John Stuart Mill Essays (Examples)

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New Struggle We as a

Words: 1121 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88188658

If we are honest with ourselves, we can admit that we live in a society of tyranny and oppression. It might not be as blatant a case of civil rights violations as were the Jim Crow laws of the South, and it might be a more complicated issue when it comes to matters of personal faith. In the arena of public affairs, however, it is exactly the same. Either all people are equal, or none are free.

It cannot be the purpose of a democratic government to legislate morality. John Stuart Mill warned us of the danger of a tyranny of the majority -- the situation wherein the bulk of a society's people have made an arbitrary moral determination and proceed to impose on those small factions that do not adhere to the same beliefs. Such tyranny was seen time and time again in all forms of government -- the…… [Read More]

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Entrepreneurial My Proposed Research Subject

Words: 379 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 76197493

I will begin by examining the historical writings of key authors such as Smith and Schumpeter.

I will also examine modern magazine and newspaper sources in order to gain lay perspective on the subject. Some focus will be given to discourse from entrepreneurs themselves, who obviously have first-hand insight into the subject. I plan to gather this information from online academic databases. Magazine articles can be culled from the library and from the websites of those magazines.

Works Cited:

McDaniel, Bruce A. (2005). A Contemporary View of Joseph A. Schumpeter's Theory of the Entrepreneur. Journal of Economic Issues, 39. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=K3nMhlhyjCycnG12jCkkxTQ72SmBkWF4Hh0Y122LLMJVFSGQWDzc!1707175542!-1042068674?docId=5009748846

Minniti, M.; Zacharakis, A.; Spinelli, S.; Rice, M, & Habbershon, T. (2006). Entrepreneurship. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.

Zahorsky, Darrell. (2009). The 9 Personality Types of Entrepreneurs. About.com. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://sbinformation.about.com/cs/development/a/personality.htm

Stolze, William J. (1999). Start Up: An Entrepreneur's Guide to Launching and…… [Read More]

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Poverty Duty the Ethic of

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50313761



According to the pure mathematics of utilitarianism, then, there is very little debate regarding this issue. No matter what the circumstance, a person who is experiencing true biologically-driven hunger due to a lack of enough food to eat will get far more utility out of the most basic morsel of nutrition and substance that could be achieved by the most magnificent meal for those who are used to plenty (and this comparison is even unfair, as the magnificent meal could be traded to feed that many more hungry people). It is an ethical duty, then, for those of us privileged enough to have plenty to share it with those who do not have enough.

Extending this logic further allows us to answer the question of whether this duty is greater amongst our neighbors, or if there is a global mandate for all mankind. The answer would be very different two…… [Read More]

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Advertising Ethics in Advertising Ethics

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8707020

" (Snyder, 2008, p.8/9) in other words, Snyder is appealing for better ethical standards not only because this would be the right thing to do but also because it makes good economic and marketing sense. The following advertising example is a case in point.

In another article Snyder refers to an advertisement which goes beyond good taste and decency. This refers to a multimedia campaign for Belvedere Vodka which is in competition with the Grey Goose vodka brand ands its market. As Snyder remarks: "The brand is donning fishnets, getting spanked in public and otherwise behaving lewdly in an attempt to stand out in the increasingly crowded luxury vodka category." (Snyder, "Attention, but at What Cost? 2008)

Figure 1. A Belvedere Vodka ad depicting a woman applying her lipstick in the mirrored belt buckles of some man.

(Source: http://stylemusings.blogspot.com/2008/01/on-advertising-front-belvedere-vodka.html

Therefore the advertiser is using lewd and tasteless images and action…… [Read More]

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Economics - Macroeconomics Economics Various

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75949107

S. The societal system practiced in France serves as a model towards which the U.S. aspire.

President Barack Obama's healthcare reform plan is considered by many as being a socialist experiment that will significantly hurt the economy (CBS, 2009). In opposition, the President has stated that he does not intend to implement a healthcare system that depends on the government. Instead, he would prefer a system in which the government competes with private insurance companies for selling coverage.

The Invisible Hand Principle

The invisible hand principle was developed as an opposition to the protectionist system. This principle is actually a metaphor describing the self-regulating characteristic of the market. In other words, such a system can be implemented due to a combination of factors, like self-interest, competition, supply and demand. Adam Smith, who developed this theory, considered that the action of these forces and their effects are able to allocate resources…… [Read More]

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Social Responsibility Henry Mintzberg 1994

Words: 1517 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42418267

There is a good case to be made for focusing on externalities and seeking to manage all of them in a social responsible manner, especially as the world becomes globalized and the key success drivers become relationships and information.

Works Cited:

Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://online.worcester.edu/external/evescio/Principles%20of%20Management/strategicplan.pdf

Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html

De Toni, a. & Tonchia, S. (2003). Strategic planning and firms' competencies: Traditional approaches and new perspectives. International Journal of Operations and Production Management. Vol. 23 (9) 947-976.

Wettstein, F. (2010). For better or for worse: Corporate responsibility beyond "do no harm." Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 20 (2) 275-283.

Peng, M., Wang, D. & Yi, J. (2009). An institution-based view of international business strategy: A focus on…… [Read More]

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Objections to Virtue Ethics My

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11497000

60). We condemn someone as immoral who refuses to help a motorist by the side of the road, but not someone who refuses to help a child with his or her extraneous cash -- personal 'gut' instinct in virtue ethics is prioritized morally over the end results, which Singer sees as faulty reasoning.

