Labeling Theory Essays (Examples)

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Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory Psychology

Words: 1475 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81510659

Piaget's Cognitive Development

The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.

Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…… [Read More]

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Country of Sudan Dependency Theory

Words: 3574 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86745026

However, in the case of Sudan, it may be said that none of the above theories applies. This is largely due to the fact that there are specific internal factors which determine the orientation of the economy in a certain direction. These are most of the times related to the historical evolution of the country under discussion.

In the Sudanese case, the end of the war and the independence from the British rule marked the slow evolution of an autonomous economic system. However, the lack of experienced personal and the poor investment plans made these attempts fail. Also, the internal turmoil and conflicting situation between the North and the South aggravated the rift between the two regions of the country. Therefore, a sustainable development plan could not have been set in place because there was no cohesion both at the level of the political authority and the social one. (Country…… [Read More]

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Political Theory

Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37772226

Materialism: What does it mean in Marx?

Marx's writings and philosophies extend through various disciplines of history, economics, political science, literature, philosophy, political economy, sociology and even - arguably - mathematics. There are several common strings throughout his writings, many of which we have explored this semester, but a constant beacon, a constant guideline, is Marx's concept of historical materialism.

In historical materialism, economics is key. Economics has always motivated people through history, and can be isolated as an independent force, separate from the religious or ideological.

For Marx, social necessity is uniform: What differs among men is economic power, ability and desire. One gets what one deserves, and in the ideological or religious, this is not necessarily the case, but in the economic, it certainly is, or at least should be.

In "Historical Materialism and the Economics of Karl Marx" by Benedetto Croce, Croce writes, "Historical materialism is what…… [Read More]

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Rhetorical Theory

Words: 2889 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3958178

Plato: Life, Philosophies, And Influence

Time Period Plato Lived in.

Plato was born in 428 BC and grew up in a time of major political change in Ancient Greece. The Peloponnesian War began a few years after he was born and continued until he was twenty. Plato would have been liable to serve in the military after 407 BC and it is thought that he probably served in the final years of the war (Luce 94).

During the final years of the war, open disloyalty to democracy grew. This led to a period where the group known as the Thirty Tyrants ruled Athens. This group included two of Plato's relatives, Critias and Charmides. While Plato was tied to the group through family, it is believed that he was against their beliefs and actions. These actions included confiscating goods from wealthy citizens and putting many individuals to death (Irwin 85). At…… [Read More]

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Involvement Theory

Words: 2205 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86614787


Consumer Involvement Theory

Consumer involvement theory is the idea that products and services differ in terms of the amount of time and energy that a consumer puts into the purchase decision (McNamara, 2014). There are different levels of involvement, but for marketers it is important to know what level a given product is. For the most part, involvement level reflects the category of product, rather than the individual product itself - there is not much difference between one car and another in terms of involvement, but there is a big difference between the level of involvement between a car and a pack of gum. While involvement is on a continuum, it can roughly be divided between low, medium and high involvement products.

A low involvement product is an impulse purchase, one to which is given very little thought. These are typically products with low differentiation between attributes and low…… [Read More]

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Learning the Social Cognitive Theory

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56874104

Although the teacher is the authority figure and the rules are clearly established, the students are allowed to voice their opinions. This setting creates the best learning environment because the children know their boundaries but are able to participate in the decision-making process. In addition, the teacher can improve instruction by generating feedback about lesson delivery and instructional techniques from his or her students.

Question 3: Assessment

Standardized testing is a major issue in education today. According to Chen (2009), this problem will not be going away any time soon. Under President Bush and the No Child Left Behind act, teachers were required to give their students standardized testing in specific subject areas. Many of Obama's supporters had hoped that he would rescind the act. Instead, President Obama has indicated that state governors must "pledge to improve the quality of standardized tests and raise standards" (Chen 2009).

Some advocates of…… [Read More]

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Obesity Treatment Supply and Demand Economic Theory Application

Words: 757 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71417437

Supply and Demand Economic Theory

Discuss supply and demand economic theory as it applies to costs for diagnosis and treatment of obesity-related disease.

Healthcare services for obesity-related illnesses have a 'demand curve', just like other commercial services and goods; this demand curve slopes downwards. The same demand law that works for entertainment, clothing, automobiles, and other services and goods also applies here; movements along this demand curve take place with respect to consumer responses to price changes in obesity-related care services. It is assumed that healthcare, which includes doctor visits, hospital bills, medication, and other health services, are measurable in healthcare units (Bovbjerg, Dorn, Hadley, Holahan and Miller, 2006).

