"Beyond military policy, the repeal of "Don't Ask" is important for the larger gay rights agenda, just as African-American service in World War II and Korea helped shape the evolving civil rights movement" (Saldin, 2011, p. 66).
Opposed to removing DADT as federal law
United States Senator Richard Lugar (of Indiana) voted against repealing DADT because he said he was "…concerned about the impact of lifting "don't ask, don't tell" on unit cohesion and combat effectiveness, particularly at a time when so many U.S. Military personnel are engaged in combat-intensive missions in Iraq and Afghanistan" (Lugar, 2010, p. 1). Lugar was among five Senators that voted to put DADT in place in 1993 and also voted to keep DADT in place in 2010 (the others are Bob Bennett (Utah); Kit Bond (MO); Thad Cochran (Miss); and Charles Grassley (Iowa), all republicans). Lugar admitted in his statement that DADT "…continues to…… [Read More]
An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.
Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…… [Read More]
Philosophical Ethics: MacIntyre’s Notion of a Practice and the Idea of Virtues (Q4)
When it comes to notion of practice and the idea of virtues, MacIntyre’s explanation provides one with a sense of how the two go together. Practice is the art by which an object is pursued, and virtue is the quality that both enables and facilitates practice and is developed or reinforced through practice. This paper will discuss the link between practice and virtue, according to MacIntyre’s theory.
MacIntyre’s notion of a practice is split between two kinds of practice—that with external goods and that with internal goods. The external goods of practice are those external rewards that come by one’s practice, and usually these are of a sort that a person can possess—i.e., money, power, fame, or candy as in MacIntyre’s example of the child who is motivated to practice chess by the promise of the reward…… [Read More]
Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with what areas of human interest?
life after death b-god c-morality
The answer is c. Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with moral questions, or the question of what actions are considered to be right or wrong. Moral rightness and moral wrongness are philosophical areas of inquiry, requiring analysis and debate. The ethics of an action can be debated on the intentions of the actor, the consequences of the actions, or on other factors. There are many different approaches to the study of ethics, which is why there are so many different ethical and moral philosophers.
Ethics depends on the study of religion, or needs to be based on religious knowledge, true or false.
False. Although some philosophers, like Kant, refer to God in their philosophical treatises, there is no need for a philosophy of ethics to be grounded in…… [Read More]
Women's Suffrage in the UK
Harold Smith emphasizes that the origins of the women's suffrage campaign in Victorian England stemmed from a larger campaign for reform concerning the franchise in general. Smith is, in fact, careful to note at the very beginning of his study that there has been a recent historiographical shift, which emphasizes the "specifically women's protest against a gender system" by adding some distance between women's suffrage and the different (but related) campaigns for electoral reform in the U.K. In the earlier nineteenth century (Smith 7). In the first three decades of the nineteenth century, for example, British qualifications to vote were determined not only by gender (males only) but also by property ownership and monetary worth, meaning that effectively speaking only 3% of the adult male population could vote. (There were also additional difficulties in this period related to religious qualifications for electoral office: until 1829,…… [Read More]
Ricardo's Theory Of Competitive Advantage
Ricardo's Competitive Advantage Theory in international trade is as valid today as when it was first proclaimed. Ricardo's theory holds that every country should engage in free trade, just as Adam Smith alleged that all individuals should engage in free and fair trade. Smith stated that all human beings specialize, produce goods or service in excess of what they need, and thus can barter or exchange for monetary value for those goods in a national marketplace. (Smith, 1776) Ricardo agreed with this is also applicable in the international marketplace. (Ricardo, 1817)
The principle of comparative advantage for nations may seem "clearly counter-intuitive. Many results from the formal model may seem contrary to simple logic." (Suranovic, 2003) However, Ricardo's commodity exchange example demonstrated numerically that if England specialized in producing one of the two goods, and if Portugal produced the other, then total world output of…… [Read More]
Philosophy and Justice
A Theory of Justice by John Rawls
Quite a number of books and articles were published by John Rawls, a philosopher that held the James Bryant Conant University Professorship at Harvard University. He is, however, mainly famous for his book 'a Theory of Justice' where he attempts to define social justice. The work has tremendously impacted contemporary political views.
