Church Essays (Examples)

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Dulles Proposed Five Models of the Church

Words: 1292 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97794238

Dulles proposed five models of the Church in his former book "models of the Church.' The first model sees the Church as "a divinely established society with definite articles of belief and binding law" (254). As a single, organized, visible order, salvation can be found in only one place -- the Church, inside it and not external to it, and to Roman Catholics inside one place and one place only and that is the RC church.

The second model postulates that the church is the communal site for an atmosphere of love and grace that is wrought through the Holy Spirit and is evidenced both between the community members themselves (between fellow and fellow) and also between worshipper and God.

According to the third model, the Church embodies within itself the Grace and spirit of Christ. In that sense, it serves -- or is -- a sacrament, a visible sacred…… [Read More]

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Effective Leadership in the Church

Words: 2281 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48349890

Pope John Paul II

Background and Demographics

Pope John Paul II was born on May 18, 1920 as Karol Jozef Wojty -- a in Wadowice, a small Polish city that lay 50 kilometers from Krakow. He had two siblings, and his parents were Karol Wojty -- a and Emilia Kaczorowska. The future pope became well-acquainted with loss at an early age. His mother died in 1929, his brother Edmund died in 1932, and his father 1941. Perhaps this played a role in his search for comfort in faith. Young Karol Jozef took his First Holy Communion at 9 and was confirmed at the age of 18 (Holy See Press Office, 2005).

He attended high school at Marcin Wadowita high school in Wadowice, after which he began his studies at Krakow's Jagiellonian University in 1938. At this time, he also enrolled in a school for drama. His plans for tertiary education,…… [Read More]

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Women and the Catholic Church

Words: 1820 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45742882

Medieval Women

To state the obvious, the lives of medieval women were very different than those of women today. The medieval times are often referred to as the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, the people of Europe often lived in smaller rural communities. The families would make their living off of the land. The women of these families were typically peasants and they would shoulder many of the domestic responsibilities of the home including caring for children, preparing the food and tending to the livestock. The peak time of the year for peasants during medieval times was the harvest. The women of this time would help their husbands bring in the food that was being harvested. Rather than stay in the home, the women would go out into the fields and render direct assistance. Women would offer direct assistance in many vital "cottage" industries. These industries would include brewing,…… [Read More]

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Galileo Was Punished by the Church for His Vision and Understanding of the Solar System

Words: 1860 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86816997

Copernicus & Galileo

What did Copernicus discover about the universe?

Copernicus refuted earlier theories that the earth was the center of the universe and became the stepping stone Galileo later used to fine-tune the theory and Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun. These early scientists faced punishment from the Catholic Church but in the secular future they opened the door to truth and knowledge.

Nicolaus Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473, in Poland, but he was fortunate to have traveled to Italy at the young age of 18, to go to university and begin preparing himself for his career, which he thought at that time would be a career in the Roman Catholic Church. He became acquainted with the cosmos when, at the University of Bologna in Italy, he took an astrology class -- trying to read the stars in order to predict events that may…… [Read More]

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Iconology Iconography of Santa Maria Del Fiore or Church of San Lorenzo by Filippo Brunelleschi

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25068064

Brunelleschi -- San Lorenzo

filippo brunelleschi & THE CHURCH OF SAN LORENZO

As one of the greatest architects of the first half of the 15th century during the Renaissance Era, Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was trained as a goldsmith but his ability as a sculptor was well-known during the Renaissance. Although he turned to architecture out of the disappointment linked to losing the commission for the Baptistry of Florence, his interest in this artform slowly increased which was spurred by several trips to Rome (circa 1402) where "he became enthralled by the Roman ruins which were to serve as his most important architectural influence" (Frey 156). In fact, the Roman ruins, along with some earlier architectural forms such as the Gothic, inspired him to develop the revolutionary system of geometric, linear perspective that was so consciously adopted by many of his Renaissance contemporaries.

Brunelleschi's knowledge of Roman construction principles, combined with…… [Read More]

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The First Four Major Councils of the Church

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91770405

Church Councils

The first four major Church Councils -- at Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon -- set key definitions and foundations for the early Church. The First Council of Nicaea was held in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the First Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Thus, in little more than a century and a quarter, the Church was able to address critical issues that were present among the faithful and answer questions regarding the Faith.

The First Council of Nicaea was convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine and it was called to address the issue of Arianism, which had arisen as a major heresy of the times. Arianism questioned the nature of Christ. Those in attendance included the bishops of the Church, such as Hosius of Cordova, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Eusebius of Caesarea and many others. In all it is…… [Read More]

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Why Gay Should Not Be Ordain in the Church

Words: 3549 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64262410

Homosexuals Should Not Be Ordained Into the Christian Ministry

To believe that the laws written in the Bible came directly from God, as Christians do believe, is also to accept that all the laws stated in the Bible should be obeyed and that it is not up to man to decide what laws in the Bible should be obeyed and which can be ignored. While some attempt to justify lifestyles by stating the Bible does not apply to the modern world, these individuals fail to understand the consequences of these views. Though many have chosen to accept homosexuality and argue that same sex marriages and even ordination to the ministry should be acceptable, 1 Corinthians states, "Don't you realize that those who do wrong will not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't fool yourselves. Those who indulge in sexual sin, or worship idols, or commit adultery, or who are male…… [Read More]

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The Christian Church Prior to the Invasion of Islam

