Ethnic Studies Essays (Examples)

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Library Filters

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37563122

Library Filters

Why Libraries Must Not Use Software Filters to Censor Speech: One Person's Hate is Another Person's Political Philosophy

The French 17th century freethinking philosopher Voltaire said one of the most famous quotations in regards to the freedom of speech. He said that he would, though he disagreed with every word out of his colleague's mouth, defend to the death the man's right to say such terrible things. Perhaps the 21st definition of Voltaire's remark might be, 'though I disagree with every word upon you pet causes' local URL, I will defend to the death your right to point and click to this website on the Internet, lest my own right be similarly threatened.'

Recently, the idea of 'hate crimes' became codified in the American legal system, and thus the idea of similarly correlated 'hate speech' was formed. 'Hate speech' is usually defined as speech that attempts to create…… [Read More]

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Sidewalk Safety

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55941001

Sidewalk Safety in New York

In her seminal work, Death and Life in the Great American Cities, New Yorker Jane Jacobs articulated her concerns with how the forces of suburbanization are destroying the vitality that has always been associated with great cities such as New York. Though many people believe that suburbanization results in clean and tree-lined sidewalks, Jacobs has found that the suburbanization process has simply increased the number of safe sidewalks in the City.

I have observed Jacob's argument firsthand in my own Brooklyn neighborhood in Canarsie. On the surface, 101st street between Avenues N. And M. present a pretty picture of the multicultural residents living harmoniously on a tree-lined sidewalk. The residents of this street include people of all ages. We have long-term Italian and Irish residents living next door to new immigrants from the West Indies. A casual observer would probably classify 101st street as a…… [Read More]

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Racial Profiling in Airports

Words: 1553 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96912182

Racial profiling in airports [...] how terrorist attacks in America call for increasing racial profiling in airports, similar to Israel's El Al Airlines racial profiling tactics. Racial profiling is a highly controversial topic, but some countries have found racial profiling helps keep people safer, and makes sense, while many political groups feel it is a clear violation of rights, and should never be used. Racial profiling may be controversial, but after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, it may be one of the only reliable ways available to keep the country safe from further attacks.


In the days after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, people in the United Sates were afraid. They were afraid of another attack, and they were angry. They were angry the government had not known about the attacks, and somehow stopped them. They were angry about the senseless killing…… [Read More]

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African-American Politics

Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4567876

against the emerging concept pertaining to the Racial Privacy Initiative, abbreviated as RPI. The Works Cited seven sources in MLA format.

African-American Politics

Just like other constant processes accompanying change, global politics has been in a constant changing state since times immemorial. Not only that, politics that we observe worldwide based on different rules and regulations as well as outlining distinct policies unique to every age, Stone Age, Middle Age as well as Modern Age is highly rich in history. On the same account African-American politics has also witnessed various changes. African-American politics, however, is largely based on issues pertaining to the racial differences and color prejudices that the blacks in America have had to face since for good. This mercurial political sphere while undergoing change gives birth to various phenomenon and activities. The recent one being the issue related to the Racial Privacy Initiative.

The Racial Privacy Initiative is…… [Read More]

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Downside of Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Has

Words: 1459 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23371069

Downside of Affirmative Action

Affirmative action has increasingly become a popular subject of debate. Not only does the phrase "affirmative action" mean different things to different people, but also there are different arguments for and against it. While many people tout the benefits of affirmative action programs, they have acted as a stumbling block for minorities and have essentially created a starker disparity in the struggle for equal opportunity between white people and other minority groups.

Benefits of Affirmative Action

Affirmative action (AA) refers to the social practice in which members of historically disadvantaged groups are given preferential treatment in an attempt by the United States to compensate for any harm that was caused to their ancestors in the past (Crock, 1995). For example, African-Americans receive special benefits because of the U.S. history of slavery.

President Lyndon B. Johnson originally created affirmative action programs in 1965 to correct discrimination that…… [Read More]

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Debate Against Racial Preference in College Admissions Affirmative Action

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47074548

Racial Profiling

Drachman, Edward R., Robert Langran, and Alan Shank. "Case 4: Race-Based Affirmative

Action in College Admissions: Keep It, Mend It, or End It?" You Decide: Controversial cases in American Politics. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008. 47-67. Print.

"Colleges have given three main justifications for affirmative action policies that would aid certain minority applicants, especially African-Americans and Hispanics: to compensate for long-standing practices of discrimination; to achieve diversity of the student body; and to overcome 'underrepresentation' of historically disadvantaged groups" (47).

"In California in 1995, the Board of Regents decided to stop race-based admissions, and the next year voters passed Proposition 209, which ended racial preferences in all public-sector state programs including college admissions; and laws were soon enacted in Washington State and Florida prohibiting state universities from using race-based admissions policies" (48).

"Critics of racial preference in college admission argue that:

The U.S. Constitution, especially the Fourth Amendment,…… [Read More]

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New Haven Firefighters the Supreme Court Case

Words: 1494 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 71500218

New Haven Firefighters

The Supreme Court case of Ricci v. DeStefano was heard in April of 2009, and the Court's decision was issued in favor of the plaintiffs on 29 June, 2009. The plaintiffs here, Ricci et al., were nineteen firefighters from New Haven, Connecticut who had sued the administration of New Haven mayor John DeStefano over the decision to disregard results from a written examination given for promotion within the city fire department. Ricci et al. alleged reverse discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibits employment discrimination based on race: it is necessary to note in this context that the vast majority of the plantiffs in Ricci were white, with two Hispanics included, and that the administrative decision made in New Haven was based on the fact that no African-American firefighters were able to pass the test and thus be eligible for promotion.…… [Read More]

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Heroes Anti-Heroes and Persuading an Audience

Words: 1781 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 28915119

Heroes & Anti-Heroes

Chester Himes and Americo Paredes tell stories that compel readers to be concerned about structural racism in America. Though the settings are circa 1900s and 1940s, the stranglehold that bigotry has on America -- particularly in the South -- has not been eliminated. Certainly bigotry -- or the overt expression of bigotry -- has abated some, but one wonders if Himes would still conclude that society is characterized by hypocrisy and contradiction. Racial hatred and racial violence find expression today, just as they did in Los Angeles in the 1940s.

