

Words: 3249 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17371835

The first set of rules required in-house lawyers to report frauds to the organization's highest authorities. The second set provided exceptions to the general rule on legal confidentiality. Both sets were heatedly discussed for decades. Similar scandals since the 70s, which gave rise to similar heated debates, included the National Student Marketing securities fraud, the OPM commercial fraud, the Lincoln Savings & Loan and Allied Savings and Loans scandal of the 80s, and the BCCI fraud in financial institutions in the 90s. And then Enron came (Lawry).

These debates centered on lawyers who tried to do their jobs right even if their clients did wrong (Lawry 2003). The debates necessarily veered into the very nature of the legal profession. Rule 1.13 of the 1983 Model Rules provides lawyers a number of options in cases of corporate irregularities or violations, which could bring harm to the organization. One of these was…… [Read More]

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Annual Report There Are Several Sections to

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53355276

Annual Report

There are several sections to the 2012 Amazon Annual Report. The first five pages after the cover page consist of a letter to the shareholders, followed by a reprint of the 1997 letter to the shareholders. The rest of the annual report consists of the 10-K. The main sections of the 10-K are the descriptive Part I (business description, risk factors, etc.), the financial Part II (financial statements, notes, and accounting disclosures) and Part III, which is the governance section. There is also Part IV, which consists of the exhibits for the report.

Amazon enjoyed strong financial performance for the year. In his letter, CEO Jeff Bezos noted that the company's customer-driven focus, automated systems and its different investments are all key contributors to growth at the company. In particular, the Kindle, Amazon Prime and digital media are elements to which the company's performance is attributed. There is…… [Read More]

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Management v Auditors Responsibility Responsibilities of Management

Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71652918

Management v. Auditors Responsibility

Responsibilities of Management and Auditors & the Public Perception series of high-profile business melt-downs in 2001, led by the Enron scandal have put the roles and responsibilities of the corporate management and the auditors in sharp focus. The public outcry against the necessity of preventing such crises in future has led to stricter regulation and extensive debate about the responsibilities of the management and the auditors. In this paper I shall explain the management's role and responsibilities verses the auditors' and also discuss how the public's perception of the auditor's duties have differed over time from that of the profession's.

The Management's Responsibilities

The management is responsible for formulating policies in an organization for efficient utilization of resources, setting goals, and providing the necessary resources, leadership and direction for achieving the goals. The ultimate objective of the management in a for-profit organization is to maximize the…… [Read More]

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GAAS Standards vs GAGAS Standards

Words: 1161 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24268522

Since the bygone years, one of the important goals of auditing standard creators has been enhancing the interactions among the auditors as well as their services users. (Broadus, 7)

In this effect, during the initial part of the year 1988, the auditing standards board of the American Institute of CPAs brought out a lot of new types of SASs, many of which are targeted towards improving the communication of auditors. Also during that period, rising public focus was being provided on the audit of governmental bodies. Therefore even when the new SASs is considered to be settled, the GAO was reviving GAGAS as contained with regard to the yellow book. The yellow book, similar to the AICPA standards contains the need for auditor interactions that have been given effect since Jan 1, 1989. Among the areas of communications dealt within the yellow book is the duty of auditors for interacting…… [Read More]

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Rhythm on the Vine Auditing Case

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 14408300

Rhythm on the Vine is a concert series that is run on a charity basis by the Shriner's Hospitals for Children. Rhythm is a concert series and the size of the events is growing rapidly, so there is a need for the Shriners to implement proper procedures for financial management and cash handling at these events. Members of the public pay for their tickets with credit cards or online, but there are some ticket purchases at the events, and in some instances there are cash purchases of food and beverages available. There are several different ticketing tiers, with the highest level of sponsorship at $5,000 and lower levels down to $35 tickets at the picnic area. The picnic area generates cash sales of food and beverages in particular, as many picnic guests rely on ad hoc food purchases. In addition to ticket sales, there are silent auctions as well.

