Cognitive Behavior Therapy Essays (Examples)

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Life I Went to College

Words: 361 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 49044173

After several years of working with inpatients ranging from adolescents, dual-diagnosis patients, and intensive care patients, I transitioned to a Discharge Case Manager. I spent nine years there, and transitioned again -- this time to a Residential Counselor. At that time I assisted in the creation of a transitional house for people with persistent psychiatric disorders. It provided different types of therapy, so a wider range of people could be treated. I'm now DBT and Cognitive Remediation certified and I've helped so many people who really needed someone to care for them. With more than 10 years of experience at Silver Hill behind me, I'm ready to take the next step into nursing. My past experiences -- both personal and professional -- have equipped me well for this. I remember the people I've helped, and I remember those who helped my brother when I needed it the most. His 13…… [Read More]

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Existential Therapists State That All

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63461143

Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).

Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural…… [Read More]

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Behaviorism History Development and Current

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76771147

Skinner also proposed a full social model of an ideal society based on his principles of behaviorism.

The growth of cognitive psychology (aided in no small part by advances in neuroscience and medicine) has served to both discredit many behaviorist claims and to bolster the theory in the eyes of some through an incorporation of cognitive theories (Graham 2010; Mills 1998). Focusing explicitly on how the mind processes, stores, and retrieves information -- exactly the kind of "mental states" rejected by early behaviorists -- cognitive psychology at first seemed directly opposed to behaviorism (Graham 2010). There has actually been an incorporation of the two theories by some, however, where cognitive processes join other influences on behavior (Mills 1998).

In modern applications of behavioral theory, certain philosophical elements and conclusions have become especially important. In one emerging view of behaviorism, the concept of a teleological view is increasing important, and a…… [Read More]

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History of Development of Blues

Words: 4267 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 23025748

Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…… [Read More]

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Career of a Marriage and Family Therapist

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7943262


According to the O-Net Online Summary Report, marriage and family therapists "diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems." A systems approach is integral to the work that marriage and family therapists do, because they view individual psychological issues as inseparable from the greater family and social system. This enables a holistic approach to treatment interventions, and can be a culturally sensitive, culturally competent facet of psychological counseling.

The primary tasks of a marriage and family counselor include the following. First, communications skills are of the utmost importance because one of the central roles of the counselor is to listen and ask appropriate questions at the right time. A marriage and family counselor meets with more than one member of each family, too, making good communications skills a prerequisite of the profession.

Second, diagnoses should be based…… [Read More]

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Integrative Yoga as an Integrative

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95575397

This ideological position underscores the theory behind Yoga-Based Therapy.

The text by Davis et al. (2008) points out that the stressors faced by anxiety disorder subjects are normal. It is the way that such subjects respond that is problematic. Therefore, employing Yoga-oriented strategies can help to arm patients with a normal response capability. As Davis et al. note, "tension is a normal part of your daily routine, and you need an exercise that will help you let off steam. . . . If you feel that 'your glass is half empty' by the end of your workday, then a set of centering exercises like yoga or tai chi may be just what you need. The list of exercises below highlights some of the typical advantages and disadvantages of each and will help you select the best form of exercise for yourself." (341)

Davis et al. describe the strategy of 'centering…… [Read More]

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Efficacy and Cost Effectiveness of

Words: 1385 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 77793149

(Pope, 2007)

At the same time, it will highlight specific techniques that are being used in contrast with other regions of the world. This will be accomplished by dividing each unit into two different groups. The control group is those individuals who are working in the field and are using Internet-based solutions. While the independent variable, are people who practice in the same discipline. Yet, they have different approaches for treating CBT panic disorders and views about the underlying costs. These results will highlight the frequency of alternative techniques that are being utilized and their long-term impact on patients. (Pope, 2007)


The sampling technique that will be used is the random approach. There will be an emphasis on systematic techniques. This is when each person who qualifies will have an equal chance of participating in the survey (based upon creating a list and choosing them at select points). These…… [Read More]

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Child Observation Report

Words: 537 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24349384

Psychological scientists are levying great stress on using naturalistic observations methods for gaining understanding of human behavior as it is fundamental for development of new theories and methods of treatments of psychological patients. The naturalistic observation is a type of study classified under the broader category of field studies; no experimental approaches used in the field or in real-life settings. In the naturalistic observation method the researcher very carefully observes and records some behavior or phenomenon, sometimes over a prolonged period, in its natural setting. Its simple application to real life makes it easier to be used by Psychologists and becomes a preferred option as compared to experimental studies.

Naturalistic observation can be preferred over other experimental methodologies applied in assessment of child's behavior mainly because of its advantages. This method of assessment allows the observer to perform assessment of the behavior exactly as it takes place in the reality.…… [Read More]

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Operant and Classical Conditioning the

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41178663

To achieve better results, strategies could therefore be devised to ensure that all students understand the instructions provided.