With His Pistol in His Hand by Americo Paredes is a Texan tall tale -- and an American true story. The book was first a doctoral dissertation by a University of Texas student in the Department of English. It came to fame as a lead story published in Dallas in 1957 by Mody C. Boatright (ed.) in…… [Read More]

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Ethnicity and Stratification Is of Importance Because

Words: 972 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48080202

ethnicity and stratification is of importance because modern society is culturally diverse, it is important to know what motivates various ethnic groups to strive for success and how social stratification plays a significant role in this process. The opportunity for training and furthering ones level of education is promising for individuals of all ethnicities. Providing there is some form of stratification system within society, it is likely that individuals will view this inequality as a motivational factor to undergo sacrifices and receive additional training for these jobs. This will facilitate individuals in these groups to achieve higher strata in society and be deemed successful. Social stratification is necessary in order to motivate ethnically diverse groups to train for more important jobs. There are three theories of stratification including, the functional theory of stratification, conflict theory and stratification and social interactionism and stratification. All three theories can relate to relationship between…… [Read More]

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From Personal to Political

Words: 1383 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26574097

Personal to Politics

Impacts of Racial Discrimination on American Society

The difference between white and black is centuries old. There were times when Nigers were considered as slaves, then there were times when they were declared free but I still believe that deep down the white culture lies the black foundation. Being a racist on the basis of skin color is nothing new in American culture. I was once a strong believer of discriminating on the basis of skin color but time proved me wrong and showed me how wrong I was and how humanity is above everything, every culture, every color, every race.

I had a friend with the name Dean, black guy from Nigeria. His parents shifted in New york long time but used to visit their home town very often. We spent almost our whole childhood together. Those were the good days when we were completely innocent…… [Read More]

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Discrimination and Affirmative Action

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55745048

Discrimination and Affirmative Action

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) prohibits private and state and local government employers with 15 or more employees from discriminating against individuals on the basis of disability. Title I of the ADA also generally requires covered employers to make reasonable accommodations -- changes in the workplace or in the way things are usually done that provide individuals with disabilities equal employment opportunities." (U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission, 2008) In order to meet the ADA's definition of disability the individual must have a "physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; (2) has a record of such an impairment; or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment. This definition of disability may differ from the definition used in other laws. For example, the term "disabled veteran" means an individual…… [Read More]

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Racism Can Be Stated as the Attitude

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 52974864

Racism can be stated as the attitude or practice of recognizing authority/supremacy of one group over another. It is either founded on race, color, ethnicity or cultural heritage. It is, if truth be told, a global tradition and is not only limited to a particular area or group of people. One can notice racism at all individual, group or institutional levels. Racism is spread and conserved by the introduction of planned activities and policies in economical, societal, political, educational, religious and cultural aspects of life. It is not a difficult thing to distinguish the narrow-minded, dogmatic and prejudiced people who shape up their way of thinking, philosophy, traditions, attitudes and practices on the basis of racial ideology. This picky set of thought is not only possessed by the general public. Even those hold powerful positions demonstrate the same beliefs and practices of racial discrimination ("Racism" 2012).

Racism has continued to…… [Read More]

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Nickel and Dream People Who Are Born

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97400830

Nickel and Dream

People who are born or raised in the United States share unique character traits because of the American culture. Because this is considered a land of freedom and opportunity there are rights and gifts that are promised to each citizen. The American Dream is the unique idea that anyone who is willing to work hard can come from nothing and achieve their life's goals and ambitions so long as they live in America. Anyone, no matter how low class their level of birth, can succeed and have all the material possessions, money, and related power that they want as long as they are willing to put in the effort to achieve it. It is a promise which is two-sided because it requires the American to reach out for what the nation is holding above their head. In response to this ideology, many American authors have taken it…… [Read More]

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Lying in International Relations

Words: 1454 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88671976

Lying in International Relations

What are your thoughts on lying in international relations?

International relations can be a very complicated issue and the relationships can be tenuous and easily broken if not handled correctly. The importance of a solid relationship cannot be underestimated. Countries with which a nation has a good relationship will be a source of economic support in terms of trade and lending of funds, a sharer of technological progression, as well as a potential ally in times of strife. It is the hope that when countries are building a relationship, there will be a level of honesty between the governments. However there will always be certain secrets which a nation's government should never share to a country and indeed with nations where there is a history of mistrust or dubious actions, it is even less prudent to share top-secret information. Some people naively state that "honesty is…… [Read More]

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Wretched of the Earth When Nations of

Words: 1643 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63833823

Wretched of the Earth

When nations of Europe set out on boats, they determined to find lands and claim them for the empirical country, regardless of any objections coming from the people actually living on those lands. In the colonized land, the native population were marginalized, oppressed, and limited in their civil rights. Many were turned into slaves on large farms run by the emissaries from the motherland. The natives were sometimes outnumbered but the number of the enemy seldom mattered because the colonial soldiers usually were in possession of more sophisticated weaponry with which they could subjugate the aboriginal peoples. Sometimes these colonies existed for centuries and lines of ethnically determined social status kept the descendants of colonists in the upper echelons of society while those descended from the natives were kept subservient to their European oppressors. Understandably this did not go well with the natives or their descendents…… [Read More]

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Dream City Oriented the Apparent Garbage Crisis

Words: 2515 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46508685

Dream City


The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city.

Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations

I would like to see the city where health systems are integrated and sharing one regional headquarter.

The leaders must facilitate development programs that generate high-income jobs.

I must address my quest for an economically vital and people-friendly future city. The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city. There are various ways in which trash could be transformed into treasure. Based on my understanding of the Clearwater's challenges and opportunities, coupled with the current economic conditions, I believe the below strategies will translate Clearwater into a new city of my desire.

Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations: the future city will be a…… [Read More]

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Major Social Institutions

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40773804

Social Institution

Racism in America's Legal System

Every few decades, our assumptions about the progress we've made in terms of racial sensitivity are undermined by a disturbing and racially-motivated miscarriage of justice. As with the Rodney King trial of two decades ago, the verdict in the Trayvon Martin murder trial demonstrated that our legal system remains highly reflective of the racial inequality that pervades our culture and society. Indeed, the legal system as a social institution is today, as it has always been, demonstrative of the racial hierarchy that detains the advancement of African-Americans.

This is an extremely troubling assertion given the perceived steps taken both during and since the Civil Rights Era. Here, the vast majority of those laws which were explicitly constructed to prevent equal treatment of African-Americans before the eyes of the law have been dismantled. The legal system has, by stated design, sought to achieve a…… [Read More]

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Major Social Institutions

Words: 811 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28314674

Race or Gender Disparity in Social Institutions

There are several laws, practices and customs that systematically reflect and produce race and gender inequalities both intentionally and unintentionally. This is what is referred to as institutional racism or sexism. People within some institutions come up with guidelines, rules, procedures or standards which bring about a racist or sexist effect. The paper will look at the role institutions play when it comes to social status arrangements. It will highlight on an example of gender and race disparities occurring in institutions.

There is a policy in public schools known as zero tolerance which can be defined as a policy that allows predetermined consequences or punishment for particular offenses regardless of the age of student, their disciplinary history, or fact the courts are in full support of zero-tolerance which is reasonable policies which are in place to improve the safety in schools. This…… [Read More]

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Racism the Discussion of Racism Was Indeed

Words: 2273 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 615075


The discussion of racism was indeed insightful and one of the discussion points raised was whether or not racism would always exist in society -- in some shape or form. This is indeed an intriguing idea, because looking back on world history, racism fundamentally has existed in some shape or form throughout society. As one participant explained, cultural and social norms are always going to vary from place to place and this is always going to be a breeding ground for racism. This does raise a good point. Racism is founded in fear of the unknown and insecurity. As Vladimir Nabokov has said, no matter where in the world you go, "stranger always rhymes with danger" (Naiman, 2010). This summarizes the motivations of racism in a nutshell. As one scholar explains, the system upon which racism is built "…is dependent upon holding its victims in the grips of fear.…… [Read More]

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Stereotyping and Predujice Discrimination Stereotyping and Prejudice

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66700282

Stereotyping and Predujice Discrimination

Stereotyping and Prejudice Discrimination

Definition and differences between stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination

Discrimination, prejudice, and stereotype in many cases are used correspondingly in day-to-day conversations. However, when we have a close examination at these words, we can define and describe them distinctively: we can define stereotypes as ideas that are oversimplified about certain groups of persons. Prejudice is the feeling and thought directed towards these subject groups while discrimination is the action that focuses on these groups. Racism is described as a form of prejudice including set beliefs directed to a given group of a certain race. As the above statement suggests, stereotypes are ideas that are oversimplified about certain groups and can be based on sexual orientation, gender, age, ethnicity, or race-almost, any feature.

They can be positive (often the group of an individual like women say that they are not likely to make complains…… [Read More]

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Racism and Anti-Semitism Is Racism and Anti-Semitism

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 10615069

Racism and Anti-Semitism

Is Racism and Anti-Semitism still a Problem in the United States?

The world has penetrated into the twenty first century, where the entire human race is surging ahead due to their magnificent and outstanding capabilities that have made the world a much better place to live. Even though people from all over the globe have immensely contributed to the development and growth on a broad spectrum, yet numerous social issues have continued since time immemorial. Discrimination and hatred particularly based on race, culture and religion is widespread issues that are commonly found amongst huge amount of people.

In fact, one cannot ignore the fact that the levels of hatred and discrimination for others have given rise to several fights, warfare and conflicts. With respect to the aspect of hatred and discrimination that has continued and is still ongoing, the thesis statement is "Racism and Anti-Semitism is still…… [Read More]

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Fiction's Biggest Advantages Is the Way it

Words: 2200 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68679496

fiction's biggest advantages is the way it can be used to explore sensitive, difficult, and contentious topics from a relative distance. Fictional characters can express ideas and ask questions that would be considered beyond the pale in everyday life, offering writers and readers a relatively safe space in which to deal with these difficult issues. However, this quality also has a downside, because too often destructive ideas can be repeated and strengthened through works of fiction that purport to be doing quite the opposite. The short stories "Sharing," "Along the Frontage Road," and "Brownies" are all guilty of this dishonest, destructive practice, because although all three stories pretend to offer useful insights into the contentious issue of race and identity, all three end up subtly reproducing racist ideas and tropes. By examining these stories in conjunction, one is able to see how the productive, exploratory power of fiction can be…… [Read More]

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Homecoming The Principle Theme in Jean Rhys'

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37015514


The principle theme in Jean Rhys' short story, "I Used to Live Here Once," is the prevalence of racism and the accompanying sentiment of elitism that it gives those of European ancestry. This theme was fairly common in Rhys' writing, which routinely "would explore the tension between the ordered world of colonial life and the seductive world of island sensuality" (Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004). Rhys' theme is supported on the strength of a pair of literary elements, foreshadowing and symbolism. A thorough examination of the text demonstrates that the author utilizes these two literary devices to reinforce her theme and indicate to the reader that the seemingly halcyon journey of figurative and literal remembrance is not as innocent as it appears.

