Charles Darwin Essays (Examples)

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How the Media Portrays Science to the Society

Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16900521


A scientist is a person who engages in systematic activities in order to gain knowledge. A person who makes use of scientific methods is also a scientist. The person must be an expert in one scientific field. A scientist will study the world, perform experiments, develop theories and write all this in papers (Weingart, 2012). Any person who is interested in the sciences is a scientist. From amateurs to professionals, provided the individual is curious to find out what would happen when he performs an experiment, the person is a scientist. Some of the famous scientists are Charles Darwin, Aristotle, Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, and Leonardo Da Vinci. These scientists have been widely covered and spoken of in the media. These individuals have excelled in their respective fields. They have experimented and made theory discoveries that are still in use to date. Most of their works have not been…… [Read More]

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Early Childhood Development Roles and Responsibilities of

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15068602

Early Childhood Development

Roles and Responsibilities of an Early Childhood Professional

Early childhood professionals are often required to wear many hats, particularly because their job description changes almost on a daily basis. As a facilitator of learning, an early childhood professional acts as a guide. Usually, a guide is tasked with leading other people down new paths, and he does so by walking beside them, rather than in front of them (Child Care Education Institute, 2008). His group's safety is his top priority, and he always strives to keep the people under his watch free from harm (Child Care Education Institute, 2008). The same ideology applies to early childhood professionals -- they identify new experiences as well as engagements to impart upon children and then guide them in a direction that is of interest to them. For instance, rather than lead the child through the process of playing, the professional…… [Read More]

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Life of Jared Loughner Criminology

Words: 1523 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61866163

remain ingrained in the hearts of the people of Arizona. On this day, Jared Lee Loughner, a 22-year-old, attempted to kill Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords and he opened fire in a supermarket parking lot in Tucson, shooting and severely injuring 14 people, including Giffords, his target, and killing six people. While the incident sparked outrage and condemnation from different parts of the country, there have been numerous other cases where young American citizens carry out mass shootings. According to Siegel (2012), such incidences have prompted criminologists to devote their careers to understanding both the good and bad side of human nature in order to find out the motives that trigger people like Loughner to commit atrocities like the one in Tucson and why they behave the way they do. Where exactly should blame be apportioned -- societal or individual factors?

In the aftermath of mass murders, a look into the childhood,…… [Read More]

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Mind and Body in History

Words: 1942 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29914656

For Marx, of course, economics and class conflicts were the base of society, and social change proceeded through revolutions, such as the French, American and English Revolutions against feudalism in the 17th and 18th Centuries. In the future, capitalism would be overthrown by a socialist revolution, starting with the most advanced industrial economies in the West (Greene, p. 200). Comte argued that sociology should be concerned with the "laws of social evolution," though, and that science and technology had undermined traditional religion and the feudal social order. Society evolved in three distinct stages, theological, metaphysical and positive, with positivism representing urban, industrial society (Greene, p. 204).


Plato, Augustine and Descartes were the most important dualist philosophers in history, and all of them valued the mind and immortal soul far more than the physical body or the material universe. This view was dominant until the era of the Scientific Revolution…… [Read More]

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Ecosystem Which Is a Biological Environment Made

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30614502

ecosystem, which is a biological environment made up of various organisms, whether living or not, physical constituents which life forms interact with, for example, soil, water, and sunlight. Environmental homeostasis is achieved with the presence of various insects and critters in the ecosystem. This paper will delve into the role wasps' play as biological pest control, nesting habits, and various methods to control the population.

A majority of wasps are parasitic or known as parasitoids, so they prey on insects that would otherwise destroy and eat crops, which makes them advantageous in agriculture. Parasites like wasps lay one or more eggs on the host's exterior or interior body. Wasps are able to conduct such an act by feeding on the pest during their larval stage thus enhancing biological control, which was what Tylianakis (2010) noted in his study that researched biodiversity and biological control services. In another study led by…… [Read More]

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Art and Politics Light Being the Very

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28508484

Art and Politics

"Light being the very essence of our existence, a work of art that is not concerned with light has no right to exist." (Rosso 23)

The eye takes in and processes a world of information all at once. We do not even fully recognize all of the inputs that the brain processes. In fact, the brain is still more sophisticated than the world's most powerful computer. These facts have deep implications for art and art appreciation since the "impression" of the art is important in the sense that it attempts to recreate a reality. For an artist to try to recreate reality they must pay particular attention to light and color. However, all of this assumes an artist wants to "recreate" something natural and the feeling that accompanies it during the first impression. This is not always the case.

Other artists and architects have focused more on…… [Read More]

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Mohave vs Western Society Gender Norms Values Identities and Roles

Words: 1441 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17496844

Gender Norms, Values, Identities, and Roles: Mohave vs. Western Society

There most likely is no American aged above ten who does not know 'Pat', the androgynous fictional character on Saturday Night Live, whose audience could not distinguish as either male or female. There is no doubt that people in today's society would not question a person's gender or sex unless it deviates from that which is considered 'the norm'. The norm, in our society, is that a person has to clearly fit into either of two sex groups; male or female, which are binary opposites of each other. Categorizations such as transsexuals are a relatively new (modern) constructs. Many non-western cultures, however, do not apply this kind of binary thinking; they recognize that more categories exist. To this end, most native cultures have more than two institutionalized gender/sex categories. This text explores one key anthropological example -- the Berdache, also…… [Read More]

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Infanticide as a Charge and a Defense

Words: 4613 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77353952

Infanticide in Australia

Infanticide is the act or practice of killing newborns or infants. It has been committed or performed in every continent and in every level of culture from the poorest hunters and gatherers to the richest and most advanced classes of people and from the time of our ancestors to modern age (Milner 1998). The act or practice has been so rampant that there is enough evidence on record to show that it has been more the rule than an exception and this evidence reflects that parents themselves kill their infants under distressing and stressful situations. The practice or act was so frequent in England in the 19th century that both the medical and the private communities had to think of ways to control the crime (Milner) described by medical practitioners as savage in a contradiction to human progress.

