Tell Them Not to Kill Me!" is a story about revenge. An old man pleads to his own son, Justino, to intervene on his behalf, and try to save his life. Another son, colonel, has come back and orders the old man to be shot - years ago during a drought he had killed the colonel's father: "There he was, slumped down at the foot of the post. His son Justino had come and his son Justino had gone and had returned and now was coming again." (Rulfo: 289). Fear is the main feeling driving the old man; he begs for his life and struggles to survive in every way he can think of. His fear of dying is opposed to the colonel's coldness and decisiveness as he does not change his mind despite the old man's begging and crying. In the case of this story, machismo is not the…… [Read More]
Why Teachers Should Not be Armed
Often in recent years, school shootings have been followed by public, political debates about guns. One of the arguments from the pro-gun side is that teachers should be armed, in order to help prevent school shootings. Their argument is essentially that teachers are in position already, there in the school, and that they will have opportunities to stop a school shooter long before law enforcement can arrive on the scene and do the same. Their arguments, on the surface, do not sound unreasonable, but when examined more carefully, there are issues with these arguments. Arguments both for and against arming teachers have been examined, and the conclusion is that teachers should not be armed.
The Case for Arming Teachers
The case for arming teachers typically rests on the logic that teachers are in position in the schools, and therefore are a de facto…… [Read More]
Gun control is a hot topic in America right now, and has been for quite some time. One of the major problems with the issue is that the two sides have entirely different perspectives, and there does not appear to be much middle ground between the two. This paper will analyze the different positions, the major ones anyway, with respect to gun control.
The two major positions on gun control are really the one side that wishes to see no further control of gun ownership, and the side that wishes to have greater restrictions on the purchase and ownership of guns.
The side that is against gun control will typically cite Second Amendment rights (Elving, 2018), the right to bear arms. This right is interpreted by this side liberally and broadly, as to mean that the right is immutable, and should exist without restriction. Any restriction on the…… [Read More]
Wakefield’s original claim that vaccinations are linked to autism in children “has been fully debunked,” tainted with “suspicions of fraud,” (Pierik, 2017, p. 221). Moreover, there has not been a single peer-reviewed study capable of substantiating Wakefield’s claim, which has been called “the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years,” (Flaherty, 2011, p. 1302). The reason why the anti-vaccination hysteria is considered a major public health crisis is because of the potential death toll that could arise from an unvaccinated public exposed to communicable diseases like measles and mumps. An unvaccinated person has a 90% chance of becoming infected with measles; the most recent outbreak in France led to 5000 patients being hospitalized and ten deaths (Pierik, 2016, p. 2). In fact, out of every 1000 infected children, one or two will die and as many as fifty will contract pneumonia as a result (Pierik, 2016, p. 2).…… [Read More]
Recently, voters in Nashville participated in a referendum that would have raised taxes to pay for a $5.2 billion transit plan. The voters rejected the measure overwhelmingly, leading to concerns about the city's ability to handle its growth, as its streets and highways are becoming increasingly congested. Post-mortems of the referendum show that a variety of factors contributed to the heavy loss, including muddled messaging and a mayoral scandal that tarnished the image of many key proponents (Garrison, 2018). While public transit in many cities has historically been funded through general revenues, the massive infrastructure investment of public transportation today means that the ability to fund major upgrades to public transit often comes via referenda, pitting short-term and short-sighted individual interests against the interests of the public good. I will argue that the financing of public transit should not come down to referenda or even special taxes, but should…… [Read More]
An examination of the arguments about the legalization of marijuana indicates that this substance should be legalized. Quite simply, the benefits of legalizing marijuana outweigh its detriments. Were marijuana legalized, individuals could widely use it as a form of medication. Additionally, they could utilize it as a source of revenue that could potentially improve the economy in the United States. When considering these boons against the perceived negative effects of legalizing marijuana, it becomes clear that this country should legalize it.
Perhaps the most advantageous benefit of legalizing marijuana is medical utility it serves. Marijuana is prescribed for a number of medical conditions. It helps to calm people and to sooth individuals who otherwise might have tendencies to get nervous or overexcited; it helps with seizures (Klas). Additionally, marijuana helps to stimulate the appetite, which could prove useful to people who have issues with weight and with eating…… [Read More]
condition that's NECESSARY for an argument to be "fallacious." necessary condition for an argument to be fallacious is that it be an argument (rather than, say, a mere description). Nothing is a fallacious argument unless it is an argument.
For 5 points, cite one condition that's SUFFICIENT.
A sufficient condition for an argument to be fallacious is if the argument trades on an ambiguity and thereby commits the fallacy of equivocation. An argument commits the fallacy of equivocation if (but not only if) two premises of the argument contain a predicate that has two different senses. If we disambiguate the premises in the same way, one of the premises is false. If we disambiguate the premises so as to make them both true, the argument is invalid.
For 5 points, cite one condition that's both NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT.
