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The Phenomenon of Decreased Usage of Nuclear Energy

Words: 27163 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12381985

Decreased Usage of Nuclear Energy: A Qualitative Content Analysis

A Dissertation Presented using the Qualitative Content-Analysis

Komi Emmanuel Fiagbe Gbedegan

Christina Anastasia PH-D, Chair

[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member

[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member

Date Approved

Komi Emmanuel Fiagbe Gbedegan, 2016

This research proposal explores the phenomenon of decreased usage of nuclear energy at a time when global climate change indicates the need for increased usage of nuclear energy. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, greater understanding of why nuclear is decreasing rather than increasing is the purpose of this proposed study. This Research proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward. The research will utilize a qualitative…… [Read More]

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Physical Science Grade Course Describe the Difference

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23508318

Physical Science

Grade Course

Describe the difference between a mixture and a compound

For basic understanding, a mixture comprises of two or more different substances which are not chemically combined to each other. On the other hand, a compound consists two or more chemically bonded different substances which are present in a fixed ratio. In other words, the difference between a mixture and a compound is evident from the mentioned definitions.

Furthermore, there are a number of ways in which a mixture and a compound differs. For example, compounds always contain elements in a fixed ratio. For this reason, Calcium Carbonate, a compound, would always contain 40% Calcium, 12% Carbon and 48% Oxygen by mass. No variations in the mass of these elements would be noticed in Calcium Carbonate. In contrast, a mixture would contain its substances in any proportion (example: salt and water). For this reason, a mixture can…… [Read More]

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Environmental Science Nuclear Power Technical

Words: 4003 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40843349

By regulation, the design of the nuclear reactor must include stipulations for human operator error and equipment failure. Nuclear Plants in the western world use a Defense in Depth idea which is a system with numerous safety components, each with back-up and design to accommodate human error. The components include:

"Control of Radioactivity - This requires being able to control the neutron flux. If the neutron flux is decreased the radioactivity is decreased. The most common way to reduce the neutron flux is include neutron-absorbing control rods. These control rods can be partially inserted into the reactor core to reduce the reactions. The control rods are very important because the reaction could run out of control if fission events are extremely frequent. In modern nuclear power plants, the insertion of all the control rods into the reactor core occurs in a few seconds, thus halting the nuclear reaction as rapidly…… [Read More]

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Information Technology and Its Uses

Words: 5994 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 23495110

Nanotechnology attempted to show the potential of this new technology and included the wide range of fields that are connected to the concept of the nanometer scale. These include machining, imaging, metrology or measurement, micromachines, instrumentation and machine tools, scanning probe microscopy, fabrication of components, nanoelectronics, molecular engineering, among others. (Journal Review: Nanotechnology)

Another important step in the development of this technology in both a practical and theoretical sense was the development of " bottoms up" programs and research initiatives. As noted above, the 'bottoms up' approach is considered to be the area where the greatest potential for nanotechnology applications exist. In 1991 Japan's Science and Technology Agency began instituted a "bottom-up" approach, in which "...very small structures are built up from molecular components using, for example, scanning probe microscopes. "(Nanotechnology Race: MITI Adopts 'Bottom-Up' Strategy_)

Since the 1990s there have been an increasing number of developments that have contributed…… [Read More]

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Radiation Control with Types and Effects

Words: 1755 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97664213

Radiation can be described as energy that is in the form of streams or waves of particles. Numerous types of radiation surround us. When most individuals hear the term radiation, the thing that comes to their mind is nuclear power, radioactivity, and atomic energy. Radiation, however, has several other forms. Visible light and sound are some familiar kinds of radiation. Other kinds of radiation include television and radio signals, infrared radiation (some type of heat energy), and ultraviolet radiation (responsible for suntans). The earth together with occupants are always subjected to radiation produced by the sun, stars as well as other galactic sources and from the radioactive substances found on the earth’s crust. Here on earth, being exposed to radiation is unavoidable as a result of the radioactive materials present in the air, water, and also within the body. Radiation cannot be seen, but it occurs in form if…… [Read More]

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Integrated Science Periodic Table

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95157032

Integrated Science & Periodic Table

Atoms are the smallest particles used in order to identify an element. These elements are made up of only one specific kind of atom (Chang 2010). The difference between a mixture and a compound lies in the fundamentals of what makes up both substances. A compound is a substance that contains more than one element, but in fixed proportions, making it a molecule. No matter how large or small the amount of compound, the proportions will always have to be the same in order for the substance to qualify as a specific compound made up of the molecules (Chang 2010). For example, water is a molecule containing, one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. The combination of these specific atoms in specific proportions is what makes it a compound. If the elements forming this compound were to be broken up, the compound itself would change…… [Read More]

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Mixture Compounds Covalent and Ionic Bonds Describe

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11353535

Mixture, Compounds, Covalent and Ionic Bonds

Describe difference a mixture a compound Suppose a pure substance. How a compound element? What difference ionic a covalent bond? Explain ionic compounds formed a metal left side periodic table reacts a nonmetal side.