But infanticide is not a modern creation. It was…… [Read More]

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Natural Selection First Described in Full by

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69618589

Natural Selection

First described in full by Charles Darwin, natural selection refers to the process by which organisms evolve by adapting to their environments. Natural selection does not occur instantly in response to an environmental change, however. Rather, natural selection occurs over the course of several successive generations. Those organisms that successfully survive the environmental changes due to their inherited traits will pass on their genes to their offspring. Thus, only those organisms with hardy genes will survive; hence the phrase "survival of the fittest." While natural selection does occur unaided by human beings in the natural world, humans are beginning to alter the course of natural evolution through the creation and implementation of certain chemical products. Moreover, environmental pollution and other human factors impact the process of natural selection and evolution in the plant and animal kingdoms. Chemical products such as antibiotics, pesticides, and herbicides in particular threaten to…… [Read More]

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Ethics of Human Cloning Genetic Engineering and

Words: 1707 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28244883

Ethics of Human Cloning

Genetic engineering and cloning have played important roles in agriculture for many generations. Bananas and seedless grapes, for example, are, quite literally, living genetic clones (Krock, 2001). Prior to the last decade of the 20th Century, human cloning was purely a subject of science fiction, but by the dawn of the 21st Century, researchers had already cloned several mammals successfully.

In 1978, medical science had progressed to the point of in vitro fertilization, producing Louise Brown, the first "test-tube baby," conceived in a laboratory and implanted into her mother's womb. By 1997, British researcher Ian Wimut implanted sheep embryos, cloned from the DNA nucleus in an adult sheep's mammary gland, into thirteen female sheep, one of whom became pregnant, eventually delivering a female yew, named "Dolly" (Krock, 2001). Three years later, scientists working at Advanced

Cell Technology in Massachusetts managed to impregnate a cow with an…… [Read More]

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Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci There Are More Than

Words: 1606 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92069765

Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci

There are more than thirty different species of streptococcal bacteria. The infections that strep causes in humans range from "strep throat," which is caused by Group A strep and relatively easily treatable, to diseases such as pneumonia and serious wound infections, both of which can prove deadly.(1)

Antibiotics were first developed during World War II, and have saved many millions of human lives since then that would have been lost to streptococci infections and diseases. Penicillin alone was solely responsible for dramatically decreasing mortality rates of soldiers wounded on the battlefields of World War II compared to corresponding rates of World War I casualties.

The widespread use of penicillin and more modern antibiotics that have been developed since World War II has been accompanied by the natural evolution of some bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics. In many respects, the natural ability of bacteria to develop…… [Read More]

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Cultural Anthropology Cree and Intuit Cultures

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97074810

Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Conditions in the Arctic North

The first human occupation of the Americas occurred in Berengia during the last glaciation of the region. Later, it was more widely accepted that the primary center of population expansion was in Alaska, subsequently spreading into the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. The physical environment of the populated regions influenced the developing cultures of each group, affected by access to resources, barriers to trade routes, and weather and land conditions. As a result of environmental impact, religion, technological adaptations, economy and food source acquirement varied among the cultural populations, and is still seen in ethnic societies of the Arctic region today, evidence of the cultural sustainability of such adapted groups.

To define "culture," it is the combination of values, practices, and relationships of a population, with a number of factors influencing its development. Considering environment as a key point to cultural development…… [Read More]

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Popular Culture Cultural Practices and Historical Struggles

Words: 1935 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34044273

Sociology of American Eugenics and Nativism in Advertising

The study of eugenics as a valid science during the early 20th century American society are based upon two prevalent beliefs, which is the belief in " the perfectibility of the human species and a growing faith in science as the most dependable and useful form of knowledge (Microsoft Encarta 2002). Eugenics as popular science during the 20th century emerged due to the social 'landscape' of American society during that time. In an article by Garland E. Allen in the Image Archive on American Eugenics Movement entitled, "Social Origins of Eugenics," the possible social roots of eugenics is discussed in order to analyze and determine the factors that helped popularize this new kind of science, which resounds dominantly of Social Darwinism. Eugenics basically subsists to the belief that 'good' or desirable genes must prevail over 'bad' or undesirable ones in order to…… [Read More]

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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12402637

Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings

An Abstract of a Dissertation

This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the content of a dreamer's dreams, and if therapists actually "guide" their clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the therapist "suggesting" to their clients that they had suffered some type of early childhood trauma, when in fact, there were no traumas in their early childhoods. The origin of psychiatry is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, therapy or any other even faintly scientific endeavor. Its original purpose was not even to cure mental affliction.…… [Read More]

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Knowledge Views on the Nature of Knowledge