Being rationally unconvincing is both necessary and sufficient for an argument to…… [Read More]
After all, if there is an infinite God, then it becomes easy to assume that he is an all-powerful God. If there is an all-powerful God, it is difficult to argue against the idea that he controls every action, which would be an argument in favor of final causation. Spinoza's challenge to the idea of final causation and even an argument against the idea of something like predestination comes down to the notion that it is impossible to give human motivations to God or nature. The problem with that argument is that it is impossible to know God's motivations. They may be so different from human motivations that humans cannot contemplate cause and effect on a divine level. However, it is also possible that God's motivations are very human. The problem with Spinoza's argument that human beings cannot define or limit God is that, in the argument, he is actually…… [Read More]
4). He then goes on to give examples and states that almost all of the great executives he has worked with throughout his business career used swear words. Lochhead also mentioned that a study conducted in 2007 found that teamwork can be inspired through swearing. He illustrates these findings by sharing a personal story. He was giving a speech to over 1,000 salespeople and the crowd roared with approval when he said, "We are not participating in this f*cking recession!" These examples warrant his argument because they counter the mainstream belief that only uneducated, rude, and ignorant people use such language. Instead, his evidence shows that the use of swear words can have an energizing and positive effect on the people who are being addressed and can portray a sense of power and control for the people who are swearing. Lochhead uses a number of words which may be seen…… [Read More]
The moral argument consists of four components—moral facts, moral knowledge, moral transformation and moral rationality. As Baggett and Walls point out, the most pertinent moral facts are concerned with moral duties and values, particularly what is known as intrinsic human value.[footnoteRef:2] The question raised, of course, is where does intrinsic human value come from if not from God? Nature itself seems incapable of instilling in the human shell this universal sense of value. This is a particular fact that has to be dealt with in order to understand why the moral argument is necessarily a theistic argument, which is what this paper will argue. Moral knowledge, transformation and rationality all support the argument as well. Moral knowledge itself is a sense of the universality of morality—the the absolute validity of the platitudes of Practical Reason, as Baggett and Walls define it.[footnoteRef:3] Moral transformation refers to what Evans identifies as…… [Read More]
Opponent to Gay Marriage offer Illusory Arguments
The book The Invisible Gorilla: How Our Intuitions Deceive Us by Chabris and Simons truly makes a strong case for how six different types of illusions (or beliefs) truly disserve the human population. The six common illusions that the book discusses are the illusion of memory, the illusion of confidence, the illusion of knowledge, the illusion of cause and the illusion of potential. Chabris and Simon argue that one can see these illusions at work in a range of human interactions and current events. Sometimes these illusions demonstrate the fallibility of the human mind; sometimes they just demonstrate the need of human beings to impose meaning or order upon things or events which lack both.
A current issue that demonstrates several of the six illusions that Chabris and Simons discuss is the debate over gay marriage. Those who oppose gay marriage often demonstrate…… [Read More]
Sufficient Reason (PSR) advocate Cosmological Argument justify premises argument? Make define dependent -existent beings, explain parts PSR part justify a premise argument. (See Rowe's article; pp.
How is the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) used by the advocate of the Cosmological Argument to justify the two premises of the argument? Make sure to clearly define dependent and self-existent beings, and also to explain the two parts of PSR and how each part is used to justify a different premise of the argument.
The Principle of Sufficient Reason as developed by theorists and philosophers points out that for every event, existence, occurrence, if that event or occurrence took place and is real, they there must be a reason and proof for that occurrence to be real. More precisely, the theory appeals to the need to explain and justify different events in history that in fact took place and therefore there must…… [Read More]
Daily Mail, and mostly details the arguments made in a book about MH370 that is being released shortly. There are some interesting claims made this book that the article reports on.
One such claim is made with the use of deductive reasoning. This goes as follows. The flight data transmitter only transmitted minimal information. There was an upgrade to the software package available, but Malaysian Airlines did not purchase this upgrade. The logic goes that if they had purchased this upgrade, it would have transmitted more data, and searchers would therefore have been able to find the plane with this data.
This logic is not valid. There are a few issues with it from a deductive reasoning perspective. The first issue is that it cannot be tested, because each flight problem is unique. The author of the premise is attempting to use deductive reasoning, but the uniqueness of the situation…… [Read More]
jihad with reference to the practices and believes of the Muslims regarding the word "jihad." Further the paper will develop ethical/moral arguments regarding the stoppage of violence by both Ireland and Syria. Although one can name many countries with reference to jihad and practices of Muslims against the violence attacks, but this paper will limit the discussion to the violent attacks of Syria and Ireland.
It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says: "There is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256)." http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/glossary/term.JIHAD.html
The definition of Jihad states that it is a struggle, a…… [Read More]
Some of the possible complications according to the authors include "uterine perforation and cervical lacerations" (Goldman, Troisi, and Rexrode 243). Abortion could also be injurious to psychological well-being of the mother. According to Lamanna and Riedmann, there is no doubt that abortion could end up being an upsetting experience (241). After procuring an abortion, the authors point out that "some women report feeling guilty or frightened…" (Lamanna and Riedmann 241). Such experiences could be a source of intense emotional anguish and distress.