The method of healthcare financing complicates demand curve analysis for healthcare related to obesity. Nearly 80% of healthcare linked to obesity is funded by third-party financiers, which include government initiatives and private insurance firms (e.g. Medicaid and Medicare). While movements are…… [Read More]

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Sociological Theory the Sociology of Max Weber

Words: 2183 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79594527

Sociological Theory

The sociology of Max Weber (Question No. 1)

Max Weber's sociology involved two important concepts: Protestant ethic and capitalism. Establishing a causal connection between this two concepts, Weber presented in his discourse, "Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," how the Protestant ethic was the catalyst that propelled Western societies towards social progress through capitalism. This causal connection was developed through a string of observations and ideas that helped Weber analyze the course of human history and interaction as it moved from 19th towards the 20th century.

In establishing his thesis, Weber centered his observations by looking into the interaction or social action among people in Western societies. This methodology enabled him to create descriptions, implications, and meanings in determining the origin of capitalism and how it developed. Social action was explicated by Weber as 'action that is social' -- that is, social action that has "subjective meaning…… [Read More]

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Pedagoglical Theory Has Undergone a

Words: 1336 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 41031383

Kids today are overwhelmed!" A parent recently wrote in an email to "My first-grade son was required to research a significant person from history and write a paper of at least two pages about the person, with a bibliography. How can he be expected to do that by himself? He just started to learn to read and write a couple of months ago. Schools are pushing too hard and expecting too much from kids" (Wilde, 2011).

However, the homework paradigm affects more than just the student -- it affects parents, teachers, caregivers, and any secondary programs (sports, music, etc.) that children participate in. Some studies show that students are not, on average, doing significantly more homework now than in the past; while others say that there are far more "things" to learn, more avenues of learning, and with standardized testing, a greater push to complete a curriculum at a…… [Read More]

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Criminal Theory Procedure and Constitutional Protections What

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14146699

Criminal Theory, Procedure, And Constitutional Protections

What is Criminal Law?

Criminal law is the branch of the legal system that pertains to enforcing penal rules, laws, regulation, and codes that define conduct that is deemed by society to warrant punishment and that outlines the appropriate punishment for that conduct (Friedman, 2005).

What Are Ashworth's Five Principles of Criminal Law?

Legality, Responsibility, Minimal Criminalization, Proportionality, Fair Labeling (Schmalleger, 2009).

What is the Presumption of Innocence?

The presumption of innocence comes from one of the foundational principles valued by the Framers of the U.S. Constitution. That doctrine is built from their belief that it is preferable to err on the side of failing to punish criminals rather than the side of accidentally convicting and punishing an innocent person (Edwards, Wattenberg, Lineberry, 2007). It means that the starting point of any criminal proceeding or trial is that the defendant is innocent; it is…… [Read More]

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infection prevention and control theory

Words: 3553 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78860185

ordinal list of the causes of death in the US. It has been reported that the disease causes more havoc in developing countries. During a flu epidemic, up to 20% of Americans are infected by the virus. Of this figure, approximately 36 000 people might die of the infection. It is reported that over 200 000 of those infected are infected in various hospital facilities across the country. Indeed, few viruses have inflicted as much damage and endured as the influenza virus. Respiratory ailments blamed on influenza are documented in records that trace the infection back to Greece and Rome of the ancient world. The word influenza when viewed from its original Greek form: influentia points to the popular belief that the epidemics that people suffered were a result of the influence of stars. Indeed, people including medical experts refer to the infection of influenza as flu, yet most of…… [Read More]

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Relationship Maintenance Theories Have Been

Words: 2123 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71857030


Although not all of Davis' relational maintenance strategies are communication based, many of them are primarily work-it-out and have-it-out but also reintegration ceremonies. Davis did not empirically test his observations.

Braiker and Kelley (1979) were interested in understanding the role that conflict plays in relationship development. Employing a social exchange approach to relational maintenance, Braiker and Kelley conceptually defined maintenance as communication behaviors engaged in by members of the couple to reduce costs and maximize rewards in the relationship. Maintenance behavior was operationally defined using items primarily measuring communication with one's partner about the relationship (also included one item measuring self-disclosure and one item measuring willingness to change behavior). Thus, Braiker and Kelley also focus on metacommunication as a relational maintenance strategy.