One way to do this is to encourage students to ask for help. Students who received undesirable results after their second attempt, therefore, were divided into groups where the first and second groups, who eventually achieved success, provided clarification of the instructions. This ensured peer education, where the learners were able to encourage and help each other. Each group was given the opportunity to submit one essay in which they all participated. The outcomes for these essays were consistently desirable. The final group, therefore, received direct peer instruction and could learn exactly what was meant by the instructions.

As a final strategy, a new essay topic was given to individual students, with the same basic format and premise. This resulted in undesirable results for only three students. On resubmission, these students also…… [Read More]

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False Memories Petition the Problem of a

Words: 2025 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75380753

False Memories Petition

The problem of a witness recall of memory based on psychiatric intervention- the evidence of which is unreliable

It is humbly submitted that oral evidence all over the world forms the primary form of evidence. What a person sees, hears and probably experiences are part of the testimony which can be rebutted by a cross examination. In the adversarial form of criminal law, evidence of this type must be subject to a cross examination by the defence. In the case of a person submitting evidence based on the recall of past events that spans years previously, mostly a result of intervention by a third agent -- a doctor or other operator who using a drug, powerful suggestions or hypnotic trance induce the witness to give evidence based on what they submit is from the 'subconscious'. The problem with this evidence is that it cannot be put to…… [Read More]

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Interventions for the Mentally Ill

Words: 1099 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45825461

Intervention for Mental Illness

"Cognitive Therapy for Depression"

What is the specific micro problem?

The specific micro problem being addressed is mental illness.

What is one specific intervention that has been researched to address this micro-problem?

The intervention that has been researched is the different treatment options to aid mental health, particularly treatments for depression.

Identify one research article that discusses the effectiveness of the intervention.

The research article is "Cognitive Therapy for Depression."

Who are the researchers for this study?

The researchers for this study are Dr. Jan Scott and her team at the University Department of Psychological Medicine.

Who are the subjects of this study?

The subjects of this study are individuals who are currently or who have in the past been treated for depression by mental health specialists.

c. What is the number of subjects in this study?

It appears from the text that there were 80…… [Read More]

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Therapeutic Alliance Attachment Theory and

Words: 8108 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12411999

An important point emphasized by many theorists was that it was essential for the therapeutic alliance to be flexible in order to accommodate the patient or client's perceptions. Another cardinal aspect that was emphasizes by clinicians and theorists was that the therapeutic alliance had the ability to create and promote change in the client. In other words, the therapeutic alliance should be varied enough to deal with the various levels of functioning of the patient. At the same time, it should be flexible enough to accommodate the interventions of the therapist. (Gaston, 1990)

These theories were reinforced by further studies and statistical measurement. Researchers found that there was a significant statistical correlation between therapeutic alliance and positive outcomes in therapy. In this regard, a study by Horvath and Symonds, (1991) established that alliance accounted for almost fifty percent of the variance in the measurable outcome of therapy. In the words,…… [Read More]

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Buddhism Has Leapt Out of

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55556864

The buggy piece of software is not embedded in the computer; it is just a program that can be eliminated by recognizing it for what it is. Likewise, the inner critic is a program that can be extricated from the mind by recognizing it as such and then erasing it from the system's hard drive. When the inner critic is no longer part of the person's identity, he or she is liberated from the tyranny of self-criticism and self-hatred. Any self-critical thoughts that arise during the day are dismissed with a simple smile, in the same way a customer service representative deftly dismisses irate customers.

Mindfulness brings up not only cognitions but emotions and physical sensations as well. Those emotions and physical sensations can be used as biofeedback tools in the process of healing. If the client becomes aware of feeling tension in the neck when certain critical thoughts arise,…… [Read More]

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Rogers Saw All People as Unique and

Words: 1368 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60922086

Rogers saw all people as unique and basically good individuals. Everyone is trying to be the best for the society as a whole. It was only when they were unhealthy or mentally ill that these people did terrible things, such as criminal acts. Rogers thus assumed that all mentally healthy human beings, like all living beings, are motivated to develop and to put their efforts toward optimal health. This mandates that people have to be strong and resilient when confronted with challenges. Yet, Rogers admitted, such a resiliency typically develops from the nurturance of others. Thus, if someone is mentally ill, it is more than important to treat this person with kindness. This will help the person get better.

Therapists, therefore, need to value their clients in a positive manner, regardless of their behaviors, or what is called self-actualization. This self-actualization is strengthened by three important factors: Empathy, congruence and…… [Read More]

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Fragile X Syndrome

Words: 2837 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97214966

Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males and 1 in 2000 females (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Fragile X syndrome is the result of a single gene mutation, a mutation of the FMR1 gene, located on the X chromosome. Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes). Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes and one pair is an allosome, also known as sex the chromosomes. The allosomes determine the person's gender. Female infants receive two X chromosomes (one each from mother and father), whereas males receive one X chromosome (from the mother) and one Y chromosome (from the father). The site of the Fragile X mutation is on one of these X chromosomes (Sadock & Sadock, 2007).