Rawls was discontented with the traditional philosophical claims regarding what actually makes a social institution just and regarding what justifies social or political policies and actions. The utilitarian claim maintains that societies ought to follow the greatest good for the greatest number. This claim has several issues, such that it appears to be coherent with the belief of the domination of majorities over the minorities. The intuitionist claim maintains that human beings feel what is actually right or wrong through some natural moral sense. This is…… [Read More]
Utilitarianism as it Relates to Sports
There are many philosophies that make up the social and political structures of nations around the world. Many of these philosophies can also be applied to sports and sports related activities. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the concept of Utilitarianism.
We will begin by defining the philosophy and addressing the beliefs of Utilitarians. We will then discuss how Utilitarian beliefs relate to sports.
Utilitarianism stems from the teachings of John Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham. The philosophy asserts, "that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness -- not just the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it."(West) Utilitarianism holds that even when the motivation behind an act is bad the consequences can be good. The founding fathers of…… [Read More]
F.A. Hayek argued that there can be no freedom of press "if the instruments of printing are under government control, no freedom of assembly if the needed rooms are so controlled, no freedom of movement if the means of transport are a government monopoly" (Liberalism pp).
As Thomas Paine wrote in 'Common Sense,' "Government even in its best state is a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one..." (Sturgis pp). Thomas Jefferson focused on creating an independent citizenry capable of maintaining the democratic republic, and he found his key in the yeoman farmer, believing "that the self-sufficient landowner possessed the ability to cultivate himself and therefore treasure his freedom" (Sturgis pp).
William Godwin, author of 'Political Justice' 1798, and hailed by many as the father of English anarchism, blended previous forms of classical liberalism into his belief in "the self-perfectibility of man and the law of progress reflected…… [Read More]
Utilitarianism and Categorical Imperatives
A Comparison of the Theories of Utilitarianism and Categorical Imperatives
The principles of Utilitarianism and Categorical Imperatives contradict each other on many fronts. Both provide a rational for making moral decisions, both have benefits and flaws. A compelling argument can be made for each. From my perspective the principal's of Kant exemplify a more ethical way to conduct life.
Utilitarianism as a specific school of thought is generally credited to Jeremy Bentham, who outlined this theory in his 1789 work, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Bentham believed pain and pleasure were the only fundamental values in the world and from this belief he developed his rule of utility, the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people. This is known as Act Utilitarianism. An act is to be preferred to its alternatives according to the extent of…… [Read More]
Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties
When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…… [Read More]
Pain and pleasure are not part of Rawls' theory. Rather, he centers his theory on the concept of justice. Rawls strongly argued that humans have the capacity for genuine toleration and respect for other humans. From this premise Rawls felt that true pluralism was possible and a tolerance for true democracy throughout the world community was possible.
With so many different views circulating what is to provide stability in a society based upon the views of Rawls? What keeps anarchy from developing at any moment? According to Rawls, stability is provided through what he describes as an overlapping consensus (Love, 2003). Laws are developed that support the basis comprehensive doctrine but for differing reasons. Each citizen supports the same laws but for different reasons. Consensus is not necessarily a compromise but a balancing of interests. Each citizen is free to hold his or her own belief and the overlap between…… [Read More]
Aristotle believed that human flourishing (NE: 12) is the definition of good. The mere presence of women in Congress suggests that voters rejected a man, but it is better to look at this not as the rejection of one (male or not), but as the result of human flourishing. This increased competition of more women pursuing what they feel is their own responsibility will result in more unemployment for men, a notion bolstered by Mill's belief that, "Whoever succeeds in an overcrowded profession or in a competitive examination…reaps benefits from the loss of others" (Mill; Hirshman p. 239). This could be viewed as human flourishing, which is good, but it connotes competition and struggle and doesn't make the pursuit seem virtuous. Aristotle, if following his own ethics in the world today, would have to believe that women are where they are because of human flourishing and their pursuit of what…… [Read More]
Operations/Project management - Ethics
Operations/Project management -- Ethics.
The rearing of pigs is all geared towards the end result of having it give the pork that can be traded out and money earned. The only contentious issue here is the process that is used to get to the end product.
The Premium Standard Farms of Princeton in Missouri can be said to be adhering to the utilitarianism theory of ethics and morality. This is the view that an action is right in-so-far as it aims at producing pleasure and the elimination of pain. Here an action is considered right if it produces the greatest amount of pleasure and the minimum possible or least pain of any available substitute action. Stuart Mill (1806- 1873) puts it plain that actions are right to the degree that they tend to promote the greatest good for the greatest number. John Stuart Mill is one…… [Read More]
By happiness it is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure." (Philosophical Classics, 2010. P.946).