Abortion could also adversely affect the economic well-being of a woman. Firstly, women typically incur a wide range of direct expenses prior to, during, and after an abortion. Fees for a surgical procedure according to Carroll "usually include an examination, laboratory tests, anesthesia, the procedure, and a follow-up examination" (381). As the author further points out, the said costs could escalate if abortion is carried out in a…… [Read More]
Adam Bedau and Paul G. Cassell (2004) reference the cost of the death penalty in the State of Texas, which is also a state with the highest numbers of executions under the death penalty. Bedau and Cassell cite information that says the initial trial of a death penalty case, that is a case where the death penalty is a penalty option, is approximately two million dollars per case more than those cases that do not involve the death penalty in Texas (101). These costs, though specific to Texas, are reasonably no less expensive for other states that try cases where there is an imposable death penalty.
If the difference for the states is about room, the total number of people on death row at a given time is insignificant as compared to the overall prison population. It would hardly seem that a prison with as many fourteen people on death…… [Read More]
Pro-Vaccination: An Argument in Support of Vaccination
In the past, there has been marked increase in the number of vaccinations recommended as more vaccines are developed in an attempt to rein in various diseases. Accompanying this increase has been parental concerns regarding the relevance and safety of the said vaccines. Apart from parents, various anti-vaccine proponents have also presented numerous and diverse arguments against vaccines. It should, however, be noted that the various concerns as well as arguments against vaccines have been countered by medical professionals who are of the opinion that the relevance of vaccines cannot be overstated in seeking to avert vaccine-preventable diseases. This text revisits this debate in an attempt to highlight not only the need, but also the significance and value of vaccines.
To begin with, it is important to note that over time, developments in medicine and medical sciences have made it possible…… [Read More]
Free and Forced Actions Analyzing an Argument
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will? Walter Stace argues that every action or event is caused; however, whereas free actions are caused by the doer's internal psychological state, forced ones are caused by forces external to the user. This text evaluates the validity of the author's argument in the short story, 'Shooting an Elephant' based on Stace's definition of free and forced actions.
Free and Forced Actions
Stace's Definition of Free and Forced Actions
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will?', Walter Terrence Stace puts forth an argument for determinism, arguing that it is consistent/compatible with free will. He is of the view that free will exists and every event in the world is caused (Colorado University, n.d.). He illustrates the compatibility of these two views by giving his own definition of what exactly constitutes free will. Stace…… [Read More]
solid arguments and to use our creativity most usefully when taking decisions. Not only science cannot exist without critical thinking, but our daily lives would appear to lack sense if most people did not have the ability to think critically. Aristotle has placed critical thinking at the base of every aspiration human beings may have to achieve a successful and happy life. It does not guarantee they will achieve them, but any endeavor that starts without critical thinking seems worthless. (Aristotle, Reeve, 2014)
I think I am a critical thinker; most of the time. I always look into an argument or a conclusion carefully. I never accept a conclusion as it is, without considering the source. First I check on the source and see how trustworthy the author is. This works well when I write a paper, for example, but also in my everyday life.
I am aware self-reflection is…… [Read More]
Aquinas and His "Five Ways," an Expression of Assumed Faith
The Five Ways of the existence of God, penned by the famed Thomas Aquinas are reported to be some of the most practical and real philosophical arguments of the existence of God. Though they are with much merit the reality of each both ends and begins with simple faith. Once again the reader or philosopher is left to interpret the logic of Aquinas statements all ending with an assumption of faith, faith therefore becoming the very structure and skeleton of his proofs.
Though the works are of coarse well thought they were created in a time when the propriety to question the ultimate truths was unheard of. The faith of Aquinas and of the whole era in which he wrote is assumed through the dialogue of his proofs, in many ways nullifying each individual proof as just another representation of…… [Read More]
slippery slope argument is an argument that explains why it is best to err on the side of caution when an issue can become volatile if allowed to expand. The slippery slope argument is used to describe what can happen if the ball is allowed to roll on any controversial issue.
To understand how it would work in the Euthanasia debate one must first understand how the term came about. When one stands at the top of a hill, and begins to go down a slippery slope there is a chance that the person will lose their footing. Once that happens the person begins to gain momentum and often times bypasses the originally desired stopping point and ends up at the bottom of the hill and not commonly on their feet.
This argument can be applied to the Euthanasia argument that is such a hot topic in today's debates.
The…… [Read More]
Argumentative essay for organ transplantation
Organ transplantation is the donating of one’s organ to another human being for replacing his or her damaged organ (County 2). This procedure has been proven to be successful in children and young adults and the elderly with comorbidities (Grinyó 1). This can prove to be life-saving for patients with terminal organ failures and painful therapies for survival (Grinyó 1). Over the last 60 years, the organ transplantation process has been growing with numerous cases, while the introduction of cyclosporine, thirty years before, improved the transplantation procedure (Grinyó 2). It was identified that the heart, kidneys, lungs, uterus, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus, can be transplanted successfully (Grinyó 2). The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) established by the US congress in 1984 focuses on the policies and legal frameworks of organ transplantation. At the same time, the Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO) are the non-profit…… [Read More]
build a logical argument by clarifying facts and speaking to a particular audience; and the conclusions must be strong and communicated well so that the intended audience can logically say, "I understand and agree with that."