A third objection to virtue ethics is that it is culturally 'bound' to Western concepts of the self. In many societies, moral character is not based upon individual philosophy, but a sense of collective obligation. "Virtue ethics changes the kind of question we ask about ethics. Where deontology and consequentialism concern themselves with the right action, virtue ethics is concerned with the good life and what kinds of persons we should be" (Athanassoulis, 2010). However, philosophers who argue against a principle of moral relativism would state that this is not necessarily a 'bad thing' (Midgley 1981). Merely…… [Read More]

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Diamond Water Paradox Economics General

Words: 2641 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42777408



Differentiations are always brought up by the contemporary mainstream economists and their theories regarding ontological questions and assumptions or mere recognition regarding conformity of preference structures regarding some rules can be approximated usefully. This is done by the commodities' association or there quantities uses. Taking into account that preference can as well be taken as a usefulness determinant, departing of this conception from the usefulness concept should not take place. Different marginal utilities may occur for diverse people regarding same object for any customary conception.

Market price and diminishing marginal utility

In a case whereby the stock flow or the flow of goods and services in a country is of lower marginal utility as compared to the commodities that the same country trade for with other country, then decision to affecting that trade is only upon the country. Evidently, business transaction involves a case of exchange of goods whereby there…… [Read More]

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Reducing Citizen Complaints a Growing

Words: 3696 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49002943

g. A Police Office in a large metropolitan area like New York will have different duties and dangers than a County Sheriff in a rural Oklahoma area) (Barlow, 2000).

Rightly so, modern society has a certain level of expectations for its military and law enforcement branches. While it is known that both must, at times, deal with the underside of society, it is also assumed that the group will rise above base and animalistic reactions and upload both the law and a sense of compassion -- coupled with self-preservation and safety. Officers are often in danger of infectious disease, motor vehicle fatalities, apprehension of persons under substance abuse, and line of duty deaths are not uncommon. For instance, approximately 200 police officers die per year in the United States, with over half of those deaths from direct assaults from suspects or criminals (Robert, 2008). Still, individuals are sociologically drawn to…… [Read More]

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Positioning Stakeholder Theory Within the

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52718700



If the enhanced stakeholder perspective is truly the best for corporate social responsibility, this has significant implications not only for management but also for corporate governance. While Nohria (no date) argues that corporate governance is a hygiene factor in that its absence is a problem for companies but its presence did not correlate with improved performance, this is only for basic levels of governance. For a board to truly adopt a broad stakeholder perspective, it must be built better. Nadler (2004) argued that a well-constructed board will be one that helps to deliver superior results to the firm. Taking a broad stakeholder perspective, this means that the board should be capable of understanding the perspectives of different stakeholders rather than simply those of the shareholder. Building a board in this way, however, is constrained by the fact that the shareholders vote for the board. At times, other stakeholders may gain…… [Read More]

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Margreiter- Five Elements of Negligence

Words: 1105 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77693594

Its claim of inebriated behavior by Margreiter was unsubstantiated by witnesses; its claim that he was well enough to travel also unsubstantiated based on medical treatment necessary when he returned to Denver. The subsequent surgeries and medical issues were proven to have a permanent effect upon his livelihood as well as permanent brain damage. With the lack of earnings, the trauma to his life, and his pharmaceutical expense, the Court did not find it necessary to reduce his award or find any evidence of fault other than the hotel.

Part 2 -- the Normann case -- the Court indicates that regarding safety, "The law imposes upon innkeeper's at least ordinary or reasonable care to protect their guests against injury by third persons, and some cases call for the exercise of a higher degree of care." The claims that the hotel permitted criminals to wander through the hotel, filed to maintain…… [Read More]

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Philosophers Plato Mill Descartes Hume Mill

Words: 2113 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39579813

Neoclassical Philosophy

Plato, Censorship, Mill

In Book Four of Plato's Republic, the philosopher argued that the ideal city will have a tripartite structure in it - linked to Plato's argument that the ideal human soul is divided into three parts. Plato believed that the individual is connected to city and to community through the soul, and the most efficacious way to ensure that the individual will be connected to the city most effectively if the soul and the city have the same basic structure.

For the city, this tripartite structure consists primarily of three different classes. Each person belongs to the class to which his or her particular skills best suit: Those best suited to intellectual labor to one class, those best suited to manual labor another. (Not, one hopes at least, our current understanding of the nature of the democratic state.) Likewise is the soul divided into three -…… [Read More]

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On Liberty and Mill S Utilitarian Philosophy

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47782926

Mill's basic principle, assess the legitimacy of laws (a) requiring motorists to wear helmets, (b) preventing people from walking naked in public parks, (c) forbidding people to take drugs like cocaine or heroin, or (d) outlawing skateboarding in certain areas.