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82763462

History Of Christianity

The Conversion of Constantine

In the peer-reviewed Catholic Historical Review, author Charles Odahl explains that there was an "arduous military campaign" to regain control of Rome from "usurper Maxentius" in A.D. 312 (three hundred years after the death of Jesus Christ). The campaign was brutal and so Constantine the Great sought "supernatural assistance" against the enemies of Rome (Odahl, 1995). Of course previous emperors had sought power and influence from "traditional pagan cults" and had persecuted the Christian Church, and it hadn't worked out well in terms of military successes. So Constantine was said to have invoked (through prayer) "the Highest God" of the universe to help his troops; and because he believed he had an answer from the Christian God, he ordered placed on troops arms the "caestia signa of Christ" (the Cross). Because Roman troops won the Battle of the Mulvian Bridge (on October 28,…… [Read More]

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Evelyn Underhill Mystics of the Church

Words: 1552 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65822999

Evelyn Underhill: Mystics of the Church

Evelyn Underhill was a prolific writer of some thirty-nine published books and more than three hundred and fifty articles and reviews who wrote about mysticism in her early years and about the spiritual life of ordinary people in her latter years (Evelyn pp).

Educated at King's College, London, Underhill converted to the Christian faith in 1907, the year she married, and began a spiritual quest that led to the Christian mystics with Catholic Friedrich von Hugel as her spiritual director until his death in 1925 (Evelyn pp).

Her first book and one of her most important, "Mysticism," was published in 1911 and in this and subsequent works, Underhill sought to find harmony between formal and orthodox Christian theology and practical spiritual experience (Evelyn pp). And in "Mystics of the Church," 1925, she reveals the spiritual history of those mystical saints Underhill considered of great…… [Read More]

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The Cannonization of Early Christian Church

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59008431

Roman Religions

Christianity has obviously made its make on mankind. However, the early Christians, coming from different religions, cults, and worldviews before the emperor Constantine converted the empire, would have experienced this transitions at varying levels from revolutionary to marginally different. This analysis proposes that a member of the Roman society such as the Vestal Virgins saw a dramatic and revolutionary change in their daily lives. However, by contrast, not all members would have perceived the transformation as dramatically. For example, a devotee of the cult of the sun might have found rituals such as Christmas entirely familiar and consistent with previously held beliefs. This analysis proposes that although the introduction of Christianity was a dramatic change for the whole of Roman, the differences were not felt by all demographics equally.

Discussion

Of all the different groups that would have taken a welcoming to the conversion to Christianity in the…… [Read More]

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The Effect of the Fall of Rome on the Church

Words: 412 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75909501

Fowden, Garth. "The Last Days of Constantine: Oppositional Versions and Their

Influence." Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 84 (Nov., 1994): 146-170.

Garth discusses Constantine's conversion and its historical narrative as a piece of Christian propaganda and describes how oppositional versions of the Emperor's late baptism and death helped shape and mold the "orthodox" narrative of events that became accepted as Christianity became more and more institutionalized. The purpose of Garth's article is to cast doubt upon the authenticity of the conversion of Constantine and to promote the oppositional viewpoint that Constantine was not really a Christian at heart. While Garth does provide some evidence for these claims, he ignores other evidence that points to the contrary and when he does address it he does so only with the purpose of evincing skepticism.

2.

Ando, Clifford. "Decline, Fall, and Transformation." Journal of Late Antiquity, vol. 1,

no. 1 (Spring, 2008): 31-60.…… [Read More]

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Pascal & Giussani the Roman Catholic Church

Words: 2169 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71796460

Pascal & Giussani

The Roman Catholic church is not generally considered doctrinally "broad," and indeed many of its most fascinating theological voices -- ranging from Pelagius in the fifth century to Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, S.J., in the twentieth -- have often bordered on, or crossed over into, outright heresy. However, I wish to look at two explicitly Roman Catholic apologies for religious belief -- one written by an actual cleric, Monsignor Luigi Giussani, and the other written by the great French polymath Blaise Pascal -- to compare and contrast the rationales offered for religious belief. Pascal's affiliation with Jansenism -- more of a religious revival within Catholicism, although eventually condemned as heretical by the Vatican -- may have led him to a fraught relationship with organizational structures of the Church (particularly the Jesuits) but I think overall we will find that Pascal's thinking is more in line with the…… [Read More]

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Jonestown in 1956 a Church

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 45158374

Though it was certain that at this point Jones had many powerful political connections, it is suspected by many that there were secret ties that provided the real impetus for his move to Guyana, either as a means of escaping the hidden power structure that was after him, or perhaps of aiding the CIA in covert operations they were conducting in Guyana (Moore, 2002).

In 1978, Congressman Leo Ryan traveled to Jonestown to investigate the various claims regarding his group. When he left with four defecting members, Jones (or someone else) ordered his assassination, then led his group of 913 followers in a mass suicide by drinking Kool-Aid heavily laced with cyanide -- unless the bodies were a cover up of something still yet to be brought to light (Kurtz-Nichol, 1993; Moore, 2002). The explanation for the suicide is both to fulfill the religious promise of equality upon which the…… [Read More]

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Psychology Learning Church B A Mercado

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 23427367

These sequences included: progressive, random, anti-progressive.

Results

The results of this study showed that the extent of sequencing in learning and progressive training advantages cannot be completely explained by direct associations between stimulus features and the equivalent responses. These findings were shown to be consistent with the idea of perceptual learning but not with a focus on stimulus variability.

