Gender Communication Essays (Examples)

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Role of Workplace Interpersonal Communication Management Communication

Words: 3726 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40610464

Management Communication - the Role of Workplace Interpersonal Communication

Communication, in simple terms, refers to "the process of sending and receiving messages" (Bovee & Thill, 2008, p. 2). Baack (2012); Bovee and Thill (2008) agree that there are two major facets of organizational communication -- internal communication (exchange of ideas and information within the boundaries of an organization) and external communication (exchange of information beyond an organization's borders). Internal communication can further be divided into interpersonal communication (between individuals) and communication within the organization; whereas external organization can be subdivided into communication across domestic borders and communication across international borders (Baack, 2012). Researchers and scholars alike contend that achieving success in the marketplace today is dependent upon one's ability to communicate effectively with different audiences.

Effective Communication in Business Settings

Numerous views have been put forth to explain what exactly constitutes effective communication. A widely-accepted view is that communication is…… [Read More]

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Psychology Verbal Non-Verbal Communication Among Cultures

Words: 2173 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64085661

Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication among Cultures

Influence of Culture on Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

Language is often an immediate barrier to communicating with others of different cultures (Cox 2012). Even those who speak the same language may find problems with communication because of differences in culture. The differences very often lie in communication styles, either verbal or non-verbal or both. These styles may be in the form of facial expression, context, eye contact, formality and touch (Cox).

Every culture uses certain types of facial expression to convey a message in addition to formal language (Cox 2012). Americans smile to express or recognize friendliness towards or in others of a different culture. However, the Japanese do not smile at strangers. They view smiling as inappropriate for those who are not known to them. Women are especially expected to refrain from smiling at strangers. A communication style may hinge on context. In…… [Read More]

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Role of Communication in Cross-Cultural Management

Words: 3272 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21136199

Role of Communication in Cross Cultural Management

We are engaged in interaction with others all the time in one way or the other at our homes, at our jobsites and in our associations within the community. Irrespective of the fact our understanding with each other the communication is considered difficult. 'Culture' becomes a crucial issue in respect of communicational problems. The methodology for confronting the communication problems and our involvement in the associations within the society are determined by our cultural aspects. Our involvement in groups often reveals astonishing facts about the approach of the people towards working collaboratively. Culture is a complicated concept with varied implications. However, simply the 'culture' can be expressed as a group or community with whom we ventilate our common experiences that design the way we appreciate the world. It incorporates the groups that we are succumbed to like gender, race, or national origin. (DuPraw;…… [Read More]

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Nonverbal Communication Skill Although There Is No

Words: 2560 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29976243

Nonverbal Communication Skill

Although there is no consensus about the exact definition of "nonverbal communication" among experts, it is generally regarded as any communication conveyed through body movements (the "body language") and the intonations and emphasis that are given to words (also called the "paralinguistics"). The term

"nonverbal Communication" may itself be relatively new but its importance has long been realized. Martin Luther, the 16th century protestant reformer, often advised his followers, "not to watch a person's mouth but his fists." (Quoted by Bull, 2001) Charles Darwin discovered commonalities in facial expressions among humans and animals in his 1872 study, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which is still read with interest among researchers. In the present day, nonverbal communication evokes the interest of a broad spectrum of academic disciplines including psychology, sociology, anthropology, communications, and linguistics, and has a similarly wide scope. Most research in the…… [Read More]

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Tactile Communication in Everyday Life

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46729422

It is totally unacceptable for men or women to touch each other inappropriately or sexually unless they are in a relationship of some sort, and after a certain age, it is inappropriate for boys to touch girls, except in very neutral or general ways. These norms differ in different cultures, and some cultures are much more closed about touching. For example, in our society, hugging is an accepted way to greet or say goodbye to someone, but in other cultures, that would be inappropriate, so norms differ throughout the world.

These norms are established through culture and society. Each culture raises their children differently, so they learn tactile communication differently. Some cultures are extremely open to touching and non-verbal communication, while others are more reserved. In addition, in any culture, there can be people who are non-tactile, and do not like being touched. The norms for these individuals can be…… [Read More]

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Smiling Non-Verbal Communication Study of

Words: 2007 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42540029

Findings from the study showed that levels of perceived affiliation of the individual determines the perceived expressiveness of smiles, whether this smile is given out by a man or a woman. In the study, individuals who were rated and perceived as "highly-affiliative" are perceived to be more expressive, and both highly-affiliative male and female participants of the study were identified as more expressive than participants with low affiliation ratings (532).

These findings support the claim earlier that the smile has complexly evolved as a form of non-verbal communication. Smiling is no longer treated or analyzed at "face value," since other factors, such as perceived personality traits of the individual, are attached in one's assessment of the individual's propensity to express his/her happiness through smiling. As in the words of the author, " mediated by differences in perceived dominance and affiliativeness of men and women rather than by gender per se..."…… [Read More]

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Effect of Technology on Interpersonal Communication

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41988474

Interpersonal Communication and Its Decline

Interpersonal Communication

Decline of communication due to technology

Communication is a necessity for human survival. In recent decades, there is more advancement in thinking of why and how communication is crucial. This is mainly because people depend on others for providing love, support, and comfort. Other generations have continued growing through the development of communication skills with individuals by way of talking with each of them in person and through the phone. Modern generation exhibits poor communication skills due to overemphasis on communication mainly based on texting (DeVito, 2012). Although the current generation maintains person-to-person levels of communication, it is not the major communication mode among younger generations. The in-person conversation leaves exposure to questioning about what other persons are saying due to the body and facial expressions aiding their words. Further, texting does not allow people to follow through facial expressions (Solomon & Theiss,…… [Read More]

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Leadership Communication Leadership Doesn't Just

Words: 1336 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77480880

When individuals feel honored and respected, they are more likely to take pride in their work and be as productive as possible.