This approach has been experienced a lot within the accounting fraternity. The actions of the accountant can be weighed to be right or wrong depending on the amount of pleasure they bring or otherwise. This approach helps in the quest for pleasure and the well being of each member of the community.
The utilitarian theory therefore is a pointer that the qualifications that are to be met or instituted within the accounting field by the AICPA are or should aim at being for the good of the clients and the firms as well as the practitioners for the eventual good of the accounting fraternity.
Bearing the sensitivity of the accounting field, the proneness to malpractice and the various abuses that can come up when loopholes are discovered,…… [Read More]
B. Individual ethical egoism which is the perspective and belief that everybody else should act in the best interest of me. That my self-interests should come first before any other, in a way it says there is no justification for any other action by anyone out there if it is not to serve my interests. Hence, there is no justification of the qualifications being put in place, and if they are to remain in existence, then they should act in the interest of me.
C. Universal ethical egoism which is the generalized belief that each and every person should pursue their own interests solely. That all persons should pursue their own interests exclusively. Up to this extent, there should be freedom for each individual to pursue their interests in the fitness industry as they wish and not be restricted by the rules and qualifications that are placed.
The availability…… [Read More]
Euthanasia, and all its variations including physician-assisted suicide, terminal sedation, and involuntary euthanasia, are among the most challenging issues in bioethics. The Hippocratic Oath, the classic ethical doctrine that guides medical practice, denounces euthanasia. However, the Hippocratic Oath is an anachronistic document that serves more sentimental and symbolic functions than pragmatic, ethical, or legal ones. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are both defined as the “deliberate action taken with the intention of ending a life, in order to relieve persistent suffering,” (Nordqvist, 2017, p. 1). Other factors, such as the patient’s competency (whether the patient is unconscious, conscious, or conscious but mentally or psychologically impaired) need to be taken into consideration when determining individual cases. Likewise, there have been attempts to differentiate between passive and active euthanasia, the former of which refers to the withdrawal of life support systems and the latter to the active administration of some medicine or…… [Read More]
Ethical Dilemmas & Marketing
Ethical dilemmas in international marketing
Background of Marketing Ethics
Ethical Issues in Marketing
Modern Debate in Stakeholder Theory
Ethics in Marketing
Ethical dilemmas in international marketing
Humanity has long struggled with the question of what constitutes ethical behavior. The answer to this question has not always been simple or easy especially in the midst of conflicting interests. Businesses desire and need to sell products to consumers but serious issues arise regarding the methods and effects of such marketing activities. This research paper is aimed at exploring the ethical dilemmas in international marketing by using previous studies as well as a detail discussion of different theories related to business and marketing ethics.
Background of Marketing Ethics
Business ethics awareness has increased greatly since the 1990s. A 1994 study of Fortune 500 industrials and 500 service corporations examined how these…… [Read More]
He believed that people cannot be trusted to act in their own best interest, and are better governed by a state that usurps the profit motive thought process from the people. He understood the evils of the profit motivator in business, and sought to artificially remove it from the equation. However, he too understood that it is natural to seek profit as the motivation for business, as he acknowledged that the government must actually take steps to cleanse business of the profit motive.
At first glance, the profit motive seems inseparable from business. However, examining Mill and especially Marx, we understand that it is indeed possible to antiseptically remove profit as a motivator and purpose of business, but the question remains, what to replace it with?
Communism was not the answer. It removed profit as a motive, but was not able to substitute any other purpose to business, so business…… [Read More]
Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory Results
The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.
Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…… [Read More]
" These metaphors play a powerful role in the history of philosophy, shaping and often distorting our views both of reason, mind, emotion, and body and of men and women. Other important discussions of gendered metaphors in philosophy include Irigaray," whose disucssion of the female sex calls woman the gender that is not one, in other words that the female body physically denies the male, liberal split of self and other. This split is intrinsic to patriarchy, even liberal patriarchy, and denies the ability of women to assert 'the feminine' as writ upon their bodies and souls. Philosophers such as French feminist and deconstructionist Luce Irigaray thus deny the presumption of liberal's use of temrs such as the individual and pre-exisintg and 'obvious' existance rights. (Saul, 2004)
Liberalism rests upon a conception of the self, and "the topic of the self has long been salient in feminist philosophy, for it…… [Read More]
E.B. White, remembered more today for Charlotte's Web than his moral philosophy, famously addressed this concept by saying, "When a man hangs from a tree it doesn't spell justice unless he helped write the law that hanged him." This is not meant to be an apology or explanation for the consistent violation of these "rights," however; Robert Jackson, Chief Prosecutor for the United States at the Nuremberg Trials for Nazi war criminals after World War II, claimed general consensus of every civilizations published laws against murder as justification for charging high-ranking Nazi's with international crimes. Though the world failed to act on -- in fact, willfully ignored -- the first hints of the Holocaust and Hitler's Final Solution, it intervened via an internationally sanctioned judicial process after the fact, punishing many of the men responsible for the atrocities of the death camps. Still further debate was carried out in the…… [Read More]
Ethics of Legalizing Marijuana
In recent years, there has been a significant amount of debate as to whether or not the possession and usage of marijuana should be legalized. Several issues revolve around this topic, not the least of which are the perceived and actual effects of this particular narcotic in a psychological, physical, economic, and even social sense. Perhaps one of the best methods for determining a prudent choice of action regarding this subject would be to consider it from an ethical perspective, or even better, from two ethical perspectives with traditionally conflict in order to properly gauge which stance would ultimately be more beneficial to marijuana users and the general public at large. The primary purpose of ethics is always to establish and preserve some moral good, and two ethical perspectives which can not be considered synonymous and which have a considerable amount of practical application to the…… [Read More]
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. While this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…… [Read More]
Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social Worker -- Paul Adams
Professor Paul Adams of the University of Hawaii's Myron B. Thompson School of Social Work in this peer-reviewed article explores those aspects of social work that "…are not primarily about identifying and resolving dilemmas" (Adams, 2009, p. 83). Adams delves into the "ethical tradition" -- and the potential therein -- that had its roots in "the virtues and character" of social work practitioners from Aristotle and Hippocrates to today's social workers. In other words, how can today's social worker -- and the field of social work -- learn from the past to enhance the field ethically? This paper reviews and critiques Adams' research, which is very interesting and enlightening in the context of values, human interaction, and social work.
Review / Critique of Adams' Article
Ethics, in the view of Strom-Gottfried, refers to the "…embodiment of values into…… [Read More]
stability afforded to the law of property by imposing a limit on the number of permissible legal estates are seriously undermined by the existence of a seemingly endless number of equitable interests.
Laws and Decrees
It is clear that law has limits even when it comes to the law of property. It has what is recognized as being the practical or 'means-end' limits; what lawmakers are trying to do could possibly may misfire in numerous ways. More fascinatingly, however, does law have principled limits and are they being are undermined by the existence of a seemingly endless number of equitable interests? It is clear that the best recognized positive answer to this question is that provided by John Stuart Mill. Mill's 'harm principle' is inspected in this admission, together with the more current resistances of the belief by Joseph Raz and Joel Feinberg. Other influential proposals for…… [Read More]
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…… [Read More]
prostitution is a dirty word. Yet governments support it and benefit from it. This paper discusses prostitution in light of Kantian ethics and Mill's utilitarianism.
UTILITARIANISM vs. KANTIAN ETHICS
To every decision there are always two sides attached; one that advocates an absolute standard and the other that questions this standard. Similarly when faced by a moral dilemma, one solution is to do in accordance with absolute moral standards and the other is to weigh the consequences and do in accordance with them. The first allows the assurance that the decision will be absolutely correct in terms absolute morality; however it may harm the parties involved. The second practice ensures that once the consequences are weighed and judged and the decision acted upon, it is going to benefit more people but would harm some. However in event of the second choice, there is no assurance that the decision…… [Read More]
human society, people have routinely used other human beings in one form of experimentation or another. "Although sporadic, vivisection was practiced by the ancient Greeks and Romans to augment their knowledge of science and medicine. In the third century B.C., vivisection was performed on condemned criminals." (Gloiszek, xi). In fact, many great leaps forward in medical knowledge have come from research performed upon humans; often, this research has been conducted without the consent of those involved. Obviously, this presents a moral dilemma: is the good supplied by any specific portion of medical knowledge greater than the harm done to the individual test subjects? In ancient Greece and Rome, this question was rather inconsequential because these were civilizations based upon the notion of slave labor -- particularly Rome -- and the exploitation of those who were not rightful citizens to the advantage of those who were. As a result, the rights…… [Read More]
Humility and Moral Pluralism
Humility can actually play a fairly significant role in ethical decision making, particularly when those decisions are related to any form of organization, whether professional, clerical, or even personal (such as a family). Essentially, humility's part in ethical decision making stems from a person's ability to look beyond his or her own personal needs to determine a greater good. That greater good typically exists outside of the individual, and may reflect the interest of other people or groups. In especially difficult ethical decisions, the interest represented by an individual making a choice and the greater good that is to be achieved by such a decision are in conflict. However, it is safe to posit that no matter what sort of ethical decision is being made, there is a degree of self-effacement that needs to take place for the one determining the course of action.…… [Read More]
If the act of killing another is imply universally banned, the definition of ethical action is greatly simplified, and all gray areas are decided on the side of caution. The above areas of concern are very real; there is evidence that non-voluntary euthanasia occurs in other countries where assisted suicide is an accepted medical practice (Debate, 2009). Mental health is often in issue with chronic diseases and end-of-life care, and determining when people are capable of making the choice of assisted-suicide is an impossible task -- some would even argue that the request itself is evidence of mental unhealthy, and should be interpreted as a request for better care (APA, 2001; True Compassion, 2009).