Rhys utilizes copious amounts of foreshadowing to demonstrate that the narrator's journey to a house she used to live in represents more than that which is appears…… [Read More]

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Race and Poverty Are Closely Connected in

Words: 1732 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23828389

Race and poverty are closely connected in the U.S. And this is primarily owed to the fact that racism is still strong in the civilized world. Racism in this country goes back during the late eighteenth century when the 1790 Naturalization Act provided any European immigrant with the right to become a U.S. citizen while other nations were prevented from becoming citizens and ended up having to work in low paid positions with no papers. In addition to this, these people came to be discriminated by the masses and to be regarded as the lower class.

Affirmative action for whites continued throughout history and is present in most areas in the U.S. today. "In recent history, affirmative action for whites motivated racially-restrictive housing policies that helped 15 million white families procure homes with FHA loans from the 1930s to the 1960s, while people of color were mostly excluded from the…… [Read More]

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English Writer Humanist William Hazlitt Famously Wrote

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60208697

English writer humanist, William Hazlitt, famously wrote "prejudice child ignorance." The works class read summer, Snow August Zeitoun, themes related dangers prejudice. In a -written essay analyze Dave Eggers Pete Hamill criticize prejudice work.

Prejudice and hate in New York City and New Orleans:

Snow in August vs. Zeitoun

"Prejudice is the child of ignorance."

-William Hazlitt, English writer and humanist

The essence of prejudice can be found in the word's etymology. To be prejudiced is to 'pre-judge' something, based upon assumptions that are not based in the here and now. To be prejudiced against someone because of his or her race or religion is to judge the individual by pre-existing suppositions, often based in ignorance and what is falsely considered 'common sense' knowledge. In the case of Snow in August, the Irish-American residents of the neighborhood where the protagonist Michael Devlin lives pre-judge the Orthodox Jewish Rabbi Hirsch because…… [Read More]

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Immigration Advantages of a Multicultural Society and

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45691531


Advantages of a multicultural society and labor force

Although diversity can present challenges, having a diverse labor force can also convey many advantages to a society. America is a nation of immigrants and every subsequent wave of immigration has added new dimensions to the American culture. An excellent example of this is can be seen amongst the Chinese immigrants who came to the U.S. during the 19th century. "The Chinese performed every type of menial job that was available. They worked in the gold mines, the lumber industry, the fisheries and canneries, and as migrant farm laborers" and opened laundries -- any business that did not require extensive language skills and which racism did not bar them from entering (Asian-Americans, 2007, World History). The building of the railroads that transformed American society would have been impossible without the Chinese. "The Central Pacific Railroad employed about 15,000 Chinese" (Asian-Americans, 2007,…… [Read More]

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Living With Disabilities Certainly Exposes Life to

Words: 868 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77427112

Living with disabilities certainly exposes life to a variety of challenges including the challenge of securing and keeping a job. But today fortunately for most people with disabilities, increased awareness and technological advancements have given a boost to their quality of life. Also societal and legislative changes have reduced the discriminations against disabled peopled especially at work by making it mandatory on employers to make reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities. For example one such disability can be visual impairment. We are using this example to explain how disabilities are viewed under Americans with disability act and how they must be taken care of at workplace. Visual disability or vision loss can have various forms and degrees and have many different causes. Each person with visual impairment or blindness is affected differently. Some people might have low vision since birth but most have vision problems because of a disease or…… [Read More]

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White Guilt Is a Sociological and Social

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36538175

White guilt is a sociological and social psychological phenomenon that refers to a collective taking of responsibility by the dominant group for perpetrating past injustices. The phenomenon of white guilt is usually associated with greater support for affirmative action and other activist approaches to mitigating the effects of racism. Therefore, white guilt can be perceived as a desirable or positive variable that can predict pro-social behavior. Indeed, research has shown statistically significant correlations between perceived white guilt and low levels of prejudice against people of color (Swim and Miller). Likewise, there is strong support in academic literature that white guilt is associated with more support for affirmative action programs (Gunn and Wilson). White guilt is also associated with the acknowledgment of the existence of white privilege, which is the phenomenon of whites benefitting from their social status (Iver, Leach and Crosby; Swim and Miller). The experience of white guilt is…… [Read More]

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Immigration Fallacy the Existential Fallacy Behind Arizona's

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 29221574

Immigration Fallacy

The Existential Fallacy Behind Arizona's Immigration Policy

Few issues currently featured in American public debate are clouded by as much emotional bias, invective and distortion as that of immigration reform. Particularly as this concerns America's shared border with Mexico, immigration is a discussion which carries significant political ramification, clear racial overtones and distinctions in ideology where American openness is concerned. As a result, many political figures have been moved to comment or drive policy on the issue-based less on the support of fact than on the employment of inflammatory rhetoric. And quite frequently, this rhetoric is presented with little concern for the logical fallacies which may underlie is basic formative claims. Rarely has this been evidenced with more vitriol or determination than in the state of Arizona over the last several years. In the context of our discussion, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer is particularly noted for her steady…… [Read More]

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Artifact in Socio-Cultural Context --

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72590242

Among the ironies evident in the film, the hardest-working people in the community seemed to be the black women employed by white families. That obviously conflicts with some of the most common racist themes about African-Americans: that they are "lazy" or, in the vernacular of the era, "shiftless" (Healey, 2008). Racial bias was the societal norm in Mississippi in the 1960s; in fact, both stereotyping and prejudice were actually codified into laws that criminalized the promotion of racial equality. Blacks were still prohibited by law from using the same facilities as whites when the movie opens. One of the white employers devotes her community improvement efforts to enacting a new law requiring separate bathrooms in any home employing black housekeepers.