Communication benefits leaders and their organizations by cutting costs. Miscommunication is at the root of interpersonal conflict, which can lead to absenteeism or a lack of productivity. Also, miscommunication can mean costly lawsuits or imbroglios with clients. Leaders often mediate problems within an organization and between the organization and third parties. Mediation depends on effective communication. When a team leader evaluates the actual time spent engaged in communication activities, he or she appreciates the need for effective communication. As Blalock (2006) notes, communication is "crucial" in the modern organization because as much as 80% of a manager's time may be spent in some form of verbal or written communication.

The global marketplace introduces complex issues that make communication skills absolutely essential for leaders to have. Gender, culture, and…… [Read More]

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Culture Communication and Conflict

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55718662

Intercultural Communication

Managing conflict in intercultural communication

Intercultural communication is considered as one of the most important communication level through which people from all cultures interact. Surpassing the complex nature of intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and organizational communication, communication at the intercultural level is characterized as having the greatest complexity due to the presence of numerous differences among communicators. And because of these differences, conflict often arises among communicators. It is therefore imperative that understanding and knowledge of cultures be undertaken by the communicator so that conflict would be alleviated, if not altogether eliminated.

In understanding intercultural communication, one must first identify the nature of conflict that arises at this level (of communication). Conflict at the intercultural communication level is characterized as ambiguous and involves different styles of communicating (i.e., differences in languages and manner of communicating).

Intercultural communication conflict stems from ambiguity because communicators often make the mistake of communicating…… [Read More]

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Color Semiotics of Power Communication

Words: 3939 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5675104

The content of such a system, Eco continues, depends on our cultural organization of the world into several categories. And this categorization does not necessarily mean the very physical world in which we live:

Euclid's world is not a physical one, but a possible universe organized into points, lines, planes, angles, and so forth. It is a self-sufficient universe in which there are [...] only cultural units such as the concept of similitude and none such as the concept of love or justice. I can communicate about the Euclidian universe, making true or false assertions [...], but the units triangle and line are, in themselves, neither true nor false. They are simply the pertinent or relevant elements of the Euclidean universe. Thus a signification system allows its possible users to isolate and name what is relevant to them from a given point-of-view." (ibid)

With regard to colors and their analysis,…… [Read More]

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Small Group Communication the Issue

Words: 3392 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 11326524

2002, p.3) The following example from the experience of the group serves to illustrate the way in which these theoretical perspectives applied to the evaluation of the group's ability to function successfully.

As noted in the previous section, the group was faced with a crisis when the tour guide was injured by a lion. In terms of the above theory the group should have been able to communicate under stress in order to find a common solution to the problem at hand. Instead, what actually occurred was chaotic division and disagreement in the group which led to dysfunction. Two of the group members were in a state of shock and feared that they might be in danger. One of the American members of the group suggested that they should drive the guide back to the base camp as quickly as possible. Other members of the group disagreed with this view…… [Read More]

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Intercultural Communication Gender Identity Can

Words: 1142 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1123869

Once an international organization has delved into such details about a society, then they would be in a better position to know which areas to assign women and which ones not to and instead assign men and the reverse is applicable too.

Yet another significant aspect to look into is the non-verbal communication among the various cultures and the applicability of such between the two genders. It is worth noting that the nonverbal signs are not universal in anyway, even simple things like nodding to indicate agreement may mean directly the opposite in other cultures. It is therefore important to know the various different interpretations of the nonverbal signs that exist in a community that a give multinational has chosen to engage in. this understanding must go further to understand the various nonverbal signs that cannot be used with women or in the presence of women since there are some…… [Read More]

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Importance of Communication Skills

Words: 869 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32905200

.....difficult, facilitating and fostering proper communication in all necessary and needed forms is vital and one must consider culture and gender when it comes to the same

Principles and Barriers to Communication

There are both guidelines and barriers to good communication

Examples include when to say something, why to say something, how to say something and what can get in the way of all of the above

Examples will be given of all of the above

Role of Communication

In self-concept, self-image and self-esteem

How you see yourself impacts how you speak and how you react to others

How you feel you stand compared to the other matters and so does how you perceive that they look at you


Who to disclose things to Must be careful who to disclose things to Must know why someone "needs to know," who they are relative to the situation and so forth…… [Read More]

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Media in Contemporary Culture Gender Roles in Sex and the City

Words: 1791 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67596363

Media Communications

Representation of characters and role models in different media outlets is based on perceptions and preconceived notions held by the producer, co-producers, and audiences at large. Only those representations are drawn that largely resonate with current meanings given to people, characters, places, and objects.The paper presents two theoretical approaches to study media and its impact at large. Theory of social constructivism provides framework to assess the meanings given to gender roles, objects, and places. Social construction of ideals, role models, and images keep changing as their meanings constantly transform from one generation to another and from one society to another. Theory of agenda setting is another framework that explains media and its influence. Though widely criticized as well, agenda setting theory has been used by researchers to highlight media role in political as well as entertainment, news, and infotainment segments. Media has played vital role in promoting culture…… [Read More]

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Business Communication With Other Cultures

Words: 2942 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43856927

Business Communication Across Cultures


Communication is a necessary challenge that each person faces daily. Communication is an aspect of business that is necessary to success and achievement. Many countries in the world are industrialized to the point where their culture is in what is called the information age or the digital age. Digital technology, social media, and information technology are prominent aspects to life, communication and business. This paper will examine how various factors including technology, media, gender, ethnicity and background impact verbal and nonverbal communication.