Discussion

The results of this study support the idea that easy-to-hard sequencing presents an advantage in learning. When looking at all the sequencing types, progressive sequencing was shown to have the highest discrimination of the contrasts. It was also shown to have the best generalization to new contrasts even when participants are not trained to discriminate rate. Even though the study showed that participants experienced the exact same stimuli with matching stimulus variability and equal probabilities of having the last trained item are the critical contrast, progressive sequencing was found to…… [Read More]

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Gregory VII Henry IV Boniface VIII Philip IV

Words: 2176 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92949009

Church vs. State during the Middle Ages

Political Conflict between the Church and the State during the Middle Ages

Christianity is considered as one of the most dominant religions in the world, and has proliferated throughout the years, for as early as the 2nd century, initially established in Jerusalem. Although derived from the 'older' religion of Judaism, Christianity had greater appeal and popularity to the people because it is a new form of religion that seeks the same teachings and doctrines as Judaism, but utilizes both affirmation and fulfillment of its followers towards God.

Established in Jerusalem, Christianity quickly spread into Western civilization, and has pervaded the European society and culture by 9th century. Over the years, Christianity was inevitably ingrained into European society, and has become the dominant religion and political ideology of the Holy Roman Empire, political territory established by Charlemagne in 9th century over the central and…… [Read More]

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Europe in the Middle Ages Kings and Popes

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81636765

Church and State in the Middle Ages

As Vidmar (2005) makes plain, a vigorous "spiritual energy" had taken over Europe, which had "come of age" so to speak by the time of the Middle Ages, 11th century AD (p. 119). This spiritual energy was directed not only at art, architecture, science and music but also in way in which the state viewed the Church and vice versa. Since Charlemagne had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas day in 800 AD by Pope Leo, after protecting the Pope and Rome from the marauding Lombards, a special relationship had developed between the head of Christendom and Europe's most prominent Christian defender. As the faith spread, so too did the sense among statesmen that the heads of state owed a duty to the head of their spiritual faith -- and while this came by way of cultural consent, it was, as the…… [Read More]

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Canon Law

Words: 1105 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97849422

Orthodox Church is indeed in a state of canonical disarray and this paper aims to put together a set of plausible arguments in favor of this statement. The best place to start is likely with Viscuso's study "A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church: The 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress," which looks back at the 1923 as a quintessential moment in the process of reform that the Orthodox Church could have embarked on at the beginning of the 20th century.

This reform process could have positively affected the development of the church, including by making it more adaptable to the requirements of the 20th century. Some of the initiatives that Melenios put forward at the Congress were, in fact, targeting organizational needs. With the expansion of the Orthodox creed on new continents, including North and South America, his goal was to concentrate leadership in the hands of the Patriarch of Constantinople…… [Read More]

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Biblical Mission

Words: 2633 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36875123

Christian Church acknowledges its missionary function as truly the core of Christianity, the heart of the Church. Through Christ's teachings, mission is the foreground of His legacy to the Church, the instrument for redemption. The guiding principles at the basis of the Church's mission exist as transparently related by the Bible which in itself transcends all worldly knowledge and phenomena. God, as the Holy Trinity, reveals Himself through the biblical record in order to communicate with man candidly and openly, sends His only son into the world in order to claim Him back to the offspring of wholeness, and puts forth a missionary pattern for His followers: "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." (John 13:34, 15:17 King James Bible) "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the…… [Read More]

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Annual Public Relations Strategy for

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39132672



When you really think about the PR blunders over the past 25 years, it strikes me that more accurately we should be calling them failures in management, not failures of PR," says Professor Broom, co-author of the books, "Effective Public Relations" and "Using Research in Public Relations." Surely, the failures have the effect of damaging an organization's relationships with its publics but the PR function often is not part of management," says Broom (Garcia, 1990)."

It will be important to measure the constant success or failure of this new strategy. Using all of the above methods to reach new members and reassure current members will provide the church with a solid growth foundation. This will allow the church to move forward and work toward expanding its building program in the next five years.

References

The Differences Between Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations.(Industry Trend or Event)

OfficeSolutions; 12/1/2000; Hart, Rebecca

Search…… [Read More]

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Benedetto Caetani Was Elected as

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76706159

Because of the conditions of the Middle Ages, and the temperament of the nobility, many of the funds being paid that would have been considered Church funds were necessary to fund wars between countries and kings. Therefore, several people were excommunicated from the Church because the edict was not followed. Other bulls, however, did have an impact on the political arena. These included the Super rege et regina, issued in 1297. This papal bull "bestowed on James II of Aragon the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica" ("List of Papal Bulls"). This resulted in a war between the pontifical troops and the Colonna clan. The pontifical troops were triumphant, and the rebellious Colonna clan was excommunicated and their property was confiscated ("Pope Boniface VIII "para. 10).

One particular papal bull had particular religious and social significance. The Unam Sanctam was issued on November 18, 1302. This bull "declares that there is…… [Read More]

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High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received

Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097

high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]

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Politics of Mexico and the Influence of Catholicism

Words: 3958 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92225315

Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the Diaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…… [Read More]

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Theology Christian Doctrine

Words: 2954 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89370386

Theology -- Christian Doctrine

Christian Doctrine of the Church from the perspective of a believer hinges on several basic concepts. The concept of Church, the nature of the Church revealed through metaphors, the Church's beginning, government, functions and ordinances are all basic elements of Church Doctrine. Researching these concepts, one can see some commonalities and some widely differing beliefs among Christian sects.

