John Stuart Mill Essays (Examples)

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Utilitarian Perspective on Ethics

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13458463

Utilitarian perspective on ethics

Utilitarian ethics proposes that actions are considered right or wrong according to the greatest amount of people that they help and/or make happy. The two foremost pioneers of the theory were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill although Utilitarianism, in some form, always existed started off with hedonism and Aristotle (each of whom advocated different forms of eudemonia / contentment / happiness).

Branches of classical utilitarianism are 'Ideal utilitarianism'; act and rule utilitarianism (where rules are involved); two-level utilitarianism (that differentiates between act and rule); and preference utilitarianism (where the actual act of choosing depends on the preferences of the individual). Still other strands include Negative Utilitarianism (that focuses on what not to do); and motive utilitarianism (where acts are chosen according to those which give the greatest deal of felicity).

A recent case in the news perfectly showcases the principle of utilitarian ethics in practice.…… [Read More]

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Utilitarianism as the Text Points

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77146824

Bentham is looking for measurable outcomes, because he wants to quantify ethics instead of leaving it up for endless debate. Good intentions can lead to undesirable consequences, which is why it is important to think through actions and consider all possible outcomes. If the outcome harms others, then the action was morally wrong. It makes more sense to critique actions than motives. According to Bentham, "there is no such thing as a motive which is a bad one in itself," (cited on p 279). Motives cannot be measured as well as consequences can. Giving a gift to someone is usually a good thing, even if the gift-giver gives grudgingly. Likewise, a donation to charity has positive outcomes, even if the person is motivated by guilt. The hedonistic calculus can also explain why crises often lead to opportunities for growth and positive change. A divorce, which could be measured as morally…… [Read More]

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Gallipoli the Ethics of Gallipoli

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56007013

Immanuel Kant uses a far more complex argument in defining and defending his ethical framework in "Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals," but its application to this scenario is actually remarkably simple. Kant basically asserts that all acts are either ethically good or bad, and that this judgment does not depend upon the scenario in which the action is taking place or the ultimate effects of the action. Killing someone, for example, must be considered morally wrong, otherwise killing would always be right and we would all be dead very quickly. The campaign in Gallipoli, then, and indeed all warfare and any other situation wherein one man kills another, whether in a state-sponsored and approved manner or not, is inherently wrong and ethically unacceptable. This moral absolutism runs into problems when others aspects of the situation come into consideration -- it is wrong to disobey orders, for instance, and the…… [Read More]

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Empiricism Is a Theory of

Words: 1527 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71884719

As experiments became more complex, however, especially noting embryonic development, scientists found that the process that occurs in vitro parallels the evolutionary process of nerve system complexity, and then becomes more qualitative in that not every aspect of thought can be explained by a simple combination of neurotransmitters (neuron coded molecules) or electrical events. While it is true that the electrical even between two cells allows for communication, the subtle and complex nature of neural chemistry cannot completely define the process of memory and thought.

Thus, we see that not only was there an evolution in experimentation, but of the very definition of the neural system from a more purist rationalistic position, to one that combines the material with the immeasurable to form the next generation of conundrum.


Honderich, T., ed. (1995). Problems in the Philosophy of Mind. Oxford University Press.

Lacey, a.R. (1996). A Dictionary of Philosophy. 1st…… [Read More]

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Bioethics Definitions Autonomy Personal Rule

Words: 1332 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80498471

If the lungs are forced to keep breathing, such people can continue to digest food, excrete waste, and even bear children" (Cline 2013). In the case of total brain death, "the cessation of functioning in those parts of the brain responsible for consciousness and higher reasoning powers is necessary for the death of the 'person' aspect of the brain and body" has occurred (Cline 2013).

Q4. Belmont report principles

The 1979 Belmont report was intended to define "the boundaries between biomedical and behavioral research and the accepted and routine practice of medicine;" risk-benefit criteria in research involving humans and appropriate guidelines for research involving human beings and "the nature and definition of informed consent in various research settings" (Belmont, 1979, HHS).

Q5. Present, explain and evaluate at least one argument in favor of thinking that many abortions are not morally wrong.

No human being should be forced to harbor another…… [Read More]

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Terry Schiavo the Case of

Words: 803 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10903901

The direct harm the other individual ultimately determines the rightness or wrongness of the individual's actions and decisions.

Applied in the Schiavo case, deontology then considers the decision to deprive Schiavo of the feeding tubes that sustains her life as not a permissible act. It is true that with Schiavo's death, both her husband and family will not be aggrieved or directly harmed with her death; instead, both parties will feel relief with the eventual decision to 'end' Schiavo's physical suffering. Her death will not cause any detriment to the lives of her husband and family, making Schiavo's death ethical, to the extent that it relieved Schiavo from the physical suffering she experiences, and her family from worrying about her condition and the continuous financial burden they experienced as a result of her prolonged hospitalization. However, despite these arguments, the decision to discontinue her life support was made by her…… [Read More]

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Politics Culture and Human Nature

Words: 2836 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95178829

Mill take issue with the Puritans? Explain.