Words: 5893 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24595821


Views on the Nature of Knowledge: Social Scientists vs. Natural Scientists

What is knowledge? A simple question, or so most people would think. Knowledge is the accumulation of information on a given subject or subjects. It is a collection of facts, of things known to be true...or is it? The closer one looks, the more one comes to realize that there are many different approaches to obtaining knowledge, and many different definitions of precisely what constitutes knowledge. One's use of the term varies with one's own background and objectives. To some, knowledge is an absolute, to others; it is that which is gained through long hours of observation and long years of experience. The facts that make up what we call knowledge may be composed of absolutes, or they may be composed of many opinions, opinions that we believe to be most accurate or most correct. But what then…… [Read More]

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Miracles Exist But Perhaps They Are Only

Words: 830 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7175045

Miracles exist. But perhaps they are only miracles to our eyes, because they seem to defy known laws of biology or physics. My thesis is that miracles are everywhere, from the tiniest single-celled organism up to the milky way, but that all miracles -- those we understand and those we don't -- follow natural laws. The universe itself could not exist without consistent and natural laws.

Let's consider one of the most miraculous events of all: the existence of life. Nobody can prove just how life came about, and though we have many theories about its origin -- from the idea that God created life, to the idea that life came in the form of microbes from outer space, to the contention that life arose from an amino acid soup over 4 billion years ago -- there is no doubt that even a simple bacterium is a miracle. Consider that…… [Read More]

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Education Psycholinguistics

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92326278

Psycholinguistics gives a comprehensive and viable understanding of human language development. The most famous psycholinguist theorist, Noam Chomsky, has argued convincingly that human children develop language abilities according to a predetermined universal deep structure or grammar. The psycholinguistic approach provides invaluable tools for teaching children to read, write, and speak.

The development of language in the human child is certainly one the most astounding and impressive human accomplishments. A child must learn over ten new words each day, from the time they start speaking, in order to reach the average six-year-old vocabulary of 14,000 words (McConnell). Language allows humans to think and reason, and communicate with each other. It is an absolutely essential skill, not only in the complete development of the individual, but for the survival of the human species as a whole.

Psycholinguistics simply deals with the mental aspects of language acquisition, storage, production and comprehension. It has…… [Read More]

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Galton Prediction

Words: 507 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88221638

Galton's prediction of what would happen if person took a standardized college exam twice. There are three references used for this paper.

Galton created theories on what determined a person's mental capabilities.

By examining the man, an idea can be formed of what his predictions would be concerning retaking a standardized college exam.

The man, his theories and those who were influenced by him will be explored to warrant this prediction.

What Galton Would Predict

Galton believed intelligence is inherited and people are predisposed to only achieving so much on test. Therefore, he would predict a person taking a standardize college entrance exam twice would have similar scores on each test. He would feel that no matter how many times the test was administered, the chance of having any significant improvement on the test would be doubtful due to the person's genetics.

The Man and his Theory

Sir Francis Galton…… [Read More]

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Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Words: 6318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11568926

Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. Religious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…… [Read More]

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Compare Mills to Wilson

Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1480256

Mill and Wilson

Attempting to find any common ground between the moral and political philosophies of John Stuart Mill and Edward O. Wilson seems futile, given that their ideas are based on extremely different premises and assumptions. Wilson was a Darwinian evolutionist who argued that human culture, behavior and morality was mostly rooted in genetics -- in DNA that had evolved over millions of years -- while this idea would simply have been alien to Mill. Wilson was a determinist and reductionist who seemed to put a low premium on individualism, while for Mill the individual was absolutely free and sovereign, and could not be coerced of controlled unless he or she did harm to others. There simply is no room in such unlimited personal freedom in Wilson's philosophy which is more concerned with the survival and reproduction of the human species as a whole than with individuals. In any…… [Read More]

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Eugenics Genetic Enhancement and Eugenics the Word

Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73003805


Genetic Enhancement and Eugenics

The word "eugenics" was coined in 1883 by the English scientist Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin. He intended it to denote the "science" of improving the human stock by giving "the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable." Since Galton's day, "eugenics" has become a word of ugly connotations -- and deservedly. Eugenic aims merged with misinterpretations of the new science of genetics to help produce cruelly oppressive and in the era of the Nazis barbarous social results. Nonetheless, eugenics continues to figure in social discourse in some proposals for human genetic engineering.[footnoteRef:-1] [-1: Daniel Kelves, In the Name of Eugenics, p. xiii.]

Philip Kitcher, in The Lives to Come, describes laissez faire eugenics as the eugenics yet to come in this era of prenatal testing and genetic counseling. It is a form…… [Read More]

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Evolution in Science Fiction the Idea of

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24595595

Evolution in Science Fiction

The idea of evolution is an inevitable process that any "living" being undergoes in order to adapt and survive in one's environment. Charles Darwin's "survival of the fittest" theory in evolution becomes a major thematic display within the world of science fiction. By analyzing Steven Johnson's "The Myth of the Ant Queen," one can increase one's comprehension regarding science fiction writing and the aspect of evolution.

Johnson's "The Myth of the Ant Queen" takes a brief look at the civilized and organized structure of the ant society and compares it to the hustle and bustle of New York City's subway system. But this comparison is not the only theme found within Johnson's short essay. In fact, one can see where evolution plays a part regarding the ant society. The essay describes the movements and tasks of the harvester ants and debunks the "myth" that the general…… [Read More]

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Principles of Classicist and Positivist Criminology Opposed to Each Other

Words: 2847 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98445664


Comparison of the Classical and Positivist Approaches

What is Criminology?

The Classical Approach

The Positivist Approach

The common ground between the classical and positivist schools

What is Criminology?