Mixtures are composition of two or more substances which are not chemically combined and do not exist in fixed proportions to each other. For instance when you take two components, an iron and Sulphur powder, the two when mixed together can be separated by physical means since they are not chemically combined i.e. with the use, of a magnet. Mixtures have the following characteristics which differentiates it from compounds. They include; mixtures can be disintegrated by the use of a physical method, the substance which form the mixture normally retain their properties, mixtures do not have a sharp melting point, they also have no fixed composition, and lastly a mixture…… [Read More]

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Historic Mathematicians Born on January

Words: 2172 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16974037

In aerodynamics Bernoulli's principle is used to explain the pick up of an airplane wing in flight. (the Aerodynamic Development of the Formula One Car) wing is so constructed that air flows more quickly over its upper surface than its lower one, resulting in a reduction in pressure on the top surface when compared to the bottom. The resultant variation in pressure gives the pick up that maintains the aircraft in flight. If the wing is twisted overturned, the ensuing force is downwards. This gives details as to how racecars turn at such high speeds. The down force formed pushes the tyre into the road providing more control. In aerodynamics another vital feature is the pull or resistance acting on solid bodies moving through air. For instance, the propel force formed by the engine, must surmount the drag forces formed by the air flowing over an airplane. Reorganizing the body…… [Read More]

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Ozone Layer Is One of

Words: 2224 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96542112

On Feb. 2, 2007, the United Nations scientific panel studying climate change declared that the evidence of a warming trend is "unequivocal," and that human activity has "very likely" been the driving force in that change over the last 50 years. The last report by the group, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in 2001, had found that humanity had "likely" played a role." (Science, 5 December 2008).

Ozone and Earth's Homeostasis

The homeostasis on the earth is maintained by the presence of ozone, ozone makes a layer in the stratosphere which is roughly about 10-15 kilometers from the earth's surface. Ozone is formed when O2 and Oxygen atom O. collide with each other. When this reaction takes place the molecule O3 contains excessive energy, after the formation of the molecule becomes unstable, the excessive energy is discarded by colliding with another atom and the energy is transferred in the…… [Read More]

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Marketing Plan Ultralight PC Marketing

Words: 3365 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54207107

The direct selling strategy will be a website that will include a product configuration application. A distribution partner portal will also be created which gives distributors and dealers the ability to customize the Liberta Ultralight in quantity for their customers as well. The use of channel strategies to actively promote the use of mass customization as a product differentiator will also be accomplished through intensive dealer and channel training (Swiercz, Lydon, 388). Finally the use of an integrated Partner Relationship Management (PRM) system that will give channel partners the flexibility to provide resellers with support on a 24/7 basis will also be created. The intent is to create enough support for channel strategies so they can produce up to 60 -- 70% of overall revenue for the product line.

D. Promotion

There are many different aspects of promotion that need to be included in the launch of the Liberta Ultralight.…… [Read More]

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Trans-Forming Fats or Simply Called

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33160517

Buckyballs can come in any sizes and other atoms can often get trapped inside them. Chemists at Yale University, in fact, managed to trap helium and neon inside buckyballs and it was the first time chemists ever observed helium and neon inside a compound of any kind (232). Buckyballs can be manufactured as well to fit a certain size requirement (232).

In "Strong enough to stop a bullet," liquid crystals are the topic of discussion. They are in use everywhere in our daily life -- from color-changing pens, calculators, televisions, and bulletproof vests (238). Liquid crystals can make ultra strong synthetic fibers when the nematic molecules are lain parallel to one another. The best example of how this works is in the example Kevlar, a synthetic fiber used in the bulletproof vest (238). Kevlar is a synthetic polymer, like nylon or polyester and it gains strength by passing through a…… [Read More]

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Cadmium in Wastewater and Drinking Water the

Words: 6106 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81125932

Cadmium in Wastewater and Drinking Water

The importance of efficiently controlling and monitoring potential toxins in water systems is extremely important. The potential contaminant known as Cadmium (Cd) is a naturally occurring trace metal that is regularly found in various types of ores. Its most common commercial uses are in the metal plating and coating of transportation vessels, household-cooking utensils, machinery and nickel-cadmium batteries (Advanced Purification Engineering Corporation, 2010). As a result of its multitude of uses, there are an equally large number of ways in which Cd can find its way into water systems. The most common of these are leaching, pipeline corrosion, corrosion from transportation vessels, runoff from metal and ore refineries among others. Cd is also capable of resulting in various negative health effects to humans unfortunate enough to consume it. Failure to adequately monitor Cadmium levels can result in numerous unsolicited health outcomes such as: "nausea,…… [Read More]

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Nanotechnology Is the Predictable Capability

Words: 6153 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57307234

It is very hard to map the intricate brocade of a human mind onto such a machine with a reasonable resolution, but the formation of artificial intelligence or machine intelligence is anticipated to offer an approachable challenge. It maybe a device with full Turing-test interactivity which is capable of fulfilling our wish or would be an interlacing dense layer of memory around a shifting model of existential realty, and covered with a matrix of desire. It is not easy to imagine the consequences of a speeding technology. (Crandall, 135) Anyway, nanotechnology is not a solution for all problems. (Schick, 46)

2. Commercialization of Nanotechnology- Global Nanotechnology Market, Funding-Government vs. Venture Capitalists-(USA, JAPAN, EU)

Fresh sources of funding from venture capitalists and daring governments and strong competition, has brought about the formula for a big upheaval from a very small technology. (Uldrich, 13) U.S. funding for nanotech is as high as…… [Read More]

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Heat and Temperature the Kinetic

Words: 845 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54946372

S. In particular), and Kelvin (generally used by scientists and engineers).

Temperature is virtually the measure of the average thermal energy (heat) of the atoms and molecules in a body. The masses are often inclined to believe that there is no difference between heat and temperature. This is most probably because individuals have observed how heat can influence an object's temperature. When a substance is given more heat, it comes to have a higher temperature, thus concluding that more heat means more temperature.

Even though temperature is related to energy, it cannot be considered as being energy. Temperature is simply a number determined by the average kinetic energy of particles in a body.

Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance, thus meaning that it is not energy. While temperature can be measured in Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit, heat can be measured in…… [Read More]

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Using Nuclear Power to Generate Electricity

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82873031

Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is an energy source that has zero emissions, propels our society into the future, and provides electricity around-the-clock. Nuclear energy comes from the splitting of atoms inside a reactor through a process known as fission to heat water into steam, turn a turbine, and generate electricity. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. These atoms have enormous energy in the bonds that hold them together. Nuclear fission will split the atoms into smaller atoms, in essence, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants make use of nuclear fission for the production of electricity. Nuclear energy is considered to be environmentally safe because it causes zero emissions and this is beneficial to the environment as it reduces the carbon footprint (Brook & Bradshaw, 2015). However, nuclear power plants do produce radioactive nuclear waste that must be stored safely to ensure there is no…… [Read More]

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Physical Science

Words: 1521 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13112041

Physical Science

Elemental Isotopes and Allotropes

The 19th century discovery of the periodic table of the elements by Dmitri Mendeleev gave an organizing principle to understanding the structure of the atom, and deriving atomic weight. On the periodic table, the lighter elements have atomic weights which correspond to whole numbers. Hydrogen has an atomic weight of 1, which corresponds to the idea that it has only one proton (and the weight of an electron is statistically insignificant in this measurement). But moving further along the periodic table, it became clear that the numbers eventually became less predictable. In the 19th century Dalton had suggested further atomic weights were simply multiples of hydrogen, which to a certain degree matched the available evidence.

But it was the discovery of the neutron in 1932 that actually yielded the correct answer. Rutherford had hypothesized the existence of an extra particle in the nucleus that…… [Read More]

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Emerging Nano Technology and World of Quantum Physics

Words: 2131 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44479111

Nano Technology and World of Quantum Physics

Nano technology pertains to the restructuring and reconstruction of atomic and molecular nature. It involves studying the phenomena and materials of atomic manipulation to transform and construct new materials, devices, living organisms and improved technological systems that are… [Read More]

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Locke and the God

Words: 808 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57718551


Locke in his argument that God must be a thinking being starts off by outlining an idea that "all matter, every particle of matter, thinks" he explicitly puts it that "matter as matter is cognitive" Locke bases this argument in the assumption that not only does every particle thinks, but every particle is eternal and thinking in the manner that at least one of them has supposedly been proved to be" he adds ". . . then there would be as many eternal thinking beings as there are particles of matter, and so an in-nity of Gods." His writings point at the fact that every bit of matter is eternal and thinks. Moreover, the reasoning that there is a common source for all the thought in the universe is impossible since it has always been equally distributed all over the world. Locke contends that if this is the way…… [Read More]

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Mechanisms of Heat Loss Heat

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84441849

The above equation can also be utilized to calculate conduction loss from a human body to ambient air. For example, for a 1.5 tall man wearing dry, insulating clothing, the rate of conductive heat loss on a cold day (ambient temperature at 0oC, normal skin temperature at 37oC) can be calculated as 178W. For the same person wearing wet clothing, however, the equivalent rate is 2,565W. This significant difference in heat losses explains the onset of hypothermia when someone is exposed to ice-cold water or rain (Forinash, 2010). Conduction takes place on a microscopic level as particles of kinetic energy are transferred between two different systems (Abbott, et al., 2005). When atoms and/or molecules heat up, vibrate, or move rapidly, some of their energy gets transferred to other atoms and molecules that are in close proximity. In other words, heat is transferred to the surrounding particles and away from the…… [Read More]

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Carbon Dioxide and Other Gases

Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70164978

If Japan and other countries are more sufficient in their acts of globalization, they can help with the greenhouse effect from KYOTO protocol.

The Kyoto protocal was signed in Kyoto, Japan in 1997. In this protocol, industrialised countries commited themselves to reduceing their greenhouse gas emissions by a few percent in 2008-2012 compared to the 1990 base year. The exact percentage for each country is noted in the Annex 1 of the Protocol. The reduction is partly to be done domestically, but can also be reached by investing in other countries or trading emission allowances. These possibilities for countries with a Kyoto commitment are called the Kyoto mechanisms (KYOTO protocol).

It is easy to gather that Americans want a future that has economic prosperity and clean air that will be more abundant. This is because the American life consists of material prosperity as much as in civil liberties or political…… [Read More]

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Nuclear Chemistry Including the History

Words: 1078 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45964215

Beta particles are identical to electrons according to all measures that have been conducted in this regard, rendered distinct only by the fact that they are emitted from radioactive substances (Bodner, 2011). Other types of radiation also exist, but alpha and beta particles are the primary drivers of basic nuclear reactions (Bodner, 2011; Loveland et al., 2006). Radioactive decay -- the result on the source substance of emitting of radioactive particles -- occurs at an exponentially decreasing rate over terms known as the "half life," which is the amount of time it takes for one-half of a quantity of a given radioactive element to transition to a lighter element through its loss of alpha particles (with incidental beta particle emission, as well, though this does not fundamentally change the element) (Carpi, 2003).

In a nuclear reaction such as the harnessed power of Uranium-235's radioactivity, neutrons are used to break apart…… [Read More]

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Temperature and Heat Affects the

Words: 2081 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25633046

This condition slows down the heating process and also because of convection currents. Land and water have different capacities for absorbing and liberating heat. It is good to note that the specific heat of water is higher than that of land. Hence, water requires more heat than land does to increase its temperature at the same number of degrees. Water, having a higher specific heat, warms up more slowly than land. On the other hand, water also cools off more slowly than land because it retains its heat longer.

The unequal heating of water and land is also due to some of the insolation falling on water that is used in the evaporation process. Obviously, that heat does not warm the water. There is no effect on land, because there is less evaporation of water takes place from land surfaces.