Braiker and Kelley (1979) concluded that maintenance strategies change meaning over time, with maintenance behavior serving to increase interdependence and love in the earlier stages of development…… [Read More]

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Impressionism A Theory or Practice

Words: 2724 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32613820

There was anger, bloodshed, hatefulness and anarchy.

All that turmoil turned out to be for naught, however, as the conservatives took control of the government by 1849, leaving a bitter taste in the mouths of those who demanded change. The newly prosperous bourgeoisie (middle class) - along with the poor and the aristocracy - were experiencing "widespread distrust" and paranoia, according to Teach Impressionism. Add to this mix of explosive social conditions the Industrial Revolution, which placed a newfound sense of faith in the individual, and the individual's "unlimited potential." Along came romantic painters who began to get out of their studios and paint the landscape they saw; artists like Corot, Millet, and Rousseau, along with Gustave Courbet, went out and painted what they saw in the community of poverty and despair. These influences had an affect on the impressionists, who were to come later. The beliefs and styles of…… [Read More]

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Nursing Theories Compared

Words: 2303 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97068871

age of Florence Nightingale, and even before that, the nursing profession has undergone significant transformation. Nurses today are, in their own right, important caregivers with respect to patient wellness -- not simply an extension of the attending. One of the most important dynamics in the promotion of nursing in terms of medical consumer care has been the development of favorable theories and educational programs supporting the nurse as an integral part of the patient's wellness program. The true power of nursing is, however, in the recognition of the nurse's contribution to the healthcare system and the knowledge and complex decision-making skills that are necessary to care for patients. The future of professional nursing is filled with a great deal of opportunity and excitement (Ash, 1998).

Knowing that nursing has become a recognizable profession in its own right it is important as well to garner an understanding as to the philosophy…… [Read More]

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Adlerian Theory Literature Review

Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14505519

Adlerian Theory

This report will explore Adlerian counseling psychology theory as it relates to professional student development. The Adlerian viewpoint will be compared and contrasted against the views of Cory, Halbur and Tan, all three of which offered some input on the subject from 2011 to 2013. A conclusive orientation will not be asserted in this report. However, there will be a heavy review of the Adlerian position as compared to the views of the others and the view of the author of this report. While many are skeptical of the Adlerian view that people are interconnected by nature and thus are predisposed to cooperation, the author of this report asserts that there are many other visionaries in science and psychology that have echoed this view and it would seem the Adlerian principles are alive and well when it comes to the development of student professional development.


As a…… [Read More]

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Existential Gestalt and Person-Centered Theories

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15579877

theory make it the most appropriate for the client in the case study?

Among Ana's presenting problems include a general sense of hopelessness, with difficulty sleeping, and overall signs of depression. Gestalt therapy, however, would refrain from labeling Ana in the way that some clinical and psychiatric diagnoses can do (Elliott, 2014). The benefit in Ana's case of using Gestalt therapy would be to address her issues without the need for pathologizing the problems. Gestalt therapy is idea for Ana because her issues must be understood as part of a complex whole: her family situation is tenuous and an obvious cause for her personal pain and suffering. Gestalt theory is a "systems" theory that is particularly ideal for family issues (Zinker, 2013). Ana is understandably concerned about losing her husband, who is currently serving overseas in a combat position. She is faced with serious existential angst related to the potential…… [Read More]

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Josiah Faber Re M8D1 Routine Activity Theory

Words: 970 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: 'Discussion and Results' chapter Paper #: 63423510

Josiah Faber

RE: M8D1 Routine activity theory

I agree that to some extent there will always be some form of crime on an individualized basis. Viewing crime solely as a social problem rooted in poverty seems to ignore the existence of white-collar crimes, which are often perpetuated by individuals who have all of their basic material needs satisfied. However, I do think the concept of crime reduction has some validity regarding some types of crime, such as selling drugs, which can be fostered by a culture of desperation and a culture of criminality. I do not think individualized therapy is necessitated, merely a better social support network for the poor to prevent some types of crimes.