Criminology is a term which is used to describe the entire study of criminal behavior under which narrower aspects of factors, causes and consequences are also studied. The subject deals with and undertakes the personal and social factors that are associated with criminal behavior. It also sheds light on the impact that this kind of behavior has on the family life itself and how the victim affects himself as well as his family and those around him. There are mainly two broad classifications of crime which highlight the disciplines involved in the social sciences. The first one is the classicist approach and the other being the positivist approach to criminology. The positivist criminologists state that the criminal loses the conscience mind…… [Read More]

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Role of Life Long Learning in Creating an Ecologically Minded Society

Words: 15657 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 86292735

popularized social and cultural trends are merging, intentionally or not, toward laying the foundation for generating a new narrative about what it means to learn across a lifespan in an environment conducive to healthy living. It seeks to examine the coalescing of what is called lifelong learning side-by-side with the theories and practices related to the evolution of ecological thinking and environmental awareness. The idea that life can be as meaningful at its end as it is in the beginning seems to be counter to normative philosophies that instead isolate and compartmentalize schooling and work. Yet when examined together, it becomes clear that both lifelong learning and ecological thinking are simpatico and thus supportive of the greater acceptance of the other.

Lifelong learning like a mindset for environmental awareness share many philosophical and pragmatic elements. They each approach their subjects from a long-term perspective. Developed and developing nations, including America,…… [Read More]

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Atheist an Analysis of Secular Humanism and

Words: 1697 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52303115


An Analysis of Secular Humanism and Christianity

Critical Analysis:

Secular humanists would answer the question of the origin of man by referring to the scientific field of biology, which is centered on the ideas put forth by Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution. Human beings do not have a special role or purpose in the world, they simply originated through an evolutionary process that took place over millions of years. The question of identity is less sure in atheism than Christianity. According to the Theory of Evolution, humankind has slowly evolved over many generations from primordial primate species into modern humanity, as it exists today. This is far less satisfactory than the identity of man as being created by God in the Garden of Eden.

The question of meaning of man's existence is answered by Secular Humanists by suggesting that human intelligence is simply a twist of fate, that humans…… [Read More]

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Why Are White People Called Caucasian

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41479698

White People Are Called Caucasian

Caucasus is a word from Greek kaukasos (Mt.Caucasus) which gives the region its name, therefore Caucasus refers to the mountains of East Europe and the people that are native to this region, it is one of the main ethnic divisions of the human race so called white or European race. Mountains cross the region running all through East and West. The Northern Caucasian range forms the natural border with Russian while southern, forms the natural border of Turkey and Iran. The five Caucasian ethnic groups are categorized into three namely; Caucasian, Indo-European, and Altaic (Malik & Kenan, 2006).

The Kalmuck who are part of Altaic people are considered to be ugly while Circassia and Georgian who are Caucasian category of people are widely known for their beauty.

Religion is one of the aspects that guide us to know why white people are called "Caucasian" for…… [Read More]

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Planet of the Apes Series Is One

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96679804

Planet of the apes series is one of the most successful series in American cinematic history. Product of the anti-Vietnam War sentiment, open racial tension, the War on Poverty, fear of nuclear war and lingering Cold War anti-USSR passions, the first 5 films in the series were also based on knowledge of and research about apes up to and including the 1960's and 1970's. Rise of the planet of the apes was released 38 years later and placed its emphasis squarely on apes as a valuable subject rather than a symbol.

Development of the Planet of the Apes Series up to and Including Rise of the Planet of the Apes in Historical Context

Planet of the Apes

Planet of the apes (Schaffner, 1968), is the first in the film series. In the film, 4 astronauts travel to and crash on a strange planet. Prior to the crash, Stewart, the white…… [Read More]

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Arts and Humanities in Rousseau's Second Discourse and Other Pieces of Work

Words: 1839 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97121570

Arts and Humanities in Rosseau's Second Discourse And Other Pieces Of Work

Arts and Humanities in Rousseau's Second Discourse and other Pieces of Work

In the second discourse, Rousseau changes progress and decries imprisoning in men, in a fabricated logic of civilization. Rousseau uses striking language, "the sciences, letters and arts….." However, he believes that the new arts and sciences portray the appearance but not the reality of virtue, which he believes is core to civilization. In addition, he asserts that humanity in the state of nature was ethical and good because, in their primitive simplicity, human beings could not deceive each other (Gourevitch 23-59). However, the sciences undermine morality and threaten the well-being of human beings. Therefore, civilization based on these sciences is a mode of concealing the vices of humanity. To make strong his point, Rousseau gives an example of the Spartans whom he describes as virtuous. He…… [Read More]

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Ancient Greek Beliefs of Afterlife

Words: 6046 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11207631

Life After Death: Afterlife Within the Realm of Ancient Greek Beliefs

The question as to what happens after death is not fathomable within human reason. As such, it remains one of the biggest mysteries of life. The belief in life after death is what keeps the hopes of the human race intact even in the face of the tragedy of death. The concept 'afterlife' appears absurd in light of rational thought yet strangely familiar. Since time immemorial, numerous theories and beliefs have emerged in bid to work out this disarray. As for Christians, there is a mainstream belief that revolves around Heaven and Hell for rewarding righteousness and punishing evil respectively. In Hinduism, the belief is that upon death, the human soul deserts the body and reincarnates in a different form based on 'actions and consequences.' In Ancient Greek religion, there was a wide range of beliefs. As it appertains…… [Read More]

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Liability of Smallness What it Means and

