Innovation Essays (Examples)

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Corporate Approach to Solutions Innovation

Words: 3055 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51168818

Henry W. Chesbrough uses this exact notion of "permeable boundary," when he gives his definition of open innovation: "In the open innovation model a company commercialises both its own ideas as well as innovations from other firms and seeks ways to bring its in house ideas to market by deploying pathways outside its current business. Note that the boundary between the company and its surrounding environment is porous, enabling innovations to move more easily between the two." (MIT Sloan Management Review: The era of open innovation, Henry W. Chesbrough) Having this in mind Procter and Gamble created their "Connect and Develop" innovation model.

In order for "Connect and Develop" to become what Procter and Gamble envisioned the company realized it was of the outmost important not to use time and valuable resources on ideas that may be interesting at first but later on prove to have no concrete, specific application.…… [Read More]

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American Health Packaging and Innovation

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52299119


Innovation at American Health Packaging

American Health Packaging (AHP) is a wholly owned subsidiary of AmerisourceBergen, located in Columbus Ohio (AHP, 2014). The business provides customized pharmaceutical packaging to two main customer groups; pharmacies and drug manufacturers. The strong position the firm has within the pharmaceutical packaging industry is the result of the high level of innovation, seen with the number of patent protected proprietary products; of approximately 380 SKUs, one third are exclusive to the organization and protected by patents (AHP, 2014).

To consider the way innovation takes place it is necessary to look at general approaches to innovation, consider which is most aligned with the organizations operation. Firms may approach innovation in different ways. Traditional approaches to innovation will focus on the development of evolutionary changes; making small improvements to existing products and systems (Mintzberg et al., 2011). The innovation led organization will have a more proactive…… [Read More]

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Product Process or Strategic Innovation

Words: 1959 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78174586

Undoubtedly, the main beneficiary of such fierce competition is the customer who will be able to choose among several reliable products (

Thirdly, iPod has proved to be an excellent consumer-oriented item as it has made available revolutionary features (like modern design, lighter weight, high capacity) to the masses due to the average price established. Thus, in return for a moderate sum of money, people can take with them their favorite songs.

Fourthly, iPod has had a considerable social impact as it has succeeded in warming up human relationships. Steven Levy (2006) suggested that: "Music hits people's emotions and the purchase of something that opens up one's entire music collection...makes for an intense relationship." This idea was also reiterated by professor Katch from the University of Michigan who said that when students saw him with his iPod, "a sort of bounding" occurred (Levy, 2006).

Consequently, the generation gap is overcome…… [Read More]

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Creativity and Innovation

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80010470


Structural contingency theory depends on the development and implementation of creativity and innovation. Based on systems design, structural contingency theory takes into account the nature of the organizational environment and other external issues that impinge upon organizational development. "Contingency theory is guided by the general orienting hypothesis that organizations whose internal features best match the demands of their environments will achieve the best adaptation," ("Contingency Theory," n.d.). The more complex and differentiated the institution, the more external demand issues become salient.

Organizational creativity remains "a relatively unexplored area in organizational change and innovation," Woodman, Sawyer & Griffin, 1993, p. 293). However, creativity and innovation are both important aspects of the structural contingency approach to organizational development. Organizational creativity refers to "the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system," (Woodman, Sawyer & Griffin, 1993, p. 293).…… [Read More]

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Apple Innovation Innovative Strategy at Apple Inc

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40317884

Apple Innovation

Innovative Strategy at Apple

Apple Inc. is a company that is known worldwide as one of the most visionary and innovative companies in existence. This reputation is in spite of the near failure of the company during the mid-1990s, after its founding in 1976. What sets Apple apart from its competitors is the unique CEO and founder, Steve Jobs, who set a path for Apple that was based on excellence in both technology and design. The mission statement of Apple is surprisingly simple; saying "Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, and creative professionals and consumers throughout the world with its innovative hardware and software offerings. The visionary statement of Steve Jobs, however, is more telling of the principles that guide Apple. It goes, "Man is the creator of change in this world. As such he should be above systems and structures,…… [Read More]

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Panera Innovation a Panera for

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30319208

2007). By identifying the demand for quickly available meals that were both more diverse and healthier than those offered by established fast food chains, the owners of the baking company that would be Panera showed early on their ability to innovate with the times, and in moving from simply baking to providing finished food products to consumers the company has been able to achieve an astounding amount of growth and profit generation (Hitt et al. 2007). In the period from 2007 to 2009, which essentially covers the deepest part (if not the entirety) of the global recession, Panera grew from eight hundred locations to almost thirteen hundred locations based on its continued ability to innovate and adjust to its market as this market changes (Hitt et al. 2007; McKee 2009). Panera's innovations and its logistics and supply chain management are also a huge part of Panera's success, and in fact…… [Read More]

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Discontinuous Innovation in a Business

Words: 2225 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2018783

(1000 Ventures, 2008)

The work of Kaplan and Palmer (2007) entitled: "Strategic Imagination: External Thought Leaders Inspire Breakthrough Innovation" published by Innovation Point relates the fact concerning innovation efforts that they "often deliver disappointingly short-term ideas and fail to identify longer-term growth platforms. An organization's inwardly-focused and historically-biased view of the world limits its capacity for 'strategic imagination'. Bringing in fresh, future-oriented perspectives from outside the organization is an essential catalyst for innovative 'stretch thinking'." (Kaplan and Palmer, 2007) Bringing in what are termed to be 'external thought leaders' derived from various domains will assist the innovation process and assist the team in the development of 'Industry Foresight' and in identification of: "...non-obvious opportunities." (Kaplan and Palmer, 2007) External thought leaders are described as "...inspirational provocateurs and visionaries..." And are said to be the "...essential catalyst for teams that seek breakthrough innovation." (Kaplan and Palmer, 2007) the work of Wagner…… [Read More]

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Business Innovation and Enterprise

Words: 3027 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59644550

Business innovation and enterprise -- Innovation in China

The buzzword of today is represented by the internationalized economic crisis which has commenced from within the American real estate sector and soon expanded to impact all sectors across the entire globe. Before the emergence of the crisis however, the buzzword was that of globalization, understood as the process by which boundaries between states are gradually eliminated and the values, beliefs, cultures and resources of one region can easily transcend to another region.