Marc Siegel, a professor of Medicine at New York University and also a doctor with a practice, wrote an argument based on the doctor's role in treating pain and suffering by helping the patient end their life -- euthanasia. He was persuasive to me in his argument for several reasons: 1) He is a medical doctor who has taken the Hippocratic Oath and believes in helping patient's whenever possible; 2) He is logical and factual when he talks about some illnesses and conditions in which there is no cure; 3) He supports his arguments with the sound moral and ethical facts that show the audience just how much certain people suffer, and have a…… [Read More]
It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. (pp. 8-9)
Evocative here is the constraint of prejudice that denigrates the target into a victim and that exacerbates the surface malice of prejudice by humiliating the victim and having the potential to make him actualize his or her labeling. In a spiral of self-prophecy, the target of prejudice frequently actualizes perceptions of the offender and indeed Du Bois goes on to observe that: "the history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self" (p.9)
The last words -- "better and truer self" -- are echoes of the epochal theme that Du…… [Read More]
There are many arguments both for and against gay marriage. It is a hotly debated topic in many countries around the world at present. It has become legal in certain countries: Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain and Canada, have recently legalized it. Should same-sex couples, committed to a long-term monogamous relationship, be allowed to marry? This paper will outline the major arguments that have been put forward by both the advocates and opponents of gay marriage.
The main arguments that are put forth in favor of same-sex marriage are as follows: banning gay marriage would be a form of discrimination; legalizing it does not hurt anyone in any way; gay marriages would benefit society and individuals just as heterosexual ones do; and finally, banning gay marriage mixes church and state in a negative and perhaps dangerous way.
The most compelling of these points is the first one. Banning same-sex…… [Read More]
Instead, religious societies have targeted religious and racial minorities as well as focusing a tremendous hatred towards woman. The witch hunts of the Inquisition are a great example of how a religious society not only failed to protect the most vulnerable among them, but actually targeted them and caused them great harm. Therefore, the most vulnerable among us would probably be best protected by a secular society.
However, I disagree with the notion that those who would be least well off in a secular society would still will to have a secular society. For centuries religion has been a way to exert power. It was used to justify the Crusades, which transferred tremendous wealth from the East to Europe. It was used to justify slavery. It was used to justify elements of the multiple Holocausts that have occurred in Eastern Europe over the last several histories. It is still used…… [Read More]
Both religion and the law purport to advocate human rights, freedoms, and liberties. Yet neither religion nor the law can offer any justification for the dichotomy of slavery. No logic can sustain the argument that slavery is humane or just, and the brilliance of Jacobs' and Douglass' lsave narratives is their mutual ability to expose the fallacies in both religion and the law. The optimism with which the authors express their views does not negate their overt critiques. For instance, Jacobs and Douglass are both deeply religious. They do not criticize Christianity but only the way Christian doctrine is distorted to support slavery. Neither author criticizes the United States but only the way American law and values are distorted to support slavery. Their incredible ability to overcome a lack of formal education to write their stories bears witness to the power of the individual to transform defunct social norms and…… [Read More]
Therefore, even staunch proponents of capital punishment share the concern that it be (1) imposed only where extreme punishment is appropriate to the nature of the crime, and (2) applied in a manner that does not cause unnecessary pain or prolonged suffering. Assuming those elements are satisfied, capital punishment is warranted in certain situations.
The prospect of conviction in error is one of the strongest positions against capital punishment, precisely because the concept of valuing the preservation of the freedom of the innocent from wrongful conviction over the value of ensuring punishment for the guilty is fundamental to American justice. By extension, one could argue convincingly that protection against wrongful execution is even more important than wrongful criminal conviction in general. However, it is possible to establish more stringent standards of proof, judicial review, and myriad other conceivable procedural safeguards short of abolishing capital punishment altogether. Therefore, that approach would…… [Read More]
However, Gilbert fails to adequately demonstrate this trait as universal. His other postulations are better-grounded than the concept of presentism for this reason.
On page 123 in his Jetsons-like vision of the future, he mentions FedEx. This is an example of a situation where presentism does not exist. The company was not founded to expand on an existing concept; it was founded to build an entirely new vision from the ground up. You can see this when radically-new governments replace old ones, as occurred with the Communist takeover of Cuba or the fundamentalist takeover of Iran. Gilbert's theory of presentism fails to account for the many occurrences in history where the future is envisioned as something radically different than the present. Moreover, these radically different visions can also come true, as was the case for FedEx and Iran, albeit not for Cuba. Examples like these run against his theory that…… [Read More]
Gun Control in the United States:
A persuasive argument in favor of gun control
The Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution reads: "A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed." This brief statement has proven to be one of the most controversial sentences ever codified into law, perhaps because the situation which inspired it has changed so much. "When the Constitution was debated, many Americans were afraid that the new national government would be able to crush the 13 state militias, made up of citizen soldiers with their guns at home. That fear led directly to the Second Amendment," according to NYU Law Professor Michael Waldman (Brody, "Decoding the gun debate"). The Second Amendment was passed to effectively protect state's rights. Today we live in a nation where the federal government has…… [Read More]
Sanctity of Life Argument Against Euthanasia
Some of the most difficult ethical questions of our age concern the definition of life -- when it begins, what it means, when and how it should end. Many of the arguments surrounding these questions concern the right of others to end someone's life. This problem lies at the heart of debates about abortion, capital punishment, and even animal testing. It is particularly relevant to the controversy surrounding euthanasia. Does anyone have the right to end another's life, even to relieve suffering or as a result of the express wish of the sufferer?