The sun's heat is being trapped by the atmosphere. This…… [Read More]

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Electricity A Form of Energy

Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36441495

It causes a chain reaction where Uranium is bombarded by neutrons making it to split. There is a continual release of more neutrons every time a Uranium nucleus is split. The more the neutrons are released, the more the splits in the already split Uranium nuclei. The resultant chain reaction generates a lot of heat in the process. This heat is used to heat water whose vapor moves the turbines and produces electricity as a result.

Nuclear fission power plants use the generated heat by a nuclear fission process to move steam turbine which generates electricity. When a nuclear fuel atom (Uranium) absorbs a neutron, the Uranium will fission into two smaller atoms (waste) releasing one to three neutrons. Kinetic energy of the waste is used to heat the water for the turbine. The process continues as the neutrons are used to fission the next lot of Uranium atoms ("How…… [Read More]

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Composition of Stars

Words: 1538 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88166986

Stars are one of the important heavenly objects of our universe. The sun is our closest star and is responsible for the sustenance of all life on earth. Understanding the intricate chemical reactions that are happening in the star and identifying the composition of the stars has always been a fascinating study for astronomer's worldover. The sun our closest star has been the most studied object in the universe. Spectroscopy was one of the earliest available methods of studying heavenly bodies and has contributed immensely in the study and understanding of the composition of stars. Let us briefly analyze spectroscopy and touch upon the elemental analysis and chemical composition of stars.

Spectroscopy and Study of Stars

Every element in the universe emits its own light, which is characteristic of its chemical structure. Spectroscopy refers to the study of the spectral lines of the different atomic constituents. Spectrometer is an instrument,…… [Read More]

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O Describe Difference a Mixture a Compound

Words: 776 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15179804

o Describe difference a mixture a compound o Suppose a pure substance. How a compound element? o What difference ionic a covalent bond? o Explain ionic compounds formed a metal left side periodic table reacts a nonmetal side.

An overview of mixtures, compounds, and the processes of identifying them

Describe the difference between a mixture and a compound

The standard definition of a mixture is a substance in which two or more separate components are mixed together, but no chemical reaction occurs. Also, there is no fixed ratio of substances necessary for the mixture to take place. In the case of a compound, the atoms of the different, separate component substances are bonded together, thus creating an entirely new substance. A fixed ratio is usually required for the chemical transformation to take place and the compound to result. A mixture can be easily separated into two component parts, a compound…… [Read More]

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Chemistry Is Doing More Than

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41251097

When the drug penicillin finds the bacteria, penicillin blocks the bacteria's ability to produce this chemical, making it impossible for the bacteria to perform respiration. Numerous other drugs have been derived from penicillin and are referred to as sulfa drugs.

When the goal is to prevent certain bodily functions and reactions from taking place, the drugs used are called hormones. The most commonly used hormones are for birth control. There are two chemical components to birth control hormones. The first chemical synthesizes the natural hormone known as estrogen. When high levels of this hormone are introduced into the body, the body reads the hormone and assumes it is pregnant. The result is that the body does not allow implantation. The second chemical used to copy natural hormones is progesterone. Progesterone within the body triggers ovulation. When mimicked using chemicals, the body does not ovulate (Lide, 70). When these two artificial…… [Read More]

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Physics of Missile According to

Words: 2401 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15776152

The important technical factor that makes cruise missiles soar over rocket-powered missiles is that, as it breathes air, it does not have to carry an oxidizer and thus its range is considerably longer compared to a rocket powered missile of equal weight. The rocket powered missile is the frontrunner on all other aspects. For example it travels much faster, it can fly low, it can have lower radar cross sections, and it can have equal precision. Besides, it is not only simpler, but possibly more dependable. However the advantage of a cruise missile is much more. In order to burn its fuel, a rocket-powered missile must carry oxygen. If case it uses a hydrocarbon as its fuel, the products of combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor. Therefore, the rocket-powered missile should be carrying sufficient oxidizer to provide 2 oxygen atoms for every atom of carbon and 1 oxygen atom…… [Read More]

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Aristotle and Plato on Aquinass View of the Soul

Words: 2881 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43929313

The Greeks believe that the soul is an essential part of the body since it gives it life. The soul thinks, feels, and chooses[footnoteRef:1]. The interaction between the body and soul influences one another giving rise to the concept of dualism. They also view the soul as a simple form without any parts. Plato postulated that the soul is separated from the body and while the body degenerates, the soul leaves to form another life at death[footnoteRef:2]. Contrastingly, Aristotle considered the soul as a ‘form’ that cannot exist without the body. The following study explicates Aquinas’s views of the soul whilst appreciating the contribution given by Plato and Aristotle on the topic. [1: Terrance, W. Klein, The Nature of the Soul: The Soul as Narrative, Routledge, 2016: 4.] [2: Lean, Spruit, \"The Controversy over the Immortality of the Soul,\" Routledge Companion to Sixteenth Century Philosophy (2017): 225.]

Christian theology subscribes to the concept…… [Read More]

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Working With Energy and Chemical Reactions

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 71788409

tfinal - tinitial = 32.4oC - 25.5oC = 6.9oC

q = mc-t

= 100 grams X 4.184 JX 6.9oC


W= PdV

The enthalpy in the vessel that has not expanded is higher.

As such, the vessel that has not expanded has a higher temperature.

951.9= kJ/mole Chapter 4

=1039.9 kJ/mole Chapter 4

The potential energy for both Chapter 3 and H. is actually higher than Chapter 4 because of the fact that atoms in a chemical bond are more stable than individually separated atoms. The fact that there is a need to use energy to separate the two atoms in the bond adds to the potential energy of the second choice, the Chapter 3 molecule and a H. atom formed. If that bond would be converted, that energy needed to break the bond could actually then be used to do work.

The one with more kinetic energy is the…… [Read More]

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Global Warming Realities Project That There Will Be Fewer Coal Burning Plants

Words: 4448 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17000745

Nuclear Power the Best Alternative to Fossil Fuel?