The characters in the film exhibit a quiet dignity and attitudes that contradict another typical racially prejudiced stereotype: namely, that American blacks are secretly seething with hatred toward white people.…… [Read More]

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Race for Real Race Is

Words: 1754 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72036783

10. Colorblindness will not end racism. Pretending race doesn't exist is not the same as creating equality. Race is more than stereotypes and individual prejudice. To combat racism, we need to identify and remedy social policies that advantage some groups at the expense of others.

To be able to eliminate the racism, we do not have to eliminate the concept of race. This is not a solution; this will only hide the problem and not solve it. Race must be seen as an identification and not a difference. Our government must eliminate laws that advantage only some groups in society. Doing that will make people see that we all are humans and equals even if our skin color is different.


1. Fredrickson, George M., Racism: A short History, Princeton University Press, July 14, 2011

2. Berg, Manfred, Wendt, Simon, Racism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer…… [Read More]

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Racism Has the Potential to

Words: 384 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51501000

When prejudices get out of control and are viewed as truth rather than as fantasy or over-generalization, racism can result. Racism itself can lead to violence or social cruelty. In the schoolyard, children may be teased and in the workplace, individuals may be passed by for promotions or higher pay.

Racism also results from an attitude of "us vs. them," in which all differences are viewed as negative. in-group solidarity may be a necessary part of human nature but it is also possible for people to overcome their racist prejudices by contentiously refuting stereotypes and making a point to view each person as an individual. Judging a person on the basis of race or culture prevents the development of meaningful friendships and continues to breed racist attitudes. Racism can also be perpetuated by the media. Portrayals of African-Americans, Asians, and other minority groups on television or in movies are often…… [Read More]

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Affirmative Action Over the Past

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6154057

Criticism of Affirmative Action

Over the years, specific criticisms of Affirmative Action have developed as a result of the endless debate and legal wrangling over the issue, as well as the division in American society about the topic. The first criticism of Affirmative Action to consider is the assertion that the burden of compensating victims of discrimination usually becomes the responsibility of those who are not individually responsible for the discrimination itself. For example, in the case of employment, promotion and educational opportunities, white males are usually the ones who pay the consequences of discrimination violations even if they did not cause it. While the argument is made that this is just because the white males receive the most benefit from discrimination against others, the same argument can be made that the price that white males pay for these extra opportunities exceed what they ever receive in return, making them…… [Read More]

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Race Social and Political Contexts

Words: 1431 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 796053

Whites generally were associated with roles including plantation overseers and supervisors or small proprietors; free non-whites generally suffered from circumscribed social and political abilities prior to the revolution (Knight, 2005). While their wealth and education may place them about smaller merchants and proprietors in the white class, they were still not held to the highest castes or ranks. Slaves were often distinguished as property and subject to coercion and much control (Knight, 2005).

The presence of a slave society resulted in an extremely turbulent and volatile environment where tensions among whites and members of other races were constantly raised (Knight, 2005). Lacking among all races and groups was solidarity among classes with respect to humanity and civil rights or political rights (Knight, 2005). In each of these instances race served as the impetus for revolts and revolution. With lack of solidarity and a general in acceptance of legal and social…… [Read More]

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Nella Larsen Passing Nella Larsen's Novel Passing

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60067575

Nella Larsen Passing

Nella Larsen's novel Passing is about African-American culture and racial identity. The story focuses on the friendship between two women, Irene Redfield and Clare Kendry. Both women are African-American yet both have light skin. Therefore, they pass for being white. However, each woman deals with her racial and ethnic identites differently. Clare Kendry grew up with white relatives and later marries a racially prejudiced white man who does not know Clare is actually Black. Therefore, Clare distances herself from her African-American heritage and lives as if she were white. Irene, on the other hand, identifies fully with her African-American heritage. She marries a Black doctor who hopes to move to Brazil. Living in Harlem, Irene is unhappy with the racial situation in the United States but feels powerless to do anything about it. The book brings up issues related to racism in America as well as issues…… [Read More]

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Certain Issues Addressed in the Minority Rights Revolution by John D Skrentny

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37274144

Minority Rights Revolution

The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought about several concordant social changes in the United States. What began as primarily an attempt to liberate African-Americans from continued systematic oppression in the form of school segregation Jim Crow laws turned out to be as much of a boon to American women and minority groups other than blacks, especially Latinos. Among the issues shared in common by all oppressed groups include voting rights, equal access to education, and equal employment opportunities. Creating social programs and institutions to provide especially for the needs of all minority groups was a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement, which appealed to women and Latinos as well as to African-Americans. The design of blanket-institutions and legislation was definitely a step in the right direction, as oppressed groups do suffer from similar forms and consequences of discrimination. However as John D. Skrentny points…… [Read More]

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Family Counseling

Words: 314 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78104059

Family Counseling

When considering family assessment, one must consider that all individuals come from unique and diverse backgrounds, including families. A counselor must attain a familiarity with these differences in order to strengthen the counseling relationship between him/her and the client. The assessment part of a counseling session is a critical one; the counselor and client become more aware of each other, build rapport and become respectful of each others beliefs and values (Nietzel, 1998). In addition, counselors must become familiar with and be sensitive when assessing African-American, Asian-American and Hispanic-American families.

First of all, counselors must be sensitive when assessing African-American families. Overemphasis on the differences that separate this cultural group from others may promote stereotyping. It is important to keep this in mind, so as to avoid it.