Central to the argument against euthanasia is the concept of the "sanctity of innocent human life." James Rachels breaks down the components of this concept in his chapter on the Sanctity of Life. He points out that, while some Eastern philosophies espouse the sanctity of all biological life, more mainstream Western…… [Read More]
It is the equivalent of banning air traffic to protect the hearing of people who choose to live next to airports.
Modern urban society is associated with many risks and compromises not required of those who choose to live in more suburban communities. Environmentalists tell us that breathing smog is damaging to our lungs, which is a valid reason to exercise the freedom of choice not to live in a large city. Just as concentrated vehicle exhaust gases and industrial air pollution are inherent risks of the choice to live in urban and industrial environments, tobacco smoke is an inherent risk of patronizing business establishments where smoking is permitted.
A stronger argument against smoking in bars and restaurants is made by individuals who work in the food and drink service industry, because they are exposed to second-hand smoke continually. On the other hand, if second-hand smoke is that much of…… [Read More]
The plaintiff sustained life-changing and debilitating injuries in the form of skin cancer that could have also proven fatal had it not been diagnosed in time to treat. There is still no guarantee that the cancer will not recur and the plaintiff will now have to endure that grave uncertainty for the rest of his life.
The employer benefited tremendously from the labor of this employee and it had an affirmative duty to provide the necessary information and forms of protection against solar radiation that could have easily prevented these harms. In light of the tremendous danger and cost of treating skin cancer in comparison to the relative small cost of providing simple precautions and protocols to protect it employees, the employer had a duty to protect the health and welfare of its employees.
Argument against Employer Liability
The employee was never exposed to any hidden or unknown risks of…… [Read More]
validity, and for school administrators Goldstein's points should be discussed and debated. Goldstein suggests that without violating students' privacy rights, instructors / teachers nationwide need to be far more alert to weirdness, aggressiveness, "creepiness," Nazi-related hatefulness, "Fierce racism" and homophobia.
Students that have obsessive video game habits -- with a daily dose of violent games like "Grand Theft Auto" -- are potentially antisocial individuals that need to be watched (Whiteman, 2013). There is ample evidence in the literature that impressionable young men and boys that play the most violent video games are living in a violent world of their own (Jaslow, 2013). Those working towards the prevention of homicidal violence in Germany's schools have employed anti-bullying programs and the "Leaking Project," which mirrors what Goldstein proposals; this should be studied by American school leaders (Leuschner, 2011). Also, those troubled students, known to be suffering from depression -- such as the…… [Read More]
Discrimination Against Muslims
We live in a very troubled world. If today's problems and their sources are misunderstood because of misinformation about the past, solutions for the future will be misdirected and therefore ineffective. It is only recently in this information age that researchers had the opportunity and courage to expose and lift the veil from past events revealing the truth behind them. Only recently we have realized that our previous information, which directed our actions and inspired our values were very often inaccurate, distorted and sometimes manipulated. Furthermore it seems to have misrepresented everyone; the powerless and the powerful, the occupier and the occupied, the race and the racist. However, most of us have had neither the time nor the opportunity to ponder the effects of releasing our former assumptions and accepting our new awareness. And yet curiosity about the past abounds, as does the desire to understand the…… [Read More]
U.S. Domestic Policy Making
Coordinated by the Domestic Policy Council (DPC), the domestic policy-making process in the White House offers policy advice to the President. This Council in addition works to make certain that the proposal of domestic policy are synchronized as well as constant throughout federal agencies. Furthermore, the execution of these domestic policies is also supervised, where the President's priorities to other branches of government is signified by the DPC (Domestic Policy Council).
Moreover, under the U.S. President, the Domestic Policy Council oversees chief domestic policy areas such as health, education, welfare, justice, federalism, environment, transportation, labor, and other veterans' affairs. In addition, the offices that are affiliated with the Domestic Policy Council are the Office of National AIDS Policy (ONAP), the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), and the Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives (OFBCI), along with the formal membership including the cabinet Secretaries and…… [Read More]
Descartes: Wax Argument
Descartes philosophy heavily deals with the "thinking thing," of perception and knowledge, and the correlation of the two. Like Plato's views on knowledge and opinion, Descartes concludes that human perception -- or opinion, according to Plato -- is faulty. However, unlike Plato -- who takes sense-perception in stride and allows the use of it to gain knowledge -- Descartes discards sense-perception, determining that it is an unreliable path to true and ineffable knowledge. In Meditations II, Descartes further discusses this argument using the changing of wax.
Prior to his examples with the wax, Descartes has logically deduced that he is a "a thing which thinks," and through that realization a thing that thinks has the inherent ability to "doubt, understand, conceive, deny, will, refuse, which also imagine and feel." In order to affirm his being a thinking thing, he examines the example of a wax, where he…… [Read More]
Marijuana, which comes from the Cannabis plant, has been used by people since time immemorial. It was only in the 1960s that this plant received excessive media attention for the effect it had on people and the adverse potential to go wrong. Therefore, the American government illegalized the use of marijuana and anyone found to be in possession of this plant, or to be intoxicated by it, was told to be arrested by police forces and then further interrogated. Since this banning of marijuana and the imposition of harsh laws, many have stood up and spoke for legalizing the drug. The question at hand is whether using marijuana as a drug is a crime worthy of so much attention or rather is it a drug that needs to be removed from the blacklist, as per pro-marijuana activists' campaigning.