Words: 4374 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35239364

Liability of Smallness: What it Means and What Can Be Done in Response

The historical record contains few examples of the smaller underdog winning out over larger opponents, with examples such as David and Goliath being the exceptions rather than the rule. This paucity of examples is due in large part to the so-called liability of smallness which suggests smaller firms are more vulnerable to competition, a constraint that is especially salient for entrepreneurial firms that begin as smaller entities with less experience and resources compared to their larger competitors. The liability of smallness is further aggravated by the liability of newness where start-ups are viewed less favorably compared to longer-established firms. To gain some fresh insights into these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning the liability of smallness, the liability of newness, and how some real-world firms have responded to these constraints. A discussion…… [Read More]

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Kasparov Was Able to Defeat Deep Blue

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94398105

Kasparov was able to defeat Deep Blue primarily because of the nature of intelligence, which computers are actually limited in. Computers can reproduce logic and logical thinking -- they can analyze, consider future events, probability, and the like, but true intelligence is based on learning as one goes. It combines with different aspects of wisdom to induce prudence. For example, if a man and a machine were both standing outside and water started falling from the sky, basic intelligence would tell both that it was raining. Wisdom is required to act on that information, and stand beneath a building to avoid getting wet. Computers are limited in their ability to "think" on the go, which is why Kasparov was able to beat Deep Blue.

Analysis and observation of patients with brain damage can reveal much about the nature of cognition and how it takes place. Some of these observations can…… [Read More]

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Holocaust the Sheer Scale of the Holocaust

Words: 3407 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76597312


The sheer scale of the Holocaust can make it difficult to understand, because while human history is rife with examples of oppression and genocide, never before had it been carried out in such an efficient, industrialized fashion. The methodical murder of some six million Jews, along with millions of other individuals who did not fit the parameter's of the Nazis' racial utopia, left a scar on the global consciousness and forced a dramatic reconception of social theories, which now had to account for how the Holocaust could come to happen. The old dualisms of social theory proved insufficient on their own, because the motivations, logistics, and execution of the Nazis' "Final Solution" defy easy categorization and explanation. Instead, one must examine the explanations provided by each of these theoretical schema and then attempt to formulate a broader, more eclectic explanation of the Holocaust than is provided by any individual…… [Read More]

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PSI System and Other Educational

Words: 5885 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5995460


The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.

Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.

A wealth…… [Read More]

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Intelligent Design Intelligent Design Is

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16959608

10)?" Indicating that there is no intellectual discourse on the subject, and, because they have already indicated that they perceive creationists as backward, asocial, and people essentially not capable of intellectual discourse on the subject; this book is done. However, and to the mystery of anyone who reads as far as the first ten pages of the book, the book lingers for more than 200 pages.

Young and Edis begin by informing their audience that, from their perspective intelligent design fails, because that is what they tell people in their title, and, if the title did not sufficiently turn readers away, the first 10 pages wherein the authors come across hostile, demeaning, and finally advise the reader there is no intelligent discourse on intelligent design to be had; that should be the end of the book and the number of people willing to read the book. "So what went wrong…… [Read More]

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Plato's Apology and Socrates' Trial

Words: 3029 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90454845

To wit, in Socrates' day, there were no official government prosecutors (commonly referred to in modern America as "District Attorneys"); in effect, any citizen could bring an indictment against any other citizen, and call for a trial. And that's basically what happened to Socrates.

Here in America, in 2006, notwithstanding what Vice President Cheney said, President George W. Bush stated, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me." Bush was responding to a reporter's question on August 21; Bush was asked if he believed, according to, that the "Democrats advocating for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq 'embolden Al Qaeda types' as...Cheney similarly stated. Bush's answer was, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me... [although] leaving [Iraq] before the job would be done would be to send a signal to our troops that the sacrifices they made were not worth it...this has…… [Read More]

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Psychology and Critical Thinking Critical

Words: 378 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62833268

(Scriven, 2004)

Research into the value of critical thinking probably came about when Freud became influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of the behavior of early human societies. Later theorists in the field of psychology, such as Hyman Spotnitz, a modern psychoanylist, and William Graham Sumner, expanded Freud's theory to include the ability of the human mind to think critically, or to bend one's mind (forgetting the bad and remembering chosen events) to form one's impression of life. Melanie Klein theorized that a child's perception of what is occuring around them determines whether they develop into depressive or schizoid-depressive personalities, or whether, with proper guidance, they develop normally. (Klein, 1966) it is important that research continue in the field of psychology to determine what techniques of critical thinking may aid the disturbed patient.

Freud, Anna (1966-1980). The Writings of Anna Freud: 8 Volumes. New York: IUP.

Freud, S. (1913) Totem and…… [Read More]

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Evolution Few Topics Stir More

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69723399

S. government is based upon that belief, while other governments, such as communism and Marxism is based on accidental evolution (Benen 2001).

This belief system appears to be the extreme, however it is a popular one among creationists.

According to the National Academy of Sciences, "The theory of evolution explains how life on earth has changed...In scientific terms, 'theory' does not mean 'guess' or 'hunch'...Scientific theories are explanations of natural phenomena built up logically from testable observations and hypotheses" (Benen 2001). Biological evolution is the best scientific explanation for the vast range of observations about the living world, thus "the occurrence of evolution in this sense is a fact," because scientists no longer question whether descent with modification occurred since there is so much strong evidence to support the idea (Benen 2001).