Summary of Christian Doctrine of the Church from the Perspective of a Believer

The Meaning of the Greek Word "Ekklesia"

The term "ekklesia" is Greek for "to call out," historically referring to "the assembly of citizens in a self-governed state" who were summoned from other places such as their homes to convene (Broadus 2012, 358). In the secular historical context, this term means only the assembly itself and not the people who take part in it (Saucy 1972, 12). Therefore, this secular historical interpretation does not rise to…… [Read More]

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Redemptive Role of the Black

Words: 2354 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 72409999

44). She affiliated with the African Methodist Church (AME), preaching from New York State to Ohio and down South as well. She published her autobiography in 1849 and received "strong resistance and biting criticism," according to Frances Smith Foster (1993). "Lee used her alleged inferiority to emphasize the power of her message and in so doing, she…implies an authority superior to those whom she addresses" (Foster, p. 57). Indeed, Lee used the New Testament assertion that "the last shall be first" and in her autobiography she said she was an example of God's "ability to use even 'a poor coloured female instrument' to convert sinners…" (Foster, p. 57).

Another worthy source utilized for this paper is Dr. Edward R. Crowther, Professor of History at Adams State College in Colorado. Crowther published an article in the Journal of Negro History explaining how African-Americans got away from the white man's church after…… [Read More]

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Kingdom My Fit in Ministry Before Up

Words: 2035 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66069156

Kingdom

My Fit in Ministry (Before)

Up until this point in time, my part in the ministry has been focused on children. I find that this is pretty standard for young people who are interesting in entering the ministry. Young people are encouraged to participate in their congregation's various youth outreach programs, such as vacation Bible school, the youth Bible studies, and sometimes programs like LOGOS, which many churches of various denominations use as a way to introduce their young congregants to some of the more important Biblical foundations of Christianity. Children are a critical part of the ministry, although their needs are sometimes overlooked. This was a problem even in the early days of the church. "People were bringing children to Jesus to have him touch them, but the disciples rebuked them. When Jesus saw this, he was indignant. He said to them, 'Let the little children come to…… [Read More]

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Committee Using a Reflective Approach to Leadership

Words: 1957 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79799025

committee using a reflective approach to leadership in democratic leadership behaviors and methods. This will make use of channeling the energy of strong personality members rather than to suppress strong committee members and guide and facilitate gently these styles into crafting a solution to the problem. We also need to make sure that we are engaging all of the stakeholders internally and externally to ensure the success of the project.

In this mediation environment, the church wants to rent out space in the building to a charitable community group that functions as a day care center for developmentally adults. It is hoped that with this business, more money will be coming in. However, as with any proposal, it is not without problems and complications. The church is finding out that the project may put it in trouble with the village government on issues such as zoning, safety. Additionally, the office…… [Read More]

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Advancing Democracy in Latin America

Words: 3554 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91556872

However, despite the severe competition, the people of Latin America still hold the traditions of the church close to their hearts and give a lot of respect to religious figures (Jean-Pierre, 1998).

The relationship between the church and the government has been very closely bonded. The message coming from the religious quarters has been very finely tuned in line with the policies of the governments as well as the status quo. Contradiction and conflict does seem to exist on the surface, however, deep down the bond between the state actors and the church is very strong. Lately, the church has also power of becoming a very strong instrument of political and social campaign, capable of bargaining with the state actors so as to meet its own ends (Jean-Pierre, 1998).

The relationship between the church and the military has been perhaps the strongest of them all. Religion has been a major…… [Read More]

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African-American Gay and Lesbianism

Words: 2532 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79292626

Black Church and Homosexuality

There are plenty of reasons why the black church refuses to accept homosexuality amongst its patrons. The African-American people have been one of the most oppressed races in America. They felt separate from the rest of the Americans due to the color of their skin. The African-American community has struggled with a lot of racism. In order to allow their society to survive and remain united they turned to prayer. The church was their salvation and helped them deal with oppression and racism. It was a sacred ground for them to heal their pain and regain their respect.

Black Church and their opposition

The black church knows that homosexuality rips the social fabric apart. They feel that gay people are not able to reproduce. They feel it's a threat to the survival of society and can also bring innocent children into the fold. It is a…… [Read More]

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United Methodist Discipline and Polity

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 45416896

A great deal of this is accomplished by serving others and thinking of others first, before oneself. Exerting responsible self-control by engaging in personal habits conducive to bodily health refers to an act that is partly commonsense and partly the act of treating one's body like a temple of the Holy Spirit. By being made in God's image, one truly needs to honor that belief and treat one's body as the sacred thing it is. Exhibiting mental and emotional maturity means treating oneself and others with respect and sensitivity and establishing clear boundaries in social and personal interactions. Exhibiting integrity in all of one's relationships refers not only to treating people with respect, but also being honest in word and deed.

Engaging in fidelity in marriage and celibacy in singleness are two rock bottom foundations for following the doctrines of the church and honoring oneself and one's relationship. Social responsibility…… [Read More]

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Total the Problem of the

Words: 4178 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 88095598

272). There were great changes taking place during that period in history, and not all of those changes had to do specifically with science. Some of them stemmed from science in other ways, and were encouraged to develop because they had a better framework during that time.

Philosophy during that time also had a "momentous transfer of allegiance from religion to science" (Tarnas, 1993; p. 272). That deeply affected how people felt about themselves and their world, and it changed the way many of them thought. Those who embraced science did so willingly, and those who embraced religion were also afforded that right. In other words, whether a person focused on science or religion, that person had a choice. Things were no longer all about the Church, and what the Church had always taught people. During that time in history, many people were afraid of the Church and thought that…… [Read More]

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Bible Passage Ephesians 3 14-20 Historical and Cultural

Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75195871

Bible Passage Ephesians 3:14-20

Historical and Cultural Background of the Book of Ephesians

Ephesus was a small town located near Cayster River on the west side of the roman province in Asia. The town is what is today referred as Turkey. This was the capital of the Roman province of Asia and its population composed of mainly the Ephesians and the Jews. Majority of the people in Ephesus worshiped various gods and goddesses such as Artemis. Ephesians worshiped their gods in the temple and other areas specifically designed for worshiping. The Jews in Ephesus also had a synagogue in which Paul the apostle of Christ began his mission in Ephesus.

