Greek And Roman Essays (Examples)

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Religion of Ancient Rome

Words: 1132 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50620815

The Roman people regarded themselves as highly religious. They linked their success as a powerful force in the world to their cordial relations with the gods. The victory by the Romans was essentially a religious occasion in which the generals exhibited their piety and zeal to serve society by dedicating a fraction of their fortunes to the gods. Jupiter was particularly called to attention in such circumstances because he was the god of justice in leadership. Following the Punic wars fought between 264 BC and 146 BC in which Rome fought hard to assert its power as a dominating authority, magistrates built many temples in honor of a deity who they depended on to guarantee success in the war (Religion in ancient Rome) (Roman mythology).

How Ancient Rome Practiced Religion

Ancient Romans recognized and offered prayer too many gods and goddesses. Some of the gods were of Roman origin but…… [Read More]

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Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern

Words: 2072 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58109690

Another notable development and contribution of ancient from Greek is the Olympics. The event was begun in Greek as an entertainment session but later evolved into an international event. Additional invention of Greek is the architecture. The Greek were immensely talented in art and, therefore, the exemplary architectural inventions and developments in the modern world today. They all can trace the history of the building system in this ancient region.

It is evident that any society or individual has to have a beginning in history. These ancient periods marked the beginning of many developments. The ancient and the medieval periods have created historical developments that are worth noting. All the associated forces, which are Mesopotamia, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, played a significant and worthy noting the role in the development of the modern society. The society, whose civilization has spread athwart the world and not just in Europe, originated…… [Read More]

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Middle Ages Art Comparison During

Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31637012

" 2009. Pious Fabrications. March 2013. .

Sharma, S. "Was Middle Ages in Europe a Dark Age?" December 2004. The Education Forum. March 2013. .

"The Meaning of Sacred Symbols." 2005. March 2013. .

"The Middle Ages." 2010. February 2013. .

Marriage at Cana (Giotto)


Classical Pottery, more like Greek Urns.

Walls painted in classical style

The Roman Arch

Balcony with more Islamic Flavor

Requisite halos above religious figures

More realistic, less idolized characters


Classical dress, Greco- Roman togas

Greco-Roman columns

The Roman Arch

Figure 2 -- Ascension of St. John (Giotto)

Figure 3 - Typical Gothic

Cathedral Skeleton


Expansion of Roman arch, multiplied

Greco-Roman columns

Figure 4 - Typical Gothic Shape

Figure 5 -- St. Denis' Cathedral


Expansion of Roman arch, multiplied

Greco-Roman columns

Classical Decorations on Columns

Figure 7 -- Skeleton and exterior of Brunelleschi's Arch

Figure 6 -- Linear Perspective

Figure…… [Read More]

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Ohio Capitol Building Discuss the Overall Design

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73835563

Ohio Capitol Building

Discuss the overall design of the building. Upon what earlier buildings or styles was the design of this structure based? Why is that significant?

According to those who helped to construct the building, the Ohio Capitol was intended to be a building that was designed simplistically, to reflect the refinement and simple nature of the people in the state (Gilkey 1902,-page 651). The Ohio Capitol Building's design is based upon Greek and Roman architecture. It has been considered a premier example of Greek revival architecture which became popular during the 19th century in the United States and Europe (Gilkey 1902,-page 652). The structure was designed before the United States Capitol building and thus does not have the round dome that most capitol buildings have, although that structure too was designed after Grecian and Roman architecture. Subsequent additions to the building, either because of the need for additional…… [Read More]

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Rhetorical Theory and Practice

Words: 2836 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70327221

Greek and Roman times, rhetoric and rhetoric theory has been one of the issues that were discussed and improved, appearing in almost every aspect of life. There was rhetoric in politics, but also in everyday life, in discussions or seminars. When declaiming something and sustaining your point-of-view, you were actually exercising rhetoric.

This constant evolution of rhetoric theory gave way today to a new theoretical description. According to our source, "the new rhetoric is a theory of argumentation." The theory of argumentation, as part of the new rhetoric theory, comes as a completion to the theory of demonstration and he two are closely linked. Indeed, even instinctively, we argument something in order to demonstrate our conclusion, in order to prove our interlocutory our point-of-view. Argumentation and demonstration are such complementary.

As follows, as in any rhetoric theory, the argumentation, as an act of rhetoric, is given by the orator, in…… [Read More]

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Art of Classical Antiquity in the Ancient

Words: 1563 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18582454

Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and Rome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and Rome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the Roman Empire. The arts of the Renaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in Renaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and Rome are…… [Read More]

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Words: 1483 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91385217


The classical myths of Greece and Rome have much in common with medieval myths, because ultimately, all myths have elements in common. The Greek and Roman myths dwell most often on heroes, Gods, and Goddesses. Their characters are larger than life - someone the reader can look up to. Medieval myths also heavily rely on heroes who commit heroic deeds, such as Charlemagne and King Arthur. One difference is many of the heroes in medieval myths were real people, while most of the heroes in Greek and Roman myth were just that - myths. Medieval myths took mythology one step further, because they often commemorated and idealized the deeds of real people, and this was quite a step away from classical mythology.

However, many elements remain the same, and as such, become timeless reminders of the most successful myths. Heroism is one timeless element, and romance is another timeless…… [Read More]

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Ancient Historians

Words: 3130 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26330767

Ancient Historians

Influential Ancient Historians

Faces of History: Historical Inquiry from Herodotus to Herder by Donald R. Kelley

In his book, which is written in a scholarly, colorful, and interesting style, and is as rich with thought-provoking questions as it is lean on assumptions, author Kelley goes to great lengths to set the stage for every historian's work that he discusses. On page 3, he says that "the difficulty" in writing about ancient historians, is, initially, "the question of what qualifies, retrospectively, as 'history'." Does one include the writings of an ancient historian like Herodotus, Kelly asks, since Herodotus's "inquiries" are very subjective and do not fit "modern prescriptions of historical methods"?