Mill's "harm principle" as stated in On Liberty could possibly be a legitimate reason to enforce wearing helmets for motorists, outlaw people from walking naked in parks, outlaw cocaine or heroin usage, and ban skateboarding in certain areas. Yet, as Mill (1859) himself states, "The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others" (p. 21). With that said, one may be able to object to the application of Mill's "harm principle" in so far as it applies to motorists, nudists, drug users, and skateboarders for the simple reason that they are not necessarily…… [Read More]

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America Was a Wonderful Experiment in Freedom

Words: 3066 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52240677

America was a wonderful experiment in freedom and democracy which had never before been attempted by any nation. Nations either tried to give power to the people in order to prevent monarchies from rising to despotic power, or they allowed monarchs, despots and other sole figure heads to rise to power. In the case of allowing the people to rule, Europe and European's had learned many times that unbridled power in the hands of the people was no more just than the rule of despots. Mobs could become just as dictatorial as individual monarchs who sat upon golden thrones. Until America came into existence, nations could only expect to exist for a short time before political turmoil would create change of government, and the nation would start over again.

So as America grew from a fledgling nation to a powerful and economically stable country, those who had watched democracy struggle…… [Read More]

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Utilitarianism the Fall of Utilitarianism

Words: 1684 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11312089

The satisfaction derived from that is by reason of good will towards the common man and not some universal pleasure felt by all men.

But what about pain? Is Mills seems to be stating that happiness is the absence of pain. But is not some pain beneficial? Our reaction to spoiled milk that prevents us from drinking it for example. Wait, perhaps there are levels of pain that need to be analyzed as well. Good pain vs. Bad pain, there is certainly some credence there. Is there good pleasure and bad pleasure? According to Mills that should be true, yet he does not seem to define it so. Pain is also part of experience so in the experience of pain are the beginnings of the knowledge of pleasure, and perhaps the distinction between higher and lower pleasures that Mills is putting forth.

Yet does that not make pain also a…… [Read More]

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Kant the Difference Between Acting

Words: 1722 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62623153

Guilt, it seems, is an emotion, and in an a priori, deontological account of morality, emotions do not factor into the judgment. This issue is less pronounced under Mill's view, but still, the issue of guilt seems to be missing from a strict utilitarian calculus (or, at the very least, it does not seem to be of great importance in the judgment). "Crimes and Misdemeanors," draws some inspiration from Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment, which provides an account of murder through the actions of Raskolnikov. When Raskolnikov confesses and is obviously in a state of psychological harm because he committed murder, then the reader is able to humanize Raskolnikov, and not see him and entirely heinous. Judah, however, is unrepentant, as he uncaringly moves past the murder, and experiences no sense of remorse. Under no circumstances is the murder defensible, but the severity of the action might be somewhat diminished by…… [Read More]

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Kant and Happiness for the

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58076432

For example, many individuals value freedom and knowledge as things that can bring happiness. So, having their own value, these things are parts of happiness.

Mill believed that everyone's happiness is important. He believed in what he called the 'greatest happiness principle.' According to the greatest happiness principle, a person is ethically required to try to bring about the consequences that would lead to the greatest amount of happiness for everyone affected. More simple stated, if a person can produce more happiness (and/or less suffering) in a certain situation, then he or she is ethically obligated to do so. In more contemporary ethical terms, this is called the requirement to 'maximize happiness. If one was considering doing something for one's own happiness, but that action would cause others suffering, then Mill would have to take both of the sides into account in deciding whether or not the action should morally…… [Read More]

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Morality When Morality and Ethical

Words: 1162 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5097740

This moral sense is often bigger and more powerful than us. Some people could call it psychological effect, others might term it differently but the fact remains that if we are doing something wrong, this moral sense would keep nagging us to the point that we would no longer be able to enjoy what we are doing and might eventually starting harming ourselves.

In order to protect ourselves from such negative consequences, its best to make a decision that is free of guilt. In this way, we can enjoy the fruits of our success and live a more happy life in general. This is really what is in our best interest though we might fail to see it at first.

It also pays to study the offer from an objective viewpoint. If someone else were offered this job: what would you suggest? Would you allow the person to take the…… [Read More]

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Economics of Public Choice

Words: 1428 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29006812

TAXATION IS THEFT?

When Sam the mugger, decides to rob you of your valuable goods or hard earned money at gunpoint, you instantly know what the act is called: theft. You do not only receive sympathy from the public, but are also found entitled to police support and protection. The city administration upon learning of the incident would most certainly show some anxiety over deteriorating law and order situation and the government would certainly criticize the thug's immoral act.

However lets just suppose that Sam the mugger wants you money again. But this time, some respectable people like senators, parliamentarians, Congressmen etc., accompany him. Instead of the gun, he carries an official letter that says certain percentage of your hard earned money is now his. The tone remains the same i.e. threatening. You give him money OR ... The dire consequences of not complying with his 'request' are repeated reiterated…… [Read More]

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Ideals of Utilitarianism

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 75281261

What Utilitarian Is?

Actions vary from one place to another and from one social setting to another. Nonetheless, the innate and good action or practice is the one that takes the best of utility. The well-being of the involved beings should be considered with utmost respect although the result must be maximized approximately. The process and the results are of immense important when it comes to utilitarianism. Based on the act utilitarianism, the actions are determined by their success and goodness based on the results. The rule utilitarianism alleys that every action must follow a strict order of the guidelines, laws, and procedures besides revealing the good result. Therefore, utilitarianism is concerned with the proposition that every good action should maximize utility at hand (Mill, 1864).