There…… [Read More]

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Alleg Balance Sheet Current Assets Cash 13 000

Words: 1332 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 34416915

Alleg Balance Sheet

Current assets:



Market Securities


Account receivable




Total Current assets


Plan and equipment:

Land and buildings





Less Accumulated depreciation

Total Plant Equipment









Other Assets


Total Assets



Current liabilities

Accounts payable


Current maturities of long-term debt


Total Current Liabilities


Long-Term Liabilities

Mortgages payable


Bonds payable


Deferred Income Taxes


Total long-term liabilities


Stockholders' equity:

common stock no par value

21000 shares authorized at $1 par valu,

10000 shares issues


Additional paid in capital


Retained Earnings


Total Stockholder's equity


Total Liabilities and Stockholders equity


Case 3-8

a. Special Note

1. This was prepared using the Financial Reporting Standards or IFRS.

2. This was not reconciled with the U.S. Or the U.S. GAAP.

3. The…… [Read More]

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New PCAOB Reporting Requirements a Practical Guide

Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 45936845


Reporting Requirements


A Practical Guide to the New PCAOB Reporting Requirements

PCAOB is a Public Company Accounting Oversight Board established by Sarbanes-Oxley Act to oversee the auditing procedures of public companies in order to protect the interest of investors and enhance public confidence towards preparation of accurate audit information. The PCAOB attempts to protect the interests of investors as well as enhancing fair and accurate audit reporting.

The objective of this study is to justify whether the reporting requirements of the PCAOB reduce the chance of financial fraud.

Justification how the reporting requirements of the PCAOB reduce the chance of financial fraud

Fundamental objective leading to the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002 was in response of corporate financial scandals that rocked business circle in the late 1990s and early 2000s in the United States. To restore investors'…… [Read More]

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Several Questions About Auditing Intro Level

Words: 2328 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 70875639

Auditing Discussion

a) The public accounting profession has taken a number of steps to minimize potential bias towards important users. The profession has specific standards for auditing, a separation between auditing and consulting roles, and other mechanisms. The audit function itself, and the use of generally accepted accounting principles, is a means of providing neutrality in financial reporting. Standardized reporting thus delivers statements and reporting that are the same across industries, and across all different types of stakeholders.

b) There are many users of financial statements. Four important user groups are management, stockholders, financial institutions and authorities. For unionized companies, unions would also be of a high importance level. Management uses statements to assess performance, as do stockholders as their returns depend on performance. Financial institutions have corporations as clients, and lend to them, thus have an interest in the financial performance. Regulatory authorities either in charge of the tax…… [Read More]

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Financial Activity Net Profit Ratio Roe ROA

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 35145490

Financial Activity

Net profit ratio



Working capital quick ratio

A/R ratio inventory turnover debt ratio equity ratio

These ratios indicate that the company has experienced superior performance in terms of revenue and profitability vs. The industry. The company has more gearing, and turns its inventory over better. The liquidity ratios are not as good as those of the industry average.

Given those characteristics, the organisation must report according to Australian GAAP. That is for the financial statements, but the organisation will also have to file taxes as well, including GST forms and documents relating to the superannuation fund.

Five reports and returns to file are the corporate tax return, the fringe benefits tax, the GST, and a taxable payments report.

The company likely pays corporate tax (to the Australian Tax Office), GST, property taxes (to the local government), excise taxes (to the ATO) and fuel taxes, which are…… [Read More]

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SAS Number 99 and the Corporate Audit

Words: 1105 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28345832

SAS Number 99 and the Corporate Audit

This report attempts to explain how the new SAS No.99 will change the way accounting firms will be required to conduct corporate audits. News about the collapse of Enron continues to dominate the American media circuits and in the wake of the now infamous Enron accounting scandal, accounting firms will be required to pay more attention then ever. Since the recent American Institute of Certified Public Accounts issue of SAS 99, the approach of auditors in the United States will for ever more be greatly enhanced. With SAS 99 for example, external auditors will be required to discuss and gather facts with internal auditors. As of SAS 99, corporate America will now be required to monitor and share the findings of internal auditors who may be privy to critical fraud-related data residing with their clients. SAS 99 will therefore provide new opportunities for…… [Read More]