Historically, the book of Ephesians is a letter by Paul to the people of Ephesus. Writing of the book took place from about 60- 61 A.D targeting the Christians of the early church in Ephesus. Historical information shows that when…… [Read More]

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Elaine Graham's Transforming Practice Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty

Words: 4411 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 75473831

Elaine Graham's

Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty

Major Schools of Thought and Actors

In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.

As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. While providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…… [Read More]

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Ritual Knowledge Is Transmitted in

Words: 1973 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44293621

Furthermore, under most circumstances, these variations in Muslim belief do not have a negative impact on how Muslims interact; instead, they manage to live peacefully side-by-side in most settings. This may have to do with the idea that all Muslims believe that the Quran (Qur'an, Koran) is the holy text for Muslims. They believe that the Quran reflects the word of God. "For Muslims, the text of the Koran is entirely the work and word of God. It is possible for a Muslim to hold that the Koran uses symbolic language and is describing the essence of things, not their technical form, but it is difficult to hold that the Koran reflects the views of our more distant ancestors" (Sedgewick 2006, p. 40).

Mohammed plays a central role in Islam. He is the most important prophet and many facets of modern day Islam are based, not simply on the Quran,…… [Read More]

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Martin Luther and His Profound

Words: 1567 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33495339

7). Martin Luther understood that this corruption ran deep throughout the church and that such infractions against the Christian population needed to be weeded out from the roots.

While many viewed Luther's actions as adding fuel to the fire in terms of papal corruption, who would now, under threat, certainly enact even harsher punishment upon the general population, Luther felt at peace with his decisions. In studying the true word of God in the Bible and in pinpointing the discrepancies between these words and the words of church leaders at the time, Luther understood that he had the basis of his religion behind him, and thankfully he was able to spread this belief to the minds of many others who followed his cause throughout the Reformation and into the creation of an entirely new Christian religion.

References

Brecht, M. 1993. Martin Luther: His Road to Reformation, 1483-1521. Print. New York,…… [Read More]

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From Concealing to Confronting Sex Abuse

Words: 1582 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50701770

Concealing to Confronting Sex Abuse

It is one thing to consider child sexual abuse from the perspective of the criminal offender. Sexual abuse almost certainly qualifies as an anti-social behavior that is transmitted from generation to generation. Although this issue was not discussed in any of the articles, there is simply far too much evidence that child sexual abusers are very likely to have, themselves, been abused as children to ignore the idea that this behavior is transmitted from generation to generation, abuser to victim. In fact, child sexual offenders seem to have a modified version of the subculture of violence, but the subculture is actually one of sexual violence towards children. In this isolated culture, the sexual victimization of children is normalized. That explains the prevalence of child pornography and groups like NAMBLA. In fact, the offender may minimize the damage that he experienced at the hands of his…… [Read More]

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America and the Ottoman Empire

Words: 5100 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53230092



The Crusades

The Crusades would shape Islamic attitudes toward the West for centuries, so much so that it was noted that George Bush should never have used the term with reference to the War on Terror because of the bad feelings involved. In the eleventh century, much of the Moslem world was under siege from the Seljuk Turks. The Moslems were in control of the Holy Lands, the seat of Christianity, and in the eleventh century European Christians undertook the Crusades to recapture the Holy lands, notably the city of Jerusalem. The Crusaders saw their opportunity because of the dissension within the Moslem world itself. There were divisions within the Christian world as well, notably the splitting off of the Byzantine Empire as the Holy Roman Empire disintegrated. The Greeks were in power in the East, and the remnants of the Latin factions were in power in the west. The…… [Read More]

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Byzantine Romanesque & Gothic Styles

Words: 1753 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 42867742

Between 1225 and 1250 C.E., Notre Dame was extensively modified when the chapels were built into spaces between the buttresses and the transept arms were lengthened. Of course, it is Notre Dame's facade which draws the most attention, due to its verticality which makes Notre Dame one of the most satisfying and memorable structures in Gothic architecture.

In conclusion, the talented men who designed these churches and cathedrals which always towered over the towns and cities below symbolize a great confidence in their faith, for they regarded these structures as the "real image of the City of God" (Demus, 2004, p. 113), perhaps as a form of heavenly Jerusalem in which they felt very privileged to have worked on earth as representatives of God's own majesty.

REFERENCES

Demus, Otto. (2004). Byzantine art and the west. New York: New York University Press.

Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain. (2006). Gothic art. New York: Abrams Academic…… [Read More]

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Christianity Persecution Has Been a Component of

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77602296

Christianity

Persecution has been a component of the Christian experience since the time of Christ. The Roman government periodically led formal persecution campaigns that were significant for the development of Christian identity and consciousness. Ten of these Roman persecution campaigns were historically significant, beginning with one led by Nero and causing the martyrdoms of Peter and Paul ("Persecutions in the Early Church," 2013). Martyrdom thus became a core motif for Christians, leading to the tradition of Christian sainthood: "The high regard for the martyrs as the heroes of the church and the privileges assigned to them led to the cult of the saints," ("Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" 1990). Although they could be severe, early persecutions of Christians were sporadic and localized, rather than being "a constant experience," ("Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" 1990). Once Constantine the Great adopted Christianity as the official religion of Rome,…… [Read More]

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Religion My Fit in Ministry

Words: 1595 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53629484

This will require networking and communication with other Church leaders who can help me to shepherd others too. Identifying communities and individuals in need is another step towards effective ministry. When I have identified who needs assistance, I can start praying immediately. God works in mysterious ways, enabling a diverse group of individuals to come together and find Christ.