Famed government theoretician John Stuart Mill took great exception with the Puritans who traveled to the New World in order to start a community based upon similar fanatical religious beliefs. The reason that he took such issue with the Puritans is that they used religion as a basis of government but worse than this they used that religious intolerance in order to oppress and marginalize others. The Puritans made their laws based upon the assertion that their restriction encouraged moral behavior, but in doing so they took away each person's right to make individual choices. Mill wrote, "With respect to what is said of the necessity of protecting society from the bad example set to others by the vicious or the self-indulgent; it is true that bad example may have a pernicious effect, especially the example of doing wrong to others with impunity…… [Read More]

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Moral Philosophy

Words: 2861 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78184941

Moral Philosophy

Can desires and feelings be in accordance with or contrary to reason? Are they under the control of, or guided by, reason? Compare, contrast, and critically evaluate the answers of Aristotle and Hume to these questions and their arguments in support of those answers.

David Hume is one of the most significant philosophers of the 18th Century. Hume is skeptical about moral truths, and he ascertains that ethics comes from feelings, and not reason. Hume argues that moral judgments are founded on sentiment, feelings of disapproval or approval and not reason. He furthers ascertains that feelings and desires are independent of reason. According to Hume, reason handles the connection of concepts or matters of fact. An examination of common moral evils discloses neither links of concepts nor matters of fact, but only sentiment (Hume 16).

To confirm that desires and feelings are not in accordance with reason, and…… [Read More]

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Happiness Now and Then the

Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31178668

According to utilitarian ethical theory, a lie would be very moral indeed if it increased someone's happiness without creating detriment to anyone -- telling a child that their unintelligible crayon markings is a great picture of a house, for instance, boosts their self-esteem and helps them to feel loved, and no one in the art world suffers for this white lie.

Utilitarianism also provides a solution to conflicting duties that Kant's theory not only ignores, but actually renders impossible. Given a choice between stealing or starving, Kant's theory would state that the only moral choice would be to starve, as stealing is always an immoral act. According to utilitarianism, however, as long as the person being stolen from would not starve from the loss, the act of not stealing would actually be immoral; the consequences of the theft would be to stop someone from starving, whereas the consequences of not…… [Read More]

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Happiness the Pursuit of Happiness

Words: 1887 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36548732

" This could not even be termed a desire to do good, as then it would be fulfilling someone's desire to do a good deed, and would therefore have a selfish motive. Kant is one of the very few that attempted to divorce happiness from morality; even though lying to the mass murderer would save many lives, Kant believed that lying was wrong, and therefore one could not lie even in such a situation and remain moral. Unhappy or dead, yes, but definitely not moral.

Both men attempt to justify their ethical systems, not surprisingly, with completey contradictory suppositions. Kant supposes that there is such a thing as universal morality, which can be recognized by all and therefore adhered to in all situations. Mill believed that no such universal morality existed, but rather that society was based on a general consensus of treating everyone with mutual respect and liberty, creating…… [Read More]

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Business as Defined by the

Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43746638

Robert Nozick's Entitlement Theory asserts that free market exchanges are manifestations of society's respect for people as equal -- an economic phenomenon that is given a moral dimension/explanation. This theory is hinged on three principles: transfer principle, acquisition principle, and rectification principle. The first principle holds the argument that all holdings or properties freely acquired from others are considered justly acquired. In the same vein of argument, the second principle posits that people are entitled to have holdings/properties, so long as they are acquired in a just manner. Lastly, an "injustice" committed can be rectified by giving the property back to its rightful owner (i.e., a property unjustly acquired can be corrected by returning it back to the original owner/first owner).

John Rawls' theory of distributive justice contains within its argument the principles of liberty and difference. In his theory, Rawls argues that the principles of justice determine how the…… [Read More]

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Ethics and Legal Considerations of Genetic Testing

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78906157

Ethics and Legal Considerations of Genetic Testing

Genetic testing is ideally performed for many valid clinical purposes, including the diagnosis of existing genetic diseases, assessment of disease risks, prognoses of responses to drugs and identification of disease risks in unborn children (MedicineNet, 2002). Though valuable, genetic testing has created significant legal and ethical questions for the healthcare industry, including the Diagnostic Radiography field. Armed with advanced techniques for genetic testing, Diagnostic Radiologists are nevertheless forced to examine both the legality and the ethics of applying that technology. It is not logically possible to declare Genetic Testing per se ethical or unethical; rather, individual Genetics Testing procedures and the surrounding circumstances must be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. Furthermore, the ethics of Genetic Testing is separate from the ethics of whatever actions are performed due to the testing results.

An Overview of Genetic Testing

Genetic testing is an immense category of…… [Read More]

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Social Psychology and the Beliefs

Words: 2219 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94639444

According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…… [Read More]

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Ghandi the Recent Turmoil in

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97715528

The end result of Swaraj remains key to Satyagraha, however. Just as Kant and Mills championed the rights of individuals over the rights of governments, so too did Gandhi. Gandhi's philosophy was never intended to create a political state or states on the subcontinent. Instead Gandhi sought to actually and symbolically liberate the individual Indian from an oppressive state of being. The average Indian was beholden both to the Raj and also to a socially stratified, outmoded society that hindered religious and personal freedom.