Globalization has impacted all aspects of life, from the means in which one spends their leisure time to the means in which one completes their professional tasks. Globalization has generated effects on all fields of life, from politics, to economics and culture.

Within the business community, globalization has translated into a myriad of impacts. For once, the phenomenon allowed economic agents to transcend boundaries and benefit from the comparative…… [Read More]

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Creative Business Practices Entrepreneurship Innovation and the

Words: 3190 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60088852

Creative Business Practices: Entrepreneurship Innovation and the Relevance to the Modern Organization

The work entitled "Globalization of Social Entrepreneurship Opportunities" reports that entrepreneurship " new and established companies is a major source of wealth and job creation, economic and technological growth and social transformation. This transformation is made possible by the powerful forces entrepreneurship unleashes, where ordinary people conceive innovative ideas, organize production, assume risk, and engage customers to accumulate wealth or address pressing social causes, often across national borders." (Zahra, 2006)

The work of Donald F. Karatko entitled "Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process and Practice" states that many of today's companies are acknowledging the need for corporate entrepreneurship. (Karatko, 2008, paraphrased) It is stated by Kuratko that this need "has arisen in response to a number of pressing problems which are reported to include such as:

(1) Rapid growth in the number of new and sophisticated competitors;

(2) A sense of…… [Read More]

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Proctor Innovation Strategy for Innovation at Proctor

Words: 2923 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86691261

Proctor Innovation

Strategy for Innovation at Proctor & Gamble

It may seem self-apparent to speak of Innovation as an aspect of a business process or of business process re-engineering. Indeed, it is perhaps a common misconception that innovation is a standard part of every business organization's internal structure and approach to its goals. However, patterns of innovation suggest this to be a specialized approach to business, reserved only for those organizations that are structurally and culturally suited to the adoption of new approaches, whether through technology, philosophical orientation, customer service or employee treatment. Indeed, some organizations may be better suited to improving existing models or finding ways to make existing models function at lower costs to the consumer. However, in the manufacturing, retail and service industries, there is a distinct movement toward innovation amongst many organizations seeking to remain abreast of changing patterns relating to global trade, technology and corporate…… [Read More]

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Pepsico Innovation Measurement

Words: 3240 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66770137

FMCG company

PepsiCo Research on future consumer trends

Section 1 deals with pertinent models and concepts to technology-led innovation management. It includes models like, Research and Development Model (RDM) which is about relevant product knowledge with respect to customer demands; Market Actors Model (MAM), which is all about gathering market knowledge and consumer's expectations; Operations Management Model (OMM), which is about creating a valued food culture; Culture Technology Model (CTM), which is about marketing and product development teams work closely; Corporate Identity Model (CIM), which is about focusing on building a brand; and lastly, Strategic Foresight Model (SFM), which is about focusing on long-term plans.

Section 2 deals with debriefing the SFM model which is going to be used to measure PepsiCo's innovation management. Key reason for choosing this model to measure Pepsi's innovation management is because Pepsi itself uses this model to enhance its Research and Development Efforts and…… [Read More]

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Diffusion of Innovation Diffusion Research

Words: 3226 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67275597

Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.

Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics

Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses

Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.


Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe

Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the Russian Republic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…… [Read More]

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Diffusion of Innovation in 1962

Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 22634217

). Within the context of healthcare diffusion, the authors posit that the drivers for healthcare technological diffusion really flow more from a relative advantage. For example, x-rays were discovered in 1895 and within a year or two, the negative effects studied. Within a few years, x-ray technology diffused into the medical world until now, it is something that everyone expects, and technology somewhat keeps up with the system (x-ray direct to digital viewer, etc.). Still other examples abound in the way the public now expects a particular technology. Now, the paradigm of choice is minimally invasive surgery coupled with smaller amounts of times in the hospital -- day surgery for instance. Radical changes in surgical gear, imaging techniques, and physician training now result in the expectation that this will be the norm, rather than the exception. The medical field communicates the diffusion through its personnel -- new drugs for new…… [Read More]

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Role of Innovation in Determining Long-Term Economic

Words: 1077 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94968999

role of innovation in determining long-term economic growth and provide three public policies that are likely to encourage innovation. Provide an example of a recent innovation that has the potential to have a significant impact in one or more industries.

The nation needs to experience a situation where its exports are greater than its imports. This causes it to become wealthy and prevents many problems of economic hardship such as unemployment, the output and income in the economy, the price level, and burden of debt, inflation, national discontentment, and market inefficiencies and non-equilibrium that may will be the result of the reverse called a balance of trade deficit. There may also be preference for foreign products as opposed to locally-produced products which results in less of the local products being sold and in increase of their price. Whilst surplus of imports may be good for individual consumers who may end…… [Read More]

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Horizontal Innovation Networks By and for Users

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18580766

Horizontal Innovation Networks: By and for Users

Assessing the Viability of Horizontal Innovation Networks

In evaluating whether user generated innovation is good or bad for a company including if user innovation can happen independently from manufacturers, the insights and knowledge provided in Horizontal innovation networks - By and For Users (von Hippel, 2007) serves as the basis of this analysis. The integration of user-generated innovations into the product development process, and to the extent to which innovations' benefits and unique position within a manufacturers' marketing mix are analyzed in the context of social networks being the platform for open innovation (Bernoff, Li, 2008).