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Corporate Governance of Finances in Major Corporations

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 44211186

Corporate governance of finances in major corporations has been a major controversy during the recent recession. The scandal at Satyam is indicative of problems across the board, from CEOS, to executive boards, to independent auditors and even accounting firms such as Price Waterhouse. In this essay, the author will consider the unique problems presented in a globalised market where faith in the market is essential for international trade to function.

When the CEO assumes the entire responsibility in a corporate governance fiasco absolving everyone else (family members, board of directors, independent directors and other top management people), how should the regulatory authorities and the government proceed against the CEO who has confessed and other people who were absolved by him. Critically evaluate especially from the point-of-view of absolving all the others including the top management, board of directors and the family members, from any of the accumulated corporate wrongdoings.

What…… [Read More]

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Continuous Auditing and Sarbanes Oxley Act

Words: 843 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66863442

auditing and Sarbanes-Oxley Act

It is widely agreed nowadays that business and the general audit environment is fast and is going on in real-time. In this sense, the traditional financial reports and the traditional audit style may sometimes prove not enough, because they lack the essential thing in today's business environment: updated information. In this sense, continuous auditing seems to be getting more and more followers.

The theoreticians in the matter seem to define continuous auditing differently, however, most of these definitions share a common basis. As such, continuous auditing can be defined as "a systematic process of gathering electronic audit evidence as a reasonable basis to render an opinion on fair presentation of financial statements prepared under the paperless, real-time accounting system" (Rezaee et al. (2001, 151)), while the North American accounting bodies (CICA and AICPA) define continuous accounting as being "a methodology that enables independent auditors to provide…… [Read More]

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Problem Sets

Words: 1120 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16241574

SEC that is responsible for the policing the accounting and ethics of publicly held companies is:

Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.

The financial statement that summarizes the assets, liabilities, and stockholders' equity of an entity at a specific point in time is the:

Balance Sheet

At December 31, 2002, Robinson's Home Improvement has $100,000 of assets, $40,000 of liabilities, and $60,000 of stockholders' equity. On January 15, 2003, Robinson's purchased $30,000 of assets by incurring a liability. Robinson's total assets, liabilities, and stockholder's equity at January 15, 2003 (after the purchase) are, respectively, ____, ____, and,

$130,000; $70,000; and, $60,000

4. Gadsden Lawn and Mowing Service began operations on January 1, 2002. At the company's inception, Bob Morgan contributed $100,000 of cash and equipment. During the year, Gadsden earned $200,000 of revenue, incurred $100,000 of expenses, and incurred no liabilities. Total owner's equity at December 31, 2002 is:

a. $200,000…… [Read More]

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1985 Enron Was Born of

Words: 3102 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61453903

These blackouts were orchestrated as away to drive up the prices of energy. Tapes of conversations were released to the public and the employee's are on tape mocking the people of California after they were at the root cause of the problem for consumers (Johnston, 2004).


Buchholtz, a. & Carroll, a, (2008) Business and Society, 7th ed. Cengage Learning

Harvard Law Review, (2003), the good, the bad, and their corporate codes of ethics:

Enron, Sarbanes-Oxley and the problems with legislating morality, the Harvard

Law Review Association, 116(7) 2123-2141

Johnston, L. (2004, June 2). Enron tapes anger lawmakers - CBS Evening News

Retrieved November 15, 2010, from

Sims, R., & Brinkmann (2003) Enron ethics (or culture matters more than codes), Journal of business ethics 45(3)

Thomas, W., (2002) the rise and fall of Enron: when a company looks to good to be true, it usually is. New York: Random…… [Read More]

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Average Roe and Net Profit Margin Ratios