Is nuclear energy the best alternative to fossil fuels in terms of the need for energy, taking into account the economy and the environment? This is an issue that embraces several other issues, in particular global climate change, the science behind climate change, the politics surrounding climate change and the continuing need for new sources of energy. This paper will address those issues using scholarly research and other data produced by worthy sources. Thesis: Available, credible research shows that nuclear power plants today are prohibitively expensive to build and moreover, the public has become increasing fearful and skeptical of nuclear energy following the tsunami and radioactive disaster in Japan. Hence, nuclear power does not appear at this time to be a valid alternative to fossil fuel notwithstanding the need to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Global climate change…… [Read More]

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging History of MRI the

Words: 1166 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4703121

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

History of MRI

The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was first tested in Budapest Hungry in 1882. Later in 1937, Professor Isidor Rabi of Columbia University assembled a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This tool was effective because it could absorb and emit radio waves after exposure to a strong magnetic field. Professor Carr Herman produced one-dimensional MRI imaging processor in 1952. The nuclear powered NMR was instrumental in experiments developed to detect the presence of tumors in normal cells. However, the technology was fully adopted in 1973 when Lauterbur Paul successfully produced the first NMR image (Lauterbur, 1973). Previously, Damadian created the NMR imaging machine in 1972, but not until 1973 did Lauterbur apply it for imaging. Following the success, Peter Mansfield developed an arithmetical methodology that was vital in integrating the concept to real-time problems.

Before the emergence of this concept, magnetic scans took hours to process. However,…… [Read More]

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Inorganic Chemistry Linear Sp Carbon Allotropes in

Words: 1415 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62343041

Inorganic Chemistry

Linear sp Carbon Allotropes in Question

While modern day discoveries and characterizations of allotropes are reported, the definition of allotropy remains ambiguous as the question of what constitutes an allotrope is under debate. Lagow et al. reported the synthesis of a terminally capped linear acetylenic carbon with alternating single and triple binds, claiming it to be a stable sp carbon allotrope (1994), a subject of debate as the classification of acetylenic carbon as an allotrope continues to be determined, and the stability of such a compound is in question. The proposed structure and stability of a linear sp carbon of such a proposed length and with alternating single and triple bonds is disputed by Hirsch et al. Thus, the stability of long-chain carbon allotropes and the characterization of the linear sp carbon synthesized by Lagow et al., given its terminal end design, remains in question as to the…… [Read More]

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Formed to What Their Value Is as

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26133361

formed to what their value is as well as the characteristics of diamonds.


Diamonds are forever! They are the most beautiful, extraordinarily brilliant, hardest, and highly desired out of all the gems. The word "diamond" holds many different meanings for many different people. The meaning of the gem depends on the occasion or interest one holds in the gem. On wedding and engagement ceremonies, diamonds are given to the couple because for one's fiancee or wife, a diamond is symbolizes purity and commitment to never-ending love. We often hear the brand mantra of De Beers "A Diamond is Forever." For the Sports Fan, a diamond is the focus of American baseball; to the gambler or bridge addict, it signifies a suit of playing cards; to the rich and famous, the commodity represents wealth and status; to the monarchist, its beauty, rarity and durability symbolize royalty. However, the question we…… [Read More]

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Concepts of Physics

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 9139857


The heat engine or heat pump moves heat from one location to another. It usually takes heat out of the air or from the ground and transfers it to a building, such as a house or office. The word "heat" means thermal energy not temperature. Rather than warming the house or office with a furnace that burns fuel, the heat is transferred from the air or ground by using this pump. The heat pump uses a chemical substance or machine to work. Heat pumps can be used for making spaces warmer or cooler. For example, air-to-air pumps use electricity to move heat. By doing so, a cool area becomes cooler and a warm area becomes warmer. In the cooler seasons of fall and winter, these heat pumps warm the inside of the homes. In the summer months, they transfer air that cools the buildings.

A vibration in an item…… [Read More]

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Words: 1939 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1303447


Chemical Formula: C12H18Br6

Molecular Weight: 641.70

3D Rendering using Chemitorium:

Functional Groups: bromo, cyclo

Shape and Geometric Features: The atom is always a 12-sided figure with six Br vertices. It takes the shape of an octagon that is connected to a hexagon on one side. In a three-dimensional rendering, the molecule takes on a more oval shape rather than the stricter appearance of the two-dimensional rendering.

Chiral Properties and Isomers:


Isomers are the addition or subtraction of electrons in the molecule. The below are the most common isomers of Hexabromocyclododecane. These are coded as alphahexabromocyclododecane, betabromocyclododecane, and gammabromocyclododecane. These indicate which portion of the Bromine in the molecule has been affected by the electron changes.

Chiral Diastereomers: -, ?-, and ?- HBCD

Chirality, by definition is a type of molecule that lacks an internal plane of symmetry. The chirality of Hexabromocyclododecane yields many pollutants which have an adverse…… [Read More]

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Differences Between Scientific Models and Religious Myths

Words: 2098 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66553046

Scientific Models and Religious Myths

Differences between scientific models and religious myths

There are several approaches toward s the creation issue, some of them are scientific and others are religious. All the approaches are postulates towards the search for the cradle of man. They may therefore be divided into scientific models and religious myths. Although people view these theories and models from different perspectives, they too have their similarities. Therefore this paper will contain an in depth study of the two different ideologies that is from the religious view on creation and the scientific view of creation. The types of theories that will be discussed here will be the big bang theory which will be a scientific view and the creation theory which is based from the religious point-of-view. An in depth look into the evolution theory will be looked at.