Since no one knows how long a "day" actually was in the Book of Genesis, it could well…… [Read More]

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Natural Selection Is the Very Efficient and

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75231484

Natural selection is the very efficient and predictable means of evolution by which a species adapts to its environment, that results in evolutionary change as individuals with particular characteristics have a greater survival or reproductive rate than others in a population, and these genetic characteristics are then passed on to their offspring (Natural pp). In other words, natural selection is a consistent difference in survival and reproduction between different genotypes in what is referred to as reproductive success (Natural pp).

Although Charles Darwin's book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection caused much ado when it was published in 1859, science now accepts that evolution is indeed a fact, and that natural selection effectively explains how adaptive evolution takes place (Natural pp).

There are two requirements that are essential in order for natural selection to occur (Evolution pp). One is that there must be heritable variation for…… [Read More]

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Geology it Was a Work

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75277034

Smith went deep into debt and as creditors chased him, he was unable to enjoy any of the fruits of his labor. Forced to sell off his fossil collection, Smith eventually retreated into Northern England and lived as a pariah. Before he did, he also entered into an unwise marriage with a mentally disturbed woman. Smith was also imprisoned for his debt.

Throughout much of his life, Smith received little personal recognition for his work, even from the national Geological Society. The Geological Society, far from honoring Smith, thrust him out of their elitist circle. Toward the end of Smith's life, he was finally offered back some of the recognition he deserved. In 1865, the Geological Society paid long overdue honors to William Smith: years after he was dead. Centuries after his death, geologists pay homage to William Smith as the "father of modern geology." Smith's maps shifted public perception…… [Read More]

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Sociology the Shifting Definitions of

Words: 3386 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41556052

Weber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (Weber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.

One sign that is frequently taken…… [Read More]

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Greek Culture and the Rise of Aestheticism in the Late Victorian Culture

Words: 2981 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69256133

aestheticism movement found, in Oscar Wilde, its most eloquent and staunch supporter; consequently, his only novel, the Picture of Dorian Gray, is a monument to the notion that art is the pure manifestation of beauty and reveals Wilde's particular reverence for classical western society's artistic achievements.

Oscar Wilde fundamentally sought to dislodge art from morality within his novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, and in so doing, pay his respects to the beauty in Greek culture by viewing through this amoral lens. Its original publication in 1890 was met with severe criticism from many who perceived it to be utterly disgraceful and immoral; as a result, Wilde attempted to answer his critics by revising the Picture of Dorian Gray and amending it with preface -- outlining his philosophical underpinnings -- in the following year. In short, Wilde believed, "The sphere of art and the sphere of ethics are absolutely distinct…… [Read More]

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New Imperialism in 1899 British

Words: 1440 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24026805

Britain initiated the battle for control over African and Asian territories; other European powers as well as the United States and Japan soon followed suit to keep up with their competitor. Nations like France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States wanted to end Britain's dominance of the world marketplace.

Political and military motives also fueled the New Imperialism. This was especially evident in the Spanish-American War. Even before that, the United States and Germany were already beginning to threaten British military dominance. After the American Civil War, its military was strengthened and it became significantly less isolationist in its foreign policy. After the unification of Germany, its military and political powers increased greatly. Both the United States and Germany grew their naval forces to compete with Britain's. Germany first initiated its New Imperialist campaigns during 1884 to 1885, mainly in Africa. The United States dove right into the New…… [Read More]

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Physical Geography There Is One Reference Used

Words: 490 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62334887

physical geography. There is one reference used for this paper.

Physical geography is used in a variety of aspects throughout the world today. It is important to answer some questions about physical geography in order to better understand it.

Questions About Geography

The major themes and ideas in physical geography before 1950 were "Uniformatarianism, Evolution-Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, Exploration and Survey, and Conservation (" After 1950, "Quantitative Revolution and the study of Human/Land Relationships (" were the two main influences on physical geography.

Physical geography differs from human geography in that it deals with the physical elements such as water, air, rocks, weather, climate, etc. Human geography deals with aspects of human life such as population, religion, politics, agriculture, etc.

Physical geography is the study of "spatial patterns of weather and climate, soils, vegetation, animals, water in all its forms, and landforms ("

Some of the sub-fields in physical…… [Read More]

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Radiology the Diagnosis of Disease

Words: 2401 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98402396

He proposed this technique as the solution to the problem of why some people do better than others in certain tasks, He likewise suggested cataloguing the differences in the size of the functional areas among individuals and correlating these with different talents and skills (Krotz 2001). Van Essen believed that his technique would ultimately lead to what makes people human or unique. Brain mapping charts and determines specific areas, such as areas devoted to hearing, emotions and memory.

Dr. Joy Hirsch of the neuroscience department of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center discovered that functional areas are not areas but intricate networks (Krotz 2001). Her findings and projections point to systems of remotely connected brain areas as fundamental units that govern cognition. She also concluded that this assumption would be the guiding principle in research a few years from now. Dr. Hirsch maintains a lab at the O'Hare Airport, which turns out…… [Read More]

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Nonverbal Communication Skill Although There Is No

Words: 2560 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29976243

Nonverbal Communication Skill

Although there is no consensus about the exact definition of "nonverbal communication" among experts, it is generally regarded as any communication conveyed through body movements (the "body language") and the intonations and emphasis that are given to words (also called the "paralinguistics"). The term