Thus, liberation was to be experienced not only in the liberation of Indians from colonial rule but also in the liberation of Indians from the caste system. To Gandhi, colonialism poisoned the individual spirit and prohibited personal liberty. Overthrowing colonialism could never have depended on Duragraha, political protest borne of anger. Satyagraha is the only ethical means to accomplish the goals of liberation. Gandhi was also…… [Read More]

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Fairness in Hiring and Promotion

Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32935501

All organizations and business have some form of ethical culture to carry out their goals, which cannot be inconsistent with the aims of utilitarianism. All organizations aim at the pleasure of achieving or creating something. This line of thought can be strictly infused into the awareness of employees during meetings or seminars. The goals of the theory may also be infused into new employees as part of their orientation. Existing employees may be promoted on the basis of their best contribution to organizational goals and the welfare of fellow employees. These are measurable criteria and a source of motivation to other employees.

The utilitarian theory necessarily states that it is an employee's duty to perform and behave in the best possible way to benefit the business, fellow employees, society and himself or herself. Consequently, he or she has the right to expect the same benefits from the organization, fellow employees,…… [Read More]

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Violence For God or Liberty

Words: 2300 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26190864

America took the notion of liberty and placed it in an economical framework, composed by Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations. Smith anticipated Marx by nearly a century when he focused on the nature of man and society in what amounted to a purely economical outlook. He views the violence that men do to one another and to themselves as stemming from an economical cause. The savage nations (hunters and gatherers) he states "are so miserably poor, that, from mere want, they are frequently reduced, or at least think themselves reduced, to the necessity sometimes of directly destroying, and sometimes of abandoning their infants, their old people, and those afflicted with lingering diseases, to perish with hunger, or to be devoured by wild beasts" (Smith 1x). The cause of violence, according to Smith, is want. For the Old World Church it was sin. For Rousseau and the Romantic/Enlightenment thinkers it…… [Read More]

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Nature in an Episode of the Popular

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62981490


In an episode of the popular television show The Simpsons, Lisa tries to talk Mr. Burns into developing environmental awareness. The unlikely duo picks up discarded cans, bottles, and other recyclable materials. On the beach one day, Lisa finds a plastic six-pack holder with a live fish caught in one of the rings. After telling Mr. Burns that six-pack holders are potential death-traps for small animals, she frees the fish and tosses him back in the water. No sooner than the fish hits the surface of the water does a large shark sails up, grabs the fish and ends its life by eating it. This story illustrates part of John Stuart Mill's philosophy of nature: nature cannot teach us how to live. On the one hand, Mill states that following nature is unavoidable because natural law dictates all human action. On the other hand, nature, with all its beauty…… [Read More]

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Movie Elements Power Vengeance Freedom Explain Chose

Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11219878

movie elements power, vengeance freedom. Explain chose movie specific references Mill / Norton's arguments.

Finding parallels between Steven Spielberg's 1993 motion picture Schindler's List and John Stuart Mill's theory of utilitarianism.

This proposal's goal is to determine whether or not the film's protagonist was guided by moral principles in his struggle to free a large number of individuals from Nazi authority. It is very probable that Schindler acted on account of his moral thinking, as he acknowledged the fact that he was among the only individuals who could actually have a say in the critical conditions in Nazi-dominated Europe.

By looking at how the character of Oskar Schindler manages to abandon his previous convictions with the purpose of helping others viewers are likely to observe his moral attitude. The fact that he is no longer interested in physical forms of pleasure demonstrates that he virtually reached a whole new level…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality Higher

Words: 2487 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88567007

Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality

Higher Than Utilitarianism

The passing and reformation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, also known as the so-called "crack law," is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be considered within the criminal justice system and its policy during the past two years. There are several aspects of this legal mandate that present a plethora of interesting situations and questions in regards to the morality of this particular issue, which has been at the forefront of mass media outlets ever since there were significant amendments passed to it in 2010. Interestingly enough, a fair amount of those changes may be attributed to the notion of morality revolving around this legal code, which was largely responsible for the rapid and prolonged imprisonment of minorities -- particularly African-Americans and Latino offenders. One of the most efficacious means of determining whether such a law may be…… [Read More]

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Character Is Grounded in Virtue and This

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77626459

character is grounded in virtue and this is one notion that originates from centuries old wisdom of Aristotle. Our contemporary idea of a good character is also based on moral and spiritual virtues and philosophy largely supports this picture of a sound character because virtue has always occupied a significant place in moral philosophies. Aristotle defined good character in Nicomachean Ethics II.7 in these words:

Excellence [of character], then, is a state concerned with choice, lying in a mean relative to us, this being determined by reason and in the way in which the man of practical wisdom would determine it. Now it is a mean between two vices, that which depends on excess and that which depends on defect. (1106b36-1107a3)

Simply stated, Aristotle believed that when a person can choose the middle path between excess and defect, he is said to have followed virtue. But only a man who…… [Read More]

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Philosophy of Kant's Deontology Deontological

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78017665

As advanced by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, it is a system built entirely on the effects or consequences of an action, regardless of the intentions. This makes it quite clearly the opposite of deontology; according to deontological ethics, telling a lie is wrong even if it saves a million lives. According to utilitarianism, even doing something purposefully bad would be good if it accidentally had a good effect. In order to measure the morality of an act, its total utility -- the overall effect it has on all persons involved -- is determined, and anything that leads to more good than bad is considered ethically correct. Utilitarian ethics is often summed up in the phrase, "the greatest good for the greatest number."