Secondly, counselors must be sensitive when assessing Asian-American families, as well. Many Asian-Americans emphasize the collective good and make plans…… [Read More]

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Sociology Will the Real Individual

Words: 2611 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87614075

Dated November 7, 2002, it speaks about the fact that, as of that date - and for the first time in Senate history - three currently-serving Senators had actually belonged to that body for more than forty years continuously. ("New Seniority Record," 7 November 2002) the stature of these three men? Very great, I imagine, but as of that date - unassailable. The creator of this web site did not dare to give any sort of heavy or overly critical analysis of any still-serving U.S. senators. A living incumbent, and his actions, bear a very different status from the legislator of the past. He, after all, does not have to worry about re-election!

Certainly, there is quite a bit to be learned from these examples of status information. As stated earlier, each of us carries with herself or himself certain assumptions about other people, places... even ideas. The example concerning…… [Read More]

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Egyptian Identity the Identity of

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6062032

They are about as related as say the Italians are to the Irish. The modern population of Egypt is largely composed of what anthropologists refer to as people of "Eastern-Hamitic Stock." This means that modern (as well as ancient) Egyptians are more closely related to the North African Berbers, Tuaregs, Fulas, and Tibbus than to Negroes. Egyptian Negroes live in the southern part of the country (which borders on ancient Nubia) and account for less than 1% of the modern population of Egypt.

This may seem a blow to the "out of Africa" advocates regarding the emergence of Western Civilization (so-called) but it really isn't. These Eastern-Hamitic people have their origins in Africa, so it doesn't really change anything, and yes, they are predominantly black. The ancient word the Egyptians used for their own country was KMT -- pronounced Kemet -- and it means "black land," and may refer to…… [Read More]

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Racism Cause Effect the Invisible

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78362817

Also, selective scholarships and empowerment of some Blacks, in a world where most Blacks are still, continually not recognized as full citizens, can be divisive rather than empowering to a marginalized community. Even the forms of Black enfranchisement can be reinforcing of stereotypes. The experiences of the Invisible Man, who has been given a scholarship by the school not for the excellence of his mind, but more for the prowess of his body, show this invisible truth when the protagonists asked to perform before greedy whites in a pseudo-boxing match with his fellow Black scholarship students. Mere educational empowerment, whether motivated by the lower motives of Whites or the higher motives of select Blacks, is no all-inclusive solution to a culture that is permeated with racism.

Thus, both Ellison's fiction and Lawrence Otis Graham's nonfiction book suggests that often it is easy even for Blacks to be complicit in this…… [Read More]

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Frankel 2010 Talks About Whether

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50797560

The article relates to chapter Four which talk about white male perspective and white male and diversity in work place

Diversity in the workplace is gained by hiring people on the basis of their skills and qualification not on the basis of their skin color. (Ireland, 2010). Many companies make the error of going overboard and trying to rectify the diversity problem by focusing on gaining an equilibrium of ethnicity and gender. This can create the problem of scapegoating the white male since amplification is devoted to skin color and ethnicity as well as gender. By placing the focus, on the other hand, on personal qualification, the algorithm turns attention away form race to qualification causing people to forget about any such characteristics as 'white male."

Diversity encompasses race, gender, ethnic group, age, cognitive style, tenure, character, personality, background, organizational function, education, and more. Diversity in short is a brilliantly…… [Read More]

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Dfps Texas Over the Last

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69224484

Baker. She is serving in the position of the Regional Director. The agency is governed based on protocols that are established in Title IV of the Social Security Act and the CAPTA. To achieve its objectives, the agency is organized into a number of different positions to include: directors, counselor and managers. The way social workers fit into the organization, are they maintain these different titles when investigating and monitoring what is happening. This is accomplished by having the more experienced case workers serving in a supervisory role. They will teach less experienced social workers how to effectively interact with clients. This is when they will learn how to deal with a host of situations and address possible challenges in the future. The combination of these areas is designed to ensure the DFPS is able to achieve their larger organizational objectives. ("Child Placing Agency Administrators," 2012) (Burstain, 2012)

Evaluation of…… [Read More]

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Du Bois' Argument in the

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40403441

It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. (pp. 8-9)

Evocative here is the constraint of prejudice that denigrates the target into a victim and that exacerbates the surface malice of prejudice by humiliating the victim and having the potential to make him actualize his or her labeling. In a spiral of self-prophecy, the target of prejudice frequently actualizes perceptions of the offender and indeed Du Bois goes on to observe that: "the history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self" (p.9)

The last words -- "better and truer self" -- are echoes of the epochal theme that Du…… [Read More]

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Lake M And Reynolds H

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 74121818

S. President Theodore Roosevelt. Similarly, both leaders were also influenced by the parallel analyses published by the American author James Bryce.

These influences also pervaded the Indian Continent, where restrictions against actually emulating the American institution of outright slavery gave rise to the concept of indentured servitude instead. Compounding the moral depravity, the British Colonialists responded to the competition for labor and the resulting diminution of white wages by resorting to restrictive immigration policies. In this respect, the authors also detail the influence of institutionalized racist policies pioneered in the American South in connection with the thinly veiled race-based restriction on voting rights of the newly-emancipated African-American black former slaves. In particular, the authors explain the influence of American voting eligibility literacy tests in conjunction with "grandfather clauses" that exempted illiterate white voters whose parents and grandparents had voted while excluding emancipated black because virtually no African-Americans (whose ancestors had…… [Read More]

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Affirmative Action and Full Spectrum

Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3609340

It seeks to enhance group diversity and individualism in the workplace and in educational institutions. The emphasis is shifted. Instead meeting compulsory affirmative action principles and strategies, the full spectrum diversity approach focuses on creative ways to achieve more diversity.

