Homicide Essays (Examples)

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Psychology of Serial Killer Investigations

Words: 1094 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78407414

Some of the 'tools of trade' a killer could incorporate to torture his victims as he seeks to facilitate his perversion include but they are not limited to "leather slave collars, handcuffs, cigarette lighters, whips, and adhesive or duct tape" (Keppel and Birnes, 2008).

Information about Torture: Its Relevance in Understanding a Killer's Signature

Peter Sutcliffe, yet another brutal and sadistic serial killer, can be seen as a classic example of those who went far than it was necessary to kill their victims. In some cases, killers tend to engage in a variety of other actions beyond the actual crime. These actions could include but they are not limited to unnecessary stabbing and some kind of bondage or binding. Peter Sutcliffe for instance was popular for repeatedly stabbing and slashing his victims.

Signature killers in the words of Flowers (2006) "tend to leave behind a 'calling card' or psychological signature…… [Read More]

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Psychology of Serial Killer Investigations

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61597967

To begin with, the violence Sutcliffe meted out to his unfortunate victims was largely sexualized. Apart from being exclusively women, most of Sutcliffe's victims were prostitutes. Further, it can also be noted that in most cases, Sutcliffe first and foremost sought to render his victims incapable of defending themselves. This in most cases he accomplished by striking them with a hammer. Most of Sutcliffe's attacks also seem to have been planned well in advance. This is more so the case given the similarity of all his victims as well as use of similar weapons in his attack. Russell's murders on the other hand had several characteristics which did not match any of the other HITS database murders (Keppel and Birnes 2008). These characteristic had to do with victims' body posing, preferred method of body disposal and foreign objects insertion (sexual) into a victim's body (Keppel and Birnes 2008).

What the…… [Read More]

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High Profile Murder Cases The

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83484004

He admits that he killed her but he states that it was an accident. In an event in which the result is death the defense of involuntary manslaughter is available if the defense can show that it was not an intentional killing.

He also used a partial wrestling defense. He was not allowed to use a complete wrestling defense because the professional wrestlers who were asked to testify to the moves that Tate had seen on television and how they were done refused to testify. The judge did not order them to testify but did allow tapes to be shown of the moves that Tate said he performed on his friend.

Tate's attorneys could have also used a manslaughter defense. Manslaughter can be used when a death occurred, the defendant knew that his or her actions might cause injury but they were not anticipating a death.

In the case of…… [Read More]

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Domestic Violence it Has Long Been Recognized

Words: 1968 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16887682

Domestic Violence

It has long been recognized that clients must have the mindset and goals set forth for themselves if they are to succeed in a therapeutic changing process. Whether the goal is to change behavioral or emotional problems, the client must be motivated by their own desires to change. Lee, Uken & Sebold (2007) state that oftentimes in the therapy process, a client will know that he or she needs to change, however, they do not have any indication of when the problem has been successfully dealt with -- or when they are successfully changing their behavior. Because there are no indicators for them (without goals), long-term therapy is often what occurs -- sometimes with successful results and sometimes not. Goal setting becomes a vital part of successful treatment "because it gauges clients' progress toward beneficial solutions to their problems" (Maple, 1998; Lee et al., 2007).

There may be…… [Read More]

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Crime the Purpose of This

Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71668087

Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]

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Kansas City Gun Experiment and

Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98213657

4. Do some police departments still engage in the "aggressive preventative patrol" strategies that led to the urban riots of the 1960s and the publishing of the 1968 Kerner Commission Report? Are there any similarities or differences between those strategies and the strategies used in the Kansas City Gun Experiment?

One could argue that on other issues, any sting operation, such as those conducted on specified geographic locations for street prostitution or drug enforcement or even electronic crime stings is a model similar to this, as the officers are focusing specifically on one issue and are not required, during operations to answer traditional patrol calls. Though, this model is more a future deterrent model than a prevention model. Riots occur as a result of whole groups of individuals feeling particularly targeted, rather than protected by police. Harassment is a highly interpretive concept and issues such as, racial profiling or random…… [Read More]

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Health of Native Americans the

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94179257

As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).

The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…… [Read More]

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Evidence Discuss the Problems for

Words: 1879 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1910455

"The criterion for the admissibility of a confession has thus evolved into the quality of voluntariness. The aim of admitting into evidence only voluntary confessions is to prevent the introduction of unreliable evidence. & #8230; the result is that judges may exclude confessions where the coercion is blatant and obvious but not exclude confessions where the coercion" is more subtle -- the jury is left to decide the confession's veracity in this case (Wakefield & Underwager 20009).

Question 13

Discuss and provide examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self-incrimination.

The protection against self-incrimination does not apply to "non-testimonial evidence" such as giving examples of one's voice, police line-ups, blood samples or fingerprints (Lesson 12, 2009, Slide 4)

Question 14

The principal restriction of impeachment by the use of evidence of misconduct can result in a conviction of a witness. Explain this concept and give examples.

Impeaching the testimony…… [Read More]

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Police Psychology the Job of

Words: 1968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17597536

It is only logical that a large amount of power comes along with high profiles and that this power can be detrimental when it falls into the hands of people more interested in their personal gain than in the well being of their community.