For Bentham and Mill, "good" was measured in happiness, which was also equated with the absence of pain. The specific calculus Bentham developed to measure happiness…… [Read More]

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Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem

Words: 5907 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 434586

Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery.

The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs at the cellular and molecular levels of human development and use this information to identify certain molecular pathways that contribute to a variety of conditions. Furthermore, using these stem cells could also allow scientists to discover the genes that are triggered in response to certain cellular conditions that cause rapid, unchecked cell growth or irregular cellular patterns. Additionally, using stem cells to discover certain genetic conditions will lend immense amount of information to the scientists and afford researchers the opportunity…… [Read More]

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Marijuana the Recent Election Resulted

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34788944

They were simply caught up in the lawlessness and anarchy that the prohibition on marijuana causes. Laws and policies in the United States that are theoretically intending to protect the social order are causing chaos and disorder in Mexico, and for some reason the U.S. government thinks dead Mexicans are not a big problem. To have no soul or compassion for the victims of this prohibition is simply evil.

The worst part is that the entire prohibition against marijuana is not even working. Anybody can get marijuana if they want. Studies have shown that teenagers find it easier to obtain marijuana than alcohol (Armentano, 2009). The plant's usage for recreational, religious and medical uses has become mainstream in music and movies, and the majority of Americans are if favor of legalizing it (Hartman, 2012). Even members of law enforcement see that the demand and supply of marijuana are unchanged as…… [Read More]

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Educational Philosophy and the Nature

Words: 5286 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 25649946

Here the emphasis is on complete neutrality, the child being exposed to all different ways of thinking and believing (Cahn, p. 421). In the end the child will make his own choice as to what is best. Such complete freedom; however, rests upon a notion that children might indeed make incorrect choices; ones that are base don incomplete knowledge of the real world. The need to make rational choice requires that some limitations be placed on children's own personal developmental choices and possibilities (Cahn, p. 423). The author's own notion of the Democratic State is largely derived from this last concept. Education must be divided between a concept of absolute individual choice and societal necessity. Societal necessity demands that children be allowed enough choice for free and individualized expression, while at the same time being prohibited from choosing lifestyles that take as their express point-of-view the idea that they are…… [Read More]

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Plato Thomas Aquinas and Jeremy Bentham Have

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7922672

Plato, Thomas Aquinas and Jeremy Bentham have exerted great influence over our ideas of justice and have spawned various schools of thought. This paper compares views on justice by looking at their writings on the ideal state and what constitutes moral behavior.

Plato (427-327 BC) is one of the most famous philosophers of antiquity. In The Republic, Plato wrote of his concept of individual justice as an offshoot of what he sees as a tripartite soul. Plato believed that the human soul is divided into three elements. First, there are the bodily appetites, expressed through bodily needs such as hunger and thirst. Second are the spiritual elements, expressed through emotions like love, anger and compassion. Above all, the third element that separates people from animals and makes them unique is the human ability to use language and reason (Annas 1981).

An imbalance among these elements leads to conflict, sickness and…… [Read More]

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Morality and the Claims of

Words: 2428 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83278473

Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).

What does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).

What Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…… [Read More]

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Associationism Remains Not Only One of the

Words: 2998 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40442078

associationism remains not only one of the earliest theories of leaning but it also comes across as being one of the most enduring. Basically, associationism holds that association of ideas can be used to explain mental processes. In this text, I will mainly concern myself with associationism as a learning theory. In so doing, I will highlight the main principles associated with the theory while making a mention of three theorists whose contribution towards the development of this theory as we know it today cannot be overstated. Further, this discussion will invoke associationism in explaining mental processes associated learning. I will also attempt to explain how associationism utilizes prior experience in explaining how learning in individuals takes place. Also, I will seek to explain how permanent change in behavior comes about by depicting the application of the theory. Lastly, a number of settings in which learning takes place will be…… [Read More]

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Liberalism as an Ideology Has a Long

Words: 2057 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96420585

Liberalism as an ideology has a long and complex history in politics as well as philosophy. In essence the liberal tradition refers to a system of thought or ideology which emphasizes the concept of freedom and personal liberty as the purpose of government. This also implies the ability to desist and the right of opposition to established systems and rules and governance which may be seen to infringe on the ethos of freedom that forms the kernel of liberal ideologies.

A simple definition of the idea of the liberal tradition is as follows.

Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. It typically favors the right to dissent from orthodox tenets or established authorities in political or religious matters.

( Wikipedia: Liberalism)

Liberalism is also defined and understood in contradistinction to other political ideologies such as…… [Read More]

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Augustine Is a Christian Father of the

Words: 3225 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53497886

Augustine is a Christian father of the late Roman Empire -- the traditional date of the "fall" of the Roman Empire is about a half-century after Augustine's death -- while Thomas Aquinas is a thinker of the medieval period. It is worth noting this substantially large time difference -- eight hundred years separates Augustine from Aquinas, just as another eight hundred years separate Aquinas from ourselves -- because we need to see Christian thought within its proper historical context. Augustine helped to consolidate early Christian doctrine, while almost a century later Aquinas served to make Christian doctrine congruent with classical (i.e., Aristotelian) science.