Defining the Value of User-Generated innovation

Relying on microeconomic analysis and the frameworks of free revealing supported by examples from open source software and the development of the Apache Server software in addition to several other examples Horizontal innovation networks - By and For Users (von Hippel,…… [Read More]

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Diffusion of Innovation 2 in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 83011564

High Fructose Corn Syrup - Diffusion in the Agricultural Framework - High-fructose corn syrup news and information. (2011). Natural Cited in:

Tags: farming, corn, agricultural supplements, high fructose corn syrup

The idea of diffusion has a number of parts; it may become part of culture through innovation; but may also be the modus operendi of a partnership between big business and government (authoritarian figures in culture). One such example is High-Fructose Corn Syrup. Excess corn production and increased pressures from farming lobbies created a governmental program that actually subsidizes farmers to sell to CoOps that specialize not in feeding livestock but in producing the "new sugar." The process of diffusion in this article shows the real power of change within a small market through to appropriate channels may serve as either agricultural or biochemical change and diffusion. Of course, this also bleeds over to the numerous fast or…… [Read More]

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Business Model Innovation Finfrock Industries

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 1422427

Doing so helped it in various ways, not least not to endanger its resources whilst testing and promoting its success before moving forward.

However, companies have to adjust to the times, and DEC being unable to was, gradually overcome by its rivals.

DEC can teach us various lessons but one such lesson is that of Trialability - namely, that new ideas that are broken up in installments will more readily be realized. DEC was successful, precisely because it split its program into two phases. Doing so made it trialable which represented less uncertainty to clients and to the company itself.

Opening up innovation at P&G

Tags: Diffusion; external technology; marketing; compatability; mergers; licensing; spin-offs.

Proctor and Gamble devised an innovative way to spin-off or diffuse its innovations.

After having slipped and plunged in the late 1990s and in the early years of the millennium, to some of the biggest declines…… [Read More]

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National Regional Approach to Innovation Donna

Words: 1225 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98394449

Baran and Sweezy agreed with Veblen's primary thesis about the "subdued conflict between workmanship and salesmanship," in which workmanship is being pursued in the interests of sales of often superfluous goods rather than those that are socially necessary. Baran and Sweezy went so far as to say that Veblen's view of the matter (published in 1923) "as a description of the situation in the 1950s and 1960s... is 100 per cent on target." (O'Hara, Anthony, 2004)

Under monopoly capitalism, true innovation, according to Veblen, is often separated from sales and profit. The engineers produce innovations that can be used by the whole community and the capitalists often destroy technological progress. Baran and Sweezy stress the sabotage of this industry by businesses wasting capitalism such as planned obsolescence, where engineers design a product, light globes, and other commodities that will break down after a certain length of time or use. Another…… [Read More]

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Business National or Regional Innovation

Words: 2520 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50882768

MESBIC's have been singularly unsuccessful, and have been deemphasized in recent years.

Related to this are: State-sponsored venture capital investments. Countries and regions invest in venture capital funds as Limited Partners, meaning that they have the same or similar financial returns as all other investors in a Fund. In many cases, such state investments require some conditions on the privately-run venture fund. The most popular conditions include:

fixed percentage threshold of investment in the region or country, or certain number of jobs to be generated by their investments, or Attracting a certain multiple of investment from outside the state or region into the fund, or Limiting the venture investments to the types of technologies and industries which are of greatest interest to that state or region.

Examples of the above can include the Indiana Futures Fund, in which the State of Indiana invested $100 million in several venture funds. Among…… [Read More]

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Role of Creativity and Innovation in Transforming a Business

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16674096

Innovation, and the Rules of Innovation


Creativity refers to the act of converting new and creative ideas into reality. It is classified by the ability to understand the world in new ways. It is the ability to identify invisible styles, to make relationships between apparently unrelated phenomena, and to produce solutions. Creativity includes two processes: thinking and generating. Anyone with ideas, but not acting on them is considered as creative but not innovative. Creativity is about releasing the potential of the brain to conceive new concepts. Those ideas could reveal themselves in any number of possibilities, but most often, they become something that can be touched, smelt, seen, heard, or tasted. However, creative suggestions can also be thought tests within one individual's mind. Creativity is highly subjective, making it challenging to evaluate the innovative capacity of an individual (Hunter & Bedell-Avers, 2008).


Innovation is the execution of a…… [Read More]

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Creativity & Innovation Apple Inc

Words: 3049 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10297108

One wrong decision can destroy years of hard work and requires years to recover. Failures to innovate come in two forms: failures of imagination and failures to execute (Govindarajan and Trimble 2010). With certainty, investors want growth, growth, and more growth. To achieve this, Apple strives to infuse creative thinking in its innovations, and it must deliver products and services fast enough or risk losing market share.


Steve Jobs made a point to groom and posture his staff with capable individuals ready and able to step in when needed. Steve Jobs was very demanding; he viewed himself as responsible for making his staff better. He saw himself as pushing people to come up with "…more aggressive visions of how it could be" (Morris 2008, p 5).

With over 25,000 employees at Apple, Steve worked with the top 100: some executives and some individual contributors. He envisioned his role as…… [Read More]

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European Innovation Crisis Is There

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28486379

S. As compared to Europe.

Let's take that one-by-one. The U.S. tax rate is 15% for long-term (i.e. over 12-month) capital gains. This means that those who invest early in highly risky investments (like Google stock when it went public at $85), get to keep most of what they earn when things grow. If one is skeptical of this claim, look at what happened in the 1960's when JFK reduced the capital gains rate, or in 1982 when Ronald Reagan reduced it to 15%. In both cases, venture capital and new corporate formation soared. We are still living in an era where venture capitalists receive and invest over $30 billion per year. In Europe, by contrast, there are no Bill Gates, Steven Jobs or Larry Ellison's. The reason? European taxes are confiscatory, discouraging capital accumulation. Mitterand famously said that he wanted "Steve Jobs without the money (Hornby, 2006)."

Secondly, the…… [Read More]

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3M Rethinking Innovation Rethinking Innovation

Words: 812 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96259188

Lacking in an introductory part and in explanatory paragraphs that introduce the reader to the story, it can be perceived as "skimpy." On the other hand, the same features make it easy to read and follow through.

