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Death Penalty Essays (Examples)

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Media and Other Individuals From
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23301637
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In fact, when actual harm seems imminent, the government has more leeway to restrict the speech. Fighting words or words likely to result in harm to an individual fall into this category. The most notorious example is shouting "Fire" in a crowded theater. A more realistic example is the criminalization of terroristic threats.

2) in an essay of at least two well-developed paragraphs, explain how laws related to capital punishment have changed since the early 1970s

At the beginning of the 1970s, capital punishment was legal throughout the United States, though execution rates varied tremendously by state. However, in 1972, in the case of Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972), the Supreme Court suspended capital punishment throughout the states. The Court found that capital punishment violated the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. However, it is important to realize that the violation did not come from the…

argument in favor of the life in prison over execution
Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29678832
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The death penalty is a vestige of the past, a time when vengeance and retribution were the standard means of dealing with transgressions or deviance. While there are significant drawbacks with the American penal system and corrections institutions, a life term in prison is a far more reasonable sentence for the most heinous of crimes than capital punishment is. There are several reasons why the death penalty plays no role at all in a civilized democracy, and why it also threatens to undermine the very foundations of Constitutional law. The worst criminals—those who prove themselves incapable of rehabilitation or reform due to their psychological constitutions—can be effectively dealt with in prison, promoting public safety without putting at risk the integrity of the criminal justice system.
One of the main reasons to avoid using the death penalty is the possibility of false confessions and wrongful convictions. DNA evidence overturns convictions often…

Diversion Programs vs Imprisonment
Words: 2797 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99785069
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Criminal Justice

Does the criminal justice system work? This is a very interesting question indeed? Many proponents of system believe it to be a deterrent to manner would be criminals across the United States. However, many pundits point to high profile cases of Trayvon Martin or Emmett Till to show the inequities inherent within the criminal justice system (Crowe, 2012). Proponents for the criminal justice system believe that it is a deterrent for others who are thinking about committing egregious crimes in the future. They also believe it provides closure for those who have been innocently wronged by the death of a loved one. These individuals usually believe in the principle of, "An eye for an eye," in regards to life. The general principle that is fundamental to the argument for the criminal justice system is retribution. The belief is that all guilty individuals must be punished. The punishment should…

Incest Taboo Found in Every
Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82477136
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Moreover, in the war on drugs, the criminality associated with specific drugs is not necessarily linked to the physical threat to health posed by that drug, but by the socioeconomic groups that are more highly associated with those drugs. For example, crack cocaine offenses are subject to greater punishments than powder cocaine offenses, despite there being no logical distinction between the two different types of drugs. However, powder cocaine is more expensive and is considered an affluent drug, while crack cocaine is considered a lower-class drug. The war on drugs is deviant because it punishes some people for addiction, while there is no punishment for tobacco or alcohol addicts.

6. Does the death penalty serve as a deterrent to crime? If so, why are crime rates still so high in the U.S.

The death penalty, as applied in the United States, does not serve as a deterrent to crime. The…

Moral Dimensions of Punishment Is
Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99783115
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Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…

ethics and moral guidelines criminal justice
Words: 1933 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61562317
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.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…

Morality Then and Now the
Words: 7400 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97224467
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This is the perfect way to end this poem. The ending is in fact effective and consistent. The entire time, the duke speaks about how it was to have his wife besides him and how much he did not agree with her behavior. He then makes an insinuation that it was him in fact that had her killed. The ending leaves the reader in a sort of shock. The lines, "...Notice Neptune, though, / Taming a seahorse, thought a rarity, / Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me!" are so effective in clarifying that the Duchess did not die of natural causes and it was in fact the Duke that wanted her to act in a certain way, and he did: by having her killed. And the only thing left of her is the portrait, which he praises for capturing her, after he managed to "tame" her.

2.…

United States v Bass the
Words: 1161 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67087482
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The reasoning of the Sixth Circuit more strongly aligns to principles of Equal Protection than the decision of the Supreme Court.

While the Supreme Court decision made much of the freedom of prosecutorial discretion, the Sixth Circuit made it clear that invididual prosecutors "retain discretion in only three areas: whether to bring federal charges or defer to state prosecutions, whether to charge defendants with a capital-eligible offense, and whether to enter into a plea agreement." United States v. Bass, 266 F.3d 532 (2001). Furthermore, when the death penalty is sought, the prosecutor must submit a memorandum outlining the reason for seeking the death penalty, including all mitigating and aggravating circumstances. Id. Bass's discovery request would have gone to that underlying material, to help determine whether or not his allegations that his selection for death-penalty eligibility was somehow racially motivated.

Bass's evidence showed basic racial discrimination:

First, the Survey showed a…

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FISA 1978 Antiterrorism
Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80263388
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Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) 1978, Antiterrorism Effective Death Penalty

Acts of Terror

There are a number of similarities and points of interest between the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 FISA, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, and the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act of 2001. Collectively, these acts make it exceedingly difficult for those involved in acts of terrorism to operate and, when caught, to get any sort of leniency to assist in their getting out of jail. As such, these acts can have a formidable presence and make a significant impact on the war on terrorism.