The…… [Read More]

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Setting the Stage for the Group Psychological

Words: 4820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96691655

Setting the stage for the group

Psychological intervention might be most efficient when females start modification by leaving the abuser and get in a shelter. Shelters are an essential resource for victims because they offer females and kids security and link them with social, legal, and financial resources (Dutton, 1992). Furthermore, battered females in shelters have a greater threat for PTSD than those who do not look for shelter (Jones et al., 2001). Provided the problems connected with PTSD, these signs might disrupt victims' capability to successfully utilize resources made to enhance their security once they leave the shelter (Foa, Cascardi, Zollner, & Feeny, 2000).

Unlike various other PTSD victims, damaged ladies in shelters deal with continuous security issues. Numerous of their viewed dangers are genuine (Foa et al., 2000). For that reason, conventional PTSD therapies that include exposure are contraindicated, as habituation to feared stimulations might enhance their danger…… [Read More]

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Counseling Theories & 8230 THERE Is No

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41114157

& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.

Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…… [Read More]

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Seizure Disorders Collectively Referred to

Words: 1822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 61407570

However Cull and Goldstein (1997) report that this focus is beginning to shift.

The search for new and better drug treatments is, however, just one aspect of the therapeutic strategies to help epileptics. Cognitive therapies that focus on the physical and social limitations that seizure disorders can cause is also essential. As discussed previously, seizure disorders can lead to a number of psychological disorders including depression, anxiety and social inhibitions. The limits these disorders place on normal social and working habits can be a great cause of stress for sufferers of seizure disorders and can often require intensive psychotherapeutic treatment in conjunction with pharmacological treatments.


Seizure disorders are difficult to live with both in terms of the physical symptoms as well as their psychological and behavioral symptoms. These disorders not only affect the individuals who are suffering from them, but can deeply affect their families and loved ones as…… [Read More]

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Child Psychology Child Clinical Psychology

Words: 2204 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38905661

In order to decrease the risk of burnout, it is important to find ways to deal with stress. Learning to generate a division between ones work life and personal life is a significant first step. Practicing good stress management methods can also be very helpful (Pros and Cons of Being a Clinical Psychologist, 2012).

Even though one establishes normal work hours during the day, as a psychologist they may find that they are required to deal with client issues at unforeseen times. Some clients may not be able to meet during normal business hours due to their own busy work schedules, so one might have to shuffle their own plans around to make time for these people. In other cases, one might be called during off-hours or weekends to meet with clients who need help or are facing crisis circumstances. Because of this, flexibility is a significant skill for any…… [Read More]

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Social Work Practice Family Treatment

Words: 2242 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 44633746

" (Szapocznik, nd) the therapeutic process is stated by Szapocznik to use techniques of:

1) Joining - forming a therapeutic alliance with all family members;

2) Diagnosis - identifying interactional patterns that allow or encourage problematic youth behavior; and 3) Restructuring - the process of changing the family interactions that are directly related to problem behaviors. (Szapocznik, nd)

The Spanish Family Guidance Center in the Center for Family Studies at the University of Miami developed Brief Strategic Family Therapy and it has been used since 1975. Brief Strategic Family Therapy involves "creating a counselor-family work team that develops a therapeutic alliance with each family member and with the family as a whole; diagnosing family strengths and problematic interactions; developing change strategies to capitalize on strengths and correct problematic family interactions; and implementing change strategies and reinforcing family behaviors that sustain new levels of family competence." (Szapocznik, nd) Strategies are inclusive…… [Read More]

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Hippotherapy and the Benefits to

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 81299759

.." And talking "with a walker or holding someone's hands." (Scott, 2006) the benefits to the child were not only physical but were also related to cognitive development as following the second session the child while sitting on his shower stool upon beginning to sway grabbed hold of the shower seat and informed his mother "I hold on." (Scott, 2006)

This is important because as explained by Scott (2006) during the therapy session the child is given reins to hold and while the child is not actually controlling the horse, the child believes that they are in control of the horse and the theoretical framework upon which the use of Hippotherapy as a therapeutic tool is that "making a huge magnificent animal do his bidding gives the rider a feeling of control which may be lacking in other aspects of his life." (Scott, 2006)


The study…… [Read More]

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Correspondence Bias and Why Might it Occur

Words: 2232 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40719035

correspondence bias and why might it occur? Are there cultural variations in the correspondence bias?

In the practice of social psychology, correspondence bias or also known as the theory of fundamental attribution error will refer to the over-valuing of explanations that are based from personality perspective under circumstantial situations. This process can lead into misunderstanding between one or two parties that include communities, societies, and groups that are living within the same area or different area. This can be considered as a form of stereotyping incidents for the reason that there are false beliefs and perceptions regarding a particular individual or group with respect to their daily routines and practices. There are cultural variations in the correspondence bias for the reason that discrimination regardless of age, race, and gender can be a perfect example for this case according with their demographical orientation and capabilities as pointed out by Bundel (2011).…… [Read More]

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Who's Controlling Our Emotions Emotional Literacy as a Mechanism for Social Control

Words: 8437 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90031219




At the core of becoming an activist educator

Is identifying the regimes of truth that govern us the ideas that govern how we think, act and feel as educators because it is within regimes of truth that inequity is produced and reproduced. (MacNaughton 2005, 20)

Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...."

Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...." These terns, according to Nolan (1998; Furedi 2003; cited by Ecclestone N.d., 135), denote a therapeutic ethos prevalent in American culture that some consider to be seeping into British media, popular culture and politics. Currently, in England, "Personalised learning," according to Ecclestone (2005, 456), includes an increasing number of initiatives, which constitute a powerful discourse to respond to varied, frequently contradictory public, political and professional concerns relating to a person's emotional needs. Her article debates critical policy research and evaluates the subtle ways policy initiatives strive…… [Read More]

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Tens of Thousands of Combat

Words: 3169 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 31463358

These findings are truly alarming given the fact that fully 65% of the military personnel who have served in Iraq report a history of combat experience and these experiences can clearly result in physical and emotional injuries, with PTSD being expected to develop in between 5 and 15%, with other estimates ranging even higher (Gutierrez & Brenner, 2009). For instance, Gutierrez and Brenner cite the results of a recent analysis conducted by the RAND Corporation that found the range of prevalence estimates for PTSD was 5% to 15% of the military personnel deployed the Middle East; when these rates were applied to the 1.64 million military personnel who have already completed their deployment, Rand estimated the number of individuals with PTSD will be between 75,000 to 225,000.

Given the large numbers of returning combat veterans today and these disturbing rates of PTSD, these findings suggest that more needs to be…… [Read More]

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Danielle for Millions of People

Words: 2949 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 29624471

How to Assess the Efficacy of Interventions & Outcomes

To determine the effectiveness of the treatment that is being provided, you would need to look at the different psychological responses and then determine the underlying degree of the client's involvement, in various forms of therapy. This means that you must examine the different: cognitive and emotional factors that could determine if the intervention, along with the desired outcome were successful. Cognitive factors are when you want to see what the person's immediate thoughts about seeking out treatment and how it is affecting them. Emotional factors are when you are attempting, to determine the underlying amounts of emotions that are associated with the various thoughts / actions. (Mensch, 2008, pp. 171 -- 172) In the case of Danielle, these two factors would help to provide psychologists with a glimpse of: the various thoughts and emotions that she is feeling during treatment.…… [Read More]

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Diagnose or Not to Diagnose

Words: 2826 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19828979

Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders)

There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait can be said as abnormal on some social plane. (Oracle think quest, 2010) Some of the preferred ideas to define abnormality are as given below:

Statistical Norms Deviation: Certain population facts such as height, weight and intelligence are measured and recorded. Most of people come in the middle range of intelligence. Those who fail in general terms and falls below the so-called intelligence scale are termed as abnormal. But then, the people with extra intelligence also become abnormal. Furthermore, intelligence is a subjective issue. (Oracle think quest, 2010)

Social Norms Deviation: People going again social norms and trying to make their idiosyncratic identity are also termed as abnormal. Galileo was abnormal and he was brutally punished for his abnormality, he suggested…… [Read More]

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Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31023695

Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…… [Read More]

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Psychodynamic Approach to Intervention-Reflect on

Words: 2008 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29868639

On the other hand, I believe it is a more adequate approach because they are more imaginative and engage more readily in the roles they have to enact. And also children and adolescents are more suggestible and ready for role-play or fantasy enactment. However, even adults find it easier to adopt certain roles in order to express their intrapsychic conflicts.

Psychodrama is the perfect representative of a therapeutic situation, in which conditions can be manipulated and conflicts allegorically expressed and interpreted. The advantage is that it offers the opportunity to bring into discussion (and enactment) not only past conflicts, but also present or even future ones. Moreover, it provides the advantage of group work and group interpretation.

An important fact to be stated is that psychotherapeutic approach depends very much on the school in which the analyst is formed. All in all, the theory supporting psychodynamic therapy originated in and…… [Read More]

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Group Counseling Attitudes and Perspectives

Words: 5248 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78161847

Group counseling helps to advance self understanding and awareness which may combat repressive tendencies. Teaching coping skills in a group setting can help participants to develop needed tools and stimulate psychological growth (Lambie & Sias, 2009).

Participants in group counseling also learn positive interpersonal/social skills that can be generalized beyond the hospital setting and applied in daily living (Shechtman, 2004). Cancer patients learn to adapt to novel social situations and build rapport among peers in this setting (Fineberg, Hohnson, Leiden, & Lynch, 1956; Shechtman). It has also been shown that group counseling has high efficacy in improving coping and adaptation skills (Barakat et al., 2003). This is especially helpful in this population, as individuals who have/have had cancer may have less opportunity to engage in social and peer situations which reinforce adaptive social development, due to medical needs (Barakat). This interference in the social developmental continuum can have lasting effects…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Master Case Study Baum C M Et

Words: 1301 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21878519

Healthcare Master Case Study

Baum, C.M., et al. (2008). Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility of the Executive Function Performance Test: A Measure of Executive Function in a Sample of People With Stroke The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 62 (4); pg 446.