The fact that the mayor died of a single shot in the head influences me in believing that the murder had not been accidental, nor had it been the result of a robbery. It appears that the mayor had been the victim of an execution. Also, the criminal had most probably known whom he was pointing the gun at and why he was doing it. In order to have better chances of solving the case, I have to find out what the motives for the crimes have been, and who could have benefited from the mayor's death.

One of the greatest problems faced by police departments…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Justice a Comparison of

Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 78258933

E.D. is to "make his mother proud," which demonstrates some pro-social behavior and an interest in solidifying family ties.

According to the Washington State Juvenile Pre-Assessment, Xander's social risk factor is moderate. His gang associations lower his score. The combination of criminal and social history warrants a moderate risk factor for this individual.

Missouri Juvenile Court Assessment

Xander's risk score as computed by the Missouri Juvenile Court Assessment is moderate, at 7.

2. What additional information could have been used

The case study reports yield insufficient information about both individuals. For example, no information is offered about Colleen's current school status or her relationship with peers. Neither individual's case study shows any prior assessment by psychologists or diagnoses of learning or physical disabilities. Interview data with either client is also missing; it would be helpful to have some more qualitative information that would present the courts with a fuller picture…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice - Gender and

Words: 3438 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 98457029

In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]

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The Impact of Legislation on Violence

Words: 9495 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44797968

Firearms Legislation and Firearms-Related Violence in Europe

This paper examines the relationship between firearms legislation and gun-related violence across countries and regions in Europe. The focus of the paper is to identify possible sources of literature to help answer questions regarding whether legislation is an effective tool in reducing firearms-related violence. The paper focuses on variance of gun violence rates throughout Europe, gun legislation, and possible national strategies for addressing the issue of gun violence. It finds that there are many variables that impact regions and can effect greater or lesser rates of gun violence -- factors such as education, culture, economic stability, political instability, and so on. No two countries are the same in terms of people, customs, traditions, ideals, and execution of the law. It is therefore important to better understand how culture plays a role in determining the effects of firearms-related violence in throughout Europe. This information…… [Read More]

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Policy Analysis -- Gang Activity in New

Words: 1978 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41626206

Policy Analysis -- Gang activity in New York City

Identification of a problem

Nowadays the American society is facing a pool of problems and this pool includes the well-known issue of gang activity, i.e. A group of people targeting innocent people for money and spreading violence. National Gang Centre (NGC) was amongst the first ones to take an initiative to address this problem within the United States. A National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) was conducted in 1996 which provided an overall picture of gang problem in United States, including the distribution and level of gang problems within the state of New York. The NYGS is acknowledged as the first international survey that targets the responsible citizens of each dominion on an annual basis and inquires about the frequency of gang activity in their area and their idiosyncrasies. The survey was conducted each year from 1996 to 2009 using the same…… [Read More]

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Temporal Monthly Distribution of Death

Words: 1847 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52329987

In the first instance there were no control groups or references to studies that showed possible alternative results from the same sample group. The argument can therefore be criticized for being far too spurious and general with little clear definition of terms.

Furthermore it must be mentioned that the argument itself is not always clear and well expressed and there is very little effort to show consistency between some of the findings. For example the connection between geophysical aspects and both homicide and suicide is based on a very little reference to other studies or to any factual and consistent evidence.

Summary and Conclusion

The above article has both positive and negative aspects. From a positive point-of-view the investigation of a rather unorthodox theory about extreme human behavior is to be applauded. There is some proof and evidence that geophysical aspects can and do have an influence on human behavior.…… [Read More]

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Blackstone With Washington Criminal Code the American

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34858755

Blackstone with Washington Criminal Code

The American legal system derives almost entirely from the British common law system. That is why, in America, if there is no precedent for a particular set of facts at trial, the court will look to common law from centuries before America even existed as a nation.

The similarities are even more noticeable in criminal law than they are in civil law. The homicide passages in Blackstone's descriptions of the law, for instance, are strikingly similar in many ways to the homicide paragraphs in the Washington Criminal Code.

Blackstone divides homicide into three separate branches: justifiable homicide, excusable homicide and felonious homicide. All three are the "killing of any human creature," but there are significant differences between the three, according to Blackstone. (Blackstone, 71)

Justifiable homicide can be due to necessity (a public official putting a felon to death as prescribed by the law, for…… [Read More]

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Criminal Law Both New Jersey

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51042024

" The complication of the protection of the fetus under common and criminal law was apparent; it is still unclear.

New York, however, makes clear its position on fetal protection despite its lack of clarity in organization of manslaughter criminal codes. Article 125 of the New York State Consolidated Law Penal Code deals directly with "Homicide, Abortion, and Related offenses," defining homicide as conduct that causes the death of a person or unborn child in which a female has been pregnant for more than twenty-four weeks. At that point, the fetus gains protection under New York Law; in the Harper case, the accused would be found guilty for homicide of the unborn child as well as that of the mother. The law further investigates homicide, manslaughter, vehicular manslaughter, criminally murder, and abortion in depth, providing in detail the clarity not allowed by the New Jersey code.

In the state of…… [Read More]

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Deterrent Effect if One Exists

Words: 4915 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 71249720

It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state. This cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment is done in the name of justice. It violates the right to life as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Amnesty International opposes the death penalty in all cases without exception regardless of the nature of the crime, the characteristics of the offender, or the method used by the state to kill the prisoner. (Abolish the death penalty, 2008, p. 2).