The issue began in 1960 when the government of the United States…… [Read More]
Abortion: An Argument in Favor
Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of our day as it involves an entanglement of truly pressing issues that people generally feel incredibly passionate about: human life, religion, morality, and the rights of women. Historically, America has been a nation founded by and run by Caucasian men, which has meant that the bulk of legislation can be and has historically been harsh, unfair and unequal to women and minorities. Women (and minorities) have had to work harder and fight harder to receive rights that white men don't hesitate in giving themselves. For example, women have had to fight for the right to be reinstated to their jobs after maternity leave, for equal pay, and to fight against federal laws that have made it a crime to use contraceptives or birth control information (ACLU, 2012). Women have had to fight in certain states to…… [Read More]
"Why the Pledge of Allegiance Should be Revised" - by: Gwen Wilde
In this article makes an appeal to attack on of America's pledge of allegiance which is generally recited by looking at an American flag while holding the right hand over the hart. On one hand the pledge is deeply engrained into the culture of the United States. However, on the other hand, the wording contained in the pledge does not necessarily represent all residents within the country. The argument is that the pledge is too specific in its terminology, especially regarding religion, and therefore alienates many citizens; literally millions. Though this segment of the population may in fact represent a small minority, they still have the rights embedded into the Constitution which include freedom of religion.
Even though the language does not indicate any specific god, the reference to God could represent any one…… [Read More]
Those who oppose gun rights argue that society suffers from violence already, and arming more people will only make the problem worse. However, this argument is misguided. As explained above, deterrence alone helps to reduce violent crime. Furthermore, gun safety classes and permitting requirements go a long way toward ensuring that only mentally sound, educated, and qualified individuals may possess a gun. Waiting periods are mandatory in many states, and serve to reduce the opportunity for would-be shooters to behave impulsively. Guns don't kill people; people kill people.
Finally, recent public shootings provide another argument for the right of average citizens to own and carry guns. While this line of thinking may be counter-intuitive, it makes sense to note that if, for example, teachers or staff at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado had be carrying handguns on that fateful day in 1999, they may have been able to prevent…… [Read More]
Hochswender piece persuasive? Why is it persuasive and in what passages do ethos, pathos, and logos come in to play in terms of assuring that it is persuasive (or not persuasive)? This paper critiques the Hochswender essay and finds it is not persuasive; and in fact it comes off as a conservative rant against two progressive personalities who advocate for reducing dependence on foreign oil and for cars that use less fuel than gas-guzzling SUVs.
Why Hochswender's argument is more hyperbole than substance
First of all Hochswender does not establish ethos in his piece -- he fails miserably at trying to be a credible source -- because while he negatively references progressives like Arianna Huffington and Lawrence Bender in his opening paragraph, he doesn't quote anything that either of them said vis-a-vis his assertion that they have "…linked SUVs with Mideast terrorism." He uses the film "Pulp Fiction" -- a…… [Read More]
" It seems as if Madison was as concerned as the 'anti-federalists' of the time concerning the structure of the new government and wished to alleviate those concerns by allowing each branch control over its own destiny, while at the same time giving the other two branches the authority to step in if something were to go seriously wrong. He was especially concerned of the legislature. He states; "If, therefore, the legislature assumes executive and judiciary powers, no opposition is likely to be made." (pg 308) He wished to ensure that event would not happen. He also states that the executive, similar to the legislative, branch could also be usurped and that there should be no elective despotism, whether that despotism was one man in the executive office, or a group of despots in the legislative, either situation would be unacceptable.
One of the reasons why Madison was worried about…… [Read More]
Paternalistic legislation, even when warranted, must be logically consistent both in theory and in practical application, in the case of marijuana, prohibitions against its medicinal use, even if still unproven in clinical trials, is logically and ethically inconsistent with the legal status of substances like tobacco which are devoid of any possible beneficial use and which, unlike marijuana, have actually been proven to cause disease and premature death.
Governmental paternalism is appropriate in many instances, including ensuring the safety and efficacy of substances used for medicinal purposes. However, the application of paternalistic legislation must, if nothing else, be logically consistent.
Federal prohibition criminalizing marijuana, even for medicinal purposes, is completely unjustified, particularly in light of the legal status of tobacco, which has absolutely no beneficial medical use and whose recreational use accounts for tremendous human harm.
The American Medical Marijuana Association website, (2007)
Retrieved November 21, 2007, at http://americanmarijuana.org/…… [Read More]
Possibly the only exception to the immorality of suicide arises as a function of the philosophical impossibility of violating the fundamental right of the individual - both at law and in moral principle - of refusing medical treatment. Adults who are mentally competent to make decisions for themselves cannot be compelled to accept medical treatment unless their illness presents a health risk to others, such as in the case of infectious tuberculosis (Miller 1984). In that case, it is not suicide specifically that is the issue, since it would be conceptually impossible to allow the (competent) refusal of defining medical procedures deemed "necessary for continued life" first, and second, to require an individual to seek unwanted medical care for some conditions but not others.