To understand Augustine's ethical thought within its proper context, we need to understand the centrality of the concept of original sin in Augustine's thinking. One of the clearest ways in which Augustine personally tried to clarify the doctrine of original sin was in his context with Pelagius…… [Read More]

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Ethics and Organ Transplants

Words: 837 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73353501

Ethical Considerations Behind Organ Transplants

The idea of organ transplants has suffered several criticisms over the years from the civil society, to the various religious groups and even philosophers. It is challenging to have one perspective on the idea of transplants and apply it universally since not everyone will share the religious view, or the philosophical view. In the context of this memorandum, the utilitarian philosophy will be the baseline for the justification.

Inline with the utilitarian approach that Joh Mill Stuart proposes, that which is useful is that which is right. In his argument, he insists on the virtue of each individual to act in restraint and this is what is right and useful. His perspective of the utilitarian philosophy is important in allowing free will and individual decision making and self nurtured good behavior. He does not believe in people being forced to do good by the state,…… [Read More]

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Wrongful Life Damages Debate

Words: 3333 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 42587617

It must be considered, as well, that genetic testing is a somewhat newer thing and the results can be skewed; so even if a doctor did do a test and results came up negative, there is a chance something could have been positive. Is the doctor responsible for the fact that the test didn't find any genetic problems? It would be absolutely nonsensical to think that the doctor should be punished for not detecting problems. It is also incredibly unfair.

When two people decide to have children, they are basically assuming all responsibilities and they should be aware that giving birth to a child means knowing that there are certain risks involved. There is this question to be considered: If an aborted child cannot sue for wrongful death, how can anyone sue for wrongful life?

What will happen, if we aren't careful, is that doctors will become very wary of…… [Read More]

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Philosopher Graphic Organizer Philosopher Plato

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33691202

Additionally, Aristotle furthered the field of educational philosophy by creating subjects and a logical inquiry process, insisting that education be moral or ethical, and defining it as intertwined with politics to such a great extent that the best and most necessary education is a state-sponsored education (Chambliss 2008).

Influence Toward My Educational Philosophy:

Practically, Aristotle's creation of subjects and his primitive research, which set the foundation for further research, influenced my educational philosophy by insisting the importance of a pragmatic education and establishing the tools for that education -- research. Aristotle's contribution, therefore, shaped my understanding of the purpose of education -- a means toward intellectual inquiry. Furthermore, Aristotle's combination of ethics with morality and politics has shaped the teacher's oath stating that he or she should do no harm, in addition to contributing to what I understand as the goal of education -- to further the goodwill of human…… [Read More]

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Economic Justice and the Mommy

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98376423

The question is, how does one decide which path is more beneficial?

John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism in the Philosophy of J.S. Mill, raised similar concerns when he stated:

"…any, even unintentional, deviation from truth does that much toward weakening the truth-worthiness of human assertion, which is not only the principal of all present social well-being but the insufficiency of which does more than any one thing that can be named to keep back civilization, virtue, everything on which human happiness on the largest scale depends" (p. 349).

Considering that human happiness is a subjective commodity that varies for every individual in its "truth," then whether or not one perceives the mommy track trend to be in line with utilitarian principles ultimately depends on one's personal definition of the greater good. From the utilitarian perspective (i.e. Mill), the wishes of the individual must be forsaken for the long-term "big picture."…… [Read More]

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utilitarianism and environmentalism in ethics

Words: 1170 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70010682


Is utilitarianism an effective approach to environmental ethics? Behaviors that demonstrate personal and collective responsibility to the environment can lead to tangible short-term and long-term objectives that benefit a large number of people. Reducing pollution, limiting deforestation, preserving natural resources, protecting sensitive ecosystems, and mitigating climate change bring about the greatest good for the greatest number, what John Stuart Mill (2017) refers to as summum bonum, the fundamental principle of utilitarianism (p. 1). Therefore, most environmentally conscious policies, business practices, and personal behaviors can be viewed in utilitarian terms.

Explanation of Theory

Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory, which essentially means that its proponents focus more on the consequences of actions than on the motivations for the actions (Haines, n.d.). There are several types of utilitarianism, including act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism suggests that any act is morally right when it leads to consequences that are better than (or…… [Read More]

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Ethically Ending Racism in American Business

Words: 2648 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29217877

Racism and Business Ethics

Despite a myriad of laws outlawing discrimination and protecting civil rights, racism continues to pervade all aspects of American business.

This can be seen in the pay disparity between the races, the ongoing discrimination against black men seeking employment and lack of racial minorities in upper management and other decision-making positions in industry.

This paper uses the utilitarian and value judgment theories to examine the ethical nature of racism in business. The first part of the paper evaluates how these two ethical traditions would view racism. In the second part, the paper looks at the various methods for addressing racism in American business, focusing on diversity training and affirmative action. It then evaluates the rightness of these programs, both from a utilitarian and a values-based ethics.

In the conclusion, the paper argues for a combination of diversity training and goals-oriented affirmative action as an ethical way…… [Read More]

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Mormonism the Religious Faith of

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60955377

In time, Bringham Young became the Mormon leader and led the Mormons further west ultimately to the Salt Lake Valley.

What are the Tenets of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints?