Instead of being driven by something external (as Affirmative Action was by the government), the new system uses internally-based incentives to accomplish full spectrum diversity. Companies that are committed to full spectrum diversity change their organizational structure in order to encourage minority success. They try to eliminate the weaknesses in affirmative action practices and to view diversity, not as an unpleasant requirement the company must comply with minimally (the "token" black receptionist, for example), but as an asset to business that should be enhanced and developed for the benefit of all. Programs, policies, orientation, and corporate culture all reflect this change in attitude and approach.… [Read More]

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Race What Is the Difference

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57439117

Race exists, suggests the social view, even in the biological categorizations of science, out of cultural customs and habits not reality. Race is a powerful illusion in culture, even amongst certain pockets of the culture of the scientific community, but it is just that -- an illusion and a delusion.


Who has benefited from the belief that we can sort people according to race and that there are natural or biologically-based differences between racial groups?

A potent argument in favor of not reading human persons as existing within inherent racial categories is the fact that it is usually the majority, rather than the minority, who benefits from seeing persons as races, and victims of racial prejudice suffer. Examples are that of the 3/5ths compromise when the Constitution was framed, codifying racial differences into the American system of law, Jim Crow in the post-Reconstruction American South, Apartheid in South Africa,…… [Read More]

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Racial Profiling Within Law Enforcement

Words: 1513 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20329350

The problem is endemic and deeply rooted, but it is also one that cannot be openly discussed with social stigma.

Racial profiling as a theoretical practice is not wholly unfair, it is the rational use of discrimination to pre-empt crime. However, since racial profiling is often combined with racial discrimination, the inevitable result is that both such practices are institutionally rebuked. Law enforcement will continue to use race as a causal factor for stopping citizens, however, due to the severe social stigma of voicing such opinions, it is an issue that no one will want or need to confront.

Driving While Black: Racial Profiling on Our Nations Highways by David a. Harris, University of Toledo College of Law. An American Civil Liberties Union Special Report, June 1999:

R. Richard Banks, Racial Profiling and Antiterrorism Efforts, 89 Cornell Law Review 1201-1217 (2004).

From Racial to Religious Profiling, in Free Inquiry. By…… [Read More]

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Affirmative Action in Today's Society

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88307795

Those who support affirmative action generally advocate it either as a means to address past discrimination or to enhance racial, ethnic, gender, or other diversity. They argue that the end result -- greater diversification -- justifies the means and that this want happen if simply left to chance. However, preferential hiring as compensation for past discrimination is ridiculous "since it benefits individuals (blacks and women possessing good educational credentials) least likely harmed by past wrongs while it burdens individuals (younger white male applicants) least likely to be responsible for past wrongs." Affirmative action does nothing to identify those who are truly in need such as those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. There's no reason why an affluent black person should be given special consideration over a poor white candidate who has most likely confronted far more roadblocks in pursuing an education and a good career. The notion that businesses can't obtain…… [Read More]

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Growing Number of Diverse Groups

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 349625

Furthermore, he taught his son that society is not always right in what they believe. With that, racism is wrong because everyone is a human being and deserves equal rights. Even though America has racism in today's modern society, there are more people like Scout's father who honestly believes in diversity (120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature).

Don't attack something if it hasn't harmed you: This lesson is taught to Jem and Scout by Atticus when he teaches them about the mockingbird. He says that the mockingbird is innocent and only sings for you. It is therefore wrong to kill it. The examples of the mockingbird within the novel are Tom and Boo. Tom was attacked by the entire white society in Maycomb County. These attacks and accusations destroyed his innocent, respectable life. Arthur "Boo" Radley was also an innocent victim to the taunts and of the people…… [Read More]

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Prejudice in the Workplace Specifically

Words: 1621 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72855143

al, 2002). In addition, change occurs quicker when leadership is diverse, as well (Hampton and Lee, 2007). Finally, ethnicity and diversity issues should be included in organizational behavior courses, so that all business and industry has more access to this information (Mamman, 1996). Change must occur in our society, and an end to prejudice must be achieved for our society and our workplaces to be truly free and equal.


Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site:

Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site:

Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site:

Griessman, G. (1993). What is…… [Read More]

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Hispanic Culture in America the

Words: 821 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82135777

' The film suggests that assimilation does come at some cost, though, like to the lawyer Memo, who marries an Anglo woman and must play down his Mexican heritage to fit in with his in-laws. But overall the movie suggests that Latino participation in the American dream is both comparable to that of other ethnic groups. Living as a Mexican-American is possible, and the second generation does not have to entirely sacrifice family and heritage to become a part of the American mosaic, contrary to what was suggested in earlier Hollywood images, chronicled in "The Bronze Screen."

The film "Real Women Have Curves" (2002) even more convincingly demonstrates that Latino struggles with American identity are not necessarily always negative. The protagonist Ana must overcome images of the Western media to find a sense of peace and security. She is ambitious professionally, and does not just want to get married, as…… [Read More]

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Diversity Verizon Made Diversity Inc 's

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5508505

2) Verizon's commitment to diversity meets the needs of America's changing demographics. Visible minority groups are becoming an increasingly large portion of the population, to the point where in some border states certain groups are projected to be the largest ethnic group in the coming years and decades.

In the face of such demographic shifts, a diverse workforce can be a powerful tool for sustainable competitive advantage. It captures a greater share of an underutilized source of talent. For example, Diversity Inc.'s top 50 employs 17% of college-educated blacks, Asians, Latinos and Native Americans, despite only employing 5% of the nation's workforce. This in turn acts as a draw for future graduates from these groups, as well as for non-graduates. Verizon's customer base cuts across all lines of race and gender, and having such a diverse workforce allows for them to better understand their customers, and thus better meet their…… [Read More]

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Equality First for the Sake

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53914733

Thus, it also does not answer the three questions above in a positive fashion. The only thing that can be said is that for the short-run "it is a refuge from cleavage and strife" or the "best that we can do for the time being." That is not saying very much, surely.