Continuing on the same spiritual path that I have enjoyed for years, I hope to deepen my relationship with God through regular study and prayer. Participating more in group prayer is important, which I have learned from my activities in this course and my evaluations of successful ministries. If I had to give advice to others about pursuing the ministry path, I would suggest that they first interact with Church leaders, or at least, observe those leaders and how they work. The key components of ministry, such as prayer and proselytizing,…… [Read More]

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Jesus in Beijing How Christianity Transforming China

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 36835812

Jesus in Beijing: How Christianity Transforming China Changing Global Balance Power

'Jesus in Beijing' is a book authored by Aikman. The book has taken a keen interest on transformation and the changes taking place in the international power balance and a keen eye on the society within China. Aikman has focused on how the religion of Christianity is slowly penetrating deeper into the society under the rule of the government. The book circulates on the most important Christian matter and Christianity itself within the environs of the society. The book illustrates the idea of churches transforming into socialist protestant, Catholics party sponsored and an array of home-based churches. From this book, home churches are not constitutionally allowed in China. Aikman also censors out that these churches are composed of an assortment of persons believed to be part of the middle class in the society. The author percepts that these modern…… [Read More]

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Origen Remains One of the

Words: 4907 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 56206433

260). This cosmological discussion is one reason Origen is said to have "created, indeed embodied, the first model of a scientific theology;" his approach to the notion of metempsychosis, like nearly all of his theological work, is rooted in a steadfast determination to distinguish "between the dogmata of the church tradition and the problemata which were to be discussed" according to reason, logic, and a prototype of the scientific method (Kung 1994, pp. 48-49). As will be seen, Origen's focus on not-yet-determined points of Christianity would ultimately contribute to his condemnation as a heretic, because could be considered genuine, innocent investigation in the third century would rapidly become dangerous propaganda to the Church's ruling powers.

Origen's description of an ultimate, total reunification should not be taken to mean that he is arguing that the actions one takes within the temporal world is meaningless, since everything will ultimately be united once…… [Read More]

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Social Teachings of the Catholic

Words: 1621 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13540953

...liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free,,: (Luke 4: 18)

Summary & Conclusion

The teaching of the Catholic Church in relation to social rights and responsibilities is quite clear however, it has been noted to be critical by the U.S. Bishops that the church teaches these social principles more clearly and more persistently to the church in advancing the Kingdom of God and in fulfillment of the Great Commission.

Bibliography

Byron, William J. (1998) Ten Building Blocks of Catholic Social Teaching. America - the National Catholic Weekly Vol. 196 No. 3-29, January 29. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/articles/catholicsocialteachingbryon.cfm.

Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana

ISBN 88-209-7716-8. Online available at: www.vatican.va/roman_curia/p ontifical_councils/justpeace/docum…… [Read More]

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Pauline Epistles Q

Words: 1341 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94804706

New Testament

What city is central to the development of Acts? How so?

Besides Jerusalem, the city most central to the development of Acts is probably Antioch. Acts chapter 11 narrates the founding of the church at Antioch, and in 11:26 the word "Christians" is used for the first time in the New Testament -- this is where the disciples were first called "Christians."

What are the "we passages "u in Acts?

In five separate sections of the book of Acts -- each reporting the missionary journeys of Paul -- the author suddenly shifts into the first person plural, as though to indicate the author of Acts was a traveling companion of Paul in the journey described. The "we passages" are Acts 16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; and the openings of chapters 27 and 28. The significance is that the author of the book appears to have had first-hand personal knowledge of…… [Read More]

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Theology of Ministry to Me

Words: 1284 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74085612

This is where, as a Christian, the role of Jesus is important. Not only do I believe that all humans need to be in a relationship with Christ, I also believe they have the capability to either choose to be in that relationship or to reject Christ (John 3:16).

My view of the church is that the church is a group of people who have responded to God's gift of salvation and are growing their relationships with God. Ideally, the church should resemble Christ in work, study, and life. However, I also recognize that the church is made up of human beings, with all of the frailties and weaknesses that plague other human beings. The fact that they are members of a church does not take them outside of the realm of sinners, which is reflected in the condition of my current church, which does not always seem to be…… [Read More]

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Giotto's Method of Teaching Religious

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8167848



These remarks could be applied equally to anything in Giotto's oeuvre. The total effect of Giotto's work is one of bold religious feeling. It inspires the viewer to accept the mythology and challenges him to understand his relationship to the God both preached by the Church and challenged by heretics. Giotto's works, like Pisano's or Duccio's, certainly inspire religious feelings and thoughts. They are dignified, spiritual, and affirmative. They put into realistic terms the very humanity of the saints, prophets, patriarchs, and the Christ by depicting each as a real human being in a realistic setting. They emphasize the reality of the Faith -- which was being challenged already by men like Wyclif, and which would undergo its most formidable test yet with the coming Protestant Reformation.

In conclusion, Giotto di Bondone depicted traditional religious subjects but drew the viewer into a more personal relationship with the ideas didactically expressed…… [Read More]

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Schism of 1054 Rifts the

Words: 1462 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82259492



Although the split between the two factions was largely created by political motives, these were based upon or made manifest in varying ecclesiastical practices which each side accused the other of as being heretical. These viewpoints of the differing ecclesiastical customs were conceived of during the epoch in which there was a singular conception of Christianity, and any variance from that was considered incorrect, both morally and otherwise, and deserving of grounds for one to be "anathematized" (Humbert 9) what was perceived as the true and proper form of Christian practice. When attempting to analyze which of these factions was correct in its viewpoints of the proper religious customs of this religion, it is important to note that the Byzantine empire's version of Christianity was largely orthodox, and was based upon the original texts and practices of Christianity as disseminated directly from the Bible.