John Stuart Mill, who wrote directly and explicitly in opposition to Kant with his Utilitarian ethics, believed that it was only the effects of an action that determined its morality: "the influence of actions on happiness…… [Read More]
These logistical problems are only one source of error in Levin's argument, however. The idea of establishing guilt with certainty before using torture fits the utilitarian ethic; it ensures that any reduction in happiness or good to the terrorist is more than compensated for by the increased happiness in the terrorist's would-be victims. The other part of Levin's argument, that torture should only be used as a preventative and not a punitive measure, also fits into utilitarianism. Punishment and confession to past acts does not create nearly enough happiness or good to make up for the pain caused by torture. But these two conditions for the use of torture -- that it is practiced with complete certainty of guilt and that it is solely preventative -- cannot logically coexist. In order for guilt of a terrorist to be certain, the act of evil has to have already been committed, which…… [Read More]
What social networks will need to do however is tread the line between keeping and growing user trust vs. monetizing their content. Trust within social networks and online communities have been studied for decades with the results showing transparency is critical for trust to continually be strengthened (Beth, Borcherding, Klein, 1994). There are several strategic directions that social networks could go with the data captured, yet by far the most valuable will be creating an entire suite of data sets deliverable through APIs (which were discussed earlier) to any company needing it for their SCRM systems. This data service model is a catalyst of growth for Salesforce.com, now a $1B+ providers of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) CRM applications.
Analyzing the CRM Marketplace based on this study's Research
Even in periods of economic recession, companies continue to invest in CRM software and systems as they have proven to be solid contributors to revenue…… [Read More]
Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.
1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.
A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.
Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.
A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.
The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.
Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…… [Read More]
The state currently spends a great deal of money on detaining people on marijuana related offenses. Legalization could help to free up some of these resources which could then be used on more important programs throughout the state.
When examining the economic benefits of marijuana legalization it is important to weigh the social costs related to outlawing access to goods, because such restrictions create black markets. Black markets are associated with social costs because they assists in the perpetuation of that affects innocent citizens and communities. This violence takes place because gangs start to compete form markets and a natural outcome of black markets is a decrease in respect for established laws (Boyd). Additionally one aspect of the impact of the black market that is usually overlooked is the cost of production that dealers are able to lower (Boyd). Dealers on the black market do not have to adhere to…… [Read More]
interview of Alex that is a strong advocate for education. He believes that education is not a top priority in the nation and that there are a lot of concerns that need to be addressed in order for it to get there such as the, four emerging themes that came out of his interview which were: Funding for schools, thinking logically and scientifically, socialization, and Respect for different cultures. These themes were used in order to conduct a sound analysis of this interview
Alex have been retired for the past 12 years, and he considers himself to be more of a student than an educator now. In the last five years of my career, he was a public school administrator. Alex is now a student of politics and a student of technology. Alex does, however, teach others how to build computers and how to use technology as an educational tool.…… [Read More]
Powell points to the fact that "in Georgia, for example, the time between the date of the murder and the murderer's execution (if it occurs) averages close to I0 years 25 Although the average lapsed time in Georgia may be the highest, the same situation generally prevails in a number of other states. No one would suggest that this is satisfactory." (Powell, 1038)
Indeed, according to Calvert (1993) it demonstrates a process which is crowded with rational causes to delay in the implementation, primarily because the application of the death penalty is so difficult to evaluate ethically. The degree of doubt which has been cast upon the efficiency, fairness or consistency of the death penalty is sufficient to warrant an inquiry on its ethical rationality. In many ways, those perspectives which have supported its unquestioned usage tend to align philosophically with authoritarian state structures, connectivity between the legitimacy of state…… [Read More]
In general, utilitarianism is an ethical system most often attributed to John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, both 19th century social philosophers commenting on conditions arising from the Industrial Revolution. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing one can do is any action that will maximize the happiness within an organization or society. Actions have quantitative outcomes and the ethical choices that lead to the "greatest good for the greatest number" are the appropriate decisions, even if that means subsuming the rights of certain individuals. It is considered to be a consequential outlook in the sense that while outcomes cannot be predicted the judgement of an action is based on the outcome -- or, "the ends justify the means" (Robinson and Groves, 2003).