It appears, then, that of the different ways to meet these three questions noted above, that it may be best to find ways to reduce disparity by changing public policy in areas such as housing and home ownership. The paper "The changing determinants of Inter-racial home ownership disparities: New York City in the 1990s" and "A dream deferred or realized: the impact of public policy on fostering black homeowners in New York City throughout the 1990s" by Lance Freeman and Darrick Hamilton, both show how the "prescription for change" is not one taking one action, but several: 1)…… [Read More]

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Implicit Norms Violating a Social

Words: 394 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 62919324

Finally, he offered me the lunch menu if I did not like anything that was listed on the dinner menu. I assume the lunch menu had some burgers and sandwiches. Again, it was difficult to tell if my clothing was the reason, or if it was my age.

Of course, the two are difficult to separate -- within reason, a person can look much older if he or she is wearing professional or formal clothing, and even the wealthiest and most cultured individual can look sloppy after working out if he or she is dressed in sweat clothes. It was not only that I was consciously violating a norm but that the way I was doing so sharpened potential social prejudices against me. In the same way people might be more prejudiced against someone of a different racial or ethnic heritage if that person is wearing jeans and seen walking…… [Read More]

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Justice' for All' Possible the

Words: 1137 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 35771011


There are barriers that stand in the way of all individuals experiencing the same level of justice as other experience and these barriers may include those which are structural and socio-economic as well as other barriers to justice which include gender, race, and ethnicity. In other words, there are barriers effectively in place barring individuals from being on the receiving end of an equal level of justice based upon their socio-economic status even if the barriers of race and ethnicity are not present while someone of the same race in another region of the world or a different country area that will be on the receiving end of an inequity in justice based solely on the individual's race.


Cultural and societal barriers for justice include the barriers faced by individuals in a society that does not speak the…… [Read More]

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Barry Friedman Details the Ethical

Words: 2159 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14270846

But if it wishes to stand by the stated principles of its founding and the message it attaches to its history, than profiling cannot be allowed to exist.

4) Deontological ethical systems "guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do," as opposed to suggesting what types of people we should be (Stanford, 2007). Another important distinction of deontological viewpoints is their emphasis on the motives and intentions behind an act in regards to that act's ethicality, as opposed to the consequences of that act. One narrow form of deontological ethics is moral absolutism, propagated by such thinkers as Immanuel Kant (Stanford, 2007). According to his view, acts are either moral or immoral in all situations, without any regard to the consequences (Stanford, 2007). Not all deontological viewpoints are this extreme, however it provides the clearest example of the deontological view. According to deontological ethics, acting in a…… [Read More]

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Crash Movie Crash -- a

Words: 1616 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67262266

If this is true, than how is institutionalized white racism blameworthy at all, if all groups feel hatred of what is foreign or different? The constant ironic juxtaposition of different racist scenes of different ethnic groups further undercuts the film's condemnation of police violence, given that Ryan's anger seems to be an expression of something that is bubbling within the hearts of everyone -- black, white, brown, and 'other.'

Furthermore, it is Officer Hanson, Ryan's partner, is the 'white knight' of the film, not his black supervisor, and even he reacts with culturally ingrained racism and shoots an African-American man, as a result of his training. If Hansen cannot be trusted, one might ask, who can? The most forceful critiques of racist society are those articulated by young black men, who at first seem quite articulate, but then are shown to validate the prejudices they condemn. This seems like a…… [Read More]

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Ethics & Morality in Frankenstein

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 5433005

Victor inwardly becomes a monster himself." (Kain, par. 5)

On the other hand, Richard III was written by William Shakespeare. It is the story of Richard who secretly desired the throne of his brother. Although Richard is unattractive and considers himself as such, he is very charismatic. He has a strong personality and he is brilliant with his words and his arguments. In his desire for the thrown of his brother, King Edward IV, Richard was willing to kill anyone just to obtain it. Being intelligent and skillful, he was able to deceive the people around him in order to manipulate them. In order to get married, he manipulated Lady Anne. And then he used his political power by manipulating and deceiving the people around him to have his other brother, Clarence, executed. He used manipulated his older brother, Edward to feel guilty about Clarence's death. This contributed to the…… [Read More]

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Racism in Australia Past Present

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33427795

While children should be the main targets of this approach, education can also reach other members of Australian society. Through their children, parents will be exposed to these new ideas. Seminars, plays, and other cultural events can also help open the minds of adults. In this circumstance, the unfashionable nature of racism in Australia will be beneficial; to keep up appearances, many will support and attend these events.

Thus, racism in Australia is a severe problem, impacting both individuals and the society. Most likely caused by Australia's racist past, the racist element in Australia is muted, but still quite pervasive, perhaps one of the more dangerous kinds of racism. Because of this, the best kind of response is in kind -- an educational approach. Although the situation in Australia is still tumultuous, an understanding of the kind of racism prevalent in Australia and the history of that racism is the…… [Read More]

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Dreams Racism of Another Color

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30183789

Not only did Obama come to recognize this basic racism in most of the others he encountered, but he even developed his own rather race-centric views that he was able to consciously exploit to his advantage. Basketball, for instance, became a way for Obama to celebrate his Africa-American heritage and solidify his identity. He recalls that "on the basketball court I could find a community of sorts...on a turf where blackness couldn't be a disadvantage" (Obama 80). At this point, Obama had accepted the reality of the divide that was thrust upon blacks and whites alike. Adolescence is a time when everyone is searching for their identity, and for Obama for a time this meant determining a specific racial identity and attempting to live up to it.

Of course, these attempts did not really a provide a long-term tenable position for Obama, and his views on the reality of racial…… [Read More]