Despite these increasingly vocal protestations from at home and abroad, a majority of the states in America continue to retain the death penalty as a lawful punishment for capital offenses today. While the trend toward abolishing capital punishment was apparent in recent years, it would seem reasonable to assert that the death penalty will continue to be practiced in the United States for the foreseeable future and…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Stand Your Ground Law

Words: 2875 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 394378

Of even more significance is that twelve states go ahead to extend litigation costs and attorney fees "to a shooter who prevails in a civil lawsuit, creating a strong disincentive for a shooting victim to pursue justice in the civil system" (Mayors against Illegal Guns 6)

The Reach of Stand Your Ground Law

Although the Stand Your Ground Law is largely and extensively linked to Martin's case, a 2012 investigation by Tampa Bay Times revealed that "the Martin incident is far from the only example of the law's reach" (Lee). The relevance of this law as a major factor in judges' decisions, acquittals, and prosecutors' decisions, some of which involved cases that did not result in the victim's death, cannot be overstated (Lee).

In 2012, a Louisiana court acquitted Byron Thomas of all charges relating to an incident in which the 21-year-old, after a marijuana transaction turned sour, opened fire,…… [Read More]

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A New Look at Implementation of the Brady Act

Words: 4939 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69641908

Corrections/Police -- Criminal Justice -- The Brady Act

Seven-Stage Checklist for Program/Policy Planning and Analysis

The Seven Stage Checklist for Program/Policy Planning and Analysis was employed to examine The Brady Act. In Stage 1, Analyzing the Problem: the problem was found to be at least four serious gaps in the existing Brady Act. Those gaps include: the lack of required background checks for all gun sales, including private sales at gun shows and online; the lack of strong federal law criminalizing gun trafficking; the ready availability of military-style weapons and high-capacity magazines with more than 10 rounds; and the Tiahrt Order passed by Congress and preventing the public from knowing the identities of gun traffickers and how they operate.

Though the Brady Act suffers from several gaps, the lack of required background checks for all gun sales, including private sales at gun shows and online was addressed. Stage 2: Setting…… [Read More]

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Impact of the Gun Control on the States

Words: 3770 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89925838

United States, in accordance with crime and violence, has been having highest rates of crime and violence in the world, and largely most of them violence are related to gun. U.S. Department of Justice has indicated that in the United States, violence related to guns consists of the largest violence rate. For example, back in year 1995.

Homicides who were involved in gun violence were about 68% out of which 60% were the cases related to handguns. Another example is that more than 34 thousand peopled died due to the gunfire in 1996 out of which 41% were outcomes of homicide in the United States (Shay et al., 1999).

The first law on gun control came about in 1911 in the State of New York. However, the most significant law on gun control was the Brady bill which was passed in 1994. According to this law there is a restriction…… [Read More]

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Frankenstein Understanding the Frankenstein Monster

Words: 3059 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69319834

One can see similarities between monsters decline into homicidal tendencies and other homicidal persons. Homicide and suicide are often closely linked. Those that have suicidal thoughts are often prone to homicidal thoughts as well. In the case of the monster, he desperately wants to end his own life, and also, to seek revenge against the one who brought him this misery. Homicides followed by suicides are seen mainly in the type of relationship that exists in families and other close partnerships (Liem, Postulart, & Nieuwbeerta, p. 99). Once the person has committed murder, they know that inevitable dire consequences are likely to follow. Rather than face these consequences, they will often commit suicide. The hopelessness that led to the homicide becomes even more hopeless once the act is committed.

The positive correlation between homicide and suicide is a well-documented phenomenon (Bills & Li, p. 837). Major depression is present in…… [Read More]

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Why Stand Your Ground Laws Are Bad for States

Words: 3460 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26547647

Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for Repeal



Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for Repeal

Academic and Professional Writing for Graduate Students (LS526-01)

The "Stand Your Ground Law" is one of the most controversial laws in recent years and has gained notoriety due to its enactment in thirty-three states so far. Advocates of the law claim that it reduces the threat of violence in society, but the statistics prove otherwise as research shows that the law actually inflames race-based violence (Purdie-Vaughn, Williams, 2015). As such there are several states that have either taken a wary view of the law and have decided to steer clear of it, or have raised issue(s) with enactment of the law while considering it. It is because of this scrutiny the law has been misunderstood by some people, abused by others, and just…… [Read More]

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Anti-Gun Control Gun Control Is

Words: 4001 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39573647

Moreover, the increase in firearm-related homicide within this age group occurred among all race-sex groups (Fatal). Rates of suicide by firearm were especially high among the elderly in the United States, and increases occurred in all race-sex groups except African-American females, for whom the number of suicides were too small to produce stable rates (Fatal).

The CDC report cautions that the surveillance data in this report are intended to familiarize public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers concerning the problem of firearm-related deaths in the United States (Fatal). And although these data help to characterize the magnitude of the problem and identify groups at risk, there are still gaps in knowledge, thus current surveillance efforts need to be expanded to include information about nonfatal injuries (Fatal). Moreover, there needs to be a greater understanding of the causes of firearm deaths to identify modifiable individual and societal risk factors, thus, further research…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty When it Comes

Words: 2809 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 26777181

Justice Kennedy, writing for the majority, warned about broader problems with the capital punishment. "When the law punishes by death, it risks its own sudden descent into brutality, transgressing the constitutional commitment to decency and restraint." He took into account the many dangers of the death penalty and concluded it should be restricted to homicides (Death Penalty Information Center, 2008).