Words: 1469 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47045189

Audit Planning

The author of this report has been asked to select a publicly traded company for the purposes of a hypothetical scenario. As part of this scenario, the author will outline and identify the critical steps that will be necessary for an audit program associated with a review of the selected firm. There will be the analysis of at least two performance ratios for the company and it will be detailed what tests would or should be used to calculate and evaluate those ratios effectively. In total, there would be at least three analytical procedures used to evaluate those two or more ratios. There will also be a review of the balance sheet and income statements for the company in question and the associated evidence collection that would go into verifying the authenticity and accuracy of the information. The report will conclude with a discussion of the audit risk…… [Read More]

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The SEC and Libor

Words: 1228 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96087943

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Accounting Irregularities and Missing Internal Controls in the LIBOR Currency Manipulation Scandal

The London Interbank Offered Rate, or Libor for short, was the recent subject of collusion between some the world's largest banks to manipulate the exchange rates; no one seems to know for sure when these banks began to manipulate the exchange rate, but some reports show these activities beginning in 2003, or possibly much earlier (McBride, Alessi, & Sergie, 2015). The Libor rate represents a benchmark interest rate in which banks lend to each other in London interbank market. The exchange rate is calculated daily and determined by a submission of eleven and eighteen banks who submit their average borrowing rates for the day.

The Libor rate was considered to be a fairly reliable benchmark for determining an amount of interest that was used in determining short-term transactions and this rate had indirect…… [Read More]

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NYS Public Authority Accountability Act

Words: 3866 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22291311

SOX provides explicit legislative directives for SEC regulation, altering this authority division, of what was once perceived as the states' exclusive jurisdiction.

Rule 404 of the SEC

The following Executive Summary reflects the Rule 404 of the SEC:

Auditors can't critique their own work and must avoid the appearance of conflict to comply with section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. That gives CPAs a new consulting opportunity to document and test non-client companies' internal controls.

A firm interested in developing this niche has to know the skills it will need, the time and staff required, the depth of the market, the best way to approach clients, the limits on auditor involvement and what information technology tools are available.

The market exists because companies temporarily may be unable to meet the project management and staffing needs to design the section 404 internal audit functions that later will be checked by the…… [Read More]

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Internal Controls the Generalized Lack

Words: 1133 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42240870

This implies a comparison of the results of the internal and external audits. Additionally, aside results and documents consulted, it is also necessary to assess the various variables used in the evaluations.

It is for instance possible for the company to alter the findings by focusing on more favorable variables. As a specific example, a financial audit could reveal increased organizational abilities to honor company debts, but this conclusion could solely be founded on the assessment of the company's short-term liquidity, in a context in which the assessment of the long-term liquidity would have revealed financial instabilities. In this order of ideas, the risks of altered results would decrease and the relevance of the findings would increase to better allow the auditor to assess the quality of the internal control systems.

At this stage, the auditors would make use of several technological applications through which to increase the efficiency of…… [Read More]

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SOX Compliance How the Sarbanes-Oxley

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 11110445

Unifying all compliance strategies throughout a business and placing internal auditors in the position of managing variations in processes and reporting results has emerged as a critical success factor for GRC strategies (Michelman, Waldrup, 2008). The businesses that are minimizing the disruption of SOX-related it, process and strategy changes have successfully implemented internal auditing oversight programs. This aspect of internal controls is struggling in some businesses as resistance to change and the oversight function is seen as a threat to political power (Michelman, Waldrup, 2008). CEOs and the senior management team of an organization however must be in compliance to Section 302, Corporate Responsibility for Financial Reports, which states they have audited and personally verify the accuracy of their financial statements (Bedard, Graham, Hoitash, Hoitash, 2007). Section 404 holds a company officer liable for the accuracy and veracity of the data on financial statement (Hemani, 2005).


SOX initially led…… [Read More]

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Fraud IT's Better to Be

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 88635453

The other two cases looked at errors that were made deliberately by subsidiary management and, in both cases, were both quantitatively and qualitatively material.