To that end, it should be…… [Read More]

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Prohomosexual Marriage From the Viewpoint

Words: 2782 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 66594823

"

The work of Snyder entitled: "Gay Marriage and Democracy: Equality for All" states that the understanding of what is viewed as discrimination has evolved over time." (2006) This may be true since the founding of the United States resulted in laws that treated men and women unequally and which denied women the right to vote and resulted in the identity of a woman legally to essentially become "invisible upon marriage" as well as "subjecting married women to the authority of their husbands in a variety of ways…" (Snyder, 2006) There are stated to have been few "visionaries" who saw the inequality as being inherently against democratic principles. However, visionaries in today's debate surrounding the issue of same-sex marriage are in reality those who see same-sex marriage as a hindrance and an affront to the principles of democracy and this is due to the principle of the separation of the…… [Read More]

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Luther Rice and Adoniram Judson

Words: 3429 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3474977

A further development in American Baptism was the evolution of its missionary organization. The rapid growth of missionary zeal, partly as a result of the many accounts by missionaries such as the Judsons, soon resulted in more than one societal ministry supported by the convention.

Meanwhile, Dr. Carey informed Adoniram Judson that he might as well abandon Burma as a missionary destination. He related the experiences of his son William, who had been in the country for four years and was all but ready to give up

. Unable to remain in India any longer, the Judsons then abandoned the Burmese idea in favor of Java or Penang. However, this was not to be. The East India Company continued hounding them to leave the country; the time-sensitive nature of their departure then led the couple to take the only ship available from Madras, which was bound for Rangoon in Burma.…… [Read More]

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Political Doctrine

Words: 1041 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54038310

Christian Church: Doctrine and Politics

The doctrine and politics of the early Christian Church were intrinsically related to one another, particularly during the fourth and fifth centuries. During this crucial time period in which the Holy Roman Empire (which had officially adopted the religion of Christianity) (Shelley, 2008, 1st page chptr 9) was attempting to expand, some of the fundamental principles regarding the nature of this religion and of Christology were widely debated and eventually solidified. There were political issues contributing to the initial debates regarding Christian doctrines, which in turn produced even greater political consequences regarding the solidarity of the Church. A look at several crucial ideas and events in the early Church reveals that Christian doctrine was greatly influenced by political motives and agendas.

The doctrine of Christianity became intertwined with politics once it became the official religion of the Roman Empire, which was largely focused on expansion…… [Read More]

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My Theological Apocalyptic Experience in Economics

Words: 1951 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16146598

Theology Economics

Apocalyptic/Theology Experience in Economics

One of the first principles of liberty is the ability of the people in a free society to have the ability to have their own enterprise. In many nations the way that the government, which is for the government and not the people, keeps the people from advancing is that they take away their speech, religion and ability to make their own money. Therefore, it is important that the United States and other Western democracies were founded on the precepts of monetary as well as personal liberty. But this is not a program that is specific to these types of democracies because the Catholic Church had long fought for the rights of the people prior to the founding of these national governments. This practice has carried forward to the twentieth and twenty-first centuries and it has greatly impacted the financial philosophy of both the…… [Read More]

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Scientology Founded in 1954 the

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95230184



Church of Scientology

The Church of Scientology has established over seven hundred centers in sixty-five countries (Urban). The church functions as a guide, offering a variety of courses designed to inform the individual about Scientology, personal counseling called auditing, designed to get rid of unwanted emotions, habits, and psychosomatic illnesses, and purification rundown, a procedure to free one's self from the harmful effects of drugs and toxins ("Scientology: Inside a Church of Scientology").

Controversy over the Church of Scientology

While the church is well-known for its high-profile celebrity patrons such as Tom Cruise, Kirstie Alley, and John Travolta, it has also been attacked by government agencies, anti-cult groups, and the media as a swindling business and a brainwashing cult. L. Ron Hubbard has been described as the man who solved the riddle of the human mind by the Church of Scientology, a mental case by the FBI and hopelessly insane…… [Read More]

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Dorothy Day's Catholic Conversion

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 10590041

2012 annual meeting of the Catholic Bishops of the United States, Dorothy Day, already officially named a "servant of God," was unanimously recommended for canonization, the first step on the path to sainthood. Pope Benedict XVI, in one of his last public speeches said that this remarkable woman was a "…model of conversion." (Forest) Although never raised a Catholic, Dorothy Day would convert to Catholicism and become a major figure in the Catholic Worker Movement, a social movement that used Catholic teachings to address the needs of the poor. It would seem that the communist, anarchist, and socialist groups to which she once belonged lacked the spiritual aspect of service that she needed in her life; something she discovered in the Catholic Church. But as she came to the Church as an outsider, she was able to view the institutions of the Church with a more discriminating eye and was…… [Read More]

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Educational Financing Look Like in

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 686515



This trend in the future relation is worrying particularly to the education sector. This is because there are many schools being managed by the churches. The state usually has a role to play when it comes to the financing of such schools. This means that if there are no relations between the church and state then the state will pull out from providing finances to these schools (Closson, & Riggs, 2010).The church alone might not be in a position to fully cater for the finances the schools require. In the next 10 years a complete separation of the church and state will lead to inability of churches to sustain their schools hence eventually lead to the closure of most church schools. The quality of education within church schools will also go down since they will not have enough finances to pay teachers and offer other resources required by the students.…… [Read More]

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Field Trip Report

Words: 913 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66165432

Mythology-Religion

The church experience

It's Sunday morning, the weekend is coming to an end. The rays of sunshine are beaming through the cream curtains of my bedroom. The light, I need to get out of bed and prepare for church I mumbled. This day brings with it its own challenges. I get really confused while choosing the dress to put on while going to church but thanks to my adorable sister Winfred, for today I already know what to wear, my green summer dress.