Study rationale. The research study is designed to assess the validity and reliability of a test for executive function in post-stroke occupational therapy patients. Clinical tests of executive function may not be good predictors of a patient's ability to function in day-to-day life. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) employs ordinary daily living skills in which the post-stroke patients are likely to have engaged in the past, and are reasonable target behaviors for adaptation to independent or supported living arrangements. The test is particularly valuable in that it offers a convenient test for executive function using real-world tasks.

Research design. An experimental design is employed in this study.…… [Read More]

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Psychology After Reviewing the Vignette Miles Case

Words: 876 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99058516


After reviewing the "Vignette Miles "case study, using the five axis of the DSM-IV-TR, it is clear as Axis I provides anxiety because he has been distressed after the holidays due to financial set backs. His financial situation has been gradually deteriorating during the past six months, and he has been feeling a great deal of anxiety. Miles demonstrated tolerance, loss of control, and denial. This also included trying often to cut down going out but to no avail. Axis II and Axis III shows no symptoms. However, Axis IV provides marital problems and legal involvement. His work as a tree cutter is seasonal, and his income varies from month to month. The child support payments for his two children have recently been increased, and his new wife of two years has no job. She is unwilling to work outside the home. Miles reports that his marriage is otherwise…… [Read More]

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Therapeutic Recreation Relies on the Principles That

Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50926048

Therapeutic Recreation relies on the principles that people, mainly children can learn better through recreational environments and activities. In the therapeutic setting therapeutic recreation relates to the use of a recreational activity to allow children the opportunity to learn skills and abilities they might not be able to learn by other means, as in the therapeutic recreational setting learning is done in a natural and low pressure way and in this setting children especially have limited pressures to perform. Unlike more structured forms of therapy the environment and activity offers a sense of freedom that allows learning to come naturally when the individual is in a relaxed state and in theory and practice when they are more able to apply and retain lessons learned as a process of desire to achieve greater skills at the recreational task and possibly to apply them to other environments. Therapeutic recreation can serve as…… [Read More]

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Therapist Interview

Words: 1062 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49245551

Therapist Interview

Child Therapist

The goals of a child therapist are to improve the participation and performance of the child in all the daily activities of the child. The therapist accesses the child and tries to modify the environment in which the child could perform independently. Sometimes the therapist works with the child to improve specific skills of the child. The therapist also works with the teachers and parents of the child so that they can help the children be more comfortable and participate well in the community. (Dominica, 2010)

James Miller

James Miller is a child therapist, who is licensed as a Psychological Counselor. He has been in practice for 10 years in a private sector which serves the children with emotional needs, depression, anxiety and other psychological disorders. He chooses this professional to help children in the development phase so as to implant positivity for their future life.…… [Read More]

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Counseling Theories Socializing the Client Is an

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43825837

Counseling Theories

Socializing the client is an important approach in cognitivebehavioral therapy. It is visible in this video session with the manners the doctor is showing. She is showing very good explanatory manners. Introducing herself to the client, she goes on to elaborate what is going to happen and how they are about to take this process. In other words, it is very crucial to inform the client about what is about to happen to them. This is crucial because initially the clients are distressed and not feeling so good about the situation or about themselves. This causes to come up with depressing scenarios and predictions about what is to happen.

Socializing the client is basically telling the client the philosophy, stricter and the practices of this approach to therapy. It is important to tell the client about this so they understand why the doctor is taking this approach. Not…… [Read More]

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Roles and Functions of CMHC

Words: 2064 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7445459

All these dimensions conclude on one problem which a CMHC could interpret the best through his experience, intelligence and practice.


Mental Health parity is considered as an evolution in an American Politics. States took over federal policies and fought hard to implement mental health insurance along with general health insurance. (Harris, 2006) Parity Law says, "Compared with the general population, individuals with mental health problems experienced a deterioration in their health insurance status."

It does not implement any specific conditions about hospitalization, treatment duration but unlike before it allows to avail insurance on mental health treatment

(NAMI, 2007) Although self insured employers, small entrepreneurs and insurance companies are against this law but States Legislation have proved a little in achieving its goal of providing mental health insurances to every individual without discrimination. This…… [Read More]

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Alzheimer's Disease Is a Neuro-Degenerative

Words: 2598 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25927206

S. will see average 44% increase in Alzheimer's disease by 2025.

Type of information: This fact sheet describes the potential for growth in cases of Alzheimer's disease in the first quarter of this century.

Specific Detail: 1. Southeastern and Western states will see the largest increases in Alzheimer's through 2025.