According to the Mormon website, there are six key points that believers must adhere to in the Mormon Church: a) "God Is Our Father" (God is the "Father of our spirits," humans are "created in His image" and humans have a "divine nature and destiny"); b) "We lived with God" (before people were born they lived with God and hence, "All persons on earth are literally brothers and sisters in the family of God"; c) "Earth Life Is Part of God's Plan" (the lives of people are purposeful, and by coming to Earth -- through Jesus Christ -- God's plan for us is "…to gain a physical body and learn to choose between good and evil");…… [Read More]

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Business Ethics When the Truth Takes a

Words: 7788 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80178711

Business Ethics

When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class

Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what she was "capable of doing" and just wanted to show potential clients "what we were going to be," rather than tell them the truth about how fledgling her business actually was at that time.

Was it immoral for Mary Bailey to misrepresent her company?

Looking at the "consequential" side of her decision to fudge the truth about her company, moral decisions are made based upon what the consequences of the action will be. The results of her action actually could have several consequences. The one first and pivotal consequence Maria hopes will happen, of course, is that the fact of her deciding to embellish the truth about the size of her company will bring potential customers into her business start-up Web…… [Read More]

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Social Justice -- Kantian Paradigm

Words: 3891 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74877856

Further, the physical well-being of everyone should be respected and there should be a guarantee that a "minimum level of material well-being, including basic [human needs], must be met by society, Peffer posits, explaining his view of Rawlsianism. The functions of a human being are important to respect, and basic liberties including: freedom of speech, assembly, thought, movement and other rights should be respected, Peffer continues.

Moreover, freedom from arbitrary arrest and seizure should be the rule of law. These are items that are written into the U.S. Constitution, so they should be familiar to all educated Americans as well. First of all, what about freedom from arbitrary governmental decisions to put a man to death who is delusional? And did the social inequalities benefit the least advantaged in the case of Patterson? Not at all. The social inequalities thanks to Perry -- who has a way of rewarding those…… [Read More]

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Why Utilitarianism Does Not Work as a Governing Principle

Words: 2662 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30119650

Utilitarianism: Weighing the Balance

The common good is often spoken of as a principle for social justice: that which benefits the whole should be promoted. Or, that which is universally good should have the highest support. It could be said that this is a utilitarian concept -- yet in modern terms of justice where egalitarianism can appear to be at odds with the "common good," the role of minority voices and diversity present an obstacle in the appeal to universalism. What is good for one set or cultural group may not be good for another. Thus, the question may be raised: Is it just to maximize the happiness for the greatest number of people as the utilitarian approach argues? The answer depends on one's viewpoint. If one believes the democratic principle is the highest principle of all, then might (or strength in numbers) makes right. If, on the other hand,…… [Read More]

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Immanuel Kant

Words: 1138 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38229001

Moral Objectivism: Utilitarianism vs. Kantian Deontology

There are Four Parts Total. You must Complete All Four.

"Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do." (a) What does Jeremy Bentham mean by this quote? (b) How does Robert Nozick's main point in "The Experience Machine" bear on the view(s) that Bentham presents in this quote? (c) Explain the differences between Bentham and John Stuart Mill in regards to the issue of what makes one pleasure more valuable than another.

Bentham is something of a materialist who believes that people make decisions based on their own personal utility. For example, if you believe that the risk associated with robbing a bank than the potential gain then you would rationally carry out the act. If…… [Read More]

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Political Science the Republican Party Triumphed a

Words: 2265 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76568997

Political Science

The Republican Party triumphed a majority in both houses of the Congress in the fall of 1994. This was the first time since the 1952 landslide of Eisenhower. It was believed by many that the Republicans had achieved the partisan realignment in the end. It also came to be believed that the prophesied Republican majority by Kevin Phillips in the late 1960s had come to reality.

The Republicans under the leadership of Newt Gingrich and Rush Limbaugh brought three disparate groups on one platform, namely:

The Entrepreneurial Republicans

These were the ones that celebrated the free enterprise system and sought reduction, even elimination of taxes and government regulations.

The Evangelical Republicans

The Evangelical Republicans perceived a shocking social decay and hunger around them for the return of a moral community made its basis on Christian certitude.

The Eurocentric Republicans

This segment of the Republicans feared cultural relativism in…… [Read More]

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Utilitarian Morality Utilitarianism and Moral

Words: 1833 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49415579

not committed a crime-- an innocent person. Similarly, it might happen. that the general welfare is promoted by punishing people excessively -- a greater punishment might have a greater deterrent effect. But both of these are, on their face,.violations of justice, which Retributivism would never allow." (Rachels, 135)

The danger presented here is one which threatens under any condition of ethical diversion. In the case of lying, there is an inherent danger that establishing an acceptance of divergence from truth as a moral norm under the pretense that such lying is geared toward sustenance of happiness could open the floodgates for the spectrum of interpretations as to how such happiness may be optimally attained. Herein lay the promise of a breakdown in social order about which Kant initially warns.

Mill's rule of exception, which allows that lying is wrong only 'in general,' is one founded on the intent to disestablish…… [Read More]

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Military Orders That May Be Unethical Utilitarianism

Words: 2131 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78928233

Military Orders that May be Unethical

Utilitarianism is a philosophical theory states that ethics are determined by the social group in which the moral determination is made. It has been described by various philosophers as the great happiness principle or pleasure principle. In essence, what is ethical or moral is determined by what makes a person or a group of persons the happiest. If a course of action brings the majority of people happiness, then it is ethical. On the contrary, if a certain set of actions brings the majority unhappiness, then it is unethical. Utility is thus the ultimate form of happiness and the best way by which to achieve happiness both for the individual and for the majority of the population within a given society. This seems logical but can become complicated when applying the concept of utilitarianism to a larger group, such as a government. Whether the…… [Read More]

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History of Economics Is a

Words: 4610 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17851639

These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)

It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)

History…… [Read More]

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Living Well and Rightly Moral

Words: 1478 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65831380

For example, does one really have to think about ethics while they are grocery shopping? Well, perhaps if one is thinking of cutting in line or taking the last shopping cart when there is an elderly woman who will be stuck with a basket.