In terms of the organization and its stand on innovation, it is important to notice the increased emphasis placed by the 3M leaders on the organizational culture. Innovation in itself represents a culture of change, in which the current features are continually replaced by newer items which provide more benefits. While it is in fact crucial to create a culture that engages the staff members in the process of innovation, there are also other elements which must be granted, if not the same, maybe even more, attention. Some examples in this sense include market research to identify new needs and adjust to them or responses to the innovation strategies implemented by the other…… [Read More]

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boko haram and diffusion of innovation

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77404501

Diffusion of innovation theory refers to the spread of ideas, materials, or strategies and can be applied both to counterterrorism policies or terrorist tactics themselves. By paying attention to the patterns of diffusion, governments can make more informed counterterrorism decisions or policies. At the same time, diffusion of innovation can show how terrorist tactics spread from one group to another or how extremism spreads throughout a region.

Applied to Boko Haram, the diffusion of innovation theory can show how terrorist tactics used by one extremist group spread or how extremist ideology spreads from one region or group to another. Likewise, diffusion of innovation can help the government of Nigeria better cultivate an informed and potentially evidence-based response policy by adopting counterterrorism tactics used by other nations in similar situations. For example, Boushey (2012) shows how public policy innovations are diffused. Punctuated equilibrium is a method of diffusion in which feedback…… [Read More]

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Inside Corporate Innovation

Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90395245

Corporate Innovation

Chapters 8, 9 and 10 in Robert Burgelman's book help answer one of the questions posed for this assignment: "How do you resolve the apparent conflict between innovation as abandonment and strategy as persistence?"

Burgelman points out (151) that some big corporations seem to cling to highly conservative goals such as "minimal fluctuation, stability, and predictability" - which explains why the U.S. automobile industry was sluggish back in the 1970s and 1980s when it came to innovations. And because of that recalcitrance, the auto industry (123) was subsequently forced into change by the stunning success the Japanese auto industry's more efficient cars achieved.

To avoid those kinds of corporate hindrances, Burgelman suggests a "new-venture division" (NVD) should be part of corporate strategy. And so, within the structure of a visionary company, one should expect to see "two structures and associated cultures" (125): one, for existing technologies and a…… [Read More]

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Xerox How Did Disruptive Innovations in the

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28176289


How did disruptive innovations in the industry affect Xerox? Did it adjust; and if so, how? Discuss possible sources of innovation for Xerox

Capitalism, in general is often referred to as a "Profit System." However, a more accurate term would be that of a "Profit and Loss System." Consequently, due primarily to this loss component, innovations arise. Disruptive innovations occur when an unusual industry occurrence disrupts traditional thought process. The prevailing thoughts are often found to be incongruent with market demands. As such, innovations arise which propel companies to the forefront of their respective industries. Xerox is no exception to this occurrence. Its industry was characterized with intense competition and rapidly decreasing margins. These eroding margins resulted in subpar performance for the company in regards to revenue and net income. The increased competition, particularly from Asian countries placed downward pressure on margins due primarily to low manufacturing costs. In…… [Read More]

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Externally Induced Innovation in the

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61949266

Once daily oil production reaches its limit, international markets will suffer a shortage as its ever-increasing demand for fuel grows (Youngquist and Eugene, 1998).

Western societies have been governed by economic desires and wants by their individual citizens. Most individuals continue to prefer comfort and lavishness over manual work, and technological advances have facilitated and ensured such a lifestyle. Without any doubt, this desire to attain ease and luxury demands huge amounts of energy everyday. Additionally, the application of easily accessible and economic energy has allowed many countries to achieve overwhelming economic growth over the past one hundred years (Ginosar, 2007).

In this context, it is nearly impossible to imagine a life of comfort and modern technology without the existence and utilization of energy. The consequence for this immense use of energy is a reliance on external suppliers for energy, coupled with a fierce struggle among nations to control the…… [Read More]

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Diffusion of Innovations

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75285120

Diffusion of Innovation theory consists of explaining not only the spread of new objects but also new ideas. According to Bell (1968), innovation of diffusion is considered as the key locomotive of change in society. In this sense diffusion of innovation is analyzed both with the notion of technology as tools and the notion of technology as organized knowledge. Diffusion theory has been studied from number of diverse perspectives as developmental economics, rural sociology, medical sociology, cultural anthropology, and marketing among others (Brown 1981).

Rogers (1995) argues that the central notion of diffusion theory through such concepts as adoption timing and segmentation of adopters. It also summarizes classic studies in the foundation of diffusion theory, such as the spread of hybrid corn in the Midwest and the Columbia antibiotic study. Rogers' definition contains four elements that are present in the diffusion of innovation process. The four main elements of his…… [Read More]

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Systems and Diffusion of Innovation Theory Attached

Words: 1126 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13817787

Systems and Diffusion of Innovation Theory

Attached File

Systems theory vs. diffusion of innovation theory

Systems theory is based upon the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Its founder Ludwig von Bertalanffy proposed that, based upon his experience with the biology of organisms, all systems are constantly changing because they are able to interact with their environments. Systems are open and thus can acquire "qualitatively new properties through emergence" (Clark 2011). Living beings of all kinds are capable of taking in and incorporating new elements while expelling the old. This is vitally important for healthcare organizations today to understand, given the need to respect the changing nature of patients and the fact that patient's health can be significantly improved or worsened, depending on the type of care the patients receive and do not receive. Healthcare organizations must be true 'learning organizations' as new patients…… [Read More]

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Tapping Into the Sources of Innovation

Words: 1139 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37656053

Tapping Into the Sources of Innovation

There are many industries that can have the potential for disruption. Among these is the sports industry. Fans are often upset when there are seasons that do not take place or teams that cannot keep it together long enough to win a single game in a season. There are reasons behind these kinds of problems, of course. Among these reasons is the fact that innovation can change the way things are done but it generally cannot change the way people act and react to things (Chesbrough & Appleyard, 2007; Bower & Christensen, 1995). In sports, the most common disruption comes from seasons that get cancelled because agreements cannot be reached. The current "lockout," or disruption, is occurring in the National Hockey League (NHL). Because there is a labor dispute, the season is not being played. That is frustrating fans and is also upsetting the…… [Read More]

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Technology in Innovation the Role

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47538234

The cloud computing platform has also made it possible for companies to integrate their information technologies and services into a common strategy; a goal that had not been attainable in the past (Buttol, Buonamici, Naldesi, Rinaldi, Zamagni, Masoni, 2012).