RE: M8D1 Routine activity theory

I agree that routine activity theory does not purport to be a broad, all-encompassing theory. It is merely one tool amongst many for law enforcement officials and…… [Read More]

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Critical Theory and Critical Inquiry

Words: 3387 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87262722

roots in critical theory, which stemmed from the approaches of the Frankfurt school of philosophers in the mid-20th century. The Frankfurt School was led by Theodore Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Erich fromm and other German intellectuals who had emigrated from Germany during the time of the Third Reich. They held what an essentially neo-Marxist point-of-view -- that is, they based their critical analysis of society on the fact that the proletariat had failed to seize power from the elites. Adorno and Horkheimer especially focused on the "culture industry" which they claimed was responsible for the failure of the proletariat in the West to climb out of its class oppression. The "culture industry" promoted the concept that the elites wanted the proletariat to adopt -- namely, that they were comfortable and happy with the way things were. Through technological innovations like television and propaganda-producing systems like Hollywood, the working class was easily…… [Read More]

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Leadership the Basic Theory of

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6101499

In SLII, there is a recognition that leadership is "done with people, not to people." The change in words illustrates this change of philosophy accurately.

In a sense, the two models have slightly different conceptualizations to reflect changes in the audience. Situational leadership was developed by the authors in 1972, when leadership styles were far more autocratic than they are today. Leadership was done to people in those days. Today, leadership is done with people. . The authors have recognized this fundamental shift in the prevailing leadership attitudes and made the appropriate changes to their model to reflect this. However, the terminology used in the original situational leadership model will still appeal to autocratic leaders. The SLII model's terminology will appeal more to modern leaders. As the excessive and clumsy use of the registered trademark symbol throughout their paper indicates, these concepts are products being sold. A shift in wording…… [Read More]

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Parson's Theories

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46774740

Talcott Parson's concept of the sick role involves complicity on the part of both patient and community. The patient, once labeled as "sick," is exempt from the roles and duties expected of a healthy person, enabling a form of socially sanctioned deviance. The deviance is socially sanctioned because the physician, who is in a position of power, authorizes the sick role. Parson's sick role theory is unique because it focuses on the sociology of illness, and includes both structural and functional factors.

Illness deviates from the norm practically by definition, because functional wellness is presumed to be normative. When a person becomes incapacitated in whatever way due to illness or injury, that person's behaviors, level of functioning, and usefulness to society deviate from the norm. Although Parsons evolved his sick role theory in the middle of the 20th century, it remains a potent guiding foundation for medical sociology. Sick role…… [Read More]

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Personality Theories

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21028139

Jet Li-Psychological Personality Analysis

The Image of Jet Li: Development of a Wu-Shu Master

For many years, Asian actors have not been given enough opportunities to break into the entertainment industry in the United States, popularly called the Hollywood. Only few Asian actors have made it big in Hollywood, of which the famed martial arts master Bruce Lee is considered as the first Asian who brought fame in the Asian entertainment industry through his martial arts movies. Jackie Chan, similarly, shares Bruce Lee's glory but in a different genre, where Chan uses martial arts not as a form of physical violence, but a form of art movement. Also, Chan's movies are mostly humorous, illustrating Chan's penchant for a feel-good movie for his audience.

Another name that has emerged as another potential Asian martial arts actor is Jet Li, a wu-shu expert who hailed from Beijing, China. Jet Li is popularly…… [Read More]

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Obama's Election and How Racism Is Affected Theories From a Classical and Modern Sociologist

Words: 3098 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88791019

Obama N. Racism

Obama and Racism

Throughout history, several factors have always helped decide who was entitled to even run for the esteemed office of the President of the United States of America. Military service, a prominent Governorship, family connections, the number of slaves owned and of course having a boat load of money clearly helped. Of course, this list offered no guarantees of making the short list. The nations' power brokers made sure that this post only became available to an elite club. That club had very strict entry criteria and one thing was certain, having a skin color other than white was more than likely not going to ever look good on one's resume. Secret rules of potential presidential club membership were in place for over two hundred years and the majority of the world considered that race was one particular requirement that was never going to be…… [Read More]

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Karl Marx and Freeland Application of Marx Theory in Modern Day

Words: 1164 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58582308

Karl Marx and Freeland

Karl Marx was a radical thinker during his era, speaking of social hierarchies and the class conflict that is associated with social classes. He aimed to understand social classes as it was a reflection of human history. Marx believed that social classes are a product of their times, but an intrinsic part of human history. From the beginning of human history, there existed social hierarchies and within those hierarchies' power dynamics, he defines the pre-modern classes as: freeman and slave, patrician and plebian, lord and serf, and the guild-master and journeyman (Marx, p.15). However, Marx states that the modern era is comprised of two classes: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Today, the distinction between these two classes is more pronounced, an issue which is investigated further by Freeland. Freeland does not utilize the Marx's terminology instead uses the labels "plutocrats" and "non-rich." This paper will argue…… [Read More]

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Sane in a Insane Place

Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32174717

Not only is this, but other members of the staff also had very bad behavior with the patients. The members of the staff were busy in their own issues mist of the time and no special attention and care was given to the patients. As compared with other patients like patients of cancer, tumor etc., psychiatric patients needs more attention and care because mental satisfaction and happiness is very essential for them. However, it seemed as if the psychiatric hospitals were unaware of this fact. The pseudo patients observed that the staff members had a frustrated attitude with them and they felt as if they have no value in the hospitals (Rosenhan, 1973).