2. U.S. Census data notes that the number of Americans age 65 and over will double by 2025

3. Utah will see a 127% increase in Alzheimer's disease, Alaska hundred and 26% increase, the Colorado will see 124% increase.

4. Only the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island will not see an increase in Alzheimer's disease.

5. Close to 7.7 million people are estimated to have Alzheimer's disease by the year 2025.

Source Rating: 3. At dependable source for information on increases of Alzheimer's disease.

Source: Alzheimer's Association. Facts About Genes and Alzheimer's disease. 09 November 2004.

Type…… [Read More]

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George Kelly's Theory Is a

Words: 2361 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37419541

("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)

Social Cognitive theories are a primary focus in today's clinical world. The person is seen as a proactive vs. reactive organizer of his or her life. Utilizing the main concepts of this theory explain why Jane is having such difficulty coping with life? How would Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck intervene in Jane's lifestyle?

The social cognitive theory is when there is focus on learning by watching what others do. The successes and failures that they experience are used to shape how the individual will view the world around them and their role in it. This is accomplished by teaching them techniques during the process that can be applied to their daily lives. (Santrock, 2008, pp. 26 -- 30) When this occurs on a regular basis, is the point that the person will begin to use these events as experiences that will shape how…… [Read More]

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Counseling Degree My Reasons for Seeking a

Words: 3074 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3063819

counseling degree.

My reasons for seeking a counseling degree are that I grew up with a desire to help others. I have myself been counseled, as a child, by therapists whom, I noted, attempted to streamline me according to particularistic beliefs. Wondering whether it were possible for psychotherapy to be objective, I read a lot on the subject and observed people who were therapists. At the time I naively thought counselors to be wonderful, and considered them almost as though they were God's second-in-command. I was later to read that psychotherapists do project that image, which is partially what renders the profession of psychotherapy to be somewhat controversial (e.g., Dawes,1994).

Gradually it dawned on me that these people were playing with people's lives: That I and presumably many other individuals are either compelled to 'visit' these deities of fate, or they 'visit' them out of their own volition. It was…… [Read More]

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Freud Sigmund Freud Who Is

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11340401

He focused on the progressive replacement of " erotogenic zones in the body by others. This early biological organism of sexuality first looks for oral gratification by sucking at its mother's breast, which later will be replaced by other objects. At first, the infant is not able to recognize the distinction between itself and the breast, but it soon begins to see its mother as its first external love object. Freud would later argue that before the infant reaches this point of understanding, it is able to see its own self as a love object and develop into a narcissistic love of its personhood.

Once the child goes through this oral state during the second year of life, its erotic emphasis transfers to the anus. This is encouraged by the challenges of toilet training. The child's enjoyment from defecating comes into conflict with the need for self-control. The third phase…… [Read More]

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Marriage Enrichment Program Is a

Words: 1343 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81911779

The event topic for day three focuses on evaluating each other's willingness to accept help from his or her partner. This relates to how couples make decisions within their marriage and brings up topics such as -- how to spend the holidays, time with each other, time with friends, practicing faith, relationship with families, careers, financial concerns, children, hobbies, and household responsibilities.

Working as a team is an important aspect of marriage; developing what Gottman (1999) describes as a sense of "we-ness" as opposed to a "me-ness" is vital for marriage success and longevity. Creating a sense of we-ness can be achieved through cognitive behavioral couples therapy. When one part of the couples has needs that are not being met, it is important these needs are communicated to one's spouse so that they can work together to find ways -- as a team -- for the spouse to have his…… [Read More]

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Anxiety or Stress May Be

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96009921

Ten percent with the short gene - and who experienced four or more life stresses - accounted for nearly 25% of the 133 cases of depression. The finding could lead to new therapies or diagnostic tests for vulnerability to depression, says Caspi (2003).

Uncontrollable life events may not only lead to depression, but to anxiety disorder as well: "Very often, we find that people have more than one condition -- both depression and anxiety disorder," says Charles Goodstein, MD a professor of psychiatry at New York University School of Medicine, with a clinical practice in Tenafly, N.J. "As a matter of fact, it's very hard to find patients who are depressed who don't also have anxiety. it's equally hard to find people with anxiety who don't have some depression." (Davis, 2006)

Sadness, depression, and anxiety are often triggered by life events. Financial pressures, relationships and family problems can trigger this…… [Read More]

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Immigrant Experience and Its Psychological Toll Information

Words: 3416 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91176917

Immigrant Experience

And Its Psychological Toll

Information Competency & Library Use

San Francisco, CA

The theoretical framework centers of the immigrant experience and how it changes the individual while navigating his or her new society. The topic statement seeks to explore these phenomena by focusing on the psychological experience and its relationship to violence and economics. The idea that the action of immigrating is profoundly disruptive on ideas of self-worth, identity and economic status are explored.