A second strategic technology that is driving a high level of innovation in organizations is mobility and the rise of mobile computing, incouding the latest generation of operating systems in this area. Apple's iOS, Google's Android and many other operating systems are the foundation of disruptive innovation throughout many enterprises today. The early advances in mobile technologies are a case in point, as are the continued development of medical applications for the Apple iPad (Wickramasinghe, Sharma, Goldberg, 2003). Mobility is also showing the potential to be a technology that can support precise geo-positioning and analysis of the best delivery routes for courier services and supply chain-based companies as well. The rise…… [Read More]

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Apple Disruptive Innovation in Business

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49483756

It was then not the device, but the ability to selectively customize the device for a given consumers' tastes and preferences in music that mattered. The iTunes ecosystem, now responsible either directly or indirectly for nearly one out of every four dollars Apple makes, was the most powerful catalyst of disruptive innovation the tech industry has ever seen (Tariq, Ishrat, Khan, 2011). Disruptive innovation was created in the initial processes of how Apple develops products, and continues to this day in the approach they take to integrating suppliers into the process early, defining very high levels of performance for each members of the value chain as well (Dedrick, Kraemer, Linden, 2010).

What is also unique about Apple's disruptive approach to innovation is the ability to learn from one product generation and use the insights and intelligence gained for the next product. This is how Apple was able to transition so…… [Read More]

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Kotler Fine Foods Creativity and Innovation

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4219339

Kotler Fine Food

Innovation is a continuous process, which requires individual and organizational creativity. The process demands for individuals to come up with authentic ideas to rediscover the meaning, identity, and the purpose of innovation (Kelly & Littman, 2001). Internal learning and communication reflects individual and organizational creativity. Creativity is essential for any organization in the course of fulfilling their objectives as seen in the case of Kotler Fine Foods.

Imparts knowledge

Creativity fills the void and necessitates the platform for communication between individuals in an organization. In turn, new ideas are discovered which also impart new knowledge. With reference to Kotler Fine Foods, creativity has created the urge to explore different types of foods and wines. Consequently, individuals obtain knowledge on various types of foods and wines that are new to them. Creativity creates new depth, time, space, and pace through continuous innovation.

Individual creativity

Creativity identifies with the…… [Read More]

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Technological Innovations Technology Innovation Write a 2-3

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93511582

Technological Innovations

Technology Innovation Write a (2-3) page paper: Analyze major technological innovations (5) years determine significant innovation entrepreneurs. Provide specific examples technology encouraged business creation growth.

Major technological innovations in the last five (5) years:

The rise of mobile technology and tablet computers

The rise of mobile technology is undoubtedly the most significant technological innovation to occur within the past five years. Fewer and fewer people are using standard desktops or even laptops to satisfy their computing needs. Instead, they are using their phones or tablet-style devices like iPads and Kindles to do everything from pay bills, to play games, to communicate with friends. It is increasingly essential that advertisers know how to communicate using this relatively narrow platform. The surge of interest in Twitter (at the expense of the more visually-oriented Facebook which requires a large viewing area) has been linked to the 'smaller is better' phenomenon manifested…… [Read More]

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Corrections Current Trends Innovations and

Words: 3072 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52475571


To date, there has been a great deal of reluctance to adopt a harm reduction approach in the United States for two fundamental reasons:

The first reason stems from the argument that if harm were reduced for users the result would be an increase in the prevalence of drug use and, therefore, increased harm to society in terms of health care costs and violent crime. Those taking this position present as supporting evidence the fact that improved automobile safety features have led to increased speeding by drivers. In addition, it has been suggested that because drug users are risk takers to begin with, they may increase use or risky behavior to compensate for the harm reduction assumptions that substance use is part of the human condition.

The second reason is based on concerns about "sending the wrong message." If harm reduction were implemented, it might be interpreted as condoning…… [Read More]

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Social Innovation Workplace the Role That Social

Words: 894 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14625689

Social Innovation Workplace

The role that social innovation plays in the global marketplace

It is clear that online marketing is becoming popular in all global corporations. Just as most things in life have shown significant progress, companies such as Wal-Mart and Apple are seeking for convenience. Wal-Mart and Apple have taken note of this and are offering online marketing and display of products. While marketers have an option of making sales through online-based infrastructures such YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, they have a wide range of variety in the market place. This makes us wonder about the pros and cons of online media (Roberts, 2007).

Marketers with busy schedules throughout the day are able to continue with their sales and marketing efforts through online strategies. Here, customers are potential customers can log onto such as Facebook and Twitter at their convenient time and bump into adverts selling products and services. Regular…… [Read More]

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Cox Communications Telecommunications Innovation Status of the

Words: 2748 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83403889

Cox Communications Telecommunications Innovation

Status of the Sustainability Movement

The telecommunications industry, supported by the United Nations and the International Telecommunications Union, launched a formal cooperative effort to promote sustainable business practices and technology in June 2001. The Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) was officially launched on World Environment Day with the vision "to help improve the global environment and to enhance human and economic development, and thereby make a key contribution to a global sustainable future" (Thomsen, 2001).

This industry-wide initiative was significant in that its founders included some of the biggest global players: AT&T, British Telecommunications, Cable and Wireless, Deutsche Telekom, Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Marconi, Telcordia Technologies, Telenor as, and the European Telecommunications Network Operators Association. Members implemented various programs to achieve environment-friendly business practices. For example, British Telecommunications calculated that employee use of audio and video conferencing contributed to saving over one million tons of CO2 emissions the…… [Read More]

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Influences of Technology and Related Innovation on Tourism

Words: 1655 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17322409

Just as technology is changing, travel and tourism providers also need to adapt and change to remain up-to-date and competitive. Innovation may help firms to gain advantages and compete even more effectively.