The scientific theory is based on scientific modeling of…… [Read More]

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Iran Instability in Iran in Talking About

Words: 12907 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 12673649


Instability in Iran

In talking about the influence that Iran's nuclear program has on the overall stability in the region of Middle East, it is essential to tell apart between the cycles of time relevant to Iranian quest for nuclear weapons acquisition as well as the Iranian realization and application of nuclear weapons systems. Both cycles should be thought about distinctly simply because they are very different when it comes to implications for stability and regional conditions. Iranian quest for nuclear weapons is really an undermining aspect in the Middle East since it assists in maintaining the present uncertainty element in regional circumstances caused through the initiation of the 'War Against Terror' by the United States which resulted in the removal of Iran's usual regional counter, Iraq[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Blankfield, J. (2010) Iran's Nuclear Programme & Regional Stability. Xiphias Consulting. This brie-ng argues the case that completed Iranian nuclearisation, and…… [Read More]

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Spray on Solar Power Cells

Words: 1630 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18777069

Spray-On Solar Power Cells

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is a semiconductor device consisting of a large-area p-n junction diode, which, in the presence of sunlight is capable of generating usable electrical energy. This conversion is called the photovoltaic effect. The field of research related to solar cells is known as photovoltaics.

Solar cells have many applications. They are particularly well suited to, and historically used in situations where electrical power from the grid is unavailable, such as in remote area power systems, Earth orbiting satellites, handheld calculators, remote radiotelephones, water pumping applications, etc. Solar cells, in the form of modules or solar panels, are appearing on building roofs where they are connected through an inverter to the electricity grid in a net metering arrangement.

Various materials have been investigated for solar cells. There are two main criteria - efficiency and cost. Efficiency is a ratio of the electric…… [Read More]

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Lipids How Are Lipids Processed

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12769004

These cells have an enzyme on their surface that attracts fat. The number and distribution of adipose cells has a genetic component, and is usually determined in early childhood.

Describe the major metabolic diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage for humans?

Diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage included: high cholesterol, combined hyperlipidemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, high density lipoprotein, and hypertriglyceridemia,

How do unsaturated and saturated fatty acids differ from each other?

Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a single bond between them and as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to the carbon atoms. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a double bond, and can therefore absorb more hydrogen atoms. Healthy diets are low in saturated fats, since they raise blood cholesterol levels.

What are the roles of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) in humans?

There are two essential fatty acids: the omega-3 fatty acids and the moega-6…… [Read More]

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New York Times Related to

Words: 3078 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82935315 extremely violent version of dark energy blew it up a fraction of a second after time began..." (Overbye, 2007). This would have the result of smoothing and stretching space and hiding other areas and galaxies from out sight.

4. Free Will: Now You Have it, Now You Don't by Dennis Overbye

Published: January 2, 2007

This article deals with the time-honored and complex debate about human free will and if free will is a construct of the imagination or an actual human reality. The author draws on sources and arguments from many disciplines to deal with this issue, including science and physics.

The argument against the idealistic and philosophical view of free will as an innate quality of human existence is that free will in fact is an illusion and that human life is in reality predetermined by physical as well as genetic and social aspects that we…… [Read More]

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Physical Chemistry Notes Website Pomona

Words: 1014 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 69695048

or, to put it another way, "chemistry carried out with the primary object of investigating the workings of nature is what we now call physical chemistry" (Laidler, 5). This has made the distinction between physics and chemistry at this frontier very difficult to define. This fuzzy distinction is also one of the things that makes the discipline of physical chemistry so interesting -- it cannot deny the complete interweaving of scientific disciplines.

Physics and chemistry lay out the foundation and explain the mechanisms of all other sciences, and the field of physical chemistry is the closest unification of these two sciences. All biological and astronomical processes only occur because of reactions and interactions at the molecular and atomic level, and physical chemistry attempts to explain these underlying principles (Laidler, 9). Though the nature of energy and matter is still not fully understood, physical chemistry is approaching better and better explanations…… [Read More]

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Sugar Sucrose C12H22O11

Words: 1977 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22464744

Chemical Compound: Sucrose

Sugar (Sucrose) -- C12H22O11

The compound chosen for discussion in the paper is- sucrose. The reason behind choosing this compound is that it is a substance of everyday use, consumed worldwide. Its commonness has led people to consider sucrose as an ingredient whose solitary purpose is what it is commonly used for- as sugar- and not in the form of a chemical compound. Therefore, sucrose is chosen for study out of curiosity regarding it.

This paper will look into a chemical and physical description of sucrose, its economic significance, its relation to prior class studies, as well as its change of state. Employing various concepts like 'international system of measurements (SI)' units, the properties of the compound will be elucidated.

Compound Description

Physical description

Pure sucrose, often, takes the form of an odorless, colorless, fine crystalline powder having a sweet, pleasant taste. It can be prepared in…… [Read More]

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How Gamification Can Facilitate Learning the Elements

Words: 502 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 59225165


"The Periodic Table of Element," Jefferson Lab at The following online activities are available at this Web site: Element Flash Cards, Element Hangman, Element Matching, Element Math, Element Crossword Puzzles, Element Concentration, Element Balancing and Element Word Scramble. In addition, paper-based (downloadable PDFs) are also available for Element Bingo and Element Word Search. Links to relevant resources concerning the periodic table are also provided.

Description of three activities or demonstrations

Activity No. 1: Element Hangman ( html).

The clue for this activity was: "This element is used to give glasses and enamels a ruby-red color." The "hangman" was comprised of 10 yellow "atoms" (complete with plus and negative signs) that disappeared when an incorrect guess was made. The correct answer to the above question, "selenium," was guessed correctly with just one "atom" remaining.

Activity No. 2: Crossword Puzzles (

Nine crossword puzzles are offered: (Puzzle 1 -- It's…… [Read More]

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Entropy in Our Lives

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33185338


Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.