It is 10.15am, time to leave the house; I can already hear my brother Tim hooting, he gets really impatient sometimes. We all jump into the car and he drives off. There is total silence inside the car; I could hear the sound of food digesting inside my sister's abdomen, a great breakfast we had, her digestive system was busy at work. 'Please turn on the…… [Read More]

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Public Theology One of the

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75684746

This is why Hall advocates a "disengagement" from that image of American public life. Getting some distance from this aspect of the dominant culture will enable a framework for evangelism that embraces the diversity of God's community. Thus, Christ can truly become the "all in all."

Keifert defines the two main challenges in American culture as being the moral imperative to respect diversity, coupled with the spiritual imperative to nurture the current awakening. That an awakening is taking place is evident in the growing numbers of church members, but it is also important to keep in mind what both Watson and Hall say about the problems with large church culture in America. Bigger is not necessarily better. Christians need to move beyond the "supersize me" mentality and embrace a quality over quantity mentality when it comes to their ministries.

From a theological and scriptural perspective, the suggestions offered by Watson…… [Read More]

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Old Testament and New Testament Canon

Words: 1769 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65273358

Orthodoxy and the Canon:

There are several areas in the early church on essential issues such as the deity of Christ, nature, and humanity. This period of dispute was also characterized with the emergence of groups like Gnostics, which brought a completely new set of presumed beliefs to the faith that came alongside the faith and in total compromised tenets of the faith. These new beliefs were supposedly based on the truth of Christ's teachings as presented to his followers. Consequently, there was a great need to explain the true writings that presented the truth of Christ. The need for clarifications of these truths was necessary because of the fact that heretical parties involved would constantly present texts and teach them as being the writings of the Apostles. This process should include clarification of key events and movements that impacted the acknowledgment of the canonical books.

Orthodoxy and Canon:

Canon…… [Read More]

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Challenges Facing Christian Missionaries in Post-Gulf War Iraq

Words: 4848 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75448554

Unreached People Group Project (Iraq)

Language

Culture

Economy

Religion

Family

A Survey of Mission Work

History of Mission Work

Current Status of the Church

Number of Known Believers

Challenges

Present Strategies

Unreached People Group Project (Iraq)

The history of Iraq parallels the antiquity of mankind; therefore, a more recent examination of Iraq's history will be more suitable for evaluating the needs of unreached people in this country. The country used to be part of the Ottoman Empire but Britain occupied Iraq during World War I.

In this regard, Dawisha reports that, "Iraq was patched up together into a monarchy by the British in 1921 from three disparate provinces of the defunct Ottoman Empire. Divisions were so deep that when it came to choosing a ruler for the new state, the British realized that no local candidate would command the support of the whole population."

The country was designated a League…… [Read More]

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Napoleon Although There Are Some Elements of

Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24673777

Napoleon

Although there are some elements of Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies that would suggest he was extending Enlightenment idealism through his autocratic regime, his coming to power is more accurately framed as marking an end to the French Revolution. Some of the French Revolution's core principles did emerge during Napoleon's rule. For example, Napoleon's legal and judicial reforms offered a more egalitarian model than the ancien regime had due to the doing away with a two-tiered system treating aristocracy and peasantry differently under the law (Lecture Notes, p. 8). Napoleonic law dismantled the feudalism of the ancien regime, and established in its place a code of Enlightenment legal principles (Lecture Notes, p. 8). In spite of the promising legal reforms Napoleon implemented as the supreme leader of France, his rule can be deemed nothing but a dictatorship. The means by which Napoleon seized, maintained, and wielded power were purely…… [Read More]

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Roger Williams Was a Puritan Separatist and

Words: 1498 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31694655

Roger Williams was a Puritan Separatist and Baptist, who founded the new colony of Rhode Island after his expulsion from Massachusetts. His views were quite radical and democratic by 17th Century standards, since he supported religious freedom for all individuals and strongly disapproved of state-supported religions and established churches of the kind that existed everywhere at the time. Although his own views were strictly Calvinist, and he regularly entered into religious disputes with supporters of other religions, Rhode Island did not use the power of the government to enforce religious conformity. He called for the separation of church and state in his 1644 pamphlet "The Bloody Tenet of Persecution," on the grounds that in went against scripture and also caused religious wars. Williams directed his arguments against fellow John Calvin, John Cotton and other Protestants who favored state-supported churches and enforcement of laws against heresy and blasphemy. Judges, governors and…… [Read More]

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Canon Law

Words: 1062 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12145904

marriage must always precede ordination and whether priests and widowhood may be allowed to remarry after widowhood or divorce was one of the topics of discussion at the revolutionary 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress, which aimed to produce reform-oriented results that would allow the Orthodox Church to be better adapted to the new realities of the world in the period after World War I.

On both issues, beyond any economic or social arguments, the discussion should always revert back to the Scriptures and to what the Scriptures say about these elements. For example, the Congress agreed that the Scriptures allow for marriage after ordination (or, in fact, that there is nothing in the Scriptures that prohibits that, meaning, by extrapolation and law principle, that whatever is not prohibited, is considered to be in line with the canonical law).

In his initial analysis, Viscuso also makes an important note on why that is:…… [Read More]