And as one reads through the various books on ancient historians, it becomes apparent that chroniclers like Herodotus must be considered historians because there is little else to base "history" upon - and moreover, it is vain and…… [Read More]

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Ancient Cultures the Purpose of

Words: 1299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55561573

Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.

Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…… [Read More]

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Apollo Is an Integral Character

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55742308

Perhaps nowhere is Apollo's relevance as poignant as his association with prognostication. A whole cult devoted to Apollo centered on the god's ability to foresee the future and to communicate his findings to mortals. Only Zeus is depicted as being as omniscient as Apollo (Morford & Lenardon p. 128). Apollo's "brightness" takes on a new meaning in his role as seer because he sheds light on the future and also helps illuminate the human experience. His "brightness" indicates good visual sight as well as foresight. Being a psychic seer mirrors having solid long-distance vision, and Apollo was also an archer, dubbed the "far-shooter" by Homer (Morford & Lenardon p. 121).

Apollo's reputation as the god of foresight reached ancient Persia too. Morford & Lenardon refer to the story of Croesus the Persian who heard of the Oracle at Delphi and sought Apollo's advice in spite of the geographic and cultural…… [Read More]

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Zeus Myth Served Several Functions

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81138724

Zeus also acted on principle to create social order at Olympia by waging war on his own father. However, Zeus was just in his treatment of the vanquished Titans, eventually granting their freedom (Morford & Lenardon p. 78). Zeus's story mirrors that of the Greeks in their skillful fashioning of political and social structures out of disparate and geographically distinct peoples.

Zeus can even suggest the evolution from a polytheistic to a monotheistic society. Although monotheism would not become entrenched in Greek consciousness until Christianity, Zeus does become a singular force, "one god" above all others (Morford & Lenardon p. 72). Zeus's "supremacy" paved the way for the future growth of a monotheistic culture and religion throughout ancient Greece and Rome (Morford & Lenardon p. 72). His greatness among all other gods is sometimes symbolized as an aegis: representing Zeus's special power like a crown on a king. Kings, in…… [Read More]

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Polytheism and Monotheism Christianity and

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79023427

They believed the gods could manifest themselves, as seen in Aristides and Asclepius. Another important aspect of polytheistic worship was honoring dead ancestors through household shrines and rituals. However, the concern in paganism was not focused on death and immortality. Rather it focused on the present life. In addition to this, there were voluntary associations such as mystery cults where people shared religious rituals more personally and gained a sense of group identity through rites, deity worship, communal dinners, and sacrifices. In all this there is a clear polytheism still prevalent. The Romans, like the Greeks before them, did not experience any discomfort with the idea of multiple gods. Mattingly sees this as an inclusive type of belief: "Paganism was inclined to be tolerant because it was essentially inclusive" (Mattingly 22). This form was destined to decline under the influence of monotheism.

Science may have played some part in critiquing…… [Read More]

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Ancient History Comparison and Contrast of the

Words: 1398 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33318002

Ancient History

Comparison and Contrast of the Aeneid and the Iliad

In The Aeneid and The Iliad, both Virgil and Homer show that their characters are tragic. They often do things that they don't want to do, while lamenting the reasons for their actions. The simply give their lives over to fate instead of trying to take control of what they are doing and change it for the better. They also talk about what the gods have done to them, but neither Virgil nor Homer makes any real effort to portray the gods as they were actually portrayed in either Greek or Roman history.

Instead they both show the gods the way that they think they should and the way that works best for the story. They take some liberties with different parts of history and different parts of the story that they are recreating to make sure that it…… [Read More]

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Carthage Empire the Origin of the Carthaginian

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23588394

Carthage Empire

The origin of the Carthaginian Empire can be traced back to 814 BC, North Africa where Carthage was situated towards the east of Lake Tunis where we can locate Tunisia today. Carthage was basically founded by Phoenician settlers which came from Tyre city which is now known as Sur in Lebanon. Queen Dido was credited with being the founder of this city and since the establishment of this empire; there are numerous myths that can be traced back to the association with Romans and Greeks, essentially their literature (Bowman).

Success of the Carthage Empire

The Carthage city was famous for trade and that proved to be the means of their survival and helped the Carthaginians gain massive amounts of power and spreading the trade routes and networking all along the Mediterranean. In the early 6th century BC, Hanno, a famous Carthaginian explorer went on his trip sailing till…… [Read More]

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Hebraism and Hellenism the Old Debate Between

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81105471

Hebraism and Hellenism

The old debate between the values of so-called 'Hebraism' and 'Hellenism' is manifest in our culture today. Hebraism, according to the Victorian scholar Matthew Arnold is defined as putting 'right doing' over 'right knowing.' Hellenism, in the spirit of the ancient Greeks, emphasizes the need to understand the world: "to see things as they really are" (Drake 2001). This can be seen in our modern debate over teaching evolution in schools. People who take a literal view of the Bible are less concerned about scientific truth and are more worried about the implications of teaching a theory of the origin of life that denies God's moral influence upon human existence. The Hellenistic mindset stresses the need to teach a scientifically-accepted theory to educate the young and advance human progress and insight.

A different view of the Hebraism vs. Hellenistic mindset can be seen as early as the…… [Read More]

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Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34103176

Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).

Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…… [Read More]

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Bernini and Caravaggio Baroque Art Was a

Words: 1103 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58600078

Bernini and Caravaggio

Baroque art was a style that appeared in response to the 16th century Mannerist period and was characterized by religious iconography and figures but with a focus on the pre-Christian religions such as Greek and Roman mythology. The characteristics of Baroque art can be seen in many branches of the art world such as in sculptures, paintings, literature and architecture. The movement started around 1600 in Italy where the Catholic Church was particularly strong and spread throughout most of Europe very quickly. Many of the artworks from this period show the influence of the church on the daily lives of the people and how the artists fought against this. Following this period, the Baroque era is when the taboos of what was and was not appropriate to paint seemed to deteriorate, if not disappear forever, In many works of art at the time, the complete female and…… [Read More]

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Bramante Architecture a Fact of History Is

Words: 1151 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52011850

Bramante Architecture

A fact of history is that Renaissance marked a new emerging base towards the already established architecture of antiquity that was rooted in thorough recovery of the past and new inventiveness, but it was because of this that the great cities of Europe gathered much of their form that is admired by the world today. The word renaissance has entered the minds of people with dominant positive connotations of pure genius and renewal. (Campbell, 2004)

Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the early 15th to 17th centuries in different areas of Europe which demonstrated a revival of elements of the ancient Greek and Roman thought and culture. First established in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, the renaissance spread like wild fire to other parts of Italy as well and from there the style was carried to France, England, Russia, Germany and other parts of Europe. (Gromort)

During the Renaissance,…… [Read More]

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Norton I Intro on the Restoration Norton

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20195642

Norton I Intro on the Restoration

Norton I Introduction on the Restoration and 18th Century

The Period of the 18th Century in England was a time of great expansion and change.

People began moving from the country to the city/town during this time.

New likes were established that varied from the traditional arts scene.

The people living in town began to more openly express their likes/dislikes and the monarch became less an influence in deciding what was appropriate and what was not.

The country of England became divided politically as new parties emerged to represent its citizens.

The Tories supported the Crown, while the Whigs formed with a more progressive outlook and included nobles and clergymen.

The Toleration act provided freedom of worship.

Such acts and provisions would eventually become more commonplace as people began to realize differing viewpoints of the world.

Theories of old such as those of Aristotle…… [Read More]

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Impressions the Louvre the Louvre an Architectural

Words: 1311 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27827933


The Louvre

The Louvre, an architectural masterpiece, has dominated central Paris since the late 12th century. The original structure was gradually dwarfed as the city grew. The dark fortress of the early days was transformed into the modernized dwelling of Francois I and, later, the sumptuous palace of the Sun King, Louis XIV. My online tour of the Louvre allowed me to take a virtual, self-guided, room-by-room tour of the museum. The web site allows navigation through exhibition rooms and galleries and allows one to contemplate the facades of the museum. The first thing one sees before entering the museum is the garden, a delight during any season of the year. It is the perfect place for a relaxing stroll and it offers a range of activities for visitors.

There are more than ten sections in the museum for different kinds of art from all around the world including…… [Read More]

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Human & Divine the Relationship

Words: 1242 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62762435

He completed the tasks. When Hercules was dying, he was placed upon a funeral pyre, where he "ascended to Olympus, where he was granted immortality and lived among the gods" (Ellingson).

The Hebrew culture approaches the question of the interrelationship of the human and the divine in a manner substantially different than the Greek or Roman cultures. In fact, there are substantial differences in the Greek and Hebrew schools of thought, even down to descriptions of objects. For example, "the Greek culture describes objects in relation to the object itself. The Hebrew culture describes objects in relation to the Hebrew himself" ("Hebrew Thought"). Therefore, any Hebrew description of the divine automatically reflects the interrelationship between the divine and the human.

Both ancient Greeks and ancient Romans believed that the gods were actively and intimately involved in the lives of humans. In fact, modern Christianity can be said to arise from…… [Read More]

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Architecture Remarkably Similar in Their

Words: 2005 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94464381

The importance of the previous site to the locals is evidence in the fact that parts of that older building were "built into the terrace wall," ("Aegina, Temple of Aphaia (Building)"). The Temple of Portuna was built of different materials than the Greek temple, out of "tufa and travertine blocks which had been originally been coated with a fine layer of stucco," (Sullivan). What is significant from the context of construction is that the Temple of Portuna was built before marble was "widely accepted as a construction material in Rome," (the Architecture of Roman Temples: The Republic to the Middle Empire). Stucco was used, and so was travertine, materials that remained in use but less so after marble became fashionable in Rome.

The cultural context of these two buildings tells much about the role that architecture plays in the community and culture. In Rome, the Temple of Portunus was dedicated…… [Read More]

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Greece and Rome the Ancient

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 3037378

Indeed, Elton appears to favor the view that the army itself was a powerful and formidable force, but was divided by often self-serving emperors, which drained it of its energy.

The tragedy of Rome is that it could not maintain what was once a very powerful unified force. While citizens might still have been loyal to Rome and their citizenship, the emperors appear to hardly have been so, and indeed, they appeared both increasingly irrational and selfish in their actions, rather than acting as leaders that would continue their powerful expansion throughout the world. The reason for Rome's longevity lies in the unity, loyalty and mutual support between citizens and their rulers. When this began to collapse, external factors ensured that the collapse would later be complete.


Elton, Hugh. The Collapse of the roman empire - Military Aspects. Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean.

Muhlburger, Steven. Ideology, Identity, and…… [Read More]

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History of Architecture Not Only

Words: 1701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98679220

An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. Renaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.