The main question regarding the research for or against capital punishment as a deterrent is whether to continue the death penalty because the findings are inconsistent or to stop it for the same reason. Researchers Radelet and Borg (2000), in fact, say that the findings impact how Americans perceive the death penalty. They showed how the conclusions of the research over the past several decades have influenced the debate pro-or con capital punishment. Their literature review in relationship to historical events "suggests changes in the nature of death penalty debates…… [Read More]

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Murder Has Been Considered a

Words: 1850 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73100231

IC 18-4003 lays out the elements needed for a first-degree murder conviction, and many of those do not require aforethought. Further, IC 18-4001 does not state the definition is for first degree murder only, and thus, simply adds to the ambiguity of the law.

Still another change may need to be a redefining of phrase "an abandoned and malignant heart" in IC 18-4002. This phrase is not legally clear, and as a result, leads to confusion when attempting to interpret the meaning of the statute in first degree murder cases. This phrase, taken from common law, must be interpreted as such, according to precedence. In State v. Olin, 111 Idaho 516, 519, 725 P.2d 801, 840 (Ct. App. 1986), the court ruled that common law terminology must be given its common law meaning, and that the intentions of the cluster of ideas surrounding such language must be conveyed. In this…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty for Sex Offenders

Words: 2119 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11455550

Execution for Committing a Non-Homicide Sex Crime

The last execution of an individual found guilty for committing a non-homicide sex crime occurred 50 years ago. The use of the death penalty against such offenders was halted partly because of claims that such execution was not only cruel but also in violation of the Constitution. In Coker v. Georgia (1977), the Court ruled that executions for rape were not only cruel but also contributed to unusual punishment that infringed the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution. In its ruling on the case, the U.S. Supreme Court prohibited the death penalty for rape in an offense where the victim had the legal status of an adult since she was 16 years old and married. In the past few years, there have been attempts and efforts that support the reinstatement of capital punishment for committing a non-homicide sex crime. These efforts have primarily been…… [Read More]

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Voluntary and Involuntary Manslaughter Voluntary Manslaughter Refers

Words: 2281 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86126697

voluntary and involuntary manslaughter?

Voluntary manslaughter refers to a situation where the defendant committed an unlawful homicide with criminal intent or malice aforethought, while involuntary manslaughter refers to a scenario where a defendant has committed an unlawful homicide but without the requisite criminal intent. Instead of malice, the intent required for involuntary manslaughter is either recklessness or criminal negligence. Recklessness involves a blatant disregard for the dangerousness of a situation. Criminal negligence can encompass a wide variety of scenarios, but basically involves either extreme carelessness or incompetence. In fact, criminal negligence can be very fact-specific, because the carelessness or incompetence of a defendant may depend largely upon that defendant's personal background. For example, professionals are held to a different standard than non-professionals. The Court of Criminal Appeal determined gross negligence involuntary manslaughter involved a defendant with a duty to the deceased, a breach of that duty, the breach of the…… [Read More]

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Gun Control Debate Aside From

Words: 2831 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72963134

As a consequence, it is difficult to conclude that strict liabilities for gun owners (a la LaFollette) represent and appropriate and reasoned response. "Gun ownership fails to clearly possess any of the three characteristics of ultra-hazardous activities." It fails to be an activity that is not commonly done, that necessarily involves a risk of serious harm, and that cannot be made safe even with extreme care (Hunt, 2001: p. 41-42).

Further, the U.S. National Safety Council has almost 100 years of data on fatal firearms accidents. Despite popular conception that fatal accidents have been increasing and particularly threaten children's lives, the data shows that fatal accidents have been declining since the 1930s, and at an accelerating rate in the last decade -- declining 40% in those ten years (Stell, 2001: p. 30). Undermining the claim that increased gun ownership results in higher crime rates, Moorhouse and Wanner (2006) analyzed:

30…… [Read More]

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Murder and the Family How

Words: 1242 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52480504

Family members who cannot find meaning in their loss suffer greater levels of distress. This stress may take the form of physiological alertness, anxiety, panic attacks, headaches, somatic complaints, sleep disturbances, and difficulty concentrating (Miller, 2009). Survivors often exhibit prolonged feelings of guilt and anger. Family members regularly blame themselves for the death of the victim, creating pseudo-explanations in order to give meaning to this unexplainable trauma (Miller, 2009). Self-directed anger enables the survivor to exert some control over the situation, however, oftentimes this anger is directed outwardly at the police, the justice system, and society in general (Miller, 2009).

External factors also play a significant role in the life of the survivor. Since a murder is considered a violation against the state, victim's families can be left feeling as if the needs of the justice system take priority over the needs of the family and can leave them feeling…… [Read More]

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Training of the Metropolitan Police

Words: 12930 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50785881

Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.

These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.

Research Questions

What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?

What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?

Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?

What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?

Significance of the Study

Research Design…… [Read More]

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Criminal Law the Book Is

Words: 2745 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46333677

The subchapters tend to follow similar structures, with the punishment in each case being discussed at the very end.