Communication is complicated and layered enough between couples, families, and other small groups. When we consider the impact, value, and importance of communication with respect to business, all the problems and pitfalls of communication intensify, as the stakes for a business are often greater than or at least equal to the stakes within our important relationships. When considering business communication across cultures, either…… [Read More]

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Race and Gender Representation in Advertisements

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88321747

The media greatly influences and shapes the society’s knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and worldviews about diverse topics. Much of what different audiences within the society know and are concerned about is shaped by narratives, symbols, and images propagated by television, radio, and other forms media (Brooks & Hebert, 2006). These narratives and symbols play a crucial role in the construction of social identities – racial identity, gender identity, sexual identity, urban identity, and so on.

Advertisements are some of the media texts that shape social identities. Commercial organizations have time and again used ads not just to sell products and services, but to propagate certain narratives, especially with respect to race and gender. The propagation of those narratives has particularly gone a notch higher in the age of social media. This paper demonstrates and analyses the representation of race and gender in a selected advertisement. More specifically, the paper pays attention…… [Read More]

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workplace and gender discrimination

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49906431 injustice and inequality. First, literature related to the fundamentals of discrimination and descriptions of gender discrimination are discussed in the literature. Following a detailed discussion of what the literature says about gender discrimination, the literature review shifts toward the quantifiable effects of gender discrimination in the workplace. Effects are examined both in terms of measurable effects on organizations and individuals.

Fundamentals of Discrimination

Discrimination is unfortunately pervasive in the workplace. Described as an "inaccurate perception of differences," discrimination can be based on independent variables like race, gender, language, and other demographics (Cleveland, Vescio & Barnes-Farrell, p. 149). The differences perceived are "inaccurate," and also have a direct impact on status, access to power, and access to avenues of promotion or pay increases. Most literature frames discrimination as being "subtle and covert," well concealed from the realms of legal scrutiny, and often difficult to define precisely (Marchiondo, Ran & Cortina,…… [Read More]

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Sociology - Gender & Sexuality

Words: 1002 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 5369565

More specifically, whereas certain components of human behavior are hard wired, many other components are learned from exposure to others in society. According to this view, the individual learns by watching others, starting in early childhood. By adulthood, those expectations transmitted through social learning are completely internalized by the individual and not perceived as matters that one learns from others.

By imitating adult role models and emulating behaviors expected of males and females in society, the developing individual learns what it means to be a male or female in that particular society. For example, if male role models and authority figures model aggressive or belligerent mannerisms in self-expression, male children absorb their exposure to these displays of masculinity and eventually come to identify with and exhibit those characteristics themselves. Similarly, if female role models and authority figures model passive or accommodating behaviors, female children come to identify with and exhibit…… [Read More]

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Public Administration Gender Gap Wages

Words: 3792 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48991292

Counter Attendants- Counter Attendants are people who work in cafeteria, coffee shops or food concessions and serve food to their clientele. The job is quite exhausting particularly for women as they need to stand long hours at the counter in shops or cafeteria. They get paid typically on an hourly basis of about sixteen thousand.

Farm Laborers - Farm Laborers are also thought to be worst paid in spite of the demanding work they do. They also do not have minimum pay policy which is one of the causes of them earning so less. Those working the farm typically earn about $9 per hour. They are involved in sowing the seeds, cultivating as well as harvesting vegetables, fruits, nuts or other crops. They mean annual salary amounts to about seventeen thousand (Croft, 2010).

There are certain occupations that are measured masculine by some people and women are not expectant to…… [Read More]

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Ethical Communication

Words: 2175 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20242649

Ethical Communication

The Definition of Ethics

In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…… [Read More]

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Interdisciplinary Studies Academic Disciplines Communication and Women's Studies

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55430138

Academic Disciplines

Communication and Women Studies

The report is about the famous academic journals and professional/academic associations of two major constructs; communication and women studies. The report casts light over the contribution made by the journals and association in the development of these fields. In addition to explaining the content provided by these entities, their target audience and access method is also described.

Academic Journal -- Communication

International Journal of Communication is a famous academic journal focusing on the topics related to communication. It includes peer reviewed articles mainly written by the scholars and communication experts from all over the world. Its mission statement reflects the motto of excellence in communication application (IJOC, 2012). The Journal in rich in contents and includes various communication channels. It provides valuable content on information collection, dissemination and its digital transformation as well.

The intended audience of this Journal includes all the students and…… [Read More]

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Culture Communication Between Different Cultures

Words: 1677 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95051303

d.). For example, in the U.S., decisions are frequently delegated, that is, an official assigns responsibility for a particular matter to a subordinate. In many European nations, like Germany, there is a strong value placed on holding decision-making responsibilities oneself. When decisions are made by groups of people, majority rule is a common approach in the U.S. while in Germany consensus is the preferred mode. One should be conscious that peoples' expectations about their own part in shaping a resolution may be influenced by their cultural orientation (Spang & Ozcan, 2009).

The fifth difference is in attitudes toward disclosure. In some cultures, it is not fitting to be forthright about emotions, about the reasons behind a disagreement or a mix-up, or about personal information. When one is involved in a dialogue or when they are working with others or when they are dealing with a conflict, they should be mindful…… [Read More]

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Women Studies and Communications Women's

Words: 1244 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30509408

Communication Studies

Key Concepts

Communication Studies examine the way human beings communicate with one another and how that communication reflects meaning. Thus, there are a number of key concepts which relate to the process of communication itself and how those concepts reflect a larger cultural structure or phenomenon. First, symbols are those elements which we use to describe particular objects and/or phenomenon. Meaning is the associated definition of the symbols we work with in our communicative strategies.