Though our current architecture is derived…… [Read More]

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Fakes and Forgery in Classical Literature

Words: 3468 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74420501

Fakes & Forgery in Classical Literature

Epic Fake? Forgery, Fraud, and the Birth of Philology

A set of epigrams in the Planudean Appendix to the Greek Anthology record the trope that even in antiquity seven different cities contended for the right to be considered the birthplace of Homer. Several are clearly inscriptions, no bigger than a couplet:

nn? p-lei? m-rnanto sof-n di? r-zan Om-ro?


The more flowery elaboration upon this lapidary couplet at 296 is attributed to Antipater of Sidon, and approaches a more modern conception of the epigram by making a vatic sort of claim on his own behalf in order to assert Homer's own divinity:


Others, like 293, try to resolve the questions about Homer's identity by ascribing authorship of the poems to Zeus himself. The overall effect is uncanny -- to realize that the nexus of ideas relating antiquity to uncertainty, to fraudulent claims and…… [Read More]

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Etruscans if Someone Living 2 000 Years From

Words: 3381 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43197328


If someone living 2,000 years from now wanted to know what took place in the year 2005, it would be necessary to go through impossible amounts of information. Today, scores of individuals with varying agendas write about day-to-day events. Thousands of publications and electronic media maintain records. Before the Common Era the situation was naturally much different. Because so few accounts exist of this time period, anthropologists and historians have to make educated guesses to fill in the blanks. This same problem exists with early Rome and Italy. No account written earlier than the late 3rd century exists and no continuous account recorded before the age of Augustus now survives. Thus, most of the information concerning the Etruscan traditions either comes from individuals such as the Roman historian Livy, the Greeks, and archaeological finds.

Born in Northern Italy in 59 BC, Livy wrote a 142-book history of Rome called…… [Read More]

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Various Interrelated Aspects of Domestic Space and Social Issues of Domestic Architecture in Ancient Pompeii

Words: 7989 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78861434

Domestic Architecture in Ancient Pompeii

The ancient city of Pompeii has been investigated for 250 years but still remains one of the least understood ancient cities. Historians have attributed this to the inadequate standard of excavation and publication of finds, however this has greatly changed in the past decade. As a result of new approaches in prehistory, urban geography and the social sciences, writers focusing on Pompeii have turned their attention toward the city of Pompeii as an economic and social entity. The inter-relationship between structure, decor, furnishings and allocation and use of space, is the culmination of the work of many scholars and historians over several years. One of the most important aspects of the research in this area is the manner in which the Romans utilized the space they inhabited and the extent to which archaeological and textual evidence increases our understanding of the Roman domestic environment.

An…… [Read More]

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Venus Role in Art

Words: 2900 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19446819

Venus in Art

Introduction to Venus and Aphrodite:

Throughout history, Venus has long been a source of inspiration for artists. Her representation of love and beauty has been captured in various mediums, from the visual arts of paintings and sculpture to music and drama; Venus has served as a universal symbol of beauty and has embodied the secrets of love. Central to understanding how artists have been able to use her as such a representation of love and beauty, is understanding Venus and Aphrodite's roles in history and Greek mythology.

Venus is an ancient Italian goddess closely associated with fields and gardens and later identified by the Romans with the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite. Although the question as to how Venus came to be identified with so important a deity as Aphrodite remains unanswered, Venus' identification with Aphrodite is certain and because of this is often depicted in art.…… [Read More]

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Emperor Worship the Worship of

Words: 3968 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51503047

It evolved into a major part of the very fabric of society. Ambassadors from these provinces would report their sacral worship and elaborate religious practices when visiting Rome. Often, these rites and practices were woven into the religious system. The religious system in Rome and in the provinces in the time of Augustus, or Rex Gestae, was steeped in his achievements. He ordered the inscription of these achievements on bronze tablets and in front of his mausoleum. Rome was a functional state, which idealized men as gods who possessed or pursued faith, reason, wealth, salvation, liberty or victory. Cicero wrote that the common custom was for those who brought such great benefits to be deified out of gratitude. Divine honors promoted these virtues and made their possessors more willing to face hardships and dangers in the service of the state. Cicero further wrote that the state could be set into…… [Read More]

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Interior Design and Theories Architects Everywhere Have

Words: 1648 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54758560

Interior Design and Theories

"Architects everywhere have recognized the need of… a tool which may be put in the hands of creators of form, with the simple aim… of making the bad difficult and the good easy" (Corbusier).

Interior Design is considered to be a multi-faced art where an array of different arts and projects come together to turn a given space into an effective setting for the required purpose. In the past, the interiors of a building were put together instinctively. The development of society and complex architecture has contributed to the contemporary profession of interior designing. Today, many architects also work as interior designers to give the inside of a building a functional design that conforms to the theme of the entire structure.

Usually seen as a secondary to architecture, interior designing often involves a combination of architecture, industrial design, engineering and even craftsmanship to shape together a…… [Read More]

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Men and Women Change After

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35622696

A Greek man's male friends served this purpose.

Ancient Rome followed the patterns in male-female roles as set by the Greeks for most of their history. Like the Greeks, love was generally not an element of most male/female relationships and prostitution was a major industry. For the Romans, the natural order of things was that men were better suited to labor outside the home while women were considered better equipped for handling matters within the home. Unlike Greek women, however, who were relegated to operating in the background even with the home, Roman women were afforded a much larger role in the home but were still not allowed to participate in affairs that occurred in public. In both Greek society and Roman society it must be remembered that they were societies in which under-population was a concern and not over-population as it is today. As a result, the primary function…… [Read More]

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Spirituality and Depression What Is

Words: 6620 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57098827

Similarly the Ayurvedic tradition of India emphasized rest and relaxation and nutritional well-being, along with various mentally stimulating exercises. Ayurvedic resorts are still popular in the East. Buddhism is also viewed as an avenue out of depression -- a mode to enlightenment. Nonetheless, as James C.-Y. Chou (2005) states, "The concept of psychological depression in Eastern cultures is not as well accepted as it is in Western cultures. In fact, the whole idea of illness in Eastern cultures is based on physical illness…if they have a psychological illness, then they are perceived as being a persistently mentally ill patient as you would see in a state hospital…it's stigmatized."