However, even if the mentally competent individual may refuse life-saving medical care himself, allowing the same decision made for an incapacitated person by another by proxy…… [Read More]
Topic: An argumentative comparison of Booker T Washington’s “Speech at the Atlanta Exposition,” and W.E.B. Du Bois', \"The Talented Tenth\".
Any narrative on African American history is incomplete if one fails to examine the competition between W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington that, between the latter part of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, altered the route of America's pursuit of equality, besides ending up facilitating the rise of the contemporary Civil Rights Movement. While both rivals belonged to the very same period, were highly talented academicians, and were activists promoting African American civil rights, they differed with respect to their background and the approach adopted by them which eventually influenced the future the most (Blatty, 2015). In this paper, a detailed examination of both activists' works will be performed, and a few fundamental questions pertaining to the difference in their technique of raising African Americans…… [Read More]
Toulmin's Model of Argument Analysis
Connection of Wilsonian and Hamiltonian Traditions
Hamiltonians is the first U.S. secretary of Treasury who believes that the central purpose of American foreign policy is to promote foreign trade as well as securing a stable national market economy. On the other hand, Wilsonians doctrine states that the promotion of international law involves using the World Court and United Nations for the promotion of permanent international peace. Kettl, (2015) points out that the Wilsonian and Hamiltonian traditions frame the classical approach of American public administration, which practitioners develop towards the end of the 20th century. Kettl, (2015) connects the Wilsonian and Hamiltonian traditions by combining the strong administration with classical approach. Hamiltonian tradition focuses on executive leadership principles using the top-down authority to enhance control and efficiency. However, Wilsonian tradition argues that managers can apply their functions within the scope of American constitutions to enhance efficiency.…… [Read More]
People often feel and think they are on solid ground when they make statements and assertions. Many people are wise enough to hedge and qualify their statements as their own opinion and/or something that some people believe. However, others are not quite so adept at remaining impartial and keeping a full perspective. The below statement reactions will reflect and describe the more common miscues that people can engage in. The reactions will follow the corresponding letter item in the textbook for each item. While people may be sure of themselves, it does not mean they are making a logical or reasonable point.
A is deceiving because while wealth is indeed a pursuit of many people, while it does tend to be hard and while many famous people have pursued it, it does not mean it is the goal and aim of everyone and the difficulty thereof is basically…… [Read More]
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
The Use of Style to Craft an Argument: Upton Sinclair's the Jungle
"Sinclair uses language effectively, and in a variety of ways, to shape his characters and develop his themes" and thus effectively created a novel that outraged the public and created the beginnings of reform in American industry (Oatman 30). Upton Sinclair's most infamous novel, The Jungle, is a story of an immigrant worker forced into a society of extreme exploitation and disregard not only for workers conditions but also for the conditions of the products being made in the factories. Sinclair discusses one immigrants journey, as Jurgis comes in to the working system as an ignorant immigrant worker and nine is transformed into a person demanding social responsibility from the companies who care so little about their workers. In this context, Sinclair uses a number of stylistic devices in order to make his point…… [Read More]
Resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
This is a proposal argument for resolution of the Israel-Palestine problem. It uses 5 sources in MLA format.
As violence escalates in the Palestine, the intractable problem becomes even more intractable. Intense fighting between Israelis and Palestinians, the most intense inside the borders of the former Palestine since Israel's creation in 1948 are claiming a daily toll in double digits. Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's increasingly tough tactics are exacerbating the conflict. A war of attrition is going on that has the potential to escalate into an all out region al war.
Apart from the human tragedy, serious danger to peace and stability in the region is developing from this continued conflict. Any escalation would seriously jeopardize the American 'war against terrorism' both by focusing world attention on the Middle East and giving the anti-American forces and the 'terrorists' fresh justification for targeting American interest…… [Read More]
The argument regarding the medical and ethical treatment of anorexia nervosa patients has been highly debated throughout the medical and philosophical circles. On the one side, there is the belief that doctors can only go so far before forced treatment and involuntary hospitalizations should be unethical. On the other hand, doctors have taken their oaths to do everything they possibly can to save a patient's life, even to the point of expertly deciding the fate of the patient, regardless of the patient's contrary decisions. The general argument -- pointed out by the likes of James L. Werth (2003) and Heather Draper (2002) -- lies in the premise that one inflicted with anorexia nervosa is incapable of thinking competently. This incompetency thus allows medical experts the ultimate decision of involuntarily hospitalizing the patient and/or subjecting the patient to a forced treatment for the disorder. Doctors alike have taken their…… [Read More]
Stem Cell Research
The Legal Argument and Analysis for Stem Cell Research
Stem cell research is a new field of research that brings many ethical issues and considerations in which U.S. regulations have been mostly hostile while around the world, the response toward the research has been positive. What is the legal culture in which the U.S. finds itself regarding stem cell research? What are the ethical considerations involving our participation in this new and infant field of science? What of other countries and their legal approach to stem cell research? This paper addresses these questions and presents the reader a case that stem cell research is a matter that should be scientifically pursued because of its potential and possibilities.