For Google, then, the issue at its core was to continue allowing censorship of Chinese issues based on governmental regulations, or simply state, we will no longer…… [Read More]
His lectures were a success as many eminent people of Edinburgh attended them and earned him a decent income.
During the course of his lectures on English literature, Smith perhaps realized that his real vocation was economics. Hence, addition to English literature, he started to deliver lectures in economics in 1750-51 in which he advocated the doctrines of commercial liberty, based largely on the ideas of Hutcheson. It was also during this period that Smith renewed his acquaintance with the philosopher, David Hume, sharing a close intellectual alliance and friendship that led to the emergence of the so-called "Scottish Enlightenment."
As a result of the success of his Edinburgh public lectures Smith was elected to the chair of logic at the University of Glasgow in 1751, which was lying vacant since the death of its previous occupant, John Loudoun, on November 1, 1750. Smith spent the next 13 years at…… [Read More]
Abortion ranks amongst the most widely questionable subjects examined and discussed all through the world today. Is it accurate to say that it is legitimate? Is it precise to say that it is not an ethical decision? These are simply a couple of the inquiries that arise thereto. One thought is that fetus removal is thought to be reasonable when viewed through the utilitarian viewpoint. The discussion that follows will contemplate on that.
Abortion (Debate Basics):
The premature birth deliberation questions if it can be ethically right to bring an end to pregnancy unnaturally (BBC Ethics). Thinker Ted Lockhart offers a practical answer for taking care of moral issues that can help decide whether to go in for abortion (BBC Ethics). Lockhart proposes that we ought to "exercise discretion based on ethically acceptable values" (BBC Ethics). Interpreted in a simplified manner this means that where we need to settle…… [Read More]
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James Watson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, Watson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (Watson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. Watson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…… [Read More]
Government Intervention in the Steel Industry
The Bush administration announced the imposition of sweeping tariffs of up to 30% on steel imports to the United States for a period of 3 years in March 2002 purportedly to save the ailing steel industry from collapsing. Predictably, the action has invited particularly harsh criticism from the U.S. trade partners that have been directly affected by the tax, i.e., the European Union, Japan, and China. Domestically too, the proponents of a free market economy have been no less critical of the measure, although the U.S. steel industry, in general, has welcomed the move.
This research report will focus on various aspects of the U.S. government's imposition of steel tariffs. It will discuss the benefits and costs of tariffs in general, and include a history of government's support of the U.S. steel industry, details of the steel tariff 2002, why it was imposed, and…… [Read More]
How important is an individual's privacy in the workplace? Is an individual's privacy in the workplace the most important consideration to be taken into account? What constitutes privacy in a workplace environment? Do the goals and the mission of the organization supersede an individual's desire to protect his or her privacy? Is it ethical for an employer to collect and disperse personal information from employees without their knowledge? How does the philosophy of utilitarianism play into this issue? This paper delves into those questions and provides supporting information for the resolution of this issue.
After careful review of the textbook for this course, after reviewing additional scholarly resources and taking into consideration a utilitarian approach to this issue -- and after researching the Australian laws regarding workplace privacy -- this paper takes the position that an individual's privacy is indeed vitally important (and must by law be protected)…… [Read More]
Deontological ethics are based on other theories that focus on duty and obligation. Immanuel Kant (1785) argued that an individual should "always act in such a way that you can also will that the maxim of your action become universal law" (p. v). It can be argued that Kant's arguments are echoed in a quote often attributed to Ghandi, "Be the change you want to see in the world" (Lewis, 2011). In other words, deontological ethics contend that individuals should lead by example and establish moral precedent through their virtuous actions.