Chapter 10 refers to crimes against habitation, notably criminal acts such as burglary or arson. The conditions for a criminal act of this nature to occur are discussed, as well as the different statutes that regulate the legal framework for each of these situations and the punishments applicable. Important restrictions apply in each cases, for example, the fact that an individual cannot, from a legal point-of-view, burglarize his own home.

Chapter 11 deals with a particular form of crimes against property, namely those acquisitions offenses, crimes where there is a wrongful acquisition of property involved. Most such criminal acts are categorized as theft. Larceny, embezzlement or robbery are just a few of the most representative forms of acquisition offenses. One of the interesting subchapters regards receiving stolen property, with the mention…… [Read More]

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Business Law Justice at Bat the Story

Words: 3165 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58122676

Business Law

Justice at Bat

The Story of Three Strikes Legislation

It has been said that only two things are certain - death and taxes. Yet to these two inevitabilities, many Americans would add a third -- crime. The fear of becoming the victim of a crime - especially of a violent crime - haunts many otherwise rational individuals. Violence, it seems, is everywhere. One need only turn on the television to be assailed by images of murder, rape, and physical assault. And, it is not only Hollywood that is the villain. Both local and national newscasts revel in the depiction and discussion of violent acts: a child is kidnapped; a pregnant housewife disappears and is later found murdered; a ruthless killer stalks the streets of a large city. The media like to quote facts. Just yesterday, on April 27th, it was reported that the murder rate in California's most…… [Read More]

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Gun Control Gun Availability Has

Words: 1926 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12517430

In fact young children are eighteen times more likely to die a death related to the number one cause of accidental death than they are to die from a firearm related death. The age individuals from the age group of 45 to 64 are many times more likely to die an accidental death related to firearms than are young children to die a firearm related accidental death.

The United States Constitution, Second Amendment states as follows:

The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed..."

This right has not changed since the writing of the U.S. Constitution and cannot be changed without violating the U.S. Constitution which is "the" basis for all laws of the United States in America.

It has been proven that gun control does not stop or prevent death by homicide or suicide and as well, proof has shown that gun ownership…… [Read More]

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Right to Bear Arms Gun

Words: 3902 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38994870

5 ounces of steel in them. The bill did not pass, but eventually a compromise bill went through requiring all handguns to have at least 3.7 ounces of steel. No completely plastic gun has ever been produced, although guns with a plastic frame are popular because they weigh less. The legislation was unnecessary because, again, no problem existed. Apparently, the gun debate is not the place to look for facts.

The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act was passed in 1993, although it had been in the House of Representatives since 1988. Originally, it required a seven-day waiting period before a person could buy a handgun. This was to enable the dealer to perform a background check on the buyer. The two sides argued over the background check, but actually it was the waiting period that was the real bone of contention. Gun control groups wanted the waiting period whether a…… [Read More]

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Criminology Clearance and Crime Rates

Words: 2911 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56316859

In fact, and quite surprisingly, one of the key findings of the Rand Report was that 50% of the nation's detectives could be eliminated without having a significant effect on clearance rates in the country (O'Connor). This conclusion flies in the face of conventional wisdom on police work, yet was fully supported by the exhaustive study. The study was funded by the National Institute of Justice and was designed to monitor the effectiveness of detectives in clearing cases in a variety of situations. Surveys were designed and then sent to local and county police departments throughout the country with at least 150 fulltime personnel or a municipal jurisdiction of more than 100,000 people. In total, three hundred agencies were solicited, of which 153 responded with answers to the survey. While all of the data from those 153 agencies was used in the compilation of the study, twenty-five of the respondents…… [Read More]

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Violent Juvenile Offenders the Innocent

Words: 2799 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 69323110

Though these factors can be an influence on the juvenile's choice to commit a crime, the ultimate cause of the crime was the juvenile's own cost-benefit analysis, according to this model.

A practical exploration of this model can be done using Jacob Ind, one of the five Colorado teenagers sentenced to life in prison without parole in Frontline's documentary, "Kids Who Get Life" (Bikel 2007). Ind was convicted of killing his mother and stepfather after years of sexual abuse. Ind defended himself saying that he did not understand the permanency of murder and just wanted the abuse to end (Bikel 2007). While other models may suggest that the cause of Ind's violent offense was his abuse and his misunderstanding of the consequences of murder, Rational Choice Theory would contend that the abuse and misunderstandings influenced his behavior, although they did not cause it. What caused his behavior, the theory would…… [Read More]

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Arizona Revised Statues

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43329956

Summaries of Selected Arizona Revised Statues
D. Criminal Law and Recognizing Crimes (Security guards should be able to identify these crimes):
Section ARS Title 13, Chapter 11, Homicide:
1. "Premeditation" means that the defendant acts with either the intention or the knowledge that he will kill another human being, when such intention or knowledge precedes the killing by any length of time to permit reflection. Proof of actual reflection is not required, but an act is not done with premeditation if it is the instant effect of a sudden quarrel or heat of passion.
2. "Homicide" means first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter or negligent homicide.
3. "Person" means a human being.
4. "Adequate provocation" means conduct or circumstances sufficient to deprive a reasonable person of self-control. (Section III.A)
In order to fully comprehend and appreciate the severity of homicidal actions, this section provides concise definitions of the…… [Read More]