General Remarks

The regular collision between logic, science, and human perception and innovativeness attaches its consequences on the nature of the utilitarian approach to…… [Read More]

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Feminism During the Progress of the Last

Words: 2058 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3713608

Feminism

During the progress of the last century, the concept of feminism has, like almost everything else, significant evolution. Apart from the fact that it has branched into many subtheories, including literature and socialism, feminism as a movement has also become a very diverse concept in society itself. The variety of perceptions associated with the movement is an example of the diversity of views that inevitably comes from growth. For this reason, analyzing anything from a "feminist" viewpoint becomes more complicated than may initially be suspected. For the purpose of this essay then, the basic premise on which the beginnings of the movement are grounded will be used as a starting point: the fact that women wish to be seen as equal - as opposed to either superior or inferior - to men. These equal status relates only to functions and actions within society, rather than to obvious physical differences.…… [Read More]

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Social Contract Jean Jacques Rousseau's

Words: 1892 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69146705

He based his theories and ideas on these laws and his property related theories also related to the same ideals. Rousseau differed with Locke in his perception of the ideal government. His work 'Social Contract' dealt with the issues related to governments, society, people and property. "Rousseau was one of the first modern writers to seriously attack the institution of private property, and therefore is sometimes considered a forebear of modern socialism and communism. Rousseau also questioned the assumption that majority will is always correct. He argued that the goal of government should be to secure freedom, equality, and justice for all within the state, regardless of the will of the majority" ('Jean-Jacques Rousseau').

If God were considered the supreme lawgiver, then Rousseau's sovereign power in this world would be a person who is assigned the task of implementing those laws to construct a livable society. This man would help…… [Read More]

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Democratic Governments Alike Share Fundamental Concepts Principles

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 284324

democratic governments alike;, share fundamental concepts principles. Liberty, equality, rule law a universal concepts principles generally shared democracies. Others majority rule compromise fall category.

There is much controversy with regard to the idea of democracy and the exact set of principles it entails. Many are inclined to believe that there is a strict set of principles that need to be considered when discussing the topic while others believe that democratic ideas largely depend on the circumstances in which they occur.

The idea of equality involves people having to accept each-other and to be reluctant about judging others on account of their differences. The only thing that can represent a reason to discriminate when considering equality relates to each person's abilities.

Decision-making is a significant idea within a democracy and consensus involves individuals being well-acquainted with the role their play and with the fact that they need to agree to a…… [Read More]

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Post-Enlightenment Period We See the

Words: 3970 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82396447



Marx set the anti-religious tone of twentieth century political ideologies, in particular, anti-Semitism. Defenders of Marx will take scholars to task who question Marx on alleged anti-Semitism, claiming that the critics are quoting Marx out of context. Whether or not Marx is or was anti-Semitic (which this author is maintaining is the case), he was perceived so in his time and his writings were used by later Soviet regimes to help justify its anti-Jewish and anti-Israel actions as this author will demonstrate below.

It is ironic that a heretical Jew and a descendent of rabbis should have provided such powerful ammunition to anti-Semitism. The reason for his may be grounded in his Jewish background itself. Dr. Tzvi Marks of the Boston University Institute of Law concludes that Jewish law is characterized by dialectical tendencies (Marx 235). Marx, grandson of a Jewish rabbi and a Jewish attorney father was steeped in…… [Read More]

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Existence of God the Philosophical Questions I

Words: 2843 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8552120

Existence of God

The philosophical questions I will try to answer and why they are of particular interest to me. Opinions that ordinary people tend to have on the issue

The great monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam profoundly influenced Western philosophy. In all of these religions, the existence of God is a central claim. For nearly a millennium from 500 S.D to about 1500 A.D., Western philosophy was the handmaiden of Christian theology. (Jordan, 567) During this period, the issue of existence of God seemed to be of paramount importance. Proofs were needed to convince infidels and beretics and to retain the faithful. In the more secular world since the Renaissance, these arguments for the existence of God have been severely challenged.

The current essay will discuss the arguments for and against the existence of God. The author has in particular discussed the views of Bertrand Russell on…… [Read More]

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George Magnus Is a Leading Economic Advisor

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53675455

George Magnus is a leading Economic Advisor at the UBS Investment Bank and has been a rebel around different systems in the world. George was employed in the UBS investment bank from 2004 till 2012. Along with being the senior economic advisor, he also played the highest level economist from 1997 till 2004. Prior to working for the UBS, he was working as a chief economist in SG Warburg from 1987 till 1995. Magnus is known for his work and cooperation with famous banks of both America and United Kingdom. The economist has authored many books and uploaded regular reviews which can be found at his website. George Magnus did his Masters in economics from the School of Oriental and African Studies from the University of London. He is also known for teaching the subject at the University of Illinois and University of Westminster.

The way he put out his…… [Read More]

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Warning Signs Danger What Were

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86151613

Additionally, Weston Smith's wife Susan Jones-Smith, was also a finance executive at the company, a further example of the incestuous relationships that characterized the financial leadership of HealthSouth. A failure of the company meant the failure in the financial future of the family of one's friends and spouses.

Another warning sign should have been the nature of the company's assets. The firm was able to conceal its financial shenanigans for so long from outside auditors because of its multiple and constant stream of acquisitions of a variety of inpatient and outpatient facilities. The nature of the acquisitions should have been a clear warning sign to be wary of HealthSouth's spiraling profits. The volume of transactions meant there was great difficulty in keeping track of the 'real' value of the different operations, despite the company's alleged revenues on paper.