Due to the fact that most fraud starts at the bottom, is it very important for executives to always be looking for things that do not appear to be right. Fiscal honesty is crucial in financial markets. It is essential that management quickly resolve any monetary issues that come up. Delay only compounds accounting indiscretions. The consequences to all concerned, the business, its investors and creditors, and administration, are that if things are left unattended they will only get worse.

There is no alternative to good systems of recordkeeping, controls, and oversight. Management cannot be distant and disinterested. Financial reports must be looked at and examined, not just amassed. Discrepancies must be rapidly resolved. Communication of accounting rules and measures must be apparent and timely. Doubts…… [Read More]

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Havelock Europa Audit Risk

Words: 1648 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94650859

Auditing Risk

Areas of Heightened Audit Risk

Audit risk = Inherent risk x Control risk x Detection risk. Audit risk can be referred to as the probability that an audit team will give an outright and absolute judgment when the financial statements of an institution are in actual fact materially misstated. To start with, inherent risk is the possibility that material frauds and errors will get into the accounting system employed to cultivate and improve the financial statements. On the other hand, control risk is the possibility that the internal control system of a client or company is not able to prevent or detect material misstatements (Griffiths, 2005). Lastly, detection risk is the probability that an auditor's audit procedures will not able to detect material misstatements. Taking into consideration the financial statements and the management commentary in the annual report of Havelock Europa there are a number of areas of…… [Read More]

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Auditing the First Thing That I Did

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65173471


The first thing that I did for this audit was to gather the balance sheet and the work papers. This is the basic information that I used to conduct the audit. Having these two things allows me to reconcile the two. Ideally, the work papers and the bank accounts will correspond, and that they will also align with the financial statements. It was found that this was not the case. But the initial step was to gather the information.

The second step was to reconcile the information that I gathered. The work papers, bank accounts and financial statements are three different things, and all of the information should align. In seeking to evaluate these things, several issues were identified. It is not unusual to identify an area of concern in an audit. The response to this step is to check with the accounting department to try to determine how…… [Read More]

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Olla Aljboul Edmonton Alberta T5x-1g1 Phone Hidden

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Resume Paper #: 82937168

Olla Aljboul

Edmonton, Alberta T5X-1G1

Phone [HIDDEN]

To Whom it May Concern:

I am a recently graduated charter accountant. I am writing in response to your advertisement after reading your job description, I am confident that my skills and my passion for technology are a perfect match for this position.

I would bring to your company a broad range of skills, including:

Progressive continuing educational track as a chartered accountant

Effective team member who works well both individually and in a group

Enthusiastic, intrinsically motivated individual with superior interpersonal, communication and organizational skills

Ability to adapt to a busy team environment

I would welcome the opportunity to further discuss this position with you. If you have questions or would like to schedule an interview, please contact me by phone at or by e-mail. I have enclosed my resume for your review and I look forward to hearing from you. Thank…… [Read More]

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Countering Fraud for Competitive Advantage The Case of EU

Words: 2046 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55023841

EU's Current Anti-Fraud Strategy

For some time now, the issue of fraud and corruption in public service has been an issue of concern. This has forced many organizations to establish strategies aimed at detecting and minimizing the occurrence of such fraudulent activities in areas under their jurisdiction. This paper discusses the strategic management concepts in the risk-based policing strategy coupled with the principles and importance involved in the enhancement of organisational performance. Complementary factors and organisational culture are components that facilitate and militate against strategic fraud and corruption. The paper established alternative and successful strategies dependent on the factors of willingness of groups and individuals and ways of accepting them. In turn, this is dependent on the people seeking change and an understanding of the organisation's culture. The following study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the European Anti-fraud Office (OLAF) as a strategy used by the European Union in…… [Read More]

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Acquiring Company Case Study

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 72212019

Acquiring a Company

Over the last several years, globalization has been having profound impact upon how various revenues are being accounted for. This is because there has been a concentrated effort, to create a universal accounting standard that can be utilized around the world. In the case of SolvGen and Careway, this could mean that possible changes may have an impact upon how various revenues are reported. To determine the underlying effect that this will have on both companies requires: examining the deliverables arrangement, when milestone payments should be recognized as revenues and if IFRS changes will have an impact upon the way this is recorded. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how these changes will affect SolvGen and Careway.