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Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Criminology Research Paper

Words: 438 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60879058

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Criminology Research Paper

lack of social support in the home environment is the primary cause of juveniles' involvement in violent crime

Analysis on the Real Causes of Juvenile Homicide

juvenile delinquency remains a serious concern for state and federal administrators in the U.S. Despite taking a plunge from their peak level in 1994, the rates of juvenile involvement in crime are still relatively high. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, juveniles between the ages of 10 and 17 accounted for 8% of all homicides committed in the country in 2010, with an arrest rate of 225 for every 100,000 youth. These statistics have spurred researchers' interest in trying to find out exactly what causes juveniles to commit crime, particularly violent crime. Statistics from the Census Bureau indicate that most crimes perpetrated by juvenile offenders are committed between 3 p.m and 7 p.m. This can rightly be…… [Read More]

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Ownership of Guns by the Public Has

Words: 1603 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80138628

ownership of guns by the public has been a topic of much needed debates for quite some time now. Various organizations and support groups have been in action for the pro-or anti-views on whether a citizen should be allowed to own and keep a gun at his person or his property. Many of the people who own guns do so for hunting, self-defense or for their collecting pleasure. But there have been innumerous cases in which the use the gun has resulted in death of another person. The issue of gun control pertains to those laws and regulations that would result in a limited number of people buying the guns and thus control the distribution of guns so that they do not fall into the wrong hands.

Violence no matter where it occurs is usually a traumatic, tragic event, but when it happens in our schools to our children, it…… [Read More]

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Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil

Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41646569

Police Reform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]

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Criminology M3D1 Crime Trends and

Words: 897 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 14400218

Social control regulates the behaviour of people, preventing them from committing a crime. The high level of homicide in Chicago is a result of lack of social control. Population heterogeneity also contributes to the high level of homicide in the neighbourhoods (Rafter 1990). The two theories complement each other in that they both support the idea behind the high levels of homicide in Chicago. Social disorder brings disunity in society, and this makes people commit criminal behaviours.

Social learning theory states that people will develop the motivation to commit crime if they associate with people who commit crime. Social control will enable people to practise social order and help them from associating with criminals who might influence them negatively. It is crucial for people to have self-control in order for them to refrain from committing criminal behaviours. Factors such as lack of self-control make people engage in criminal behaviour to…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty Act as a

Words: 2544 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92239087

However, the numbers used to report murder rates only tell us the number of crimes that have occurred. They tell us nothing about crimes that were never committed because of fear of the death penalty. The conundrum is that there is no realistic way to measure something that did not happen in the general population, at least in a way that would be credible from a scientific point-of-view.

Those that support the death penalty tend to place more emphasis on the credibility of econometric methods of analysis. They can find many studies to support their position among this group of analyses. They discredit comparative methods of study that do not support their position. Both proponents and their opposition have attempted to reduce the issue of whether the death penalty acts as a deterrent to murder to one of credibility of the research findings. However, this argument fails, as there are…… [Read More]

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Corporate Manslaughter Bill Research Organisation

Words: 12324 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25305896

The benefit of creating the term at this point is that lawmakers and prosecutors and defense lawyers will all be aware of the growth of the term as it moves through the judicial birth canal and is delivered in its full meaning, with all its parts in working order and ready to be tested at trial.

Draft Corporate Manslaughter Bill

Important as the corporate manslaughter bill is to many people, it seems to receive much more talk than action. In 2005, Prime Minister Tony Blair promised to make the corporate manslaughter bill a priority, and that they would ensure it reached the statute books by 2007. The bill itself provides some of the parts need to make the overall concept of corporate manslaughter work, such as providing definition to certain corporate figure, like who is a Chairman, Managing Director, Chief Executive or Secretary of the Company. The Bill makes possible…… [Read More]

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Mothers Killing Their Babies First

Words: 2566 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 3236577

Methods of Killing

The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to Rouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days.

Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…… [Read More]

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Criminological Theory Into Murder Criminology

Words: 920 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69699636

Further, they are subdivided into the following four categories:

Visionary -- they claim to have received orders from either God or Devil to kill

Missionary -- they consider it their duty to eliminate undesirable elements as prostitutes from society

Hedonistic -- consists of either lust killer or thrill killer who kills either for sex or simply for the thrill of being able to murder a person

Power/Control -- the killer is motivated by the sense of power that they enjoy by completely subjugating another fellow individual (Holmes and Deburger 1998)

Serial Murders as Contrasted to Homicides

A typical homicide in Australia consisted of a white male in his thirties killing his male acquaintance in a residential quarter with a knife as a consequence of major disagreement. (Mouzos and Houliaras 2006) However, serial killings in Australia bore an uncanny resemblance to serial murders in other continents. Generally, an unknown male murdered…… [Read More]

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Violent Extremism in California

Words: 1566 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91532354

Background Information
Gun violence remains a pervasive challenge in the United States and policies on gun control is at the forefront of US politics. It’s an epidemic that distinguishes the US from the rest of the industrialized countries. However, there exist contrasting policy approaches with some states pushing for reduced regulations of access to ammunition while other states pursuing regulations that decrease the ease of access to ammunition. Moreover, the majority of the laws on firearm regulations are enacted by the state governments with the federal government enacted comparatively lesser regulations. The foundation of addressing the gun violence challenge is understanding the nature of the challenge. Firearm violence can mainly be categorized into three; homicide; suicide and unintentional firearm deaths. An analysis of firearm homicide, the policy brief by Rockefeller Institute of Government reports an average of 5.2 gun homicides per 100,000 in all US states and a high of…… [Read More]

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Application of DNA in California in Criminal Cases

Words: 7716 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53029376

DNA in Criminal Cases - Solving Cold Cases in California with Forensic Science

This research will attempt to analyze and discuss the feasibility of DNA testing in solving cold cases and will study the impact that DNA fingerprinting has had on the forensic science community as a whole.