One of the points of commonality for all of these acts is the fact that they are primarily focused on domestic offenders. This is particularly true of FISA, which details specific procedures for engaging in covert activities to find criminals (DHZ/Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties). FISA advocates the…

Rule of Law When Police Searched John
Words: 1095 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65100333
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Rule of Law

When police searched John Wayne Gacy's house on December 13, 1978 they were completely unprepared for the horrors they would uncover. Although police executed a search warrant that they hoped would provide further insight into the mysterious disappearance of fifteen-year-old Robert Piest, they would soon come to discover evidence that would connect Gacy to at least 32 other murders and disappearances. On December 22, 1978, Gacy freely confessed to killing at least thirty boys and men and burying their remains on his property or dumping them in the river nearby (Bell & Bardsley, n.d.). During the course of the investigation, Gacy confessed that he would occasionally murder more than one person in the same day. What flabbergasted investigators, however, was Gacy's nonchalant explanation as to why the bodies were buried so close together in the crawlspace under his house: he "was running out of room and needed…

U S Courts Until Bob Woodward Wrote His
Words: 1409 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70962440
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U.S. Courts

Until Bob Woodward wrote his book, The Bretheren: Inside the Supreme Court (Woodward, 1996), the inner workings of the United States Supreme Court were considered off-limits. For nearly two hundred years no one had the courage to investigate how the Supreme Court operates on a day-to-day basis but Bob Woodward, one of the reporters who broke the Watergate scandal to the world, stepped forward and in doing so provided the American public with its first real view of how the Court operates.

Inside the pages of The Bretheren the authors (the book was co-written by Scott Armstrong) covered the Court during the terms when Earl Warren and Warren Burger were Chief Justices. In doing so the authors offered a summary of the various cases ruled upon during the tenure of these two Chief Justices and provided a synopsis of how the two tenures were remarkably the same. The…

Home Invasion and Crime Spree
Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26995817
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Facts about the Cheshire Murders

The Cheshire murders were the Connecticut home invasion that occurred on July 23, 2007. Jennifer Hawke-Petit, wife of Dr. William Petit and her two daughters were brutally killed. Her daughter was raped and killed while Dr. William managed to escape, although, he was injured during the home invasion. (Daily Mail). Typically, the case was the most widely publicized case in the history of Connecticut because of the nature of the killings. The two daughters of the couple were Hayes aged 17 and Michael 11, were tied to the bed, suffocated and the house was set on fire. The Haye's confession proved that the two criminals had planned to rob the house in the dark. However, the police were able to arrest the penetrator named Steven J. Hayes and Joshua A. Komisarjevsky.

Sentence Defendants Receive

During the trial, the jury deliberated on the evidence against them.…

Controversial Issues
Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47735663
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Barbieland Judge

As judge of Barbieland, I stand firmly in support of abolishing the death penalty, not only for juveniles, but for every person as well. Roper v. Simmons was a welcomed decision for my belief system and I support its movement away from the violent and senseless practice of the death penalty that does nothing to prevent crime but rather validates violence as a useful tactic to control troublesome populations. Scalia and O'Conner's bloodthirsty dissention suggests that they support state sanctioned murder as a viable tool.

According to the case, " The Court reaffirmed the necessity of referring to "the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society" to determine which punishments are so disproportionate as to be cruel and unusual. The Court reasoned that the rejection of the juvenile death penalty in the majority of states, the infrequent use of the punishment even where…

Sweden's Current Justice System Overview
Words: 3924 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32355412
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In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.

Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…

Criminal Justice Issues -- Sentencing
Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 73030412
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Both positions have merit and generally, the most appropriate perspective is an intermediate position that recognizes the relevance of both considerations. That perspective influences modern sentencing policies and decisions by incorporating both the nature of offenses and the criminal history of the offender on a case by case basis.

Capital Punishment Issues:

Capital punishment generates intense philosophical conflict of moral issues. One position holds that the death penalty is an appropriate sentence for certain crimes; the other holds that capital punishment is inhumane and uncivilized. The U.S. Supreme Court has established that the death penalty is not inherently cruel, but evidence does exist suggesting that it is often applied unequally by virtue of race, ethnicity, and social class or income (Dershowitz, 2002). Other valid objections include evidence that the most common form (lethal injection) amounts to cruelty when administered improperly and that mistakes may be frequent enough to reconsider the…

Albert Camus Raising the Name
Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88891993
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" (71) In Resistance, Rebellion, and Death, Camus makes clear that man wants to live; in supporting death, not only do Christians run against their core Christianity, they also undermine the power of Christian life. Camus beleves that there will be no lasting piece in either the heart of man nor their greater society until death is formally outlawed; because the survival of life and the dearth of death are at the heart of Christianity, he finds that Christians are most demanded to support the life of those in the world. By supporting the death penalty at all, history provides ample evidence for Christian leaders who refused their Christianity by refusing life to other men. Nevertheless; he had one parallel in common with the Christian church: an understanding of temptation. During the Vichy Purge, Camus wondered for the first time if the death penalty were, perhaps, a viable punishment for…

Prison Rehabilitation for Men and
Words: 3105 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59669675
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Correctional Services of Canada says that these programs are the result of acknowledge the woman as "her own beset expert," and are built on the premise that "earning to make informed choices and then accepting the consequences of them will enable these women to take control of their lives." There, a Literacy and Numeracy Program created just for female inmates aims to foster skills required for basic employment and civic involvement.