Anderson, R.E; Srinivansan, S.S. (2003), E-satisfaction and e-loyalty: A contingency framework, Psychology and Marketing, 20(2), 123-138.

Bai, B., Hu, C., Elsworth, J., Countryman, C, (2004), Online Travel Planning and College Students: The Spring Break Experience, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 17(2/3), 79-91

Buhalis, Dimitrios; Zoge, Marianna, (2007), The Strategic Impact of the Internet on the Tourism Industry, Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, p481-492

Dahl, Stephan, Low, David, and Eagle, Lynne (2012) Mobile phone-based advergames, In Proceedings of the 2012 Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference (ANZMAC), pp. 1-7. From: ANZMAC 2012, 3-5 December 2012, Adelaide, SA

Dimanche, F. (2010). En quete de la generation C: pour un nouvel agenda de recherche marketing et tourisme.…… [Read More]

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Inventions and Innovations in Computing Technology While

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56864241

Inventions and Innovations in Computing Technology

While the argument can be made that as the backbone of the computer industry, the Jacquard loom and Charles Babbage's computing engine represented the two most important inventions and innovations in computer technology, the past 200 years have witnessed the introduction of numerous inventions and innovations in computing technology that compete for the title. Although singling out the most important is a highly subjective enterprise, a convincing argument can also be made that out of these many inventions and innovations, the two that stand out as being the most significant are the introduction of a user-friendly computer interface in the early 1980s and the World Wide Web in 1991 as described further below.

Prior to the introduction of Windows by Microsoft in the early 1980s, personal computers were limited in their usability. At best, most personal computer users during this period were restricted to…… [Read More]

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Starbucks Innovation Competencies Last Year I Wrote

Words: 2008 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11148772

Starbucks Innovation Competencies

Last year, I wrote to you that the company's improved operational foundation, invigorated innovative muscle, and heightened customer relevance presented us with an opportunity to build a different kind of organization. One that would leverage and extend our strengths both inside and outside our stores. I am pleased to report that in fiscal 2011 we delivered.

Howard Schultz, Starbucks Chair, FY2011 Annual Report -- Welcoming Message

Starbucks is often thought of as a nearly flawless company. Few customers worry about its survival and they continue to love what it is trying to do (Malkin 2007). This seems to be the case even when its record suggests it is going through some very challenging times -- thought to be related to its loss of individualized customer attention (Kwok and Rabe, n.d.). Starbucks, it seems, simply learned from early on how to ride the wave of innovation!

Why this…… [Read More]

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Apple Innovation at Apple Inc Apple Inc

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49726964

Apple Innovation

Innovation at Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is widely regarded today as an innovator in both the computing and digital media fields with its research and development efforts rippling across all dimensions of the private sector. As the discussion below will demonstrate, Apple's success can largely be traced to the internal sourcing of its research and development department and further can be connected to the orientation of Apple's visionary CEO, Steve Jobs.

Still, this internally driven innovation has benefited from some outside influence. The text by Croslin (2011) demonstrates the manner in which innovation can be fed both by External forces and Internal features. Proceeding from interviews with Steve Jobs and others at Apple, the text by Croslin tells the narrative of Jobs and Apple in a way that demonstrates both the primacy of the CEO's vision and the centrality of experiences Jobs had with forces external to his…… [Read More]

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Structure and Standardization Stifles Innovation

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97162285

The innovative solution to resolving the conflict would have been to create a mixed working team between the two teams, with the common objective of coming up with a solution that would take the best out of the two solutions the teams had proposed. Such a solution to the problem would have had several advantages. First of all, it would have allowed the two teams to interact and communicate in the scope of reaching a coming objective rather than each of them working out separately to obtain the implementation of its own solution.

On the other hand, it would also have likely created the best technological solution out of the two proposed by bringing together more resources to debate the best alternative.

3. What practices of or observations about managing conflict do you find offered by your leader - Carly Fiorina? How would they react to the concept of "healthy…… [Read More]

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Business Information Technology Innovation Requires

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 639606

Some of the world's greatest ventures, from man walking on the moon, to the creation of computers and other technologies grew out of mistakes. How many rockets blew up on the launch pad before NASA got it right? How many dangers still face those who travel into space? These could be seen as "mistakes," but in actuality, they are opportunities for learning, growth, and innovation, and so, innovation has to make mistakes, or it is not innovation at all.

People are often too afraid of making mistakes to be totally innovative and free with their thinking. The manager that does not have time for mistakes is drowning creativity, and eventually, his staff and even his organization will suffer. New technologies come from creative thought, mistakes, and the freedom to feel able to make mistakes, and managers, corporations, and entities that do not recognize this will not be successful, because they…… [Read More]

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Starbucks Innovation Strategy Over the

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99194331

For all of its corporate proliferation, Starbucks also takes pride in social responsibility through charitable participation. The corporation gives back to the community through partnering with local organizations such as Make Your Mark, Product Red and UNICEF. While the fulfillment of such public generosity shows the corporation's social consciousness, taking part in such acts of charity garner Starbucks favorable publicity along with visibility thus making Starbucks a trendsetter of civil service as well. Starbucks began as a chain of stand-alone coffeehouses but has since transformed to become a staple amenity with locations in airports, hotels and even on cruise ships. The risk of expansion came with a price, but the innovative step taken to expand its product has helped to keep Starbucks ahead of its competitors. As explained by Peter Skarzynski and Jorge Rufat-Latre in their article, "Lessons to Jumpstart Disruptive Innovation," while Starbucks has taken financial hits with the…… [Read More]

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Mobile Computing A Disruptive Innovation Whose Time

Words: 3842 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72360496

Mobile Computing: A Disruptive Innovation Whose Time Has Come

The pervasive adoption of mobile computing devices, combined with cloud computing and the quantum gains in application software are creating a globally diverse collaborative platform. These elements taken together are deliver an exceptionally fast and pervasive level of disruptive innovation across all sociocultural and technology sectors (Bernoff, Li, 2008). The impact of this disruptive innovation is so significant that IT departments have to drastically reorder their policies in smartphones, tablet PCs and other devices that employees are using to streamline their lives (Thomson, 2012). Smartphones, tablet PCs and devices like them are becoming so pervasive today that they are considered a formable cultural and socioeconomic factor in the planning and execution of business and government strategies well into the future (Bernoff, Li, 2008).