"nonverbal Communication" may itself be relatively new but its importance has long been realized. Martin Luther, the 16th century protestant reformer, often advised his followers, "not to watch a person's mouth but his fists." (Quoted by Bull, 2001) Charles Darwin discovered commonalities in facial expressions among humans and animals in his 1872 study, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which is still read with interest among researchers. In the present day, nonverbal communication evokes the interest of a broad spectrum of academic disciplines including psychology, sociology, anthropology, communications, and linguistics, and has a similarly wide scope. Most research in the…… [Read More]

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American Education System the History

Words: 3103 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91769982

The 1892 Committee of Ten of the NEA stressed that high schools were sadly only for the elite, but in the succeeding century, there was a marked increase of national wealth, improved living standard and a greater demand for better trained labor force. This led to reorganization of secondary education into one that would cater to the population's growing industrial democracy and the cardinal principles of secondary education were introduced in 1918. These principles stressed guidance, a wide range of subjects, adaptation of contents and methods to students' abilities and interests, and flexibility of organization and administration. High schools began focusing on stress health, citizenship, vocation education and preparation, ethics and the proper use of leisure, in addition to academic instruction. This was what "comprehensive" means.

Educators continue to experiment with the curriculum and, in the process, there have been more modifications in attitudes and methods than subject matter. Elementary…… [Read More]

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Animal Testing Negatives of Animal Testing Outweigh

Words: 2261 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31285894

Animal Testing

Negatives of Animal Testing Outweigh Its Positives and Therefore Should Not be Allowed

Many cures and treatments have been developed in the last three hundred years due to advances in medical technology. These developments are sometimes attributed partly to the fact that scientists and researchers have been able to use animals as "guinea pigs" for testing new medications or treatment methods before passing them to human volunteers. There is strong evidence supporting this claim though technology today allows scientists to bypass animal testing in many cases. Moreover, animal testing has led to many horrible abuses and misleading results due to the fact that animals' organism does not match the complexity of human bodies. Ultimately, when the benefits and harms of using animals for testing purposes, it is evident that animals should not be used for experiments. In this paper, I will present both sides of the argument and…… [Read More]

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Differences Between the Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today

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Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today

Technology during 1910 and its rapid evolution to the present era:

The 19th century witnessed major upheavals in science and technology ushering a gamut of changes and widespread ripple effect on the society. The dawning of science in industry brought about by the Industrial Revolution was a watershed in global technology that continued to shape the future of mankind. It was in that era when development of large scale metal working techniques popularised steam power. Railroads appeared and facilitated in mass migration of populations. Urbanizations started, commerce flourished, fortunes were made and a new class of affluent appeared. Major scientific inventions like electromagnetism by Clerk Maxwell and greater sophistication of electricity brought about technological changes and improved quality of life with telegraph, electric light and radio transforming the world for the better. (Jeff, 2002)

Development in natural science spearheaded…… [Read More]

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Stutter During Childhood Human Development

Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15089311

While the primary cause of stuttering may be related to physiological disposition of the brain (the way it handles language skills and speech patterns), environmental factors may affect the physical condition or may even play a decisive role in triggering its activation. Psychoanalytical therapies may also help stuttering children "re-teach" the behavior of brain -- in other words, adapt to its different functioning -- and help overcome it before reaching adulthood.


Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. Retrieved 5 March 2012 from

Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. Retrieved 5 March 2012, from

Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.

Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186…… [Read More]

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Fossils Are the Preserved Remains

Words: 813 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76169947

When evolution occures, it is localized in rare and rapid events that are proven by the fossil record, as well as a thorough study of natural history (Gould and Eldredge, 1972).

There are, however, gaps in the fossil record that remain controversial both in the scientific and philsophical communities. The religious right believes that the world is relatively young and the fossil record is only a few thousand years old, just pre-Noah flood. Gaps in the fossil record tend to suggest abrupt transitions in species. There are, however, several reasons for gaps/abrupt transitions in the fossil record that are scientific in nature:

Logistical -- there is clear bias in the record because many species are underpresented or have not yet been found. Not all organisms preserve the same, and many simply were never preserved. Not all bones survive well, some are scavanaged- indeed it is rare to find fossils at…… [Read More]

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Attack of the Butterflies Mark

Words: 1763 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59532160

The trick is not to focus on any of this, but to focus on preparation and then on the real thing.

Do you think you're afraid to talk in front of other people? Guess what? The average person says 15,000 words per day. Unless you're in solitary confinement, those words are spoken to other people, sometimes two, three or more at the same time. You speak to family, friends, fellow students, and co-workers. You're already a public speaker, and you can help yourself gain more control over the situation by remembering this.

Get control, even if it's just in your own mind, with a little ritual before making a presentation. Some people might call it a good luck charm. Michael Jordan wore his old University of North Carolina shorts under his NBA shorts in every game. Wade Boggs always ate chicken before he played. Control, even in these seemingly small…… [Read More]

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Autism Overcoming Communication Barriers A

Words: 2326 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89704536

From ages three to five, a child's overall vocabulary increases at an extraordinarily fast pace. Communication during this stage occurs through both cognitive learn as well as through understanding the nuances of social etiquette and cultural norms. There are many different types of learning mechanisms associated with communications. Understanding nonverbal communication usually occurs at a subconscious level in the early days of birth, but extends to increasingly complexity until the ages of four or five when they should have considerably mastered a cognitive approach to both verbal and nonverbal communication.