The State of Florida reported in 2001 that the recidivism rate for inmates who received a GED was 29.8%, significantly lower than the 34.4% attributed to those who failed to complete the educational program. That rate of return essentially translated into 100 inmates not returning to prison of the 1,788 who received their GED. The State reported that avoiding their re-incarceration saved approximately $1.9 million dollars.

With the growth of so many gender-specific programs, the rationale for addressing incarceration…

Corrections and Retribution
Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71864268
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Retribution

Corrections and Retribution

Retribution is considered as the penalty that is imposed on an individual or a group of people for the crimes they committed with an aim of making them experience the same amount of pain or loss as the victim of their crimes.

Retribution programs are set up to correct people who go against the law of justice. It is normally set for individuals who do something that is illegal. For this case, the offenders suffer for the wrong-doing; the aim of retribution is to take action on people who infringed the rights of other individuals. This paper analyzes the purpose of retribution programs conversely to the appropriate ways of how those purposes can be accomplished; it also illustrates some methods of retributive justice models which are applied to the offenders.

Various philosophers have come up with contested arguments on the value for or arguments against retributive…

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FISA of 1978
Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24263942
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Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 and Other Laws

The terrorist activities of Sept 11, 2001 serve as the source of the U. S fight against terrorism as made popular by the Bush regime. Previously, United States strategies to combat terrorism targeted on attacks against its interests overseas, and support for other governments' initiatives to control terrorism functions within their borders. However, Sept 11 exposed weaknesses to terrorism by non-state players within U.S. boundaries. In reaction, the U. S reformed its anti-terrorist techniques to prevent future attacks by focusing on terrorists, foreign and local, known and potential. In order to facilitate terrorist prosecution, the congress offers Appropriate Tools Required to Identify and Prevent Terrorism Acts. They include FISA, Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, and the PATRIOT Act.

At the most basic level, FISA describes the techniques needed to perform digital surveillance to obtain global intelligence. Considerably, these methods…

Police Coercion Age Deception and
Words: 1671 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 50952693
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The court ruled that the police impaired her free choice by going beyond the evidence connecting her to the crime and introducing a completely extrinsic consideration in the form of an empty but plausible threat to take away something to which she and her children would otherwise be entitled." (DiPietro, 1)

It is conceivable that this could be drawn on as a cause for inadmissibility of evidence yielded by the extrinsic threat of a death penalty which is an 'empty but plausible threat.' In essence, this was an act which diluted the defendant's conceptions of his own rights. That he was a minor at the time of this exchange implies further that he was particularly vulnerable to this type of distortion.

Those things said, it remains inherently problematic that the confession came outside the context of a coercive or inappropriate interrogation. The voluntary nature of the confession and the fact…

American Government in the Beginning
Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92592310
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Judicial activists like Chief Justice Earl Warren used their power to invoke the Constitution in social changes like school desegregation. They believe the government must stay current with the times and change, rather than become archaic.

Capital punishment is one of the most hotly debated punishments in our judicial system. That is because it is a very emotional issue, and both sides are equally convinced their ideas are right. Because it involves taking a life as punishment for a crime, it is an ethical and moral dilemma, too. Supporters of capital punishment believe it helps keep crime down by scaring potential criminals about the sacrifice they could pay if they commit a heinous crime. They also believe that if the criminal committed a crime like murder, that they could do it again if they faced the possibility of parole, so they believe capital punishment is good for public safety. They…

Hot Button Topics Are Issues
Words: 867 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81322510
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Section 2

1. His tone is that of a relaxed news reporter. It's as if he doesn't believe the extravagance of some of the examples he gives. He tries to equate debauchery and under age sex with the prom and frivolous spending. "Over the years parents have become more active in creating the 'prom experience,' from personally signing for houses for a three-day drug/sex/alcohol bash, to mothers making motel reservations for their sons and daughters for the after-prom-get-togethers." (Brown, 2008) This in turn enables the reader to quickly side with him because underage debauchery is viewed as wrong. He uses words like "extravagant," "orgy," "$20,000" to get people to see these prom goers as satanic, rich savages. It definitely succeeds in convincing an audience that prom is bad on some level. I think also the simple fact that he keeps mentioning price tags and eventually the "$100,000" some of the…

Non-Violent Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi
Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 84109586
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This indicates that society is not safe as the result of the death penalty, so long as life in prison is a real and fully-enforced option for prisoners who commit terrible crimes.

There is also the very real issue of innocent people who are murdered by the state. Of course, some proponents of capital punishment argue that from a utilitarian point-of-view, more guilty people are executed than innocent people. But an equally rational utilitarian point-of-view is that when it is discovered that the state has killed an innocent person, respect for the state and the judicial process as a whole is damaged. When no one respects the judicial process, crime is likely to increase. Further damage to the social perception of the justice system is incurred by the fact that more non-whites are executed than whites, which suggests that racial biases on the part of juries and lack of access…

DNA Exonerations
Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38768949
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DNA

The emergence of DNA testing has resulted in the exoneration of many people convicted of crimes. The ACLU (2011) has stated that 17 people on death row were exonerated as of September, 2011. A project in Virginia found 33 individuals convicted of sexual assaults who between 1973-1987 who were still incarcerated in 2012 and whose innocence was demonstrated by DNA testing (Michaels, 2012). DNA testing has proven effective at uncovering since instances of justice gone unserved, because of the unique nature of DNA testing.