Aristotle's virtue ethics said that people have to hone their virtues and this is a nice thought. He believes that everyone is born with the inherent tendency to do good, but people have to work on it just as one might have musical ability, they still must train in order to become a professional. Just because we think that we are ethical, good people (and we probably are) doesn't mean that we don't have to work on being better. This is also quite a nice theory, however, utilitarianism is still the best way for one to lead a happy, right life, because, once again, it forces…… [Read More]

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Ethics Utilitarianism Is One of the Most

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54855617


Utilitarianism is one of the most useful ethical theories. It can frame decisions made in almost every aspect of daily life, and also large-scale decisions made by organizations, enterprises, and governments. The basic principles of utilitarianism, as they were developed first by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill, are all based in the essential notion of utility. Utility means usefulness, but it is also related to net benefit.

Utility is defined in terms of the question, "Is this action beneficial? If so, who is it beneficial for, and how beneficial is it?" Utilitarian theory suggests that an ethical decision should weigh the greatest good for the greatest number of people. If an action is beneficial, it should be beneficial to the greatest number of stakeholders. It should be the decision that most maximizes the target population's happiness, or however success is being measured. This end result can…… [Read More]

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Compare and Contrast Either Utilitarianism or Libertarianism With Plato or Aristotle or the Bible

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70297314

Utilitarianism and Plato

Philosophy is an ancient process. Since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome, people have taken it upon themselves to question the reality of their worlds and to postulate what it is that causes people to behave the ways that they do. The philosophical theory of utilitarianism has gained popularity in recent years because of the way that it explains government and the need for laws and authority. However, philosophy going back to the time of Plato dealt with many of the same questions currently posed by Utilitarianism. The theory of Utilitarianism and the writings of the great Plato can be seen to differ in the following ways: in the background metaphysical understanding of the universe and humanity's place in it, the theory of human nature that each supposes, the defect in human nature that allows beings to be unhappy or unfulfilled, and in the ways the…… [Read More]

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Industrial Revolution Cultural and Construction

Words: 5220 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51869422

The pioneering spirit of colonialism and of man's ability to make advances in stages of life primarily assigned to nature -- such as the aforementioned innovations in electricity and magnetism -- were all championed by the Enlightenment and carried over to the field of industry.

Additionally, the Enlightenment helped provide some of the political context which helped to create environments in which the scientific and cultural achievements of the Industrial Revolution could take place. Principles of the Enlightenment heavily influenced the founding fathers of the U.S. government -- who then went on to form a country that utilized several of the technologies and principles that the Industrial Revolution went on to be known for. Additionally, social-political upheavals throughout Europe -- most notably the French Revolution -- were spurred in no small part by the feeling of unrest and discontent with tradition that the Enlightenment was credited for. This sentiment played…… [Read More]

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Religion and British Literature

Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90394972

role of religion in the history of European society is a tumultuous one. Christianity, from its obscure beginnings in the classical age, eventually took the reins as the centerpiece of philosophical, literary, and scientific thought. It is true that religion, often, tends to justify actions that might objectively be perceived as incongruous to the established faith. It has historically been the case that when traditional forms of worship become threatened, morally questionable methods are undertaken to strengthen the order. This is certainly the case with Christianity. Since the birth of the Catholic Church in the Roman Empire, Church officials have actively attempted to make their privileged positions in society impervious to assault -- this process has progressed for centuries and, indeed, tens of centuries. For many years this single faith dominated nearly every aspect of European society and was a strong force in maintaining the status quo. However, the many…… [Read More]

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Liberalism libertarianism or Conservatism

Words: 1389 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26016329


Liberals tend to emphasize individual rights over governmental authority and to leave the economy alone, unless it needs help. More and more, the economy has been controlled by conservative elements and this has tended to squelch free trade and put too many regulations on imports, while allowing special interests avenues of squeezing more revenue out of the citizens by legalizing higher interest rates, putting tariffs on imports, freezing influx of cheap labor even while raising private profits by raising prices (such as for gas) and shipping manufacturing out of the country to where free labor resides.

Where conservatives have traditionally believed in the superiority of the ruling class, today in the United States they have concentrated power and money into smaller numbers of people, corporations and bureaus, and the government is used to protect those interests.

Liberals believe in individual rights, and, as it says in the Preamble, to…… [Read More]

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Republican Ethics the Republican Party

Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60997277

org). This makes the ethical dilemma faced by the Republican Party strikingly clear: they are caught between choosing to uphold their position on equality and personal liberty -- which would require them to include the Log Cabin Republicans and other groups, such as pro-choicers -- and upholding their moral values by condemning these groups and continuing to attempt legislative restrictions on their activities. Applications of different systems of ethics makes it equally clear that there is no real answer to this quandary.