Perhaps more than any ancient civilization, the Greeks "took a great interest in the human psyche and especially in madness. Plato who lived in the 5th and 4th centuries BC speaks about two kinds of madness, one with a divine origin and…… [Read More]

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Monolithic Theories of Myth Much

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60263652

They are instructive but do not attempt to provide information about origination or purpose beyond informing the population of potential consequences for not abiding by the cultural customs. Malinowski suggested that instead of natural or explanatory reasons, a more logical explanation for the prevalence of mythology in Ancient Greece and Rome had to do with the reinforcement of customs and traditions already existing in the society. The myths would be created to justify accepted social customs as opposed to the actions of the society being dictated by the myths (Kirk 1974). The myth does not try to provide an explanation for why the custom must be performed but instead creates a precedent for the custom to insist that it is continually performed. An example of this would be proper burial rituals of Ancient Greece. It is written for example that bodies are to be properly buried and if they are…… [Read More]

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Alexander the Great Books on

Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 88216034

Hamilton notes the biographies of Alexander often reflected the backgrounds of authors who wrote about him. For example, Sir William Tarn, a Scottish gentleman of the British imperial era, characterized Alexander as a chivalrous Greek gentleman with a missionary zeal to spread Greek civilization. In contrast, Fritz Schachermeyr, a German historian who had experienced the rise and fall of the Nazi Germany, described Alexander as a ruthless and cruel ruler, indulged "in deceit and treachery to gain his ends, as a 'Titanic' figure aiming at the conquest of the world."

Both Tarn and Schachermeyr are among the great modern historians of Alexander but even they could not escape personal biases.

The irony of Hamilton's book is that, although he is at pains in his discussion of the difficulty of writing about Alexander and is critical of biased historians, the book starts with a straightforward admission of a bias. Rejecting the…… [Read More]

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Myth Within Art The Birth

Words: 883 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84150090

Interestingly, Venus is a goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, which is significant, since she was literally created from the male genitalia, and males were more strongly linked to sexuality than females, even at that point in Roman history. In the rest of Roman and Greek mythology, Venus/Aphrodite generally plays a benevolent role, though she does use influence women to use their sexuality in inappropriate ways, such as the willful seduction of one's own father.

Botticelli's painting captures all of the prettier elements of the birth of Venus without referencing the uglier parts of the myth. There are no castrated gods or vengeful sons in the painting, merely a beautiful, naked woman emerging from the sea, standing grown in a sea shell. The sea shell symbolized the vulva in art of that time period. Moreover, Venus was a frequent non-religious subject of paintings, because it was considered acceptable to depict…… [Read More]

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Hope Hygieia

Words: 1781 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91344390


Describe the object in detail. What is the medium? What is the color and size? If there are human figures what are they doing? How are they posed? What are they wearing? What are the expressions on their faces?

According to the website of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, The Hope Hygieia is a marble, life-sized statue of the ancient goddess of health that was originally discovered in the ancient Roman port of Ostia in 1797. It was originally owned by the British collector Sir Thomas Hope before being sold to William Randolph Hearst, who donated it to the city of Los Angeles in 1950. Over the years, the statue has been restored, de-restored to the condition in which it was originally found, the re-restored at the Getty Museum in 2006. This is a white marble statue with the clothing and hairstyle of a young Roman…… [Read More]

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Attitudes Toward Human Sexuality Human

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19019394

In spite of the fact that there may have existed two great cultures that once widely accepted homosexuality as mere manifestation of the human sexuality, the Western world inherited a traditional negative attitude when it comes to this. Parents may accept their sons' and daughter's homosexuality and learn how to live with it, but they will never feel happy about it. Why? Authors like Greenberg (1988), Davies (1982) and Gayle Rubin (1984) are preoccupied to go to the roots of things and to find out what motivates people to fight each other when it comes to such a basic and private right as the choice of a sexual partner.

Children out of wedlock, birth control means and masturbation are today topics in the Western society that are no longer taboos. On the other hand, homosexuality is in many respects, still generating harsh debates. Not only the political, but also the…… [Read More]

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Ancient History the Ancient Histories of Mesopotamian

Words: 2399 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57879658

Ancient History

The ancient histories of Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations have much in common. Both regions were inhabited since prehistoric times by nomadic groups, which began to settle down in towns and villages by around 6000 BCE. Consistent settlements soon grew into larger cities; in both Egypt and in Mesopotamia, these cities became city-states with complex lifestyles and forms of government. Some of the first written languages were created simultaneously in these regions: in Mesopotamia the Sumerians developed cuneiform and later the Babylonians and Assyrians used pictographs. The ancient Egyptians developed their unique hieroglyphics. Both these ancient cultures had sophisticated arts, such as fine pottery, ceramics, sculpture, and paintings. Both these cultures also had irrigation systems to provide the arid regions with the ability to grow crops. Egypt and Mesopotamia were both fed by major rivers: in Egypt's case it was the Nile and in the case of Mesopotamia it…… [Read More]

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Art in Cultural Context Cybele Is an

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 18300208

Art in Cultural Context

Cybele is an ancient figure who represented the mother goddess and in her was granted the ability to create and populate the world according to her desires. She was both the most powerful of the gods and also an amalgamation of the most powerful of the goddesses. In both Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, cults which worshipped Cybele were established and elaborate temples were constructed in her honor which lasted throughout centuries. The woman was not just another goddess in the pantheon of deities established by the ancient empires, but was a uniquely powerful entity that people would worship and pray to in times of difficulty and suffering. She had within her the powers of many of the goddesses, including the Earth goddess Gaia, the Minoan goddess Rhea, and the goddess of the harvest Demeter, taking the role of each of these mythological mothers. So strong…… [Read More]

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Perceived Superiority of Modern Western Civilization Is

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28741881

perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.

Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…… [Read More]

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Poetic of Divine Light Divine

Words: 3922 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84665792

The windows for example would depict a large image of a saint, with smaller images from his or her life at the bottom. In this way, the windows could be seen as a conduit of the divine light bathing the congregation within. More complex themes were incorporated for rose windows, including prophets, apostles saints and angels.

Another interesting component of the divine light brought to the citizenry in this way is that the society of the time was largely illiterate. Hence stained glass windows illuminated, so to speak, the message of the bible in visual terms. Not only scholars, therefore, but also children, the simple and the illiterate could access the various legends depicted in this way. The "divine light" takes on a more literal significance in this way, with the windows not only symbolizing, but literally illuminating the bible for those who could not access it by reading. Later,…… [Read More]

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Plutarch Lives Solan and Publicola

Words: 1261 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10957189


Even today it is difficult enough for historians to write about something that occurred not even 50 or 100 years ago, because of all the many simultaneous events and viewpoints on the issues. They have to look at all the facts and determine what is the overlying "truth." Most often, these specialists will have their own personal perspective. Imagine, then, the challenge that Mestrius Plutarch had when writing about something that happened 300 years before his time, when extensively less materials on his subject were available and he often had to rely on ancient manuscripts no long present today. In his most-known writing, Lives, Plutarch may have sometimes filled in the blanks or stretched the truth, but this sizeable volume of work still remains one of the major sources of his period of time.

Born during the reign of Roman Emperor Claudius in Greece, Plutarch produced an extensive body…… [Read More]

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Belief and Knowledge the 13

Words: 1082 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84913749

The Aztecs believed 13 to be a sacred number. The Aztec week was thirteen days long and the number was respected as a measure of time and completion (Number 13, 2010). The Aztec calendar year was 260 days long, which was calculated as 20, thirteen day periods, called Trecenas. The goddess Tlazolteotl was the ruler of the 13th Trecena, who was the goddess of sin and could forgive sins (Number 13, 2010). In Hinduism, the thirteenth night of the waning moon in the month of Maagha is sacred to Shiva, and notes a cause for celebration of creation and preservation (Number 13, 2010). For those reading tarot cards, the tarot 13 is the card of death. In Scandinavia, the day of the Saint Lucia celebration is December 13th (Number 13, 2010). Regarding United States currency, the number 13 is seemingly glorified. On the one dollar bill, there are 13 leaves…… [Read More]

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Bacchic Rituals and Modern Manifestations

Words: 4568 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92143503

The bacchius ritual is an expression of another related god, who has been embraced by some as the guide of the spiritual through free expression and has been judged by others as the leader of good people to wicked excess. Though the story of Bacchus is controversial it is one that needs retelling. In Andrew Dalby's work, Bacchus a Biography the life story of Bacchus is told, from am ore modern perspective, a biographical expression of an ancient god. Through his retelling there is a clear sense that the god is all to human, the type of god we humans love to love and love to hate, as the expression of the gift of wine, is a freeing gift and a destructive gift at the same time and mistakes are thought to be only of human making, in our monotheistic culture. This work is an expression of the old cliche,…… [Read More]

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Ancient Rome Caesar's Gallic Campaigns

Words: 3223 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77585901

Gallic Campaigns

Caesar's Gallic Campaigns

Caesar's Gallic Campaigns

Julius Caesar was an ambitious and ruthless man. He did not begin by attempting to conquer the world, as had Alexander the Great[footnoteRef:1], but he did have the political ambition to at least rule the Roman state as emperor. He had been a consul for several years and upon the end of his term, he was without anything to do. So, through influence he was able to secure the governorships of Cisalpine Gaul, Illycrium and Transalpine Gaul[footnoteRef:2]. With these governorships he hoped to secure enough glory for himself that he could return to Rome in triumph and be welcomed as the emperor[footnoteRef:3]. With these ambitions, and the supposed uprising of the Helvetii, the scene was set for Julius to campaign in Gaul and return to Rome as the conquering hero. Following is a year-by-year account of the Caesar's campaigns from 58 BC…… [Read More]

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Hercules Disney vs Classical Literature the Myth

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 92921320

Hercules: Disney vs. Classical Literature

The myth of Hercules has been represented in media such as film and television, allowing the general public to be introduced to Greek and Roman mythological characters through entertainment. The 1997 Disney animated movie Hercules is a loosely based adaptation of the Herculean myth. The Herculean myth in the Disney movie Hercules relies heavily on identifying characters with their Greek and Roman counterparts instead of identifying with their classic mythological roles.

In Hercules, Hercules is depicted as being the offspring of Zeus and his wife, Hera. Because he was born to two gods, Hercules is also depicted as being a god himself. In classic mythology, Hercules was born to Alcmene, a mortal and the wife of Amphitryon, and Zeus, who disguised himself as Amphitryon in order to sleep with Alcmene. While Hercules is depicted as being loved by both Zeus and Hera in the movie,…… [Read More]

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Lady Justice Themis Themis Also

Words: 877 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12171546

Of course, this is a supreme being who was authorized by a greater power to represent law, order, equity and custom and was not only the wife of Zeus, but also his counselor. In pre-Hellenic times wiser women made the most important decisions. Perhaps a woman brings more balance into life, in every person. In ancient times, women had the best judgmental capacity and were the most important in taking decisions.