The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. But since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)

Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of…… [Read More]

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Amidation of Peptides

Words: 6068 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94362858

Amidation of Peptides in Humans

Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…… [Read More]

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Polymers Kevlar

Words: 3282 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48994649

Polymer Analysis (Kevlar)

Brief History of Kevlar Development

In response to innovations in military armaments, the search for improved body armor for military and law enforcement personnel has been the focus of intense research for several decades. One of the resulting products of this research, Kevlar, is the closest humans have come to matching the tensile strength of spider silk is five times stronger per weight than steel and is best known for its use in bulletproof vests (Ehrenfeld, 2000). Kevlar shares something in common with matches, COBOL, antifungal antibiotics, pulsars, vitamin A, Cepheid variable stars, radium, and mobile genes, in that all of these were discovered or invented by women (Brownlow, Jacobi & Rogers, 2000). Kevlar was developed at DuPont by a team comprised of Stephanie Kwolek, Herbert Blades, and Paul W. Morgan. In 1978, Kwolek also produced from aramids the first polymeric liquid crystals (Stevens & Kauffman, 2004).…… [Read More]

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World War Two Represents the Greatest Cataclysm

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33674361

World War Two Represents the Greatest Cataclysm

The first ever time the atom bomb was used

Millions of lives were lost and property destroyed c) Was disastrous for vast majority of the Jews

Political reasons

Poor framing of the League of nations

Lack of preventive initiative from Britain as a super power

Birth of Dictatorship in Germany and Italy

Events a) German occupation of European nations b) Russian and German conflict (Balkan) c) Intervention of the United States

Atomic Bombing and Japanese surrender

Results of the War a) Emergence of U.S. And Russia as super powers b) Formation of United Nations Organization

End of dictatorship

Conclusion a) Bought a new global political climate b) Intensity of the war could have been reduced by proper enforcement of stipulations listed in the treaty of Versailles

World War Two


In the annals of human history the Second World War would be remembered…… [Read More]

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Built Between the U S S R and China Following

Words: 2448 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28638403

built between the U.S.S.R. And China following World War Two. The writer focuses on the issue of Nuclear technology and the tensions between the two because of it. Stalin, Mao and broken promises are examined and put together in a story of history. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.

Currently the world is focused on disarming itself from a nuclear standpoint. America has invaded Iraq on the pretext of forcing the nation to stop nuclear technological advancement and while this is going on North Korea is gearing up its formerly defunct nuclear program. It seems that the world is working to reverse a technology that for many years was the race of success. Two of the largest areas in the world spent years competing with each other for power, and they believed that power was going to be found in nuclear technology. China and the former USSR…… [Read More]

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Robotics How Close Are We to Creating a Bionic Man

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1231835

Robotics: How Close Are We to Creating a Bionic Man?

While the creation of a 'bionic man' similar to the Six Million Dollar Man of the 70s television series or the gun-slinging robot of Westworld may still be the realm of popular sci-fi, technology has developed to a stage where we are closer to such a possibility than ever before. Some of these technologies include robotics, the development of organic polymers that could be used as artificial muscles, nano-technology, and artificial intelligence (AI). In this paper we will review the latest developments in the relevant technologies to find how close we are to developing a 'bionic man.'

Apart from the availability of the required technology, one of the factors that would eventually determine if (or how soon) we are able to develop a bionic man is -- the urgency or need for such a development. This is because technology does…… [Read More]

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ICE What if Ice Did Not Float

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27025527


What if Ice did not Float?

This is an interesting question that confounded people for many years. In letters between correspondents in different regions of Arabia, the question was bandied, and answered. The thought was that when water froze in a container that it did contract. Thus the void where the water had been formed a vacuum and the heavier air in the outside of the flask caused the water container to implode because of the vacuum that was formed. However, one of the correspondents, the one writing the original query to a more learned colleague, found that the flasks broke out, not in as was indicated in the original explanation. The more experienced of the two did have an explanation of this,

But it is more metaphysical than scientific. He said frozen water creates a space between itself and the container, and that this space desires to be…… [Read More]

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Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Green Engineering

Words: 1353 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41407566

Fuel Cells in Green Engineering

The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.

The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although…… [Read More]

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Philosophers of Ancient Greece

Words: 3936 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54189879

Philosophers of Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece offers a plethora of great thinkers all of whom contributed greatly to understanding the mysteries of natural and unnatural phenomena. From the Pre-Socratic era to the Classical Age of thought, we come across various schools that painstakingly define the workings of the mind, soul, matter and the whole universe. This paper aims to outline the philosophical beliefs of the spearheads of Greek thought and compare their notions in a manner that shows the evolution of rational reason.

Greek thinkers of the pre-Socratic era, were the undoubtedly the first of many thinkers who delved into the mystics of nature and deemed it necessary to think along the lines of life and how it ought to be led. They presented a new rational line of thought whereby a lot of veneration was given to the intricate workings of the universe. These philosophers are singlehandedly responsible for…… [Read More]

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Human Dev Symbols the Mind and the

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48725047

Human Dev

Symbols, the Mind, and the Animal State

In Chapter 7 of Maps of Time, David Christian (2011) discusses how human language is built not only of "icons" and "indices," which are types of recognition, correlation, and communication that many organisms from bacteria to dogs can use, but primarily of symbols -- a more complex and higher-order level of communication (p. 172). This is only part of a larger discussion on the development of human history, however it is worthy of consideration simply as its own advancement and unique feature. An understanding of how language is a definitive feature of humanity, and of the implications of a division between man and nature, creates valuable insights for understanding human development.