Also, the existence of such superficial nods to ethical practices, such as…… [Read More]

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Technology -- Blessing or Curse

Words: 474 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35198703



Response

Yes, technology generates problems, and it is shrewd and apt to point out that for every net gain to certain members of society via technology there is a net loss. The hand weavers of the 18th century were put out of business by 19th century factories that could manufacture clothing cheaply, computers have probably collectively caused the art of calligraphy to die, and made even professional writers overly reliant on spell check and less willing to rewrite their work from scratch. However, would any of the authors included in the collection summarized in the essay really wish to go back to a world without antibiotics? Technology has enabled people whose vision would be a blur to see with 20/20 perfection, and made travel financially accessible to millions who would have been relegated to the narrow point-of-view of their homes. While it is easy to find detriments to these benefits…… [Read More]

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Censorship in Music

Words: 12976 Length: 36 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66604850

Censorship in Music

Censorship Under the Guise of Protecting the Children

Rock and Roll Culture

Hip Hop Culture

Is Censorship in Music Viable and Does it Make a Difference?

There have been many attempts by society control music. Governmental statutes, agency regulations, business controls and parents have all tried to censor the music. Sometimes they have succeeded and sometimes they have not. The examination of various aspects of rock and rap music censorship involves general societal reactions to new and alien music, racism, governmental responses, media outlets such as Rolling Stone magazine and the New York Times, and the music industry itself. Each of these serve as gatekeepers, veritable controllers of the music and lyrics that make their way out into our collective consciousness.

Rock and roll has become a prime target for the censorship campaigns of a wide range of special interest lobbies, including religious, political, economic, and musical.…… [Read More]

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Peary-Cook Peary and Cook The

Words: 4078 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94829817

In fact, many subsequent expeditions attempted and failed to follow Peary's route and reach the Pole in 37 days, and the feat was not accomplished until 2005.20

Peary's other problem was one of geography. The geographical data that he returned with, particularly as it concerned Greenland, was simply erroneous and there was debate over whether these were simple errors of science or outright fabrications.21 Henderson claimed that Peary's diary lacked the amount of wear and grease stains one might expect of an object that had been to the Poles, and that the penmanship was far too perfect to be written by a man whose extremities must have been numbingly cold.22

Naturally, none of these things add up to hard and fast evidence - for example, although the penmanship in Peary's diary is clearly quite tidy, there are in fact stains on the pages.23 What constitutes enough staining? That is clearly…… [Read More]

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Ben Jonson Intertextualities The Influence

Words: 22973 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70168505

" James a.S. McPeek

further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."

Shelburne

asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. When Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.

This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…… [Read More]

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Dutch Invasion of Brazil in the 17th

Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21080109

Dutch invasion of Brazil

In the 17th Century Brazil found itself the centre of contesting and warring European powers. The Portuguese colonization of Brazil was followed by the invasion from Holland as well as by French attempts to establish a presence in the country. Historians however describe the Dutch invasion of Brazil in the 17th century as one of the most damaging, imposing and far-reaching occupations of the country. This was mainly due to the well-organized and well-planned nature of the Dutch intrusion.

The Dutch invasion was an attempt not merely at establishing some fortuitous harbors for trade but was colonization in the true sense of the term. One of the obvious reasons was export of natural resources such as sugar.

The Dutch occupation of Brazil presents a number of pertinent and important questions that will form the fulcrum of the discussion in this paper. These are - the reasons…… [Read More]

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Abraham Lincoln Born February 12th

Words: 2864 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60093486



He also voted several times in favor of the Wilmot Proviso, that would prohibit slavery in any territory that was acquired from Mexico, siding with the majority in the Whig House of Representatives (McPherson).

However, Lincoln's opposition to the Mexican War was not popular in Illinois. Democratic newspapers dubbed him 'Spotty Lincoln', and indicated that he had committed political suicide with musings such as "What an epitaph: 'Died of Spotted Fever'" (qtd. McPherson). This label would come back to haunt him when he ran in 1848 for the Whig presidential nominee against Zachary Taylor. Although Lincoln's successor in the House, his former partner Logan, lost due to backlash against the Whig party's antiwar stance, Taylor did win the presidency.

However, most disturbing to Lincoln was the fact that he did not get the patronage appointment to commissioner of the General Land Office, as he had anticipated.

Lincoln returned home to…… [Read More]

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Ethics Is a Moral Philosophy

Words: 2848 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53285563

There are several ways that BP could have chosen to respond, all of which were "open" to them (i.e. they had free will), yet those chose to take paths that were less moral. Kant's universal law would have them put their responsibility to humanity as the motivator, however, their motives have not proven to be driven by doing what is genuinely good for humanity.

Blackburn (2009) states that it is tricky to apply the categorical imperative and that the most persuasive examples of it being effective are in cases where there is an institution whose existence depends on sufficient performance by a sufficient number of individuals.

Suppose, as is plausible, that our ability to give and receive promises depends upon general compliance with the principle of keeping promises. Were we to break them sufficiently often, or were promise-breaking to become a 'law of nature,' then there would be no such…… [Read More]

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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]

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Music & Skimmington Riots an

Words: 8558 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34158478

In this regard, when wage levels fell in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the standard of living for laborers and cottagers in England declined precipitously and they were compelled to use the majority of their cash, garden crops, and milk just to buy bread and clothing (Kulikoff 2000:19). Not surprisingly, many of these workers found it almost impossible in some cases to even survive, even with the entire family - including young children - working as hard as possible (Kulikoff 19).