It is universally acknowledged that the earliest appearance of justice in ancient Greek civilization is as a Goddess, whose function is to judge humans by punishing or rewarding their conduct in relation to the Divine Principle. The oldest record of justice dating from ancient Greece is to be found in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, where Themis is mentioned for the first time, being depicted as the personification of the social and moral order of human affairs. Mention should also…… [Read More]

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Art Rococo Genre and Neoclassical

Words: 1822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 47296518

The most famous genre painting by David is undoubtedly the Death of Marat (1793) which depicts French radical Jean-Paul Marat slumped over in his bathtub while holding a letter which he obviously was writing just before being killed by Charlotte Corday. The overall narrative of this painting -- the knife/murder weapon lying on the floor, the entry wound just above Marat's heart, his right arm draped over the edge of the bathtub and the writing quill and inkwell -- are all intentionally and vividly placed details intended to "sharpen the sense of pain and social outrage" over the murder of Marat, considered as one of the pivotal rebel leaders of the French Revolution. Clearly, David the artist was attempting to illustrate his own personal feelings concerning the social decay of French culture under King Louis XVI and how rebels like Marat are not exempt from the violence of human nature,…… [Read More]

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Mind and Body in History

Words: 1942 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29914656

For Marx, of course, economics and class conflicts were the base of society, and social change proceeded through revolutions, such as the French, American and English Revolutions against feudalism in the 17th and 18th Centuries. In the future, capitalism would be overthrown by a socialist revolution, starting with the most advanced industrial economies in the West (Greene, p. 200). Comte argued that sociology should be concerned with the "laws of social evolution," though, and that science and technology had undermined traditional religion and the feudal social order. Society evolved in three distinct stages, theological, metaphysical and positive, with positivism representing urban, industrial society (Greene, p. 204).


Plato, Augustine and Descartes were the most important dualist philosophers in history, and all of them valued the mind and immortal soul far more than the physical body or the material universe. This view was dominant until the era of the Scientific Revolution…… [Read More]

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Kingdom of God Christianity Judaism and the

Words: 1587 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32316909

Kingdom of God

Christianity, Judaism and the Kingdom of God

Christianity is a force of both unparalleled influence and of continuing humility on the global scale, being both the salvation of the indigent and the foundational force under great and established power structures. It is this duality that perhaps best helps to initiate a discussion on the concept of the Kingdom of God. Indeed, the Kingdom of God is both everything and all around us. All things which we experience and engage may be seen to those of us who walk in the light of God as emanating from the will and grace of the heavens. This means that the Kingdom of God extends from heaven to earth, convicted each of us to act on earth as we would in heaven. The concept is an important one as it is generally used to justify a wide range of Christian ethics…… [Read More]

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Vernacular Rhetoric the Art of

Words: 1729 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70495083

Vernacular Rhetoric has an element of discussion which ensures that there is hope of better and newer social circumstances to emerge as the ideologies behind social movements keep changing. The combination of Rhetoric and vernahas yielded the momentous Theory of Vernacular Rhetoric which embodies the teachings of persuasive use of inherent and familiar tongues to offer resistance by persons to bring social change.


Amos, R. (1969). House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin.

Aristotle. (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. Oxford University Press.

Boyd, T.E. (1991). Deep in the Shed: The Discourse of African-American Cinema. Iowa Journal of Literary Studies, 11(1), 99-104.

Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Univ of California Press.

Conley, T. (1994). Rhetoric in the European tradition. University of Chicago Press.

Hauser, G.A. (1999). Vernacular voices: Univ of South Carolina Press.

Hauser, G.A., & McClellan, E.D.…… [Read More]

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Renaissance the Term Renaissance Means To Be

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55481193


The term "Renaissance" means "to be reborn," or "rebirth," and as a cultural movement in Europe, the Renaissance is generally accepted to have begun in Florence Italy in the late 13th century. Some claim that it was the result of the fall of Constantinople and the many Greek scholars and texts which found their way to Italy soon after bringing with them not only the knowledge of the classical world, but the new Islamic knowledge that was derived from it. This influx on knowledge started a cultural revival which sought to recapture the glorious past of the classical world, but soon exploded into the creation of an entirely new cultural identity based on the classical past but transformed into something completely unique. The ideas of the Renaissance spread throughout Europe completely transforming European nations artistically, economically, politically, socially, technologically, and in virtually every other aspect of culture. One can…… [Read More]

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Passive Euthanasia A Comparative Analysis of Judaic

Words: 3931 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34323238

Passive Euthanasia: a comparative analysis of Judaic and Catholic points-of-View.

Euthanasia is essentially the practice of "mercifully ending a person's life in order to release the person from an incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death." (Euthanasia) The term euthanasia is derived from the Greek words 'eu' and 'thanatos' which means "good death." The term has most commonly been referred to in relation to intentional mercy killings. (ibid) In other words, the life of the person or patient who is terminally ill or enduring tremendous suffering is ended with the assistance of another person. In short, this means that "A" ends the life of another person, "B" for the sake of "B." (Kuhse, Helga 1992)

In order to fully comprehend the implications of the term euthanasia requires the assimilation of two important aspects. The first is that it involves the taking of a life and secondly that this life-taking is…… [Read More]

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Humanism and 16th Century Music

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62992787

In one portrait of a Renaissance man, the aristocrat's musical instruments are placed alongside his various scientific instruments, books, and weapons (Arkenberg 2002). Eventually, in spite of "some of the obscure, antiquarian concerns of humanist engagement with the music of the classical past…music came to be thought of not as a branch of mathematics" but as an art ("The Renaissance," Free Encyclopedia, 2009). Humanism shifted the analytical understanding of music fully into the realm of the expressive, fine arts. There was renewed interest in the relationship between music and words and music's ability to express human emotion, versus analyzing the mathematician Pythagoras' notion of the 'music of the planetary spheres' ("The Renaissance," Free Encyclopedia, 2009).