Each person's DNA is unique, as a genetic fingerprint. This is the main value that DNA testing has in forensics. Often, before DNA testing was introduced, convictions could be made on the basis of anything from fabricated evidence to weak witnesses. There has always been a certain percentage of instances where innocent people were convicted, even in capital cases. DNA testing, however, has been used…

Classic Philosophy - Plato Plato's
Words: 384 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38937080
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He is committed to the adjudication of his guilt or innocence exclusively through rational arguments grounded in truth and the logical validity of the arguments themselves.

Plato's Republic:

Epistemologically, Socrates believed that all of us are born with comprehensive knowledge of everything within us and that what we refer to as "knowledge" is merely the Recollection of what we already knew when our souls lived in reality. Socrates differentiates philosophers from non-philosophers by virtue the commitment of the former to perceiving the facts of reality and limiting their mental processes to logical and rational argument instead of subjective (or otherwise limited) perceptions such as those illustrated by the Cave allegory. According to Socrates, art is merely a copy (or a copy of a copy) of reality with which philosophers ought not to concern themselves.

In principle, Socrates would argue against the position that beauty is in the eye of the…

Bill of Rights There Are
Words: 1587 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71032094
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America is one of the many countries in the world where capital punishment is still practiced. This is of course quite ironic as Bill of Rights was largely designed to safeguard human rights but taking somebody's life forcefully is no way serving human rights and in order to maintain human dignity there is need to revoke the capital punishment altogether and this must be assured in the constitution just as done by all the countries of European Union. For this very purpose the amendment eighth could be made complete by stating that no cruel and unusual punishment including death sentence for the guilty.

Amendment IX: [1]

The assigning of numbers to rights in constitution does not any way suggest the undermining or denying of other rights held by the people.

Amendment X: [1] if the constitution does not give a certain right to the government and also does not forbid…

Male and Female Students Use
Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80734983
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Her evaluation is certainly effective, in that it points out the underlying structure of eyewitness news and shows us how it is more entertainment, rather than information.

All's Not Well in the Land of the Lion King

Lazarus feels that the Disney film the Lion King does harm to children by reinforcing common cultural stereotypes of gays and African-Americans.

Lazarus's essay is persuasive in the examples she gives. But she could have been more elaborate in providing evidence as to how these stereotypes affect the developing minds of children.

Death and Justice

In this essay, Koch explains his defense of capital punishment by considering the arguments against capital punishment. This is a clever means of elucidating a clear, lucid, logical stance, which Koch manages to do within the course of the essay.

The problem with Koch's essay is that he neglects to address the real reasons why the Untied States…

Constitutional Law Facts of the
Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 21718508
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Kennedy referred to international as well as domestic standards in defense of the court's majority opinion. He wrote: "Our determination that the death penalty is disproportionate punishment for offenders under eighteen finds confirmation in the stark reality that the United States is the only country in the world that continues to give official sanction to the juvenile death penalty. This reality does not become controlling, for the task of interpreting the Eighth Amendment remains our responsibility. Yet at least from the time of the Court's decision in Trop, the Court has referred to the laws of other countries and to international authorities as instructive for its interpretation of the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of 'cruel and unusual punishments'" (Roper, 2005, University of Cornell Law School).

Holding: The court overturned Stanford v. Kentucky, stating that society's mores had changed, and thus executing individuals for crimes committed while juveniles was cruel and unusual…

Constitutional Originalism
Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26759420
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Wainwright v Gideon

In 1961, a man named Clarence Earl Gideon was arrested for stealing coins and alcohol from a Panama City, Florida, pool hall. He was a poor man and could not afford a lawyer. Following his conviction, he served five years in prison. During that time, he sent a handwritten letter to the Supreme Court in which he explained that he had been forced to fend for himself in court, without legal representation. Because of Mr. Gideon, the Supreme Court justices declared that criminal defendants have a right to legal aid (Gest). It was a right decision by the Supreme Court. The United States was founded on the principle that all men should be equal. By providing criminal defense to the poor, the court is leveling the playing field so that everyone receives the same fair treatment. Since crimes are committed disproportionately by the poor, the Supreme Court's…

People Often Base Their Actions
Words: 2145 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36143547
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This was because, for some stories, they were forced to use less professional correspondents to cover stories that were on a more national scale.

13. Among this list, newspapers and magazines are the most credible because they strive for objectivity and accuracy, at the same time as they possess the most amount of content. Television news programs are second only because they lack the same level of depth. The other sources should be highly questioned before using as a legitimate source. The internet possesses the best information among all of the rest, but must be evaluated on a site-by-site basis.

14. I have found two sources that indicate that controversial television ads negatively influence the behavior of children. However, there are also a handful of other resources arguing that the influence of ads upon individuals is relatively minute.