John Stuart Mill's viewpoint on the issue of homosexuality would be very difficult to determine; like the Republican Party, he was born in an era where Christian values and morals were generally accepted as universally applicable, even by atheists. Homosexuality was far more abhorrent to the public mind then than it is now, and it seems likely that Mill would not have approved of such relationships. His ethical…… [Read More]

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Freedom Is Formally Defined in

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57587717

John Stuart Mill suggested in his famous work on Liberty (1859) that human freedom in society should be absolute to the extent an individual's desired conduct does not harm other individuals. Experts in philosophy (Taylor, 1980) consider the following passage to represent Mill's position most comprehensively:

The object of this Essay is to assert one very simple principle...That principle is, that the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others." (Shields, 1956).

Authority over individuals within this principle is the underlying basis of civil law and the statutory definitions of criminal conduct in free societies. Dictatorships, autocracies, and oligarchies generally do not subscribe to Mill's principle, but…… [Read More]

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Management and Leadership Strategies Were

Words: 5635 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38896307

Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).

The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]

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Stopping War with other Countries

Words: 709 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69330322

Dear President Trump,
The current war(s) that the U.S. is presently engaged in (sanctions should be included as economic warfare, which means we are at war with more countries than I can count on my two hands), are a severe drain on the moral energy and financial capital of this great country (Shambaugh, 2016). Why are we wasting so much? And for what?
The ethics of war and the current U.S. responses to terrorism are opposed to one another. I was happy to see that you ended the CIA program of funding rebels in the Middle East (aka terrorists). We need more of that. Yet, your administration now plans to send more troops to Afghanistan. We are still warmongering against Iran. ISIS is really on the ropes only because of Russian and Iranian intervention—and the neoconservatives in Congress still want Assad gone. This is not about terror. After all, our…… [Read More]

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Ethical Problems Involves the Development

Words: 1837 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78496993

Additionally, some person in management determined that cutting costs in maintenance and not having a plan was acceptable risk. The company held that the event was unforeseeable, though the contingency of such an event could have likely been conceived as a potential disaster, and hence planned for. In this case, engineering ethics application would have determined at some point that the company had a duty to respect the rights of individuals and to behave in a manner upholding that duty (Fleddermann, 2008, p. 46).

In the Aberdeen Three, three civilian managers were prosecuted for violating the RCRA in allowing the unsafe storage of hazardous chemicals that posed a health risk to workers, civilians, and the natural environment. The managers claimed they were unaware of the companies storage practices. Yet in law, negligence is not an excuse for culpability, and the managers were given jail time and fines. The issue here…… [Read More]

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Business Ethics Recognizing and Resolving

Words: 2980 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81658066

The Bank CEO's Role in Defining Ethical Integrity

Based on a thorough review of existing literature of the role of ethics in the banking industry, the role of the CEO as the ethical leader of their organization is next discussion. Based on the concepts presented in the paper to this point as the foundation, these key points provide insights into how CEOs and senior management actively shape the ethical standards of the organizations they manage on behalf of shareholders.

Risk Management Is a CEOs' Ethical Responsibility combination of forces -- changing regulatory expectations that open companies up to intense levels of examination, heightened stakeholder sensitivity to and scrutiny of corporate behavior, and the severity of punishment by financial markets for corporate missteps -- push reputation and ethics management onto the CEOs' and senior managements' agenda. The paradox CEOs face is when to risk the reputation and brand of the company…… [Read More]

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Andrew Von Hirsch

Words: 1984 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43066933


Just Desserts

Justice is an ambiguous term that refers to a sense of equality and 'fairness'. Social justice refers to the way in which this ideological term is put into practice. At its most basic level, social justice is the way in which a community is governed: the laws, norms and sanctions that are put into place according to the form of government. With criminal behavior, the issues of safety and moral decision-making become an important component of the debate. If crime is considered an environmentally caused event, as opposed to a personal characteristic and, or, choice, then the type of system is needs to be re-evaluated and reconstructed. The importance of commitment in conventional social control is well established, however, there has recently been an increase in interest and a 'reframing' of many of the core concepts associated with 'the need to settle a score' or punishment. Commitment…… [Read More]

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Ethical Theories in Nursing

Words: 4777 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74406948

Nursing Ethical Theories

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Significance of Moral in Nursing

Deontology vs. Utilitarianism



Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics

Justice Ethics

Care Ethics

Rights Ethics

Conflict of Rights

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.

The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…… [Read More]

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Sex Body and Identity

Words: 2749 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99705928

Body, Identity, Gender]

From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.

For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…… [Read More]

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Ethical Philosophies

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 63883764

Ethical Philosophies

Sometimes, when faced with a situation within murky ethical waters, there are difficult decisions to make. This is not made easier by the various philosophical outlooks available today, some of which would provide contradictory advice. The ethics of Emmanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, John Rawls, and Aristotle might, for example provide widely different viewpoints on whether a charitable donation should be accepted from a business person whose main income is from selling drugs. Ultimately, the choice lies with the individual, and the main question must be whether the person who accepts the donation can reasonably live with the final decision he or she makes.

According to Johnson (2010), Kant's categorical imperative focuses on the command and action, divorcing the action from premeditated or related goals. It applies unconditionally to the imperative to engage in action such as leaving something alone or taking something. This can be applied to…… [Read More]