This platform of technology is so pervasive, that it requires in-depth support to enable integration of systems to…… [Read More]

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Innovative Mentoring Creating Innovation Within

Words: 1025 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44834197

This makes the mentor more of a leader for training, but elevates training far beyond "Do this, do that, and bring it to me when you're done."

Kaye (2002) makes an important point about mentoring: with the push to make businesses and government leaner, often there simply are not enough executives to go around to mentor all the candidates. A group approach can be one solution. She suggests that those who will mentor people in groups need certain personal attributes, such as being comfortable working in groups, being able to get to the core issues of a problem quickly, and the kind of openness that always makes a good mentor -- the ability to connect with people on a personal as well as professional or intellectual level.

One difficulty with this approach is that it may be startling to employees who have experienced mentoring elsewhere and have a different perception…… [Read More]

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Technological Innovation -- at What Cost Even

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50568767

Technological Innovation -- at what Cost?

Even though technological innovations hold much promise for productivity, there is a price to pay in our educational and social activities. With all the information and entertainment we become distracted and shallow. We don't learn as much as we can and we don't connect to others on a meaningful level.

Our parents had a deeper knowledge of the topic they wrote about. Not too long ago, our parents had to go to the library and spend hours researching a topic, jotting notes on file cards, and getting photocopies of articles that they would use in their research paper. Then they would spread the cards and notes and copies of articles on a desk or table and put together their paper. This was a long and tedious process. Finally, they would type their papers on a typewriter unless they were lucky enough to have access…… [Read More]

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Technology and Innovation -- Market

Words: 1707 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 1107256

It takes insightful analysis of the key success factors from the customers' perspective while a strong commitment to re-orient internal, back-office systems to support customer-driven criterion. The examples of the e-commerce industry, which is known for increasing returns and being highly differentiated on knowledge, show how quickly the network effect can serve as an accelerator for second movers to gain customer base in a relatively short period of time.


Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.

Hsieh, T.. (2010, June). Why I Sold Zappos. Inc., 32(5), 100-104.

Isckia, T.. (2009). Amazon's Evolving Ecosystem: A Cyber-bookstore and Application Service Provider. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 26(4), 332-343.

Lieberman, M.B. & Montgomery D.B. 1998, 'First-Mover (Dis)Advantages: Retrospective and Link with the Resource-Based View, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 19, pp. 1111-1125.

Maida Napolitano.…… [Read More]

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Eportfolio Criterion 2 Innovations in

Words: 1317 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69848958

Technology enables students to learn process without divorcing it from the factual information and data inherent to traditional educational expectations.

Technology can be used in a variety of different contexts and with many different overall instructional paradigms in place, and as long as it is effectively integrated into existing teaching plans and styles -- or if new overall instructional methods are built with a technological focus -- a high degree of efficacy has been found from most technological applications (Hartley 2007). By rooting all learning in direct interaction with media and peers rather than relying on the largely passive instructional methods of traditional education, it inherently and almost automatically becomes more effective as true learning only occurs with interaction in the constructivist perspective (Hartley 2007). As students engage in repeated learning activities that require critical thinking skills in the locating and selection of information, they will also become better able…… [Read More]

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Endogenous Innovation in the Theory

Words: 1131 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80359487

They buy more goods from local businesses, can afford more luxuries, and this encourages the growth of local enterprises. The spillover effect must be strong enough for this to work, however. Thus, it may be necessary for the government to fuel the economic development of local production through tax relief and to carefully select certain types of foreign investment to emphasize in its 'recruitment efforts' to ensure that the nation does not simply remain a source of cheap labor. Accumulation of capital is important, but the capital must be used to improve the minds of the populace and the infrastructure of the nation. Still, to achieve this objective, openness rather than protectionism is essential. The downturn in global fortunes may mean that cheaper labor costs are even more desirable on the part of multinationals so allowing such investment to prevent the nation from being even more stricken by economic contraction…… [Read More]

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Individual Product Innovation Proposal Assume Organization Familiar

Words: 1118 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83316374

Individual Product Innovation Proposal Assume organization, familiar, made a strategic decision innovative. (Mcdonald's product line) Identify unknown problems unmet opportunities develop innovative strategy address .

McDonald's has lately decided to become more innovative by adding a healthier product line that includes fruit, salad and vegetables. It has not only added this new product line, but has consistently encouraged customers to purchase them, including by allowing them to add such products to value meals instead of the traditional fries

This paper aims to use the IBDM five-step roadmap to address the creation of an innovative business product, namely the new product line at McDonalds.

Assessing the situation

During the last years, McDonald's has been under considerable pressure from groups and individuals that argued that the products that the company sells are not healthy and encourage obesity. The arguments these groups used included the nature of the products (meat, fries, sweet products,…… [Read More]

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Technological Innovations Have Had the Greatest Impact

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83345063

technological innovations have had the greatest impact on this area in the last 100-200 years?

Technology and air war fare-

Originally, warfare was mainly perpetrated on ground due to the challenges in perpetrating war form the air. Within the last 100 years, however, huge progress has been made in technology that has led to a radical change in the field of air warfare in general leading to huge developments in that field. Three of the greatest inventions have been stealth technology, Rapture, and the drone.

Stealth technology

Stealth technology, also known as LO technology (low observable technology) involves a range of techniques that camouflages factors of air war such as personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, and missile and helps make them more invisible to preceptors on the ground. It also makes them more immune to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods. (Rao & Mahulikar, 2002). Stealth technology was first developed…… [Read More]

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Entrepreneurship and Innovation Subject Q1 Do You

Words: 890 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 95058239

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Subject

Q1) Do you think kickstarter is a viable alternative to raising equity funding or debt financing? If so under what circumstances?