In some cases, laborers (but not their families) were paid in food and drink as part of their wages and some likely kept fowl or a pig, and cottagers, of course, produced much of their own food; nevertheless, poor landless families ate bread and porridge, on occasion supplemented by milk, ale, cheese, eggs, or cheap meat, a diet that was far removed from the same level enjoyed…… [Read More]

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Dugald Stewart's Assessment of Adam

Words: 3009 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67622186



The reference to Montesquieu (as well as to Smith) in that part of the 'Dissertation' which deals with the 'Progress of Philosophy during the Seventeenth Century' was made just as a digression, and the further development of Jurisprudence by writers on Political Economy as well as 'the mighty influence which his [Montesquieu's] writings have had on the subsequent history of Scottish literature' (Stewart, 1854) were to be explained in the third Part of the 'Dissertation', which was never to be published.

Reform

A major task of the state is thus to ensure that the conditions of economic freedom are in fact satisfied, so far as possible, by sweeping away all legal and institutional impediments to it. Generally speaking, these obstructions can be condensed to four main groups. First, there is the problem that, in all societies subject to a course of evolution, 'Laws frequently continue in force long after the…… [Read More]

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Why the Civil War Means Different Things to Americans

Words: 1730 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98789582

Civil War and Its Meaning

The Civil War defined Americans because it was the war fought over the Constitution as it was written. It was the war of States' Rights and the War of Northern Aggression. It was the war that brought about the totalitarian drive of the central state, where the President assumed for himself authoritarian powers. There were actually many facets to it: the election of Lincoln, the low tariffs set by Southern Congressmen, which upset Northern Industrial magnates, the Homestead Act and the rise of the transcontinental railroad -- both of which could be seen as maneuvers by Northern states to take over the Midwest in a move to block out Southern influence and expansion to the West (Egnal, 2001, p. 30); and the issue of slavery (flamed to inferno-like levels by men like the radical abolitionist John Brown).

The South regretted surrendering because they didn't just…… [Read More]

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Inconvenient Truth Former Vice President

Words: 11687 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45554107

The hope, of course, that to the extent possible, both groups will invest themselves, and their money, in the ways that Mr. Gore is going to suggest in the film.

The Scientist and Mentors

Finally, Mr. Gore shows an image of earth that was made by a friend of his - all of the experts in the film are friends of Mr. Gore. The image was, again, made over a period of years and shows all the geographic locations of the earth. This is important because it segues into Mr. Gore's new direction of rhetoric; a story about two teachers, one he liked very much, the other not so well. Now, this explanation of his impression, his like or dislike of these teachers is intended to accomplish several things in the connection between Mr. Gore and his audience. Also, the audience has changed from a young audience, to one of…… [Read More]

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Walt Disney Walt & Mickey

Words: 3159 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59252137

The Three Little Pigs went on to win an Academy Award for best cartoon of the year (45). Disney's movies were becoming much more than children's entertainment; they reverberated within a nation during a period of hardship.

During the Great Depression, many theatres started doing the "double features" (Selden 56), which meant that after renting two movies to show to people, there was not much money left over for short cartoons. This worried Disney because there was no longer such demand for his little films (Krasniewicz 87). He had to think of something to do and the first thing that came to his mind was to make an animated feature-length film. As a boy in Kansas City, he had been inspired by a silent film version of Snow White and so this seemed like the perfect movie to make as it had everything that audiences wanted in films -- tragedy,…… [Read More]

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Women Artists Feminists Must Not

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30656242

" In other words, that art springs from within, rather than must be supported from without.

The author places the blame for female artists to be culturally central squarely upon culture itself, specifically Western culture's failure to create systems of educational nurturing for females. "The fault lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles, or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our education -- education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs, and signals." She prompts the reader, when asked, 'why have there been no great women artists?' To deal with it, as she states in her introduction to her work, as a "meaningful question" for our time, rather than a merely convenient or self-generated response on the part of feminists, to restate or reverse old cultural shibboleths about femininity, greatness, and what…… [Read More]

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Macro Analytical Approaches of Marx and Durkheim

Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1253190

macro analytical approaches of Marx and Durkheim regarding democratic republics, freedom, & equality

This paper looks at the question on how the macro analytical approaches that were discussed by Marx and Durkheim are applied to the attitudes of freedom and democratic republics and how it affects the equality of society. Bibliography cites four sources

How might the macro-analytical theories advanced by Marx and Durkheim help us understand the causes and consequences of the tension between freedom and equality in a democratic republic?

Freedom does not exist in world that is run by the minority dictators, many will argue that even in the western world there is freedom however there are rules to follow a man is only as free as the rules of his country allows however there can be seen to be an underlying reason why the rules of nations and man coexist to prevent overall freedom to what…… [Read More]

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Ethical Decision Making for Purposes

Words: 485 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45513058

279-306) and therefore sets the foundation for the development of an ethical culture in the organization. Finally and most importantly, the product manager must concentrate on those customers served with the appliance and put their well-being, safety and satisfaction above personal gain both from a financial and career recognition standpoint.