What are the deliverables for the arrangement described in the case study above?

Under the agreement the deliverable for SolvGen include: Commercial launch of instrument…… [Read More]

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Integrative Analysis of Course Concepts Creating a

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92168770

Integrative Analysis of Course Concepts:

Creating a Framework for Future Learning and Study

Never before has the creation, aggregation, aligning of information to the needs of an enterprise and its effective and secure use meant more to the viability of businesses globally. The most powerful lesson learned in this course is that data, information and knowledge are the most powerful competitive forces any enterprise can rely on today to differentiate itself in maturing markets while seeking out entirely new, high growth opportunities. The combining of analytics, advanced accounting and financial reporting applications, pervasive adoption of enterprise applications for Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM) and many other tasks are accelerating how quickly enterprises can minimize risks while seizing opportunities. Another invaluable lesson learned in this course is how critical it is to plan for change from a personnel, process and systems perspective. The combining…… [Read More]

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Knowledge Management Tarsam Knowledge Management

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22934386

Tarsam needs to make this a very high priority to gain the trust of their customers, and the credibility to win new prospects over to purchasing from then. There are three approaches the company can take to accomplish this.

The first option is to create a self-managed Web content management system that Tarsam completely creates on their own. Defining a system administrator for it, the it aspects of the system would be managed internally. A marketing manager or supervisor would be given responsibility for keeping the content from consumer products manufacturers current. The data from manufacturers would be sent via Federal Express or comparable courier. This approach would be well-suited for the remote locations of the chain. The design and implementation of a Web content management system designed to educate and inform must be agile enough to respond to many departments' needs while having a consistent approach for integrating the…… [Read More]

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Analysing Different Security Management Issues

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50552512

How has the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) improved reporting measures for publicly held companies? What are the weaknesses in SEC procedures?
The SEC has amended its reporting requirements in order to eliminate, modify, or integrate certain disclosure rules. These changes are aimed at improving disclosure effectiveness. Simplifying compliance without the need for significantly altering the total mix of information that is provided to the investors. Improving this reporting measures will allow public companies to eliminate redundant and duplicative requirements that forced the companies to publish or report the same information in different manners. Eliminating duplicate reporting requirements will make it easy for public companies to provide information to investors and investors will find it easy to retrieve information. The SEC also aimed at eliminating outdated requirements that are not consistent with recent legislation.
While the reporting measures are aimed at improving reporting for public companies, it is feared that…… [Read More]

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An indepth analysis of Compliance Risk and Governance

Words: 3347 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 72864820

Compliance, Risk and Governance

This report presents to the board of WB a brief overview of the key findings from the review undertaken, elucidating the concerns recognized from the initial findings from an internal audit. The report, then offers a clear clarification as to why continuation of existing practices (and lack of correctional measures) will be risky and detrimental to WB. The report also includes an initial plan of action to address the weaknesses pointed out, both in the short-term and long-term and an explanation of the necessity of the proposed corrective actions, some of which are pre-emptive.

Brief Overview of Key Findings

One of the key issues identified within the internal audit was that a number of high-risk investment products, with a suggested minimum investment term of over 10 years, were sold to consumers aged in the 80s (high-risk category). What is more, such proposals were not communicated to…… [Read More]

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Cloud Computing Many Businesses Are Experimenting and

Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6145721

Cloud Computing

Many businesses are experimenting and slowly embracing the concept of cloud computing and Web2.0 .organizations choosing projects which can reap full benefits from cloud computing and Web2.0.this evolution has began as organizations are now taking a crawl, walk run approach which is building towards an eventual implementation of cloud and Web2.0 implementation. Organizations are now following the pragmatic path towards cloud computing and Web2.0 through the adoption of new technologies, transitioning to virtual IT assets from Physical assets, and the adoption of the best practices in IT so that they can fit into the new dynamic world. The paper will explain on the business uses of cloud computing and will give a detailed explanation of what cloud computing and Web 2.0 entail explaining how organizations use these tools. It will also look at the technology required to use these tools. Finally the benefits and limitations of these…… [Read More]

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Best Practice Making Improvements a Clinical Audit Is

Words: 2217 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63897819

Best Practice/Making Improvements

A clinical audit is an integral part of the healthcare system. Ferris (2002) defined Clinical Audit as the comparison of the actual clinical practice against the agreed and documented evidence-based standards in an effort of improving the level of patient care as cited in ACGW and Daly (2008,p.4).

Importance of Clinical Audit

There are several reasons as to why a clinical audit is crucial in clinical practice. The main reason is that it is important in improving the quality of health care service that is offered to patients and the general community. The absence of a clinical audit would make it extremely difficult to gauge if one is practicing effectively. A demonstration of one's performance is also made difficult. The benefits of clinical audit are;

Its importance in the identification as well as demonstration of good practice that can lead to the improvement on the level of…… [Read More]

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Mortgage Fraud

Words: 1950 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86910556

Mortgage Fraud
Mortgage fraud is said to occur when fabrication or omission of important facts on the part of prospective homebuyers, lenders or sellers results in the approval of mortgage loans or terms applicants would usually not be entitled to enjoy. Mortgage fraud constitutes a major transgression, potentially prosecutable and resulting in incarceration for those found guilty. According to American state and federal regulations, mortgage fraud may cause an individual to end up paying as much as a million dollars in penalty, and as many as thirty years as a federal prison inmate (Robbins, 2005).
Mortgage fraud can take place outside as well as inside financial organizations, apparently only limited by criminals’ inventiveness and cunning. Third parties like real-estate brokers, agents, settlement agents, appraisers and others involved in mortgage origination largely contribute to mortgage fraud. Further, mortgage frauds are aided by insiders seeking benefits from diverse mortgage scams. Thus, mortgage fraud may manifest in multiple forms (Reich, 2006).
Of…… [Read More]

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Tax Avoidance versus Tax Evasion

Words: 3179 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51489888

Tax Avoidance vs. Tax Evasion

The main objective of a tax advisor is to assist his/her clients avoid taxes as much as possible through within the confines of the law in order to avoid crossing the line into tax evasion. In this case, the tax advisor guides his/her clients based on the law regarding tax avoidance and tax evasion. This paper focuses on comparing the concepts of tax avoidance and tax evasion based on Gregory v. Helvering case as well as other cases that mention this case. In this case, the paper will include a discussion of tax avoidance and tax evasion based on cases citing Gregory v. Helvering case. The use of these cases in the discussion is for the purpose of enhancing understanding of tax avoidance and tax evasion and how an individual can avoid evading taxes. This paper will also discuss whether tax liability minimization falls under…… [Read More]

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Data and Retail a Case Study With Amazon

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73482585




Profitable Growth

Return on Invested Capital

Return on Equity

Only accept strong NPV projects

15% ROIC

20% ROE

Simplify the organization structure

Provide an open environment for idea generation and brainstorming

Industry leading innovation

Update product upgrade cycle. Refresh or introduce a product at least once every two years.