DNA is generally used to solve crimes in one of two ways. In cases where a suspect is identified, a sample of that person's DNA can be compared to evidence from the crime scene. Crime scene evidence can also be linked to other crime scenes through the use of DNA databases. DNA evidence is generally linked to DNA offender profiles through DNA databases. In the late 1980's, the federal government laid the groundwork for a system of national, state, and local DNA databases for the storage and exchange of DNA profiles. This system, called the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), maintains DNA…… [Read More]

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Gang Intervention

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62894073

Gang Violence Interventions: Pulling Levers Programs

Gang Intervention

Over two decades of studies have shown partnerships between institutions and communities are required for effective and sustainable interventions to reduce gang violence, but the majority of intervention strategies have taken a reactionary approach, such as increasing policing efforts without addressing the underlying causes of gang violence (Gebo, Boyes-Watson, and Pinto-Wilson, 2010, p. 166). The lack of investment cognitive-behavioral interventions is evident by the prevalence of poorly designed studies investigating the effectiveness of such strategies, which makes drawing conclusions about their value difficult if not impossible (Fisher, Gardner, Montgomery, 2008).

A popular intervention strategy, at least among the law enforcement community, is the 'pulling levers' strategy (Braga, 2008). This strategy is essentially a problem-oriented approach to policing that involves choosing a crime problem, assembling an interagency working group, conducting research on the offender population, and coming up with a list of possible…… [Read More]

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Query Results Online Database or

Words: 510 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14978830

Treatment does not simply mean taking care of the patient after a physical injury has occurred.

The CDC statistics confirm other studies which indicate that homicide rates for young, African-American males are rising. "The number of homicides involving black youths -- as victims and perpetrators -- surged by more than 30% from 2002 to 2007" according to a recent report by Northeastern University with guns being the most common method of death (Why are so many young black men being murdered, 2008, NPR). The study also found that "426 black males ages 14-17 died in gun crimes -- 40% more than in 2000; nearly 1,000 young black males used guns to kill someone in 2007 -- 38% higher than in 2000" (Why are so many young black men being murdered, 2008, NPR).

As well as helping patients on a personal level, providers can also take a role in attempting to…… [Read More]

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Fourth Amendment it Is a Traditional Belief

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16725417

Fourth Amendment

It is a traditional belief in America that a man's home is his castle, meaning that he is lord and master of his home and no one may enter, not even the government, without his permission. This was such an important issue among the American colonists that it was included into the Constitution when they broke away from Great Britain. In short, the fourth amendment states that no private property could be searched or seized without a proper warrant; and a warrant could not be issued without due cause. Over time belief in this absolute principle has gradually softened and a number of exceptions to this rule have come into place. Police and other authorities have been given exceptions to this rule in certain circumstances and it is not uncommon for evidence, that was gathered without a warrant, to be accepted in a trial. This is the situation…… [Read More]

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Domectic Violence in the United States Domestic

Words: 2471 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54613415

Domectic Violence in the United States

Domestic Violence in the United States: A Research Proposal

Domestic Violence in the United States:

Domestic violence is not a new phenomenon associated with modern times. It has been a common occurrence throughout history. From a social/cultural point-of-view, the woman was considered the property of the man and his duty was to discipline her and the children (and slaves/servants) with thorough beatings. Consistent with eighteenth-century English common law, the only concerns about this related to the thickness of the stick that the law allowed for the beatings. Although there were some earlier unenforced laws against spousal abuse, it was only as recently as the 1970s that the U.S. justice system began to view the problem with any seriousness and consideration of domestic violence as a crime. Until that time, social services for the victims of domestic violence were almost nonexistent (Bronfman, et al., 2005).…… [Read More]

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Three Strikes Laws From the

Words: 4798 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9858190

Therefore, by increasing the costs of imprisonment by the three strikes law, it is intended that there will be less crime. Marwell and Moody express several difficulties with the laws in the 24 states: Criminals are not always aware of the laws, at least not initially; repeat criminals can be expected to serve substantial prison terms even in the absence of the laws; almost all of the states already had habitual criminal statutes where criminals with prior convictions could be given lengthy sentences under the judge's discretion; the deterrent effect on homicides is limited in any case because the law most likely does not increase sanctions for homicides. However, the law may reduce homicides by deterring robberies and other felonies where homicides may take place; some criminals may limit their expected costs by taking evasive action, such as moving to another jurisdiction or to other areas of crime where the…… [Read More]

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Capital Punishment Currently 38 States Have Legalized

Words: 2154 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65262959

Capital Punishment

Currently, 38 states have legalized capital punishment statutes. In most states, the reinstatements of the death penalty were a response to public outcry over the perceived increase of violent crimes. There are now more than 3,000 people on death row, and more are being convicted each year.