When the corporate culture, exposure to customers of a potentially unsafe product, and the need for staying in compliance to government regulations are considered, the product manager needs to think first of the Rights Approach to ethics as defined by Kant, as in selling any product there is the explicit trust that any product sold is going to perform to the level and safety customers expect. In conjunction with this, the product manager also needs to consider the Utilitarian Approach to ethical decision making, as choosing to ship a product not in compliance that has the potential to harm customers…… [Read More]

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Ethics and the Law

Words: 1433 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60618267

Ethics and the Law

It is morally acceptable for the law to require people to do things for their own self-development?

"Political theory is a branch of moral philosophy, which starts from the discovery, or application, of moral notions in the sphere of political relations." This statement, indicated in the literary work, "Two concepts of Liberty," summarizes my personal views on law and self-development. I believe it is morally acceptable to require people to do things for their own self development. Aspects such as making children attend school, requiring high schools to offer basic curriculum courses, or requiring systemically viable institutions to be certified, I believe, all are morally acceptable laws. Although society overall benefits from the self-development of its own constituents, the world benefits as a more educated population continues to drive economic prosperity (Berlin, 2000).

Few would argue over the merits of self-development and its obvious advantages. However…… [Read More]

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Political Philosophy I Pick a Political Leader

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36788641

Political Philosophy I pick a political leader (dead alive). Once pick leader, apply a philosopher's ideas a philosophy reveal leaders strengths / weaknesses. You a philosopher's ideas directly influenced a leader ( Machiavelli's influence Mussolini Hitler).

Leadership in the history of political thought has always been identified in the broader lines of certain political paradigms and lines of judgment and characterized by philosophical rules and guidelines. Leaders such as Adolf Hitler, Josef Stalin, Charles de Gaulle, Ronald Reagan, Mikhail Gorbachev, to name just a few of the second part of the 20th century leaders that marked the political history of the world, have all been defined in their actions by particular elements of political and philosophical thought. Whether these examples point out a sense of extremism in terms of actions or moderation in their approaches, they are all representatives of social application of social philosophy and political undertaking.

One of…… [Read More]

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Ethics Awareness Inventory Analysis

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30556800

Ethics Awareness Inventory

According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…… [Read More]

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Philosophy - Utilitarianism & Abortion

Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32963978



Therefore, the utilitarian would likely object on moral grounds to any late-term abortive procedure that would cause the fetus pain, even if the balance of objective moral good suggests that aborting a seriously defective fetus. Other than the issue of causing pain to the fetus, the utilitarian position would also consider the long-term subjective experience of living with a severe defect, which might also be quite painful on more than one level. With respect to concern for the defective fetus, the utilitarian would likely object to any procedure that caused pain to the fetus during the process; otherwise, the utilitarian would consider late-term abortion in this case, in relation to the harm-benefit analysis to others, provided that the procedure chosen would incorporate the moral need to anesthetize the fetus. Beyond the issue of the fetus' pain, the utilitarian would consider the emotional difficulty and economic harm to the mother and…… [Read More]

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Ethical or Moral Arguments

Words: 1134 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93448698

jihad with reference to the practices and believes of the Muslims regarding the word "jihad." Further the paper will develop ethical/moral arguments regarding the stoppage of violence by both Ireland and Syria. Although one can name many countries with reference to jihad and practices of Muslims against the violence attacks, but this paper will limit the discussion to the violent attacks of Syria and Ireland.

It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says: "There is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256)." http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/glossary/term.JIHAD.html

The definition of Jihad states that it is a struggle, a…… [Read More]

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Dreams in Sigmund Freud and Franz Kafka

Words: 1434 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21722588

Dreams in Sigmund Freud and Franz Kafka

Dreams, the Unconscious, and the Real Self in the Interpretation of Dreams by Sigmund Freud and the Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka

In 19th -20th century societies, the prevailing philosophical discipline and way of living among people is centering one's attention to the 'Self.' The concept of the Self is influenced by the individualist society prevalent in Western societies. Indeed, individualism through introspection is evident in the main themes discussed among discourses and literary works of this period.

Among these revolutionary thinkers that have helped develop and influence the 20th century philosophy and thought are Sigmund Freud and Franz Kafka, psychologist and literary writer, respectively. Both have been influential in introducing the theme of individualism through introspection, mainly through the method of psychoanalysis and subsistence to the philosophy of existentialism.

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician and founder of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is a branch…… [Read More]

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Last Duchess the Objectification of Women in

Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88979290

Last Duchess

The Objectification of Women in Victorian England and Browning's "My Last Duchess"

Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess" is a macabre poem about jealousy and rage, which simultaneously highlights Victorian ideals of women and their role in society. In "My Last Duchess," the unnamed narrator has not only objectified his last wife, nonchalantly telling the emissary sent to arrange his next marriage about his last wife and the tensions that were evident during the course of union, but also insinuates that he rid himself of her because he was unsatisfied with her behavior and attitude. Through the poem's narrative, Browning is able to demonstrate how people and society believed women should comport themselves and how deviations from this social norm could potentially disrupt relationships and social balance.

In "My Last Duchess," the narrator objectifies his wife literally and attempts to objectify her figuratively. In the poem, the narrator's last…… [Read More]

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Building Coalitions

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47316491

Building Coalitions

Conflict within the organization is an every day reality as no one individual will have the same opinion or style. The differences found amongst people in the workplace has required perceptions to change when it comes to leading a team and implementing strategy. One's attitude must be flexible and tolerant of change and conflict. Conflict must be an accepted factor or otherwise the organization will not survive.