Intrapersonal communication refers to the thinking processes and internal communication that occurs within an individual. This is the opposite of interpersonal communication, which is the communication which takes place between individuals. Interpersonal communication can be both formal and informal, taking place within a wide variety of contexts (Fiske, 2012). Group communication is that which is being spread within particular members of a group. This type of communication reinforces cultural norms and differentiates members…… [Read More]

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Intercultural Communication When People From Different Cultural

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80349686

Intercultural Communication

When people from different cultural backgrounds interact with each other, they face various problems in effectively communicating their messages and expressing their thoughts, expectations, and beliefs (Paulston, Kiesling, & Rangel, 2012). These problems lead to serious intercultural communication issues in multicultural societies. Researchers have found that difference in languages is not the sole reason of intercultural communication problems; people fail to effectively communicate due to different cultural dimensions that differentiate them from other cultures and societies (Nelsona, Al-Batalb, & Bakaryc, 2002). This paper presents a comparative analysis of Arab and American culture in the light of two important cultural dimensions, Individualism/collectivism and Masculinity/femininity. The paper focuses on explaining the challenges and issues which people from these cultures face while they interact or communicate with each other in different situations and settings.

Intercultural Communication between Arabs and Americans

Intercultural communication is largely effected by the cultural dimensions which shape…… [Read More]

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Self-Disclosure Gender and Communication Self-

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 75747136

It is observed in studies that women disclose more compared to husbands who do not. This is maybe because of our culture in which woman is encouraged to show her feelings and men are required to hide their feelings or weaknesses (Pleck and Sawyer, 1974). However, men must not hide their feelings from their wives, in fact, they should discuss with them and wives should help husband to express, as men are usually less expressive.

Expressing and knowing your partner is very essential in order to maintain a strong and never-ending married life relationship. Self-disclosure allow couples to reduce the uncertainty about each other; as a result bit by bit couples come closer and start discussing very personal life stories (Sole, 2011). Terri Orbuch (Schoenberg, 2011) also says that a romantic relationship begins with lots of sharing and excitement. This sharing can be from telling a favorite dish to disclosing…… [Read More]

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Theory Borrowing in Communication and

Words: 1838 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 13434394

Feminist theory can get very political and insistent, but that can and should be tempered by a realistic understanding of what can be accomplished when people all agree to work together in order to see a positive change in the way people are treated.

When people become focused on the race or gender of a person, or they become too focused on the words used without clarifying the intent of those words, communication can break down and (incorrect) value judgments can quickly be made. There are ways to avoid that, of course, but some people are not aware of how to avoid those kinds of things and other people are simply not interested in avoiding them. People who do not want to avoid those kinds of problems with communication and judgment or do not see that there is even a problem sometimes have trouble separating their opinions, thoughts, and feelings…… [Read More]

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Relationship Challenges -- Family Communication Issues the

Words: 3271 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21185389

Relationship Challenges -- Family Communication Issues

The high divorce rate in the United States (and elsewhere in Western nations) is one indication as to the fact that good communication -- or any communication at all -- is absent from relationships. Certainly there are always challenges to any relationship, but couples should be going into marriage and long-term relationships with the understanding that they will have challenges and without training or background into how to communicate effectively, their chances for success in a relationship are reduced. This paper reports and examines those issues based on the available literature.

As difficult as some relationships can be, given different personality types and social / family distractions that come into play, in nearly every instance there are answers as to why relationship challenges are either met or not met. Because there are identifiable solutions to many challenges that partners and spouses face, couples should…… [Read More]

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Individual Communications People Tend to Assume That

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65386912

Individual Communications:

People tend to assume that individuals from different color, age, religion, political views, gender, and race are difficult to communicate with. As a result of these assumptions, they start erecting barriers to effective communications as they experience difficulties in transmission of messages. For effective communications to occur there is need for tolerance that creates respect and acceptance of the diversity and act as the best solutions to most of the difficulties. Actually, some of the reasons associated with difficulties in communications are attributed to diversity in various aspects like race, color, religion, age, gender, and political views. Consequently, there is need for diversity awareness in order to enhance the occurrence of effective communication.

Diversity Awareness in Communications:

Diversity plays a critical role in an organization since it has a significant impact on the organization's ability to innovate and enhance its competitive advantage in the rapidly changing global marketplace.…… [Read More]

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Society - Gender Theory Theoretical

Words: 1121 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 62403355

Meanwhile, those issues in females are much more likely to correspond to internalized diminishment of self-worth and to external behaviors and choices likely to confirm and perpetuate those internalized messages or to "punish" the individual through their predictably bad consequences (Efthim, Kenny, & Mahalik, 2001).

Biology establishes only very general gender-specific natural tendencies and behavioral differences; society further shapes the outward expression of those biological differences into more particular gender-based behavioral expression. However, cultural influences account for the precise way those tendencies manifest themselves in the specific behavior among individuals within social groups. Within Latino cultures, for example, over-idealization of the mother figure often conflicts with the male acknowledgement of female sexuality in a manner that affects marriage negatively (Abreu, Goodyear, Campos, et al., 2000).

Specifically, the so-called "whore-Madonna" complex makes it difficult for many men to reconcile their contradictory views of women in such a way that they cannot…… [Read More]

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Race Class Gender the Intersection

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 4065844

The different "isms" such as sexism, heterosexism, and racism are creating very real schisms -- in our minds, and between people. The chasms of communication that are created by hatred and misunderstanding are socially constructed. They can be socially deconstructed too. Such rifts occur between groups of people and between whole cultures. In some pockets of the United States, social conservatism threatens to erase the social progress made since the Civil Rights movements of the 1960s. There are still people in the United States that believe that homosexuality is unnatural, even immoral. The idea that heterosexual marriage is in some way superior to homosexual marriage is rooted in outmoded religious doctrine and not in positive social progress. Within these "isms" are the chasms of misunderstanding that create social strife and inequality. Income disparity, for example, is closely linked with race as well as gender. Women still get paid less than…… [Read More]

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Identity and Intercultural Communication

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37552009

Clt Comm

Identity and Intercultural Communication

This paper will briefly explore the concept of identity as it relates to intercultural communication. It is important for one to understand the many factors that influence the development of an identity. It is these factors that make each and every one of us an individual and unique in personality. These factors include such elements of character like age, gender, race, religion, class and culture that help decide one's point-of-view when communicating. For the purpose of this paper, it is safe to assume that individually each of us has acquired different methods of communicating due these factors. The paragraphs below will explore how these factors influence communication across cultures.