The growing popularity of the Internet has spawned crowdsourcing as new model of fund raising, pioneering by This innovative model is a distributed problem-solving and production model helping entrepreneurs and investors to launch a new product to the market place. From the novelty point-of-view, it is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional funding models like equity or the debt route. Typically, crowdsourcing for financing is familiar as crowdfunding. Under this model, an innovator makes publicity of his funding requirements through the Internet to individual investors. The individual investors offer financial contribution which are thereafter consolidated by the platform and handed over to the project owner. (Jennifer, 2012)

By far, it has become a viable alternative due to the following circumstances (i) Kickstarter provide…… [Read More]

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Technological Innovations in Security Over

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37017712

This helps the nation to be able to protect its most vital secrets, by having a system that determines how and when information is released.

Identify and discuss at least three modern-day security applications that help both private and public security personnel secure locations and facilities.

Three different security applications that are being currently used include: network, host and anomaly-based protocols. A network-based solution is when you are analyzing the traffic patterns at your servers. This is important, because many unfriendly regimes will often try to conduct cyber attacks as a way to gain access to sensitive information. One way to monitor for this is to analyze the traffic patterns, where you are looking for unusual spikes. This will tell an organization early, if they are being targeted. A host-based protocol is when you are watching user logins and the kind of pages that people are visiting. In this case,…… [Read More]

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Military Innovation Germany vs France

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90654630

In contrast, the French hung on to fighting concepts that had been centuries old so that mostly anyone with a little military background could have guessed their response strategies in case of a war.

French Generals such as Ferdinand Foch and Philippe Petain were famous for their ingenuity during WWI, when the very concept of involving originality into warfare had brought them victory. However, considering the fact that Foch no longer lived to see his country fighting WWII, and, the fact that Petain seemed unwilling to share his knowledge with those involved in fighting against the Germans at the time, it would be easy to understand what kept France from properly using its forces.

The Germans had learnt a basic rule when concerning warfare: speed and maneuverability make the difference between a successful campaign and a fruitless one. Napoleon was known to have a fondness for offensive campaigns, being aware…… [Read More]

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Understanding Innovation Management

Words: 1813 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80308675

Introduction: What Is Innovation Management?
Innovation management comprises a set of processes and procedures that allow organizations to reach strategic goals, remaining competitive in a rapidly changing and diverse global economy. The discipline of innovation management combines many of the core principles of both innovation and of management, synthesizing research in the psychology of human motivation with research into the sociological phenomena of organizational behavior and performance. Moreover, the discipline involves both qualitative and quantitative research methods, in terms of analyzing organizational performance and goals. Innovation management also takes into account change management, as a core feature of innovation management is the ability for an organization and its leaders to anticipate challenges and respond using creative and unique strategies. Often, innovation management depends on either the implementation of technology as a tool or on the direct application of innovation management to the development of transformative technologies that may serve as…… [Read More]

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Culture of Innovation Making Companies Successful

Words: 1784 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54126810

innovation is a group of steps and activities visualized for translating ideas into actual products / services / processes. The innovation process commences with identifying and defining the source problem (Sva?, 2012).The building blocks of an innovative culture are as follows:






These aforementioned building blocks are linked. For instance, the values of an enterprise affect the employee's behavior, workplace climate, and how success is perceived and quantified.

An innovative culture inherits ideas from research conducted by multiple authors. For promoting innovation, most enterprises generously invest time in resources, processes, and quantifying success. However, most companies have neglected to evaluate the more difficult to identify and/or measure factors of innovative culture with respect to people - including climate, behavior, and values.

To date, apparently, most companies have quantified innovative culture in terms of processes, management of resources, and measuring success of innovation rather than measuring building…… [Read More]

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Business Innovation at Google in

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93655546

Already, the applications rolled out by Google such as Gmail, instant messaging, calendar, word processing, presentation, and a spreadsheet application called "Google Docs" allows consumers to store large amounts of information on Google's servers and to access that information and those processes remotely (Cutts. 2009).

At the same time, Google has also exhibited the foresight to appreciate the continuing usefulness of allowing consumers access to standard applications provided by Microsoft, including free, simplified versions of essential word processing software and other basic applications available in MS Office (Cutts, 2009). While this is not, strictly speaking, innovation (because it does not involve new ideas), it is nevertheless does reflect a highly creative and flexible approach to product and service development in that Google is avoiding the narrow focus that seems to be plaguing Microsoft. In that regard, Google has recognized the continuing value of traditional software applications and invested the necessary…… [Read More]

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Innovative Process Innovation in Business

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48035684

Functioning prototypes or detailed descriptions of the product may be created. These designs are normally a joint responsibility of the organization's development staff and it marketers, who provide feedback on customer reactions to the proposed product design, color and other physical features.

Test marketing introduces a new product supported by a complete marketing campaign to a selected city or TV coverage area. During this stage the item is sold in a limited area while the company examines both consumer responses to the new offering and the marketing effort used to support it. The results of test marketing can help managers determine a product's likely performance in a full scale introduction. This step is sometimes skipped because it may reveal product strategies to a competitor. Additionally the expense of doing limited production runs may make test marketing cost prohibitive in some cases.


In this phase the product is made available…… [Read More]

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Closed vs Open Innovation

Words: 4213 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 64701023

Innovation Models Lead to a Sustainable Business -- Closed vs. Open Innovation

Following the introduction of the concept of open innovation, the exploration in the area has increased significantly. Open innovation involves the utilization of purposive knowledge inflows and outflows to help in the acceleration of internal innovation and the expansion of external markets for innovation. On the other hand, closed innovation refers to a situation where every activity is carried out within the organization and for the benefit of the organization. There are strong arguments for both approaches.

The Shift from Closed to Open

Innovation previously adopted a linear view where the focus was on science and tended to favour 'closed' systems. This approach would later be replaced by a more interactive and 'open' model that was grounded on continuous education and learning for all participating parties. The evolution and constant changes in the micro and macro environment produces…… [Read More]