15. Rhetoric tends to vastly influence people's opinions and attitudes. However, statements…

Institutional Violence in Modern Society
Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 237810
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Thus, initially, the U.S. was the victim of a terrorist attack. However, the perpetrator-victim dichotomy was eliminated with the U.S.'s offensive attack against Iraq, or as the Bush administration specifically claimed, 'Saddam Hussein's regime.' When this happened, institutional violence was enforced, giving the U.S. The "license" to seek revenge because of the extent and seriousness that the attack has caused the country and the world.

However, the target of the U.S. offensive attack was like McVeigh: Hussein is considered innocent until proven guilty. Indeed, the absence of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) in Iraq only reflected that the offensive attack was made to destabilize Hussein, and not simply a case of seeking justice for the 9/11 attack. Justice, then, becomes retributive and unfair justice. In Sarat's analysis, the U.S. is "a killing state in which violence is met with violence, and the measure of our sovereignty as a people is…

Taylor v Crawford Case Citation
Words: 1225 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86751359
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The trial court was concerned with the State's lack of a written protocol specifying the chemicals and doses, the lack of consistency in its administration, the total discretion give to Dr. Doe I, and the lack of oversight over the doctor. The trial court fashioned a remedy that required the Department of Corrections to prepare a written protocol requiring the participation of a board-certified anesthesiologist, at least 5 grams of thiopental, and certification that an inmate has achieved sufficient anesthesia before administering the next two chemicals. The court required that it certify the protocol and stayed all executions till it was approved. The State submitted a plan, which was not approved by the court. The State then appealed the trial court's decision.

Rule of Law: A State's lethal injection protocol did not violate the Eighth Amendment, because the protocol required a sufficient dose of thiopental to eliminates an inmate's risk…

Corrections Police - Criminal Justice Theories
Words: 743 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69037818
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Excessive obedience to authority in defiance of moral laws may be justified because of the stresses of policing, and also because of the necessary obedience required to do the job in an effective fashion of teamwork and trust.

Walking home in a neighborhood that seems suspicious, I do feel better to see a police car than not to see one. But I have also been afraid, at times, when pulled over by an angry policeman, even if I have done nothing wrong, or committed a minor infraction. I know the power of the badge and the fact that an officer is more likely to be believed in court than myself. Trust in the police can never be absolute, so long as one is aware of the potential for abuse from individuals in such powerful positions.

What is the criminal punishment and what do you think is the basis for the…

Terrorist Activities Rule of Law Since September
Words: 1250 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57360821
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Terrorist Activities

Rule of Law

Since September 11, 2001 the U.S. Department of Justice has charged 310 defendants with terrorism or national security-related crimes, resulting in 204 cases either being plea bargained or presented to a jury (Beck et al., 2011, p. 7). The conviction rate has been 87% for these defendants, which is similar to the conviction rate for all federal crimes (Beck et al., 2011, p. 2). The most common charge used in these cases recently, and the most successful, is 'material support', as defined under Title 18 U.S.C. § 2339A and § 2339B (Beck et al., 2011, p. 18-21). Prior to 2007, just 11.6% of all terror cases involved a material support charge under § 2339 (harboring or concealing), § 2339A, or § 2339B. In 2010, 69.4% of terror defendants were charged with material support and in 2011 a full 87.5% were indicted under this statute.

§…

Statute of Limitations Whether or
Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97766974
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Moreover, the condition of retaining inmates in prison, who may be innocent and deserve to be freed, or who may really deserve death judgment, is costly.

What to do about the prevalence of plea bargaining.

Plea bargaining should be limited depending on the level of crime that an individual has committed. This is to avoid the ineffective delivery of justice to crime offenders and to the crime victims.

One disadvantage of plea bargaining, according to an online article is The concrete disadvantage is that there is some reduction in the conviction offense or sentence on both.

Plea bargaining also has advantages but only when it is applied on appropriate criminal cases. Therefore, in my stand, plea bargaining should not be totally abolished. Rather, it must be implemented on moderate cases of offense. The strategy is to set a law that will put limitations on plea bargaining. According to an online…

Punishment Western Society Has Developed
Words: 1952 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83297623
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I maintain that all living things share an understanding that actions have consequence. I believe that even complex underlying psychological and sociological issues can be circumvented by directly addressing such most fundamental knowledge.

As for deterrence, I believe that the retributive system can in itself serve as a future deterrent, even if it does not do so intentionally. As mentioned, Kant held that any criminal activity is not only a crime against society, but a crime against the criminal him- or herself, since the criminal will suffer for these crimes, even as the victims of the crimes have suffered. Hence, there are no beneficiaries in the system and he deterrent is the threat of punishment itself.

As for rehabilitation programs, these have been notoriously ineffective, regardless of millions upon billions of dollars spent on the research and implementation involved. Even research into the underlying issues surrounding criminal activity has not…

Lindbergh Kidnapping
Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 37978010
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Lindbergh Kidnapping

Lindberg Kidnapping

The Lindberg kidnapping was one of, and the most to some, notorious crime and/or kidnapping in the 20th century. The ways and means that had to be used given the targets of the kidnapping, what happened to the child after being taken and so forth all change crime scene and death investigations in general forever. There is plenty of controversy associated with the crime even though the man convicted was given a chance to have his life spared the death penalty if he copped to the crime but he refused and he also refused a pay-off from a local publication.