I address the various experiences of dislocation arising from migration. Distinctions are made between experiences of voluntary immigrants and refugees and asylum seekers and between legal and undocumented immigrants in their risk for trauma exposure and differential impacts of trauma in the context of immigration. Refugee status as inherently founded in trauma is analyzed, with a brief description of torture survivors among refugees. The issue of trafficked migrants is also discussed. What is core…… [Read More]

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Role of Diet in Weight

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 196412

By educating patients on early warning signs of hepatotoxicity, this rare but potentially fatal consequence could be detected early to allow appropriate intervention." (Wright and Vandenberg, 2007) it is extremely critical to understand the nature of psychiatric nursing in today's clinical environment.


Specifically stated in the work of Kathryn R. Puskar entitled; "The Nurse Practitioner Role in Psychiatric Nursing" published in the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing is: "Commercialization of psychiatric care is underway. Psychiatric inpatient admissions have decreased, admissions to general hospitals have decreased, while outpatient admissions are increasing. Academic centers are purchasing smaller hospitals as affiliates; satellite clinics and networks of services are being established. Physicians in solo practice are merging into group practices. New health care professional roles must be restructured and "cross trained" to maintain competitiveness by offering flexible, cost-saving effective care. This is the background environment in…… [Read More]

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Symptom and Treatment of Psychological Disorder

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34146978

Treatment of Psychological Disorder

The bipolar disorder is a mental disorder and alternatively known as manic depression elevates the mood and cause depression to the affected individuals. The symptom of bipolar depression is the elevated mood, and it is the significant symptom of the affected person. During mania process, the affected individuals behaves irritably, display abnormally energetic and happy. The affected individuals often make poorly decision with little or no regard to the consequences. During the depression period, the affected individuals may have a negative outlook on life, and having poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide is another symptom of bipolar disorder where between 30% and 40% of the victims attempt to inflict self -harm. Other mental issues include substance use disorder, and anxiety disorders. While it is difficult to establish the cause, however, the genetic and environmental factors have been responsible for the cause of bipolar…… [Read More]

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Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach

Words: 2262 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18147981

Counselling Theories

Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach

There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).

Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…… [Read More]

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Conversion Disorders for Whom Are

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86298810

Cognitive triad (Beck). Negative views of the self, environment, and the future.

14. Seligman's learned helplessness theory. Failure to respond to a threatening situation even if there is an obvious mode of escape due to past experiences of being unable to escape from situations.

15. Difference between bipolar I and bipolar II. Bipolar I consists of periods of mania and depression; bipolar II consists of periods of hypomania and depression.

16. Adjunctive psychotherapy. Psychotherapy in addition to other forms of treatment (here therapy is considered secondary).

17. Know that the chance of recovery for someone receiving effective therapy for depression is about 60%. OK

18. Suicide

a. Attempts vs. completions. Males more successful than females due to means (e.g., gun vs. pills). Two groups: Adolescents and Elderly adults are more successful. Depression, substance abuse, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders with depression are also prevelant.

b. Do we have a good way…… [Read More]

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Counseling Naturally Therapeutic Person Is

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88052145

Therapy may also be aimed at either children or adults. Usually a therapist will concentrate on one or the other, as children require special approaches and not all therapists work well with children (Good 22).

Couples and family counselors deal with marriage and family therapy in a brief, solution-focused way. This often means that the therapist addresses very specific problems and looks to attain therapeutic goals, with counseling done with the end in mind. There are a wide range of problems that the marriage and family therapist treats, and therefore the counselor should have graduate training in the field. This is a rewarding field, as over 98% of clients report therapy services as good or excellent.

The federal government has designated marriage and family therapy as a core mental health profession. There are 48 states that also support and regulate the practice through licensing or certifying these therapists. Ethical issues…… [Read More]

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Emotion Regulation Can Be Defined

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93054682

The other important factor that has been mentioned in the previous section includes rumination. Rumination is when an individual consistently thinks negative about a certain situation or a set of situation. The negative thoughts are the main source of increased negativity in relation to reality and a complete loss of touch with the real meaning of life (Papageorgiou & Siegle, 2003, p. 243). If literature is taken into account, it was previously believed that rumination was the main factor that helped in determining the total duration of cycle of depression. Responding to and focusing consistently on the Symptoms of depression is referred to as rumination. Rumination is more commonly seen in the people who are anxious, neurotic, negative, pessimistic, and those who believe in having negative attribution styles. The literature has mentioned that the tendency that the individuals have to ruminate remains constant over a certain period of time and…… [Read More]

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Hot Seat an Ethical Decision-Making

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 72488009

Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice - Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61146822

While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.

Intervention Strategy:

viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…… [Read More]

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Neurotransmission OCD and the Psychotropic

Words: 2322 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 76916718


Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.

Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.