In many ways, leaders and management look at conflict as a positive. Because conflict taking time and effort to resolve, it also allows for critical thinking and opening the path for new ideas and solutions. This works to the company's advantage over the long run as it continues to think outside the box or get do away with the box entirely. This leads to innovation. The attitude toward knowledge has evolved because more than one type is needed in order to…… [Read More]

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Breast Cancer

Words: 782 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10498820

Preventing and Reducing the Risk of Pre-Menopausal Breast Cancer: A Proposal for Youth Education

The incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer is on the rise. In recent years many different factors have been identified that contribute to this increased risk. Among the more common include an earlier onset of menses, obesity or overweight in youth which pre-dispositions a person to breast cancer, use of hormonal replacement therapy and long-term use of oral contraceptives (Claudio, 2000; Emanoil, 2000). Many studies have suggested that women are not taking adequate steps to assure early detection of breast cancer (Emanoil, 2000).

The aim of this proposal is to develop a workshop geared toward educating young adults about the risk factors associated with pre-menopausal breast cancer and educate the community about the importance of early detection. The author hypothesizes that by addressing and educating youths, the incidence of breast cancer and deaths associated with breast cancer…… [Read More]

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Philosophy in the Scenario George

Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23780662

e., it removes subjectivity as a vantage point). It is also hard to tell how much unhappiness is created and how to weigh it against the happiness that is created (e.g., how much George would hate his job?, how much suffering will the warmonger go through because he did not get this job?). Further, quantification of happiness or suffering becomes a real issue when trying to determine things on a macro scale. For example, does the tiniest amount of world happiness outweigh a huge amount of individual suffering? How much world happiness is necessary if not?

Second, utilitarianism relies on the outcomes of the actions in order to determine morality. If war breaks out and all of the United States is whipped out because George begrudgingly did his job, dragging his feet the whole time, then his action to take the job was wrong. He would have caused the devastation…… [Read More]

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Ethics and Euthanasia the First

Words: 2170 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1934237

"

The question of death ceases to be a personal experience, a family experience, and becomes a societal decision. It suggests that the values that one inherits through the experience of dying and dearth are without merit, and do not serve to better humanity. It reduces the human body that holds life to a commodity, and the decision of whether or not the body's continued living is profitable to the bottom line.

There are many questions that arise when we talk about death in terms of being better for society as a whole. Questions such as to what extent would a solider feel compelled to fight for the lives of his fellow countrymen if the society in which he lives makes decisions about the value of life being measured by wealth? To what extent would a stranger reach out to save the life of another person if economics becomes the…… [Read More]

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Critique of Marriage in 19th Century English Literature

Words: 1588 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63719168

Her blooming full-pulsed youth stood there in a moral imprisonment which made itself one with the chill, colorless, narrowed landscape, with the shrunken furniture, the never-read books, and the ghostly stag in a pale fantastic world that seemed to be vanishing from the daylight. (Eliot, XXVIII)

However it is worth noting the implicit paradox expressed here in the notion of a married woman's "oppressive liberty." Dorothea Brooke marries sufficiently well that she is not condemned to a life of constantly cooking and washing underwear for Casaubon -- instead, she finds herself without anything to do, and this "freedom" from labor is actually what is most oppressive here. In some sense, then, Eliot's analysis of the problems of marriage is subsidiary to a larger point about women's social role and even educational status (an issue that obsessed Victorians in works ranging from the serious, in Tennyson's The Princess, to the silly,…… [Read More]

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Fiction and Non-Fiction in 19th Century England Example of the Grotesque

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91505486

All without distinction were branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those, whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually engendered only extravagant and grotesque phantasms, and whose productions were, for the most part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine inspiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the originals themselves. And this for no other reason, but because they were the unlearned, men of humble and obscure occupations. (Coleridge Biographia IX)

To a certain extent, Coleridge's polemical point here is consistent with his early radical politics, and his emergence from the lively intellectual community of London's "dissenting academies" at a time when religious non-conformists (like the Unitarian Coleridge) were not permitted to attend Oxford or Cambridge: he is correct that science and philosophy were more active among "humble and obscure" persons, like Joseph Priestley or Anna Letitia Barbauld, who had emerged from the dissenting academies because barred (by religion or gender)…… [Read More]

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Human Evolution Cultural Variation and

Words: 1335 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60011321

This postmodern view of culture is applicable in the 20th century analyses and discussions introduced by Boyd and Richerson. In effect, the first assumption explicates how culture brings forth history, and in history, "qualitative different trajectories" occur: "...the dynamics of the system must be path dependent; isolated populations or societies must tend to diverge even when they start from the same initial condition and evolve in similar environments" (186).

After establishing the potential, crucial role that culture and generally, history, plays in the human evolution, Boyd and Richerson then explicated on the interdependence of science and culture in the evolutionary process. The authors posited, as mentioned earlier in the introduction, that culture induces the evolutionary process in the same way science does.

According to the authors, evolutionary process is influenced by "cultural analogs," enumerated as random forces, natural selection, and decision-making forces. Random forces are considered "chance transmissions" that may…… [Read More]