In order to better understand, intercultural communication, one must first understand the concept of identity. Only then will one begin to realize that much of how we see ourselves has a direct relationship with communication…… [Read More]

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E-Mail in Business Communication E-Mail History Relation

Words: 4599 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21246394

E-Mail in Business Communication

E-mail: History, Relation, and Impact on effective Business Communication

Email in Business Communication

Electronic Mail

Impact of Email to Business Communication

Implications of Emails as Business Communication Tools

Email is an important form of communication in today's organization that is increasingly seeing a geographical dispersal of the workforce. To communication tool has replaced traditional business letters and memos in preference for email memos. The research carried out a review of literature on email and business communication and found the tool is used in 100% of businesses today. However, despite the wide acceptance, the tool lacks in social and visual cues which lender the messages toneless. The lack of tone and physical gestures leads to misinterpretation, ill will, disconnectedness, loss of intellectual capital and integrity for the business. The research finds that the informal history of emails, heterogeneity among users, technological limitations in social-emotions, and lack of…… [Read More]

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Teaching Manding Through Functional Communication Training to a 53-Year-Old Man With Cerebral Palsy

Words: 2889 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Only the Literature Review chapter Paper #: 56793428

Teaching Manding Through Functional Communication

Teaching Manding Thorugh Functional Communication Training To A 53-year-old Man With Cerebral Palsy

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) usually occurs in mentally retarded persons. There are certain genetic syndromes which are more likely to cause self-injury as part of the behavioral phenotype of the condition. SIB can be quite devastating since it is a characteristic of several mental disorders. About 5-17% of all people who have intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities usually engage in self-injurious behavior in a repetitive nature with some having the number of incidences of self-injurious behavior being quite high. The incidence of self-injurious behavior in those who are mentally retarded can exceed 50%. SIB is a chronic problem Mikhail & King, 2001.

Emerson (1995)

found that out of 95 individuals who were mentally retarded, about 71% of them still showed signs of self-injurious behavior up to 7 years later. Functional communication is one…… [Read More]

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Bt's Marketing Communications Bt Website About Bt

Words: 2321 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7603112

BT's Marketing Communications

BT Website


BT Group plc, doing business as BT (British Telecom), is one of the world's largest telecommunication services providers. It is the largest multinational telecommunication corporation in the United Kingdom. BT has business operations in more than 170 countries around the Globe and offers its services to all types of consumers; including households, small and medium enterprises, large business corporations, and public sector entities. Incorporated in 1980 (with Electric Telegraph Company, General Post Office, and Post Office Telecommunications as its predecessors), BT has become one of the largest, and the most innovative and competitive communication services provider in the world. It is headquartered in BT Centre, London, UK and operates with workforce strength of around 90,000 employees worldwide (BT PLC, 2013).

Products and Services:

The major products and services of the company include Phone services (Phone line & broadband packages, 08 & 09 numbers,…… [Read More]

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Nonverbal Communication Non-Verbal Communication in

Words: 2750 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92029758

If the pitcher does not agree, he shakes his head, jiggles his glove or makes some other sign. Then the catcher will make an additional sign and the procedure goes on until they both have the same opinion on the pitch to be thrown.

In the interim, the batter glances at the third base coach who goes through a sequence of signs from touching the nose to rasping his hand crossways on the letters of the uniform: Gestures intended to convey -- nonverbally -- what he desires the batter to do. All of these signals start off from the manager sitting in the dugout who gives signs to the third base coach who on the other hand sends them to the batter.

Body Language and Nonverbal Communication in Sporting Contests

Of the numerous types of nonverbal communication, body language is conceivably the most understandable means through which humans express judgments…… [Read More]

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The Role Media Plays in Relation to Gender Stereotypes

Words: 4863 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20538188


By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…… [Read More]

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The Principles of Effective Communication

Words: 1669 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69362658

All human relationships are based on communication. Effective communication skills are therefore integral to both professional and personal success. Individual differences in temperament and personality, gender and culture, and situational variables can all impact the quality of communications but all communication skills can be learned and practiced. Most barriers to competent communications can be overcome with self-awareness and respect for diversity. However, psychological factors like self-concept, self-image, and self-esteem also have a strong bearing on communications efficacy. Understanding the basic principles of effective communications empowers each person to take responsibility for promoting harmony in interpersonal relationships.
Barriers to Competent, Effective Interpersonal Communications
While the principles of good communication include clarity and connecting with the audience, barriers to communication can cloud the ways messages are sent or received. Two principles of competent or effective interpersonal communications include empathy and self-awareness. Empathy is key to building bridges with the audience, being…… [Read More]

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helping a married couple with communication

Words: 2555 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39757474


Relationships are all about communication: something you have probably heard before. But did you know that social science research backs up this claim, and can also provide you with the practical tools you need to minimize conflict and maximize harmony in your relationship? For example, research shows which barriers to communication might arise, why, and how you can overcome them. Research also shows that your self-concept and self-image have a strong bearing on how you comport yourself in your intimate relationships. Using appropriate levels of self-disclosure and emotional intelligence, you can improve your self-esteem and improve your relationship with each other and with people outside of your dyad. In this letter, I would like to outline for you some of the highlights of what I have learned in a course on communication. Far from being based on pop psychology or pseudoscience, what I am about to tell you is…… [Read More]

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Language and Gender

Words: 874 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47337567

Bergvall, Victoria L., Janet M. Bing, and Alice F. Freed. Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Practice. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1996.