One of the things that jumps out to the author of this report is that the convicted man, Mr. Hauptmann, was able to at least delay his death sentence if he just admitted he did it but he ostensibly either did and refused to give the…

Violence in Plato Euthyphro
Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2581770
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Violence in Plato: The Euthyphro

In the dialogue of the Euthyphro, Plato depicts an exchange between the titular young, aristocratic man who has decided to turn his father in for manslaughter and the Greek philosopher Socrates. According to Euthyphro, his father left a slave in a ditch to die when the slave was accused of killing another slave, causing the slave to die of exposure. Euthyphro defends his actions as pious while Socrates reacts with incredulity. This suggests that although the primary impetus of the dialogue is a condemnation of impious actions, Plato does not give much weight to the violent death of the slave. Euthyphro is portrayed as ignorant because he cannot come up with an acceptable definition of piety to Socrates and little regard is given to the death of the slave which prompted the drama to take place. Violence (or anti-violence) is not the primary preoccupation of…

Mervyn Leroy's the Bad Seed
Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 41118264
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The theory involving Christine being determined to put an end to Rhoda's life can be related to her ration intervening, influencing her to take action before Rhoda continued her killings.

Rhoda pays special attention to the way that her mother sees her, and, even though she knows that her mother has the power to denounce her, she does not attempt to murder Christine. The next in Rhoda's list of killings would have been Monica Breedlove, taking into consideration the fact that the women had been closely connected to her, and that it had been possible for her to endanger Rhoda with the information that she knew.

The ending of the movie is most probably intended to present the audience with what it wants to see, someone finally punishing Rhoda, not through putting her into a mental asylum (as should have been the case), but by physically hurting her.

Sidney Lumet's…

Cultural Issues in Crimes Against Humanity
Words: 4595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34863415
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Culture that Encourages Human Rights

Americans were shocked when they learned about the abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Or were they? Certainly, the media reported shock and outrage on the part of the public to the unpleasant revelations. But the outrage, if it really existed, has certainly not been a lasting outrage. The White House response to photos of young military personnel sexually assaulting and humiliating prisoners was to imply that only a few poorly supervised bad apple MPs would do such things. President George W. Bush said: "These acts do not represent the values America stands for." However, many Americans do not abhor the treatment of those prisoners at all. In fact, they think there should be more of it. "They do it to us," is commonly heard in restaurants where ordinary people discuss current events. Republican Congressman James Inhofe of Oklahoma dismissed the whole thing by saying,…

Jury Selection- Race in the
Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85125938
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Instead, intent can be shown in one of three ways: facial discrimination, discriminatory application or discriminatory motive. Facial discrimination is simply that the law is discriminatory on its face as it makes explicit distinctions between classes of persons. Discriminatory application occurs where the law is neutral on its face but is applied in a different manner to different classes of persons.

If a person can show that government officials applying the law have a discriminatory purpose, the law will be invalidated. Discriminatory motive occurs when the law is neutral on its face and in its application but will have a disproportionate impact on a particular class of persons. Although statistical studies alone are not enough to prove discriminatory motive, when combined with other evidence it can suffice. McCleskey v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279 (1987).

In the case at hand, the argument should focus on both discriminatory application and discriminatory motive.…

Trial by Jury
Words: 953 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55028753
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Trial by Jury

One of the most controversial issues today in the area of criminal justice is that of the right of all defendants to a trial by jury their peers. While most arguments are for or against this right, careful consideration of specific issues and kinds of cases suggests that trial by jury should not be abolished entirely, but should not be an absolute right. The idea of trial by jury can be retained in the American legal system through compromise and by limiting trial by jury to specific cases and courts. Having specialized courts for particular legal issues such as medical malpractice or other highly technical issues would remedy many of the problems that critics of the current system grapple with as legal scholars and moral individuals.

Often, as seen in the pairing of the essays of the noted defense attorney, media personality, and Harvard legal scholar Alan…

Ayatollah Khomeini and Plato Khomeini's
Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96155390
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Islamic government may be defined therefore as the rule of divine law over men."(Khomeini, 29) God is the true authority in the state, and the sole legislative power: "In Islam the legislative power and the competence to establish laws belongs exclusively to God Almighty."(Khomeini, 30) it is obvious therefore that Khomeini believes in the realization of a Platonic, almost utopian republic in which everything should be ruled only on the principle of divine absolute justice. In this idealist view, the state is a reflection of the divine order. The Islamic republic endeavors to make absolute knowledge and absolute truth a form of government. Thus, the definition of the Islamic republic resembles that of the Platonic republic much more than the Western correspondent. As Khomeini himself notes, the main difference between the Western republic and the Islamic one is that the Western government is based on human social rights, while the…

Boudon 2001 Theories of Social
Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 87823124
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For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.

Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?

Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…

Juvenile Delinquency There Are Many Juvenile Cases
Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54033387
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Juvenile Delinquency

There are many juvenile cases in the justice system of USA, like that of Josh and Terry, where teens from broken families commit crimes. These juveniles lack a supportive environment thus the crimes often become a habit rather than occasional incidences. The juvenile crimes normally start with a prolonged absenteeism from the school after which students develop bad habits and may learn to steal and to commit assaults. It is not always for fun but sometimes the teenagers are habitual in crimes. Once these are caught and put into jail at such a young age, they have a tough life. Juvenile are counseled and held under supervision. They are released later depending upon the nature of crime but the juvenile record is often a hurdle in their career. The paper discusses the legal and social issues related to juvenile records, funding programs, system and controlling felony in questions…

Teens Locked Up for Life Without a Second Chance
Words: 3510 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67287646
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Criminal Justice

Juveniles who are Imprisoned for Life with No Parole

We live in a world where human beings of any age commit and are punished for menial to heinous crimes. In other words, humans at every stage of life are committing and being punished for crimes, including children and teenagers, called juveniles under the law until they reach adulthood. The paper will explore and debate the pros and cons of sentencing juveniles as LWOPs. The paper will reference recent and groundbreaking cases of juvenile crime and debatable sentencing. The paper aims to provide a modern context within which to examine and debate the use of life sentencing without parole for juvenile offenders. Ultimately, the paper concludes that LWOP for juveniles should, with great discrimination and in the rarest of cases, be used around the world, but before doing so, the stipulations for its use must be clearly stated and…

Mandatory Sentencing Public Policy Crime and Criminal
Words: 5732 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16759358
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Mandatory Sentencing

Public policy, crime, and criminal justice

Mandatory Sentencing: Case Study Critique

The prime grounds of mandatory sentencing laws are utilitarian. The laws come with long prison sentences for recidivists, drug dealers and isolation of violent criminals from the community aiming at preventing them from committing additional crimes outside the prison walls. In addition, the design of mandatory sentencing aim at deterring and portraying a harsh reflection to potential offenders of the harsh consequences that awaits them in case they commit a crime. The lawmakers have made imprisonment both surer and more severe in order to respond to constituent issues concerning crime and safety, and to achieve the wide intention of general criminal deterrence.

The forbidding of courts from suspending trials or placing offenders on probation makes imprisonment more probable. Into the bargain, the increase in statutory devices raises the severity of sentences. Some statutes, for instance, require the…

Supreme Court
Words: 1086 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93345944
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Justice Antonin Scalia's philosophy and contributions to the US Supreme Court, and the effect of his demise on the Court, particularly on Amendments IV, V, VI and VIII.

Philosophy and Impact of the Death of Scalia

Owing to Justice Scalia's disruptive nature, a number of impolite social media posts, op-eds and tweets are expected from parties who were usually not in agreement with his philosophy. Despite the presence of other "conservative" Justices, Antonin Scalia's aggressive and frequently insulting views either infuriated the opposition or made individuals who agreed with him feel immensely superior and triumphant. I personally believe he can be rightfully counted among the best orators in American history and also the best writer ever among Supreme Court Justices. With respect to the Court's future, numerous diverse responses on the part of politicians are to be expected in the near future (Burrus, 2016). My hope and prediction is that…

Social Psychology in Court the
Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18590267
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Social psychologists have shown that a group can be heavily influenced by the dominating, authoritarian decision making of one or more strong supporters of the death penalty.

Despite the democratic process of picking jury members, many typical jury selection practices later lead the group of twelve picked to be of a certain caliber, based on the characteristics of those chosen and how those characteristics relate within a group setting. Since the 1970's, social psychologists have been used by counsel to help ensure victory in the outcome of certain cases. Due to the influential potential of a jury's opinion, venue becomes essential in the outcome of the case. The trial of the police officers in the Rodney King beating was set in Simi Valley; the general population being extremely conservative and too many, racist. Modern professionals trained in jury selection based on social psychology findings are known in today's industry as…

Law Violations in Real Life True Crime
Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55206501
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Law Violations in Real Life

True Crime

There are few crimes in which the statute of limitations will never expire. Among these limited crimes is murder, an offense considered so monstrous that penalties for committing murder range from life imprisonment to the death penalty. In the case of Anthony Sowell, one of America's most recent serial killers, murder was just one of the offenses that he committed. In addition to committing at least eleven murders, for which he was charged, he was also charged rape and kidnapping, felonious assault, and attempted murder (Smith, 2009). For the crimes that he committed, Sowell was sentenced on July 22, 2011 death by lethal injection.