Highest Quality products and services

Higher Gross Margin

Invest heavily in R and D with excess Free Cash Flow

Establish strong customer and brand loyalty

Adopt the net promoter score and customer satisfaction rating survey

4% Market Share growth per year

Rewards programs and partnerships with other service providers

Establish a well recognized brand

Strong brand recognition

Become the number 1 or number 2 rated brand in each product category

Invests heavily in marketing and advertising

Question 2

A major retailer such as Wal-Mart would be best served by using a transactional database. Wal-Mart unlike many other retailers…… [Read More]

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Market Needs

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3404613

Market Needs


It is likely that there would be no direct effect on marketing caused by a change from batch to line processing. However, depending on what was happening outside the company, there could be an effect. If, as is arguably the case, line processing is more costly than batch processing, it might be necessary to market the product without discounts and so on. This could be problematical if there was a demand for lower costs from major clients (Cohen, 1994, p. 24+). On the other hand, it is probable that a perceptive marketing function could use the new 'flexibility' and customize-ability as a marketing tool. The concern for marketing might involve the potential delay in shipping and/or smaller lots of product available.


A change from batch to line processing is likely to have several effects on finance, arguably most of them adding costs and potentially diminishing the…… [Read More]

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Auditing Standard Standard Au Section

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33629976

This is important, because having this system will ensure increased amounts of: accountability and transparency. as, auditors will keep detailed records disclosing their: findings and initial remarks. Over the course of time, this increases the accuracy of the financial reports that are being released. as, this can be used to: identify weaknesses in a company's internal and external controls. At which point, auditors can help organizations to create effective mechanisms, to addresses these weaknesses. Once this takes place, this means that financial information being provided to the public is accurate, by ensuring that any kind of loopholes are not exploited. When you have increased amounts of documentation / record keeping, this helps to prevent possible abuses through: increased transparency and monitoring. ("AU Section 369")

At the same time, the provisions of confidentiality are ensuring that the clients' interests are protected at all times. This means that auditors will not disclose…… [Read More]

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Corporate Scandals the Enron Scandal

Words: 386 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 39657339

Ethically, the actions of Enron management were reprehensible. From a deontological perspective, they broke laws. From a consequentialist perspective, their actions resulted in significant financial losses for millions of people, job losses for thousands and a loss of public faith in the financial system.

The Enron scandal is perhaps the most egregious misuse of data in recent years. Data was manipulated and/or hidden from those whose job was to analyze the data. Wide-ranging and catastrophic losses resulted from this misuse. Had the data been presented factually and honestly, the analysis that flowed from it would have benefited Enron's internal and external stakeholders. The company may have suffered in the short-term but would have been able to survive in the long-term.

Works Cited:

Thomas, Cathy Booth. (2002). Called to Account. Time Magazine. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from,8599,263006,00.html

Houston Chronicle: The Fall of Enron. (2001-2009). Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 27, 2009…… [Read More]

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Employee it Acceptable Use Policy

Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7041829

Acceptable Use Policy at Cincom Systems

Policy for Cincom Systems

Cincom Systems' customers are the foundation of our success. This acceptable IT use policy statement is designed to provide our employees with the agility and flexibility to meet customer needs with accuracy and speed, while also protecting our IT systems, data, and records. This document defines the baseline of expectations for Cincom employees in interacting with all Cincom computing systems, platforms, Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections and partner sites as well. Every employee is expected at a minimum to ensure their activities on all Cincom IT systems don't jeopardize the confidentiality of customer data, financial data generated from Cincom operations, product and project development plans, and costing data of projects. As Cincom engages in confidential projects with governments globally in addition to the U.S. Department of Defense, any employee using data on these projects are required to have a valid…… [Read More]

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Financial Analysis of Brocade Communications

Words: 1885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78978236

This will attract more customers leading to more profits in the organization. In addition, this will create customer loyalty and the company will have a competitive advantage over its rival.


In conclusion, it is true that Brocade is a successful company. This is due to its increased realization of profits over the last few years. This is evidence from its financial statements including income statements, balance sheet as well as cash flow. From these financial statements, it is a clear indication that the company will move to greater heights in the near future.

By considering the above recommendations, the company can be able to overcome financial threats such as global competition, recession and higher interest. This will see the company realize significant profits in the near future.


Brocade announces Q4 and fiscal 2002 financial results. (2002, Nov 21). PR Newswire. Retrieved from

Brocade communications systems. (2009). The…… [Read More]