Rethinking Language and Gender Research" is a compilation of articles and quantitative studies about the biological and cultural influences that gender differences have over language. Of vital importance is Bergvall and Bing's introductory chapter in the book, an article entitled, "The questions of questions: beyond binary thinking." This article summarizes the scholarly studies conducted over the years by social scientists and linguists in an attempt to explain how gender differences affect the language spoken in various areas and cultures. Bergvall and Bing explore this problem by explaining the language and gender problem through the biological and cultural approaches. The authors establish the fact that studies on gender effect on language is historically based on the premise that language is based on the strict dichotomy of…… [Read More]

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Adults and Children Shaping Gender Roles Early in Life

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72465531

adults treat young people, including how they talk to them, is part of the gendering process wherein a sexual identity is formed. Indeed, Romaine (1999) notes that, "Boys and girls live in different worlds in which separate cultures are developed and transmitted, each with quite different patterns of verbal interaction" (p. 190). This paper examines some of the implications of differences in the ways adults speak to boys and girls to determine how such speech differences contribute to later differences not only in speech, but also in attitudes. It is reasonable to suggest that when young people are addressed with respect and consideration, they will respond in kind. When young people are addressed with ridicule and contempt, though, their reactions will inevitably be different.

Likewise, when adults address boys as "young men" or girls as "young women," they are communicating a sense of gender appropriateness that will influence these young…… [Read More]

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Sex and Gender in Media

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95917206

In “The Oppositional Gaze” we are presented with the politics of the “gaze.” The gaze is an interesting topic, because it has been discussed by minorities—both women and African Americans. Laura Mulvey famously defined the “male gaze” in the 1970s when discussing the cinematic arts and the exploitation of women’s images on screen for the amusement of men. In “The Oppositional Gaze,” we receive a different take on the gaze, one that discusses it from the perspective of the spectator and from the standpoint of race and the standpoint of gender. What is interesting about it is the fact that athletes by their very nature are meant to be gazed upon, as the viewers are by definition spectators. Yet, the politics of the gaze do not condone certain types of staring, as the author describes in the opening of the essay.

The gaze has power—it has authority. When one looks,…… [Read More]

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Politeness and Females Gender and Its Connection

Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10373761

Politeness and Females

Gender and its connection with linguistic behavior has been a major subject of debate and discussion in research circles for last many decades. How men and women differ in the speech is an interesting topic that has been shown to have direct correlation with societal influences and conditioning. Women are conditioned to behave in a submissive manner and research indicates that it is because of this factor than biological construction that is responsible for women being more polite than men. A large body of research on the subject reveals that women generally use more polite language than men because they are expected to behave in a submissive, timid and less aggressive manner. Pierre Bourdieu (1977, p. 662) argued, "Politeness contains a politics, a practical and immediate recognition of social classifications and hierarchies."

Females are more polite because people in any setting are expected to use more polite…… [Read More]

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Nurse Communication Skills for Health

Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46912984


3. Identify and discuss effective communication techniques used by health professional

As has been briefly referred to above, one of the most useful and important communication technique is the ability to listen attentively and acutely in order to modulate one's response accordingly to the person or patient. There are many different techniques that can be applied to deal with different situations and types of patients. All of these techniques are intended to improve and facilitate the quality of the relationship between the healthcare worker and the patient (Berry, 2007, p. 39).

Empathy and compassion are the hallmarks of the nursing profession and a central technique in communication is allowing the patient to express his or her concerns as fully as possible without interruption and prejudice. This means keeping an open mind and reducing the influence of any prejudice or possible biases that may intrude with the communicative interpretation and…… [Read More]

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Intercultural and or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories

Words: 1848 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 32191910

Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.

This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…… [Read More]

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Interdisciplinary Studies Academic Disciplines Communication and Women's Studies

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70399849

Interdisciplinary Studies -- Academic Disciplines -- Communications and Women's Studies

Even a cursory review of major U.S. universities reveals a "Communications" Discipline and a "Women's Studies" Discipline of one sort or another in most if not all of these major universities. Researching ASU's Communications and Women's Studies programs gives a strong overview of common characteristics. While ASU may use some different terminology, it offers the same essential subject matter and subfields.


Description of Communications Discipline/Subject Matter

Communications Studies are increasingly globally important. The worldwide relevance and interplay of Communications Studies can be seen, for example, in the fact that China and Japan have agreed to collaborate in their Communications Studies programs (JIJI Press America, Ltd., 2005). In addition, major universities across the United States now offer Communications Studies in one form or another. One university with an extensive Communications Studies program is Arizona State University. The ASU Hugh Downs…… [Read More]

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Effect of Gender On Leadership Style and Employee Job Satisfaction

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26239237

Gender on Leadership Style and Employee Job Satisfaction

"The glass ceiling" emerged as a widely employed metaphor in the nineties to account for inaccessibility of organizational leadership posts for females. Even today, females continue to encounter a number of challenges when aiming for leadership positions (Ayman & Korabik, 2010). Research scholars recognize the broad significance of culture and situational contingencies as contextual factors governing leadership, whilst also presenting leadership or governance as a largely gender-neutral phenomenon. As of 2010, the labor force of the U.S. comprised of approximately 72 million women (aged 16+); i.e., 58.6% of American females above 16 years were employed, with 40% of the working female population either in professional or managerial roles (Jackson, Alberti & Snipes, 2014). In this paper, gender's impact on personnel job satisfaction and leadership approach will be studied, by reviewing scholarly literature on the subject.