Sowell committed at least three different types of crimes after he was released from prison in 2005 after being charged with attempted rape, rape, and kidnapping for which he was sentenced to 15 years in prison after pleading guilty…

Reward and Punishment
Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15071543
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Reward and Punishment

The American system of justice is designed to ensure that criminal activity is punished and those responsible for crime are made to serve retribution for their choices. The system is based on the idea that it is better for 100 criminals to get away with crime than for one innocent man to go to prison. However, miscarriages of justice still take place in the American justice system. Innocent people go to prison and guilty people go free. Those unsatisfied with the situation have been known to take matters into their own hands. This vigilantism has been a major topic of debate with regard to ethics and the determination of what is morally right or wrong. The system is designed so that the regular everyday citizen does not have to perform the punishment on the criminals. The severity of a crime is supposed to have a direct correlation…

Sexual Predators Prosecution Too Harsh and Disadvantageous
Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 19836773
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Sexual Predators Prosecution

TOO HARSH AND DISADVANTAGEOUS

Sexual Predators' Prosecution

Sexual predators are persons who sexually victimize other persons (ILGA, 2009). They may be rapists, molesters, peeping toms or sexual deviants. A sexual deviant is convicted for rape, attempted rape, child molestation or abuse, incest, sodomy or indecent sexual assault or exposure. A judge may, however, convict a sexual predator for a crime unrelated to the sexual act. If the offender takes a child from home without parental consent, he may be convicted for kidnapping. As of 2009, 17 States have laws that penalize sexual predators, specifically a sub-class of sexually violent predators or SVP. Of these 17, Illinois adopted and enforces the broadest definition of SVP as sex offenders who victimize persons below 18 years old, regardless of past convictions. The other 16 define SVPs as those who victimize others below 12 years old and who have prior sex…

Ryan Matthews Case Was One
Words: 1430 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46146800
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Hayes was pressurized into making a statement which placed him and Matthews at the scene of the crime. Hayes and Matthews were no where near the scene of the crime when it happened. Hayes had to make a forced statement where he claimed he drove Matthews to the store and only heard gunshots after Matthew entered the store. He did not bother to ask Matthews about the activity inside Hayes was also forced into making a false confession. The prosecutors relied on this false confession and the witnesses' confession to try Matthews.

The prosecutors used witness testimony to convict Matthews. They did not have any forensic or scientific evidence which could link Matthews to the murder. One of the witnesses alleged that he managed to catch a glimpse of Matthews in the rearview mirror at the scene of the crime. The district attorney believed that it was enough evidence to…

Competency to Stand Trial
Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17634122
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Competency to Stand Trial

DRAWING THE LINE

At any point in criminal proceedings that a defendant shows signs of mental illness, his competence to proceed to stand trial may be questioned (Winick, 2002). The issue may be brought up when he pleads guilty, waives certain constitutional rights, at sentencing hearing or when administering punishment, including capital punishment. Either the defense or prosecution or the court itself may raise the issue, even if the defendant himself objects to it. But mental illness alone, even schizophrenia, does not automatically produce a finding of incompetence. Rather, it is based on the degree of functional damage produced by the illness. Two conditions must be satisfied in order to be adjudged incompetent to stand trial. It focuses on the defendant's mental state during trial. It is differentiated from the legal insanity defense, which is based on the defendant's mental state at the time of the…

High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received
Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097
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high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…

Against Assisted Suicide There Are
Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20611445
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If the act of killing another is imply universally banned, the definition of ethical action is greatly simplified, and all gray areas are decided on the side of caution. The above areas of concern are very real; there is evidence that non-voluntary euthanasia occurs in other countries where assisted suicide is an accepted medical practice (Debate, 2009). Mental health is often in issue with chronic diseases and end-of-life care, and determining when people are capable of making the choice of assisted-suicide is an impossible task -- some would even argue that the request itself is evidence of mental unhealthy, and should be interpreted as a request for better care (APA, 2001; True Compassion, 2009).

John Stuart Mill, who wrote directly and explicitly in opposition to Kant with his Utilitarian ethics, believed that it was only the effects of an action that determined its morality: "the influence of actions on happiness…

U S Ignorance of Stalin's Crimes
Words: 6893 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3919657
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In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.

Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…

Child Abuse and Mass Media
Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9227682
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As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).

The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van…

Justice in the Twentieth Century
Words: 1694 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74551873
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What was particularly ironic was that soccer had always been a game for whites only: blacks were specifically not included.

Of course, the movie had a happy ending when South Africa won the World Cup. But the World Cup didn't completely change South Africa. There is still high violence, prompted by economic conditions and a newly released set of citizens. A high percentage of residents also have Aids, another very serious problem. But Archbishop Tutu points out that the TRC methods of dealing with the violence were not the traditional way to justice, but an older and deeper vision of justice. In South Africa the violators of human rights do not face criminal trials. Instead, perpetrators engage in confessions, and reconciliation between the victims and the victimizers is achieved by means of public hearings of apology and forgiveness. Probably, efforts towards reconciliation have their own side effects -- moral and…

Corrections Rehabilitation the Limits of
Words: 3662 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16848871
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While its goals may be commendable, restorative justice is nevertheless a disaggregated model. Uniting relational justice, participative or consensual justice and changing or improvement justice, restorative justice has become a concept that has something for everyone (Wilson, 2012).

The Case for Rehabilitation

The Attack on the Rehabilitative Ideal

A premise that has endured all through the history of American corrections is that labors should be put forth to reform those who commit crimes. At the start of the 1900's, the rehabilitative model was eagerly broadcast and aided to direct the overhaul of the correctional system with the achievement of undetermined sentencing, parole, probation and a detached juvenile justice system. Over the next several years, offender treatment ruled as the established correctional attitude. Then, in the early 1970's, rehabilitation went through a steep turn of fate. The greater disturbances in American civilization in this period encouraged a universal evaluation of the…