As explained by Christian (2011), certain associations can be made by many organisms between similar or concurrent experiences in a way that might appear to be symbolic learning or communication,…… [Read More]

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Radiometric Dating

Words: 512 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84012256

Radiometric Dating

In 1896, French physicist, Henry Becquerel discovered the natural radioactive decay of uranium, opening new vistas in science (Time pp). Roughly a decade later, in 1905, British physicist Lord Rutherford, "after defining the structure of the atom," first suggested the use of radioactivity as a tool for measuring geologic time (Time pp). Then, in 1907, radiochemist B.B. Boltwood, a professor at Yale University, published a list of geologic ages based on radioactivity, and although his "ages" have since been revised, they do show correctly that the duration of geologic time "would be measured in terms of hundreds-to-thousands of millions of years" (Time pp). The next forty years saw a great deal of research concerning the nature and behavior of atoms, thus, leading to the development of nuclear fission and fusion as energy sources, however, a byproduct of this research has been the development and the on-going refinement of…… [Read More]

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Epicurus Peace and Moderation as

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44379207

Epicurus' philosophy is a profound testimony of how science and rational observation can provide a moral guide for humanity. For example, the fact that everything is made up of the same basic matter acts as a reminder that it is necessary to treat the environment with respect, as both human beings and the world are made up of the same basic atomic essence, and their material essence obeys the same properties. People might object that it is easy to use Epicurean philosophy to justify living for pleasure. But Epicurus actually obeyed a moderate diet and lifestyle. Yes, technically one is morally free under Epicurean philosophy to seek pleasure by sitting in bed all day, drinking beer and eating doughnuts. But really, Epicurus would note, that goes completely against his philosophy of true happiness as tranquility and simplicity. What will make you truly happy? Going to class, learning about the world,…… [Read More]

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Battery Works Battery Also Called

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86240248

Each cell inside a battery consists of a liquid, paste or solid "electrolyte," a "positive electrode," and a "negative electrode." The electrolyte is an ionic conductor; one of the electrodes reacts, producing electrons, while the other accepts electrons. When the electrodes are connected to a device to be powered (called a load) an electrical current flows. ("Battery," 2007)

As an example, in one cell of a lead-acid battery used in automobiles, the process producing the current takes place as follows:

One plate inside the cell is made of lead; the other plate is made of lead dioxide, and it contains a strong sulfuric acid electrolyte in which both plates are immersed.

Lead combines with SO4 to create lead sulfate (PbSO4) plus one electron.

Lead dioxide, hydrogen ions and SO4 ions, plus electrons from the lead plate, create PbSO4 and water on the lead dioxide plate.

As the battery discharges, both…… [Read More]

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Big Bang and the Evolution

Words: 1716 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19169576

" At almost 4 minutes, the temperature has fallen to the point where sub-atomic particles become naturally attracted to each other and form certain kinds of isotopes. At almost an hour after the Big Bang, all nuclear material has bonded, yet the temperatures is "still too high for protons and electrons to bind together" to form atoms. From this point on to about 700,000 years later, the temperature has dropped sufficiently and allows electrons and protons to bind together to create atoms of hydrogen. Therefore, as free electrons "are bound up in atoms, the primary cross-section leading to the scattering of photons is removed" which allows the universe to alter from being opaque to transparent, thus allowing photons of light to travel freely in this newly-created universe ("The Hot Big Bang" 2007, Internet). At some unknown point in spatial time, the universe begins to cool even further, allowing gases like…… [Read More]

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Atomic Bomb and the Deciding

Words: 5536 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63857653

" The difference in the Manhattan Project and other companies that were very similar in function was due to the need to become quickly successful and investments of "hundreds of millions of dollars in unproven and hitherto unknown processes and did so entirely in secret. Speed and secrecy were the watchwords of the Manhattan Project." Gosling states that the "one overwhelming advantage" of the project's inherent characteristics because it became possible, under the cloak of secrecy to "make decisions with little regard for normal peacetime political considerations."

Gosling relates the following of the Manhattan Project:

The need for haste clarified priorities and shaped decision making. Unfinished research on three separate, unproven processes had to be used to freeze design plans for production facilities, even though it was recognized that later findings inevitably would dictate changes. The pilot plant stage was eliminated entirely, violating all manufacturing practices and leading to intermittent…… [Read More]

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Socially Progressive Countries Have the

Words: 1694 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 73401140

Again, this is where a multi-national organization, like the UN, can help eliminate this bias to really determine if the practice is a human rights violation.


Human rights has been a concern for societies since ancient times. Today, although many strides have been made, there are still concerns about human rights violations. Thanks to advancements in communication technologies, now the plight of those suffering on the other side of the globe can be acknowledged by others, who in the past would not have known about it. Also, multi-national organizations, such as the UN, have made human rights a priority. Yet, this does not simply give a singular nation carte blanche to intervene when they believe a violation of human rights is occurring. This is due to both State sovereignty and cultural practices. A singular nation cannot make an unbiased decision on whether or not a practice is truly a…… [Read More]

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Nuclear Fusion Learning From Failure

Words: 1242 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 97186566


Another lesson learned by the fusion research has been its impact on the development of future nuclear weapons vs. existing test ban treaties. It would be possible with successful nuclear fusion results to test weapons without an actual above or below ground explosion due to the nature of the science. The question is raised whether that would be a violation of the nuclear test ban treaties. Also, the potential power of these weapons is mind-boggling -- perhaps 100x existing nuclear weapons. They make the atomic and hydrogen bombs look like firecrackers in comparison.

The mere thought of pure fusion weapons has given pause for thought, and the development of even minor successes in this field cause lessons to be learned about the future control and management of fusion devices.


Most importantly, the fifty years of research into nuclear fusion have brought the world to the point of learning…… [Read More]