Each of these theories is seen every day through in our actions and decisions. One of the virtue theories that I strive to embody is Eudemonism, which encourages me to be the best that I can be, and put forth the effort necessary to be successful in my endeavors. I believe that by being the best person I can…… [Read More]
Imperialism was always seen as positive for Westerners, but as destructive by the peoples of Africa and Asia." To what extent does this statement appear to be true?
Rudyard Kipling's "The White man's burden" seems to be an ironic condemnation of imperialism. Whilst most Westerners of the viewed imperialism as a necessary fact and as a boon to the 'savages', Kipling was a pre-contemporary in more ways than one and saw the 'Whites' as simply one more other race populating the world. The White man in his greed and folly was perpetrating needless wars and occupying another's land as well as stealing their wives, children, property, and money for the benefit of themselves. Kipling, however, was unique in that most Westerners disagreed with him. To them, they were not only doing their duty but many defined their acts as charity. They were educating the illiterate; teaching the savage the ways…… [Read More]
geniuses, history will never even be aware that most people even lived at all, much less that their lives had any real purpose, meaning or worth. All ideas of human equality and natural rights are just pious little myths and fables, since only a handful will ever have the talent and intelligence to be recognized as standing out from the anonymous masses. This world is a very cruel and Darwinian place in which only a handful achieve success and recognition, at least by the material and monetary standards that the capitalist system values so highly. In short, the majority of people who ever lived have simple been drones and worker bees, and if they have any talents or worth, few will ever notice them outside of their narrow little spheres of existence. Many people may have certain natural talents but make little effort to develop them, and through bad luck…… [Read More]
Utilitarian and Deontological Considerations
Today, many places of work require their employees to adhere to a prescribed dress code. In basic terms, a dress code is essentially a guide on what employees should or should not wear to work. In this text, I concern myself with utilitarian and deontological considerations in relation to dress code regulations in the workplace.
Workplace Dress Code Regulations: Utilitarian and Deontological Considerations
In an attempt to design an appropriate image for their companies, employers routinely demand that employees adhere to a prescribed dress code. For instance, Company A could demand that all its male employees be dressed in a business suit and a tie. On the other hand, Company B. may take a less relaxed approach to dressing and allow its employees to report for work dressed in what is often referred to as 'business casual' wear. Although setting a dress code could help a…… [Read More]
Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…… [Read More]
Ethic Identity: Social Justice Affirmation Difference Social Transformation Critical Review Essay approximately
Follow the Leader: Liberalism and Individuality
One of the central tenets to be found in Kwame Anthony Appiah's non-fictional manuscript entitled The Ethics Of Identity is a preoccupation with individuality, as it relates to the forming of one's identity. This concern for individualism is one of the primary themes of liberalism, which was initially championed by John Stuart Mill and may be evidenced by the author's work entitled On Liberty. Subsequently, Appiah's aforementioned book deals with several questions regarding individuality -- such as how this concept fits into the overall scheme of multiculturalism, as well as how it relates to the idea of being inherently Western. However, it would greatly appear that these questions regarding the importance of individualism are relatively small in comparison to the larger issue at hand which liberalism deals with -- which is an…… [Read More]
All of these Christian sects, as with all religions, have traditions. Although traditions normally stem far back in the past when a religion began, they are always changing and new ones forming that better conform to the changes in society. Religious belief systems and the accompanying traditions about such essential issues as slavery, women and even same-gender relationships, for example, have changed in many Christian religions. Yet traditions, like belief systems, are ingrained in many religions and their practices, and thus not always easy to change.
Nor, is it necessary that they do so in all cases. Religious traditions can be a positive or negative influence. From a positive standpoint, they keep families and groups of people together. They give stability and consistency to life over a person's life, from birth through death, and to groups of people from one generation to the next.
However, other religious traditions can negatively…… [Read More]
The philosophy for example recognizes that more than one person is involved in the euthanasia process. The person in most physical distress is the one afflicted with illness and requiring euthanasia as a solution. What deontology does not recognize is the suffering of family members. Consequentialism also considers the suffering of family members, who are emotionally and mentally distressed by observing the long-term suffering of the ill person. They are also often in financial distress because of increasing medical bills. When considered in this light, voluntary euthanasia has the best consequences for both the ill person and others suffering as a result of the illness.