For children with autism, the communication development process is very different. Since one of the key communication mechanisms at the infant stage is nonverbal, the development of voice recognition, crying, and other methods of nonverbal communications are important. Autistic children in contrast do not show special interest in their surroundings, especially in faces. Thus, at an infant level they already…… [Read More]

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Western Civilization Nature of the

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50144158

People accepted science, and so they also accepted the idea that humans were not unique, but were descendents of animals, and products of the natural world. Thus, some people felt the theories of evolution actually eliminated meaning and purpose from the universe, and that man's contribution to the universe was slight at best. It was clear man enjoyed superior intellect to other life forms on Earth, but in the universe, that might not be true, and so humanity's place in the universe seemed to mean less than it did before, which was distressing to many people. People still had faith and beliefs, but scientific reasoning brought much of this into question, and many felt humanity was losing ground to science and scientific thought. It was a time of great change and innovation, and humanity became less important and yet vital at the same time.


Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization.…… [Read More]

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Paradoxes of Evolutionary Biology in

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51151411

The purpose of this set of questions is to see whether they would engage in similar action even if they know that the other individual will not reciprocate given the reverse of their circumstances. All individuals will answer blindly, and we will anonomously collect all of the information.


There are many different results that are possible within this experiment. First, the expected result is that the majority of individuals will answer that they would act altruistically. However, they could act altruistically in some cases, as when they are giving change back to others, but selfishly when it comes to saving a drowning person and risking their own lives. Another scenario is that they could act selfishly when they are in the room by themselves, but when they are doing so in conjunction with someone else, they might be motivated by the visual sign of someone else to be altruistic.…… [Read More]

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Earthworm Castings Earthworms Are Seen

Words: 2283 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86145068

This implies that decomposition process goes on activated by the young earthworms in the soil, given that the soil is loose, moist and rich in organic matter for the worms to remain alive. The bacterium which is present in the alimentary canal of the earthworm converts organic water to natural fertilizers. The chemical alterations that the organic wastes are put to consist of deorderising and neutralizing. This implies that the pH of the castings is 7 which is neutral. (the tasteful garden)


The Latin meaning of vermes is worm from which the term vermiculture has been derived. Vermiculture is a process wherein the process of composting, containing the addition of some species of earthworms used to improve the process of conversion of waste and produce an improve product. Vemicomposting varies from composting in a number of ways. Mainly, vermicomposting consists of a mesophillic process in which the microorganisms are…… [Read More]

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Sexology as Defined by Wikipedia

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42762846

Both the "Theory of Universal Integralism" and "The General System Theory" were regarded as meta-theories because they were both drawn from other theories. Consider the theory of Universal Integralism, for instance. As mentioned above, Wilber's contributions were derived from various books and articles. He combined the best of empirical science and rational philosophy, visionary religion, and mysticism. He even integrated the three cultures of science, morality, and art. Wilber conferred great severity on evolution, as we all know, was a theory that was originally formulated by Charles Darwin.

With regard to the General System Theory, the subject matter focused on the formulation and derivation of various models, principles, and laws to generalized system. This is because the General System Theory is consist of complex systems from the phenomena of the physical universe and life; the organized group of people characterized by common interests but distinctive culture and institutions; and to…… [Read More]

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Aboriginal People in Australia Aboriginal

Words: 3040 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 25737016

From around 1910 to 1971, members of the Stolen Generation became the casualties of one of the most egregious protection policies. After policies of segregation had failed to exterminate the Indigenous peoples in their manufactured ghettos, government officials attempted to assimilate Indigenous children into white society through instituting them in white facilities such as orphanages. Around 100,000, native Australians were taken from their families by government welfare officers in order to be "civiliz[ed] by assimilation into white society" (McCarthy 2000, n.p.). Time tells the story of one child whose captors attempted to straighten his hair in an attempt to make him look white, and Rudd speaks about Nanna Fejo, the 80-year-old Aboriginal woman whose cultural life of dancing and participating in Aboriginal ceremonies was taken from her when she was stolen from her parents in the 1920s (McCarthy 2000, n.p. Rudd 2008, n.p.).

In addition to taking them from their…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Psychology Is Stated to

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57543641

If you fail to reproduce my findings, it is not due to some fault in your apparatus or in the control of your stimulus, but it is due to the fact that your introspection is untrained." (1878-1958)

IV. Functionalism

Structuralism resulted in a reaction that became known as Functionalism which was influenced greatly by the work of William James and the theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalism had as its emphasis intelligence tests, aptitude tests and other such techniques and the use of controlled environments in testing learning and abilities related to problem solving. The focus of the Functionalists was explaining the mental processes more accurately and systematically. The Functionalists school of thought had as its focus the purposes of behavior and consciousness rather than on elements of consciousness itself. In regards to functionalism John B. Watson stated: "My psychological quarrel is not with the systematic and structural psychologist alone. The…… [Read More]

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Monkey Trial in the 19th

Words: 382 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50593085

He was willing to risk his livelihood, career, and reputation in the community in the name of science. As a biology teacher he knew that he was ultimately doing the right thing. I find this to be an admirable act and shows a strong belief in the American system of democracy as much as belief in science. Because of John Scopes and the ACLU, the Supreme Court reversed the Butler Act.

I also find it interesting that the reaction to the theory of evolution was so strong that it led to the passing of that law. However, the same thing seems to be happening today, as many Americans continue to deny the theory of evolution. I find it interesting that so many Americans believe in the Bible's creation story as being literal truth and wish to teach it in school instead of in church, almost a hundred years after the…… [Read More]

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Ecofeminism In Search of Universal

Words: 6347 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96383318


Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.

To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…… [Read More]