Despite this legalized status, a vocal group of opponents have raised questions regarding the constitutionality, fairness and effectiveness of capital punishment. This paper argues that opponents of the death penalty are misguided, and that the death penalty is a sad but necessary tool for American society.

The first part of the paper is an overview regarding capital punishment in the United States. It looks at which states have legalized the death penalty and how this punishment is imposed. It focuses especially on Texas, the leading state in the number of executions.

The next part of the paper gives an overview of…… [Read More]

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Serial Murder Requires Both a Reactive and

Words: 1646 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21768852

Serial Murder Requires Both a Reactive and Proactive Investigative Approach

Serial Murder Requires Both the Reactive and Proactive Approaches

The most convenient starting point for this present discussion is to explain the features of serial killers. In line with this, it is sufficient to note here that any individual who kills three or more victims, with emotional time breaks between such killings, is a serial killer. Often, these breaks (which are referred to as the cooling-off periods) normally range from days, and sometimes weeks or months between each killing. It may also be stated that serial killers are usually psychopathic. This implies that, even though they are very much aware of their criminality and are not out of touch with reality, they have a profound personality disorder. Street-wise, charming, intelligent and charismatic are the best adjectives for describing serial killers. Since the serial killers are usually mobile, they can travel…… [Read More]

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Sweden's Current Justice System Overview

Words: 3924 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32355412

In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.

Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…… [Read More]

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Investigations Workplace Violence

Words: 2798 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97458949

Workplace Violence

Everyday in the United States millions of Americans leave their homes and enter the places of their employment. Captain Among these millions, most report to work unaware of the prevalence of workplace violence or fully understand the gamut of actions that represent such violence. It is typical of the media to only report high profile cases including a former employee or a worker losing control - the most extreme of these scenarios in which victims succumb to severe injury or homicide. Although it is commonplace for media outlets to cover the most disturbingly sensational scenes, workplace violence is also a legitimate concern outside the realm of the most severe circumstances. Workplace violence has the potential to not only physically, but emotionally harm employees and others interacting at the work location.

Put simply, workplace violence is considered to be the violence or the threat of violence against workers. According…… [Read More]

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killing consensus about'sao paolo and violence

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15049846

Sovereignty by Consensus

In Sao Paolo, homicide detectives do not serve the same function as they do in the U.S. or any other wealthy and wealthy country; they have a different means of classifying deaths. They cannot and do not investigate crimes in the same way as in wealthy countries. Violence and homicide are pervasive and common in Sao Paolo; they are even considered "normal" (Willis 6).

Police tend to investigate two types of homicides: one with an unknown assailant, and police killing citizens, which is very common, at a rate of more than one per day. These types of homicide are ironically crimes perpetrated by the police, and they are labeled as "resisting arrest"

The PCC -- essentially the mafia -- handles everything else.

The author introduces the theme of the book as being about "cities, social relations, and the patterns of urbanization common in the Global South," (p.…… [Read More]

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Obtaining a Gun in the UK Is Far More Difficult Than in the U S

Words: 2913 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20141646

Gun Laws / Gun Violence

Gun violence, gun registration, and mass shootings in the United States -- and to a lesser extent in the United Kingdom -- have caused authorities great concern over the past few years. And these issues have received a great deal of media attention and hence are worthy of research. This paper reviews gun violence in the U.S. and in the UK, and gun laws that are in place and those that should be in place.

Mass shootings and gun violence in the U.S.

In the United States, as of October 1, 2015, there have been 294 mass shootings (a mass shooting is defined as one in which four or more people were killed or injured by a gun), and 45 of those occurred at schools (BBC). In the U.S. (again, up to October 1) 9,956 people have been killed in "gun incidents," and 20,000 people…… [Read More]

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Crime Scene Investigation Is a Field With

Words: 905 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14289255

Crime scene investigation is a field with rapidly changing tools that seem to evolve almost every day as a result of the changes made in technology. However, even the simplest elements of a crime scene can still inform investigators an epic amount.

For instance, in this case, the position of the body and the weapon used represent the main forms of evidence and can help investigators uncover the elements which motivated the crime and caused it to happen. "Firearms evidence is usually encountered in crimes against persons such as homicide, assault and robbery; but may also be found in other crimes such as burglary, rape, and narcotics violations" (crime-scene-investigator.net). Thus, the very fact that this crime scene even involves a rifle means that there is a strong likelihood that it was a violent crime and that the victim was a murdered and that the case is a homicide. However, this…… [Read More]

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Compare America's Violent Nature of Murder to Jamaica's Violent Nature of Murder

Words: 1103 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91819688

Murder in Jamaica and the United States

This paper presents a detailed examination of the differences and similarities between murder in Jamaica and the United States. The writer focuses on the nature of the crimes as well as the differences between the two nations when it comes to acts of murder by the government agencies. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

While many crimes can be scary the thought of being murdered or someone we love being murdered is the ultimate fear when it comes to possible victimization. Murder is the final act of life, it is what stops all hopes, dreams, goals, efforts and ambitions. Murders occur worldwide but in the United States and the nation of Jamaica there are similarities and differences in the murders they experience that can potentially change the way their societies think. Murder is a violent crime regardless of how it…… [Read More]