When involuntary euthanasia is the question, the same arguments could hold. When the ill person is no longer rational, such as being in a coma or in a much deteriorated mental state, he or she can no longer significantly contribute to society. There is indeed…… [Read More]
Another near-contemporary of Rogers and Maslow is Albert Bandura, whose social learning theory is more part of the behaviorist school than the humanist, though these are not as dissimilar as is often thought (Bandura 2010; Ricks & Wandersman 1982). Ultimately, though Bandura's work is most famous for explaining aggression and other behavior developments, it is truly concerned with how people develop into functioning and satisfied human beings (Bandura 2010; Bandura 1978). Even in seemingly opposed theoretical schools, then, the development of psychology during the twentieth century was leading inevitably towards positive psychology along several different channels (Sandage & Hill 2001).
For decades, Robert Sternberg has been a major luminary in the realm of psychology, and though his most prominent theoretical contributions have been in the area of intelligence testing, measurement, and definition, his overarching approach to psychology can also be seen as having a largely humanist bent (Sternberg 2001; Salovey…… [Read More]
Allen Bloom wrote one of the most controversial books of the late-20th Century, in which he denounced the demise of the core curriculum at elite U.S. universities and it replacement by what he considered to be a vague sort of postmodern relativism from the 1960s onward. As he understood it, this new liberal worldview held that no cultures could be morally superior to any others and that anyone who believed the Western world might be were simply absolutists and ideologues whose worldview led to "wars, persecutions, slavery, xenophobia, racism and chauvinism" (Bloom 1990, p. 568). Students arrived at the university having been thoroughly trained and indoctrinated in these relativistic ideas, in which the only sin was to be ethnocentric or prejudiced. Without knowing it, they were under the influence of modern liberal and progressive philosophers like John Dewey, John Rawls and John Stuart Mill, who regarded intolerance and…… [Read More]
law was the States' Medical Marijuana Patient Protection Act. This was a part of the 113th Congress which ran from 2013 to 2014. The law itself will be analyzed. The stakeholders of the law will be looked at based on the points-of-view that they possess. The factors contributing to the creation of the law will be looked at. The types of data that the author of this report gathered to analyze the healthcare and the gaps in the data will be assessed. The cost, quality, access of healthcare on diverse populations and ethical principles will be assessed as it relates to the law. A total of four the following, those being Saint Thomas Aquinas, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, John Rawls, Aristotle, Thomas Buber, Lawrence Kohlberg and Viktor Frankl, will be selected and this law will be assessed from their perspectives. The analysis will end up with a personal viewpoint…… [Read More]
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…… [Read More]
Premeaux's investigation into ethics and business behavior resulted in four categories that can lead to ethical problems: a) coercion and control (the use of threats or extortion to force a manager to make a certain decision); b) conflict of interest (a manager has more than one interest and if he pursues both, harm may come to the company); c) physical environment (this relates to conflict of interest that can harm the environment); and d) personal integrity (making a decision based on one's own needs can raise a red flag in terms of right and wrong even if the law doesn't specifically spell out a guideline to follow) (16).
In a survey of managers, Premeaux received 413 questionnaires to test ethical responses. The results of those surveys (there is not enough room in this paper to report appropriate data) showed that managers have "…a heightened sense of ethical awareness with most…… [Read More]
Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…… [Read More]
International Political Economy
In recent years the presence of a global economy has become more apparent. Financial institutions throughout the world are now connected through a vast computerized network. As a result of this global economy issues associated with the international political economy has become an increasingly important issue. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the manner in which the three conceptions of the international political economy (Realism, Liberalism, Marxism) differ. The research will also focus on how the advocates of each assess the phenomenon of global integration. Finally the discussion will investigate the merits and the dangers of hegemonic stability in international trade? The discussion will begin with a description of international political economy.
International Political Economy
Political economy is defined as the "theory or study of the role of public policy in influencing the economic and social welfare of a political unit ("Political Economy")."
In a…… [Read More]
Human Rights: King Leopold's Ghost
King Leopold's Ghost: Human Rights
Conflicting arguments have been put forth in response to the question of whether or not colonialism is justified. Proponents of colonialism argue that it helps to bring civilization, progress and growth in the colonizer's religion. However, evidence shows that colonialism only benefits the colonialist nation at the expense of the colonized population. This text demonstrates why this is so using the book 'King Leopold's Ghost' by Adam Hochschild.
Those that plundered the Congo and other parts of Africa did so in the name of progress, civilization, and Christianity? Was this hypocritical? How? What justifications for colonial imperialism have been put forward over the past five centuries?
Simply stated, colonial imperialism is the establishment and maintenance of a nation's ruler over an alien nation that is subordinate, yet separate from the ruling power. Imperial powers from ancient to modern periods have…… [Read More]
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]