At the beginning of the century, polyphonic music still dominated the Latin masses and motets of sacred music. Because these styles of music contained several simultaneous melodies polyphony tended to deemphasize individual voices, words, and…… [Read More]

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History of Wrestling An Overview

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56626960

In a reversal, which is worth two points, the prone person comes from underneath and gains control. A near fall is worth 2-3 points and is a 'near pin.' The points awarded for a 'near fall' are based upon how long the 'near pin' lasts. Points are also awarded based upon the opponent's infractions. These may include illegal holds, technical violations (like leaving the mat), grabbing clothing, the mat, or the opponent's headgear, locking or overlapping hands, improper or illegal equipment, "stalling," "unnecessary roughness" and "unsportsmanlike conduct" ("Overview of wrestling rules," West Virginia Wresting, 2010). Scholastic wrestling is scored as a team sport as well as individually.

The issue of women in wrestling has proved to be a controversial issue. On the Olympic level, women competed in wrestling for the first time in 2004. "Women from 21 nations competed in four freestyle weight classes. Medals were awarded to wrestlers from…… [Read More]

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Europen History What of the

Words: 1346 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40934839

The conflict evolved and his works burnt in Rome, following the Pope's orders gave him the opportunity to extend his efforts of reformation over the entire Northern Europe. His excommunication in 1521 led to the birth of a new church and the separation finally took place.

Calvin, unlike Luther the monk, was a lawyer who came to Geneva to help in the reformation process. At first, his attempts failed, but after being forced to leave the city, he returned and his new philosophical views about the reformed church were accepted by Geneva that became the center of Protestantism in Europe.

Question 3: Was the religiously-framed warfare of the 16th and early 17th centuries avoidable, given the realities of that place and time?

After the first period of the separation between the Catholic and the Protestant Churches that took place peacefully, there came a period of ruthless fights between the two.…… [Read More]

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Oath Horatii

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54743400

Formal Analysis

Jacques Louis David's Oath of Horatii is the best known and most explicit depiction of neoclassical painting, owing to its inclination to patriotic concern and stiffness. Apparently, Pierre Corneille's play named Horace is the inspiration behind David's work. The play is acclaimed for promoting masculine values and civil conduct. However, it is important to note that the part on the oath wasn't in the play. The work by David is laced with significant tension that transmits a powerful feel. The play is presented on a theatre-like stage. The three sons of Horace are pledging loyalty and allegiance to Rome; even as it leads them to feud with the hero from Albano city, Curatii, which also happened to be their brother in-law.

Jacques painting is depicted in two parts. On one side, the left, the men are portrayed in patriotic mood and valour while the other side shows these…… [Read More]

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Ode on a Grecian Urn

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48461576

Ode Grecian

Entering the Greek and Roman art section of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, I was first struck by the skillful lighting and the overall professionalism inherent in the displays. There were not as many people in this section as in some of the others I had visited that day. Yet because of the caliber of artifacts exhibited at the Met, I still felt continuity with the greater world of ancient art. Looking around the gallery containing the Archaic Greek vases, painted in the "black figure" technique, I was immediately impressed by the range of imagery that was depicted on the vases. The sheer age of the vases was astounding. I know most of them were restored painstakingly by experts, but these were items about 2500 years old. I was drawn to one vase in particular, a "neck-amphora" made of terracotta construction and finished with…… [Read More]

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Anesthesia Means Temporary Loss of

Words: 3728 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12779152

In year 1799 anesthetic properties of Nitric Oxide were discovered by Humphery Davy (1778-1829) he advised that the by using nitric oxide, pain and shock of the surgical procedure can be negated. Third person who continue with Morton and Wells philosophy was Charles T. Jackson. The Fourth man who contributed to anesthetics was Thomas Mortan (Blatner, 2009). In the year 1848 James Simpson used chloroform in obstetric surgery, he used diethyl ether to anesthetize a women with a pelvic deformity for delivery (kodali, 2009) and in year 1853 John Snow did a successful induction of chloroform to her Majesty Queen Victoria at the time of Prince Leopold's Birth and also on Fenny Longfellow who wrote to her poet brother that this use of ether is certainly the greatest blessing of this era (Longfellow, 1956). In the year 1885-William Halsted introduced the nerve block. In 1891 Heinrich Quincke demonstrated the process…… [Read More]

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Catholicism and Mormonism Comparison

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14220948

Testaments to Truth

Roman Catholicism and Mormonism Compared

There are many varieties of Christianity, some of them very old, and some of them of quite recent origin. The Roman Catholic Church boasts an uninterrupted existence of two thousand years. Its hierarchy, and its beliefs, have adapted to changed conditions. Yet truth is not so easily discovered. Rome may have purified her Church during the Counter Reformation, but not all were satisfied. The Protestant Churches of Western Europe spawned an even greater number of sects in the New World. Some of these creeds held beliefs similar to those of the Roman Catholic Church, while others developed in remarkably different ways. In mid-Nineteenth Century New York, Joseph Smith was privileged to receive an entirely new Revelation. This Book of Mormon was at odds with the teachings of virtually all other Christian denominations. The followers of this brand new Church of Jesus Christ…… [Read More]