…this research has revealed the…… [Read More]

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Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory

Words: 3500 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77308152

dominant models of human behavior by the late 1950s and early 1960s were based on Neo-Freudian models and B.F. Skinner's brand of operant behaviorism. However, there were theorists that rejected the mechanistic views of behaviorism and Freudian instinct-drive-based models. Perhaps the most influential of these theorists was Albert Bandura. Bandura had received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa and had been exposed to the work of Robert Spears who was studying familial influences of social behavior and identification in children. Bandura was also heavily influenced by other theorists at Iowa such as James Dollard and Neal Miller who had merged Freudian and Hullian learning principles. Bandura believed that learning principles were sufficient to explain and predict behavior, but he also believed that humans thought and regulated their behavior and were not at the mercy of environmental stimuli as in Skinnerian models of behavior. Furthermore, he believed that many functions…… [Read More]

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Biological Psychology

Words: 2139 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36635259

Behavioral Psychology

The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)

Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…… [Read More]

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Education Discuss the Relevant Information About the

Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 49244234


Discuss the relevant information about the student's behaviors. What factors early on contribute to how she is today?

Liz, a 15-year-old high school Freshman, has been exhibiting certain behaviors lately and in the past that have been affecting her today. Liz has been functioning below grade level academically. She cannot work independently, "hates" school, and rebels against all authority. She is defensive and uses abusive language. She tends to blame others for her carelessness and seldom takes responsibility. According to Liz's parents, Liz seldom slept enough when she was younger, so as to give them a break from her behaviors. As Liz grew older, she began to react impulsively. She has been caught distributing drugs and refuses to get tested, psychologically.

There are certain factors, from the past, that may have contributed to how Liz is today. First of all, Liz seemed to be deprived of sleep, early on,…… [Read More]

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Self and Others the Manner in Which

Words: 2661 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50247909

Self and Others

The manner in which people view themselves has been shown to be an important predictor of their behavior, achievement, and physical and psychological health. There has been a growing trend in recent years to promote a positive self-view in young people through the avoidance of failure. Increasingly, positive reinforcement is provided for merely taking part and trying rather than succeeding or failing, with little regard to the long-term consequences of such practices. To help identify the long-term implications of such practices, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine whether keeping children from having to face failure provides them with an accurate view of themselves as they relate to the people around them and others around them. A discussion concerning how, as these children grow and mature, they will likely deal with cognitive dissonance and failure in their lives is followed by a summary…… [Read More]

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Psychology Throughout Its History Psychology Has Undergone

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9514623


Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. Relatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.

In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]

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Absence Within the Neurological Community of Executive

Words: 1250 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71645576

absence within the neurological community of executive function performance testing for various real-world activities (that include multi-tasking) on subjects who have suffered brain damage (Baum & al, 2008). By testing real-world functioning via the EFPT, the researchers, as occupational therapists, hoped to provide more accurate information on the ability of subjects to function independently in their day-to-day existence and to perform functions within society (Baum & al, 2008). This study served as a test of the validity and reliability of the EFPT model on patients with mild to moderate stroke, as a follow-up to previous studies of EFTP validity and reliability on subjects with multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia (Baum & al, 2008). Hypothesis: Stroke will have a negative effect on executive functioning in real-world tasks.

Research study design and characteristics

This was an empirical, quantitative, conclusion-oriented, lab/simulation research study using the EFTP. The EFTP measures executive cognitive functions (initiation, organization,…… [Read More]

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Asperger Syndrome Though a Comprehensive

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55925183

Another important defining characteristic of AS is that people who seem to have it are often gifted intellectually,

While only a small percentage of individuals with autism are considered to be high functioning (without mental retardation), all children with AS have average to above average intelligence. In fact, many with AS may be intellectually gifted, which may mask the many difficulties they experience from adults and peers alike (Wing, 1998). The ever-present problems that individuals with AS face in socialization and peer rejection throughout the life span are what truly constitutes it as a PDD, influencing all aspects of their daily lives (Frith & Happe). (Safran, 2001, p. 151)

Because one of the most difficult issues facing those with AS is associated with emotion and socialization, as they often lack skills to recognize normal social cues such as facial and body expressions, the nonverbals that most of us take for…… [Read More]

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Child Psychology Child Development Is

Words: 5209 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80872373

The most fundamental theorist in this area is Jean Piaget. Additionally, Piaget demonstrated one of the first scientific movements in the filed, with the utilization of direct observation as the best tool for understanding. (Piaget, 1962, p. 107) Piaget also believes, and his theories reflect that children play a very active and dynamic role in development through interaction with their environment and active role imitation. (Piaget, 1962, p. 159)

Sensory-motor intelligence is, in our view, the development of an assimilating activity which tends to incorporate external objects in its schemas while at the same time accommodating the schemas to the external world. A stable equilibrium between assimilation and accommodation results in properly intelligent adaptation. But if the subject's schemas of action are modified by the external world without his utilising this external world, i.e., if there is primacy of accommodation over assimilation, the activity tends to become imitation. Imitation is…… [Read More]

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School-Based Mental Health Program on

Words: 8166 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 67429057

This is discussed at length by Fusick and Bordeau (2004) " counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and Bordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)

An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-Based Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…… [Read More]