Gender Impacts on Leadership Approach and…… [Read More]

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Male & Female Communication General

Words: 905 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17908922

For example, women are taught to collaborate, and affirm rather than subvert other people in conversation. But women can recognize that the need to speak up when provoked, if they are conscious of their conversational tendency. A woman whose idea is stolen by a male co-worker in an aggressive, male-dominated firm that praises competition cannot simply complain to her boss after the meeting where the co-worker claimed 'their' idea was 'his,' or assume that the truth will eventually be revealed about the theft. Likewise, a male who wishes to maintain a good relationship with a female boss can benefit from engaging in conversation that is not stereotypically 'facts' related (like baseball scores) but is more relational, such as inquiring about how the boss' day is going (Simon & Pedersen, 2005).

Again, stereotyping is never valid, and if you meet someone who differs from these generalizations, or if you yourself do…… [Read More]

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Does Gender Difference Play a Role in Marital Conflict

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38778306

relational research question; directional hypothesis) and why you are using that type.

This research study is an inquiry into the role of gender in marital conflict. The purpose of the study is not to assess the nature of the role of gender in marital conflict, for it is not presumed that such a role exists. Rather, the answer we seek is a Boolean one; we will accept the null hypothesis that gender does not play a role in marital conflict. In as much, this is a directional hypothesis; we question whether or not the independent variable, "gender," results in a change in the dependent variable, "marital conflict." We will assume all marital relationships to have two people.

It is important to be specific when we say gender. For instance, studies have been done to show how the acceptance of feminist values has influenced a couple; these are referred to as…… [Read More]

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Diversity Affects Communication

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66487675

Diversity Affects Communication

Distinct and unique cultures are developed when people live and work in association. These diverse cultures assemble an affluently varied collection of standards and customs. The consequential cultural diversity not only inflates choices but also facilitates the human beings to cultivate a mixture of skills, morals, values and worldviews. Cultural diversity, thus, proves to be a mainspring for individualistic and communal sustainable development. It is exceedingly important for every one of us to cherish, defend, preserve and revere the cultural diversity of the world ("Cultural Diversity" 2011).

There are innumerable organizations, both public and private, whose conditions are similar to a half-starved body. Though they look really well-nourished from outside but the inner condition is too ill and putrefying. The troublesome and unsettling cultural problems do the same to an organization. Workers who need help try to neglect their concerns while trying to do the assigned tasks.…… [Read More]

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Role of Communication in Social Group or Organization

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55505041

Insider Communication and Standpoint Theory

According to traditional theories of group dynamics, every group goes through a formative period of 'forming, storming,' and then 'norming,' -- in other words, groups engage in a first, tenuous period of formation before they coalesce and become socially and vocationally productive. All groups must engage in a necessary icebreaking phase of asserting and organizing power and personality hierarchies and comfort zones before group members can began to complete the assigned tasks according to their delegated duties, before they finally disband. Even informal social groups will have social hierarchies, some of which are more difficult for outsiders to penetrate than others. Every group has its own social and symbolic language of status.

However, standpoint theory challenges the notion that groups have 'normal' equilibriums that are fair and just for all potential members -- rather one's perception of fairness and equity depends upon where one stands…… [Read More]

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Bullying Race Gender Age and

Words: 3954 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29336685

For the children who were being bullied, there were no differences by race found for where it occurred, or the likelihood of getting help (2008). However, the researchers found a dramatic difference by race for racist name-calling with one-half of the Asian students who were bulled, but none of the bullied white students, experiencing name-calling in association to their skin color or ethnicity (2008).

However, in a study conducted by Boulton, Smith and Cowie (1992), the researchers examined the extent to which children showed an own-race preference in a sample of Asian and White students between the ages of eight and 10. The children were asked to show, using the aid of photographs of children of different ethnic groups and gender, which children they would want to sit by in class, have play on their team, help with homework, invite home, or play with on the playground (1992). In general,…… [Read More]

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Evolutionary Psychology - Gender Differentiation

Words: 2781 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35138307

Since males of all sexually reproducing species are naturally drawn to signs of fertility in females (Zuk 2002), they naturally express more interest in females when they ovulate, or come into heat in the vernacular applied to non-human animals. In many other species that do not rely as much on a monogamous pair bond for the survival of the fetus (Barash & Lipton 2001), females exhibit very clear external signals corresponding to their ovulation. This system is very well suited to species where a single male (or several) mate with many females, such as among lions and many mammals; in fact, it probably reduces any potential for conflict among harem females for male attention.

Human females replaced the outward signals of ovulation and fertility by evolving a suppression of any outward manifestation, precisely, to ensure that males provided for, guarded, and protected them continually rather than only that portion of…… [Read More]

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Diversity and Effective Communications What

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37080195

How do gender differences affect communication?

Generally, males and females communicate somewhat differently. Males tend to communicate very directly and to focus on issues, often without considering more personal aspects of the conversation or the feelings of the other person. Females tend to communicate more indirectly and often devote considerable attention to the personal aspects of communications and the specific thoughts and feelings of the other person. Males also tend to discuss abstract ideas and tangible things whereas females tend to discuss people and relationships. Males are more likely to discuss things in impersonal ways whereas females are more likely to establish personal rapport before addressing impersonal issues. I have had experiences working with females where my focus on work was perceived incorrectly as coldness or unfriendliness because of the differences in our personal styles that were probably functions of gender.