With any kind of science there are ethical considerations and much of the science is in its infancy in which hyped claims, fraud, and a lack of ethical frameworks can…… [Read More]
Rosenblatt's arguments and conclusions are quite convincing. At first glance, it would not seem that people who are so emotionally for or against abortion would have any common ground at all. However, after reading Rosenblatt's piece, it seems quite true that his theory about abortion is correct. Most people favor the ability to have an abortion, but discourage it personally. Most people think someone should have the right to an abortion, but that does not mean they themselves would have or condone the procedure. He also notes that both sides would like to make abortion less necessary by creating other means of dealing with unwanted pregnancy, such as educating young people to limit premarital sex. All of these arguments and statements are not only convincing, they seem like common sense and seem to wrap up what most people feel about this emotionally charged issue. This is how I…… [Read More]
..no current market price can have a general status of fairness applicable to all firms particularly where long-term strategies for periodic assets exist" (Aiken & Aden 2005: 6). To be consistent and accurate, a current-value approach requires constant reevaluation in the context of the role of the asset, the industry, and how these impact the firm's overall financial health. Also, expected maintenance or replacement costs are not always periodic and predictable, particularly if changes in technology require an unexpected update, or there is a sudden seasonal impact upon the industry, based upon climatic conditions.
Problems/limitations associated with using replacement cost for fixed assets
The fixed asset replacement cost strategy allows an organization to define how assets are depreciated, record those assets, report the asset costs, report replacement costs, and to report other costs associated with the fixed asset. but, although the principles of "economic efficiency requires that replacing assets should…… [Read More]
Yet it is somewhat biased, due to the author being a strict fundamentalist.
Said, Edward. "The Clash of Definitions." Emran Qureshi & Michael a. Sells, eds. The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003, 70-80.
This essay presents a very divergent viewpoint as compared to that of political theorist and practitioner Samuel P. Huntington whose views on the "Clash of Civilizations" is now being questioned and examined with much scrutiny. Along with the other essays, this book provides a wide range of viewpoints from all sectors of sociology, history and the humanities.
Spencer, Robert. Religion of Peace? Why Christianity Is and Islam Isn't. New York: Regnery Publishing, 2007
The main question posed in this book is which is the real "religion of peace," Christianity or Islam. However, after reading this work, it is clear that Spencer is biased toward Christianity, due in part to his…… [Read More]
Specific Supports: Chang uses a few statistics as specific support such as by stating that "half of all Asian-Americans intermarry," and that Asian-Americans have the highest median income of all ethnic groups in the United States including Caucasians (p. 3). Supports are both factual and opinionated.
Warrants: Warrants include the following. First, race exists. Chang claims that American culture is race-conscious even if race does not exist scientifically. Second, ethnicity and/or race are integral to identity formation. Most Americans are conscious of their race or ethnic identity and use that to create in-group relationships and to define themselves. The extent to which Americans are race-conscious may be far greater than in other societies because of the unique immigrant experience in America. Third, American society assumes a dichotomy between assimilation and ethnocentrism. Finally, many Americans may assume that Asians are a "model minority."
Rebuttal: Citing Liu, Chang shows that many scholars…… [Read More]
In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.
The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:
In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…… [Read More]
For some it may indeed be the contemplation of how to achieve greater virtue, greater intelligence or more knowledge. For others, however, such happiness lies in things such as money. Indeed, I believe that all the faculties can be engaged in the pursuit of money.
A person in pursuit of money may for example engage his reasoning by contemplating how more money can be accumulated. He may furthermore exercise his sense of virtue or friendship by means of contemplating how he can help others by the profit he has made, or how to teach others to make their own money. Money can also be applied in enhancing all the capacities of the person. In this way, whatever is pursued, according to Aristotle, if it is pursued in a certain way, for its connection to the ultimate goal of happiness, all of the faculties are exercised.
On the other hand, I…… [Read More]
Like many forms of bonuses and other awards, the severance package awarded to Jones was a recognition of his prior work. Where an otherwise gratuitous promise is supported by a moral obligation or past consideration, it is enforceable as a binding contract. The promise "to give you my car tomorrow because I like you so much" is an unenforceable gratuitous promise because there is no consideration for it. The promise "to give you my car tomorrow to thank you for all the help you gave me painting my house last month" is enforceable because there was past consideration for the promise (i.e. painting).
Law firms use contracts to create contracts; not letters. Jones' employment contract is not in letter form either. The letter was not a contract; it was an award letter and a directive from a supervisor to a subordinate. Simply translated, the letter was a promise by Heckler…… [Read More]
Stephen King’s The Outsider: A Persuasive Argument
The Outsider is a well-written book with exiting and unexpected turns and twists. The book has several well-developed themes. In my opinion, however, the central theme of the story is the rational man’s inability to believe that which does not conform to reality – the inability to believe in the supernatural. It is important to note that one of the most celebrated traits of the modern man is rationality. In basic terms, rationality could be conceptualized as the ability to rely on logic or reason in decision making. This effectively means that from a rational perspective, anything that does not conform to reason and logic cannot be accepted. We all start off in life having outrageous beliefs and fantasies. For instance, as kids we believe in the tooth-fairy and regard Father Christmas as a real benevolent person. These are beliefs we outgrow…… [Read More]