Describe three barriers to bridging differences. What strategies may…… [Read More]

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Designing Culturally Gender Sensitive Behavioral

Words: 1354 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 14774169

" (National Association of School Psychologists, 2004) the integrity of treatment will be "maximized if the intervention's goals and plan are developed in a culturally sensitive and cooperative manner." (National Association of School Psychologists, 2004) it is stated that implementation problems "...may be linked to unidentified variables." (National Association of School Psychologists, 2004) if this should be the case, it is necessary to explore openly potential barriers. In the evaluation of the intervention, the parents should not be under a negative judgment when goals are failed in being met but instead the goals should be acknowledged as unmet and then barriers to treatment success should be collectively reviewed then designed and implemented.


The 10th Annual Conference "Aggression and Suicide Among Children and Youth: Focus on Gender Differences" relates that increasing evidence exists that boys and girls "differ in the development, expression and consequences of aggressive behavior…… [Read More]

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Cross-Cultural Communication in Business Cultural

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 26121685

In that regard, fundamentally different interactions between the genders is one element of cultural practices that differs most substantially from national culture to culture and even among individuals of different ethnic or religious backgrounds within the dominant national culture. Typically, individuals of Muslim and Jewish religious traditions (and others) avoid any incidental or polite physical contact between members of the opposite gender, even though such gestures (like handshaking) might be completely appropriate under ordinary circumstances (Moran, Harris, & Moran, 2007).

Dealing with Cultural Differences Positively:

Cultural differences have tremendous potential for creating divisiveness in the workplace where no appropriate effort is made by management to increase cultural awareness and mutual sensitivity and respect among coworkers with different cultural backgrounds and expectations. Conversely, any negative effects attributable to cultural differences can be minimized or neutralized entirely by effective approaches designed to do so (Locker, 2003; Moran, Harris, & Moran, 2007). Ideally,…… [Read More]

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Intercultural Communication Globalization Is Not

Words: 2806 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22862977

Within my team of Americans are several African-Americans and three Latinos. In the book Intercultural Communication: A Reader (Samovar, et al., 2008) the authors point out what scholars, sociologists and alert journalists have known for a long time: "…Although Latinos are generally aware of the Black experience, there is little understanding of Black culture. Equally problematic is the lack of awareness among Blacks about Latino culture" (Samovar, p. 183). Albeit I have Asians in my team, considered a separate culture from Americans, the unspoken tensions between Blacks and Latinos among my American team members must also be dealt with. In my suggestion box an idea was put forward to have a bulletin board with articles in all the languages represented among the employees in my team.

Among the first articles I will pushpin to the bulletin board is the Los Angeles Times' article on May 1, 2020, "South Los Angeles…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Communication Theory in Healthcare

Words: 1121 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 9893030

One of the more controversial questions that arises when discussing group interactions is if one person need to lead the group, for the group to be effective (Lane, 2000, Decision mapping). In healthcare, some type of hierarchy is essential. Treatment decisions cannot be made through consensus alone, especially when a patient's life is in immediate danger. Also, seniority and areas of expertise are essential to define -- a more experienced nurse's decision-making ability must have priority over a novice nurse's. Certain areas of expertise, like the staff's registered nutritionist, must be respected when providing care. In fact, research in support of a communication theory known as decision-mapping notes that "groups with ineffective leadership" are less rather than more cohesive (Stephens 1999). Knowing there is an effective source of leadership can produce confidence. However, some consultation between different people, including the patient, family, nurses, physicians, and other caregivers, is ideal when…… [Read More]

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Women Men Communication it Has

Words: 3644 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 88560099

The possibility that such attention was paid to these event in earlier times in European cultures is obvious but absent from modern representations of rites of passage. What can be interesting is the correlation between the two rites of passage discussed here, the "sweet 16" party and the Quinceanera and their similarities to weddings. Because weddings are expected to be delayed, more so in U.S. culture but also in Mexican and other cultures, as a mark of good judgment some rites of passage and especially those for girls seem to have become mirrors or proxy weddings, where massive expenses are sometimes incurred and dress is decidedly formal.

It must first be understood that the quinceaneras is actually a religious rite performed in conjunction with a special mass in the Roman Catholic Church as well a blessing and a group of ceremonies for the 15-year-old girl, 15 of her friends and/or…… [Read More]

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Intercultural Communications -- 2 Questions

Words: 701 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 50019246

Mixed working groups naturally promote better mutual understanding and can often reduce biases and negative expectations such as those attributable to ethnocentrism and prejudices (Blair, 2003).

More active methods of reducing discrimination and stereotyping include practical group demonstrations led by experienced counselors and organized discussion groups (Myers & Spencer, 2004). Specifically, organized discussion groups provide an opportunity for members of different social groups to raise their concerns and to express their personal experiences in relation to prejudice and discrimination.

Typically, the opportunity of sharing real-life experiences of others has a natural tendency to increase intercultural sensitivity through several different mechanisms: by personalizing general perceptions, by allowing individuals from different groups to consider things from the perspectives of other groups, by appreciating some of the specific experiences of others in relation to discrimination and prejudices, and by demonstrating the commonalities between members of different social groups (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2003;…… [Read More]

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Identify and Explain One Significant Cause of Gender Stereotypes

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51932114

cause of gender stereotypes?

The debate about what causes gender stereotypes tends to be divided between two camps: that of nature vs. nurture. 'Nature' advocates suggest that there are profound biological differences between the sexes; 'nurture' proponents focus upon culture. Overall, although there are clear biological differences between men and women, what culture 'does' with those differences suggests that 'nurturing' or cultural context can have a profound, often hidden way in which men and women are able or not able to express themselves.

According to Natalie Angier, men as well as women can be affected by stereotypes in a negative fashion. In her essay, "Why men don't last" Angier notes that men tend to be more prone to violence, drug addiction, gambling and other negative social outlets to deal with their emotions. Women may be more apt to be depressed, but men are more likely to be 'successful' suicides. Males…… [Read More]