A feeling of living in a cave developed in them while living in the hospitals' ward. The pseudo patients reported that rather than being friendly with them, the staff sometimes did unethical activities in front of them.…… [Read More]

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Social Deviance

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21434396


Labelling theory

Bob was labeled as a criminal from a simple act of taking money from the bag of one of the teachers. This act of the school authorities and the parents calling him a criminal and eventually subjecting him to the legal system traumatized him and being among other criminals who might have engaged in bigger crimes than a simple act of delinquency made Bob to think of himself as a criminal. According to the labeling theory, if Bob could be taken away from the criminal system where is bundled together with harder criminals, and he be handled informally, it will make him think of himself as a lesser criminal or even a delinquent and reform. This kind of handling is the best for delinquents since according to the labeling theory, which is a social interaction theory, the personality and the character of an individual is shaped by…… [Read More]

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Deviance Chiricos T Barrick K

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 786893

Women constituted thirteen percent of the personnel. Data collected by officers' mobile data computers between 17 January 2000 and 31 March 2000 were used in the study. Consistent with the conflict theory, the authors tested whether racial and socioeconomic variables increased the likelihood of traffic stops, traffic stops resulting in search, and traffic stops resulting in summons of arrest. Ordinary least squares regression was used as the primary analytic tool to test the hypotheses. The research led to mixed results, challenging and confirming some of the hypotheses of conflict theorists. Traffic police of Richmond, Virginia were more likely to stop suspects in areas of high crime, regardless of race or socioeconomic factors. Traffic stops resulting in search, however, disproportionately targeted Black citizens than Whites. But the arrest summons resulting from traffic stops were lower for Blacks. The authors explain that police officers may not be aware of the citizen's race…… [Read More]

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David Berkowitz Known as Son

Words: 3683 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91413393

She notified police and the parking ticket (because Berkowitz had parked too close to a fire hydrant) was traced to Berkowitz. But the police were just thinking that Berkowitz might be a witness; however, when the Yonkers police searched that Galaxie belonging to Berkowitz, they found a rifle and a .44 caliber Bulldog pistol -- along with detailed maps of the crime scenes that Berkowitz had created with his lust for killing women.

"What took you so long?" Berkowitz is reported to have asked as the officers arrested him. In time during questioning, Berkowitz either played like he was mentally unbalanced -- which he of course was -- or was just rambling because he claimed that the dog he had killed was possessed by some kind of demon, and that the dog was demanding that Berkowitz go and do the killing. Other claims by Berkowitz included that he was a…… [Read More]

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Epistemology and Ontology

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43958043


Epistemology and Ontology

For my part, however, I no longer want to be labeled as a positivist researcher or an interpretive researcher. It is time for us to move beyond labels and to see the underlying unity in what we are trying to achieve via our research methods. The commonalities in my view are compelling and paramount. We ought to celebrate them because they underpin the value of our role as scholars. The differences, on the other hand, are ancillary. We should understand them, but they should not divide us. The challenge for us now is to rethink and develop a new rhetoric so we come to a deeper understanding of the metatheoretical assumptions that underlie our research. (Weber, 2004, X)

Weber's declaration is at the heart of this paper's examination. The paper attempts to gauge the frameworks of three articles in relation to Weber's concerns…… [Read More]

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Craig Price Confessions of a Teenage Serial Killer

Words: 1350 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90771051

Craig Price

The story of Craig Price is tragic, violent and troubling. For these very reasons it is important to investigate this man's life and childhood in order to better understand the effects of juvenile delinquency and how they possibly related to his behavior. The purpose of this paper is to describe and postulate how Craig Price's violent behavior relates to theories of juvenile delinquency and how he developed into a killer and a significant terror and burden to society. I will examine this case by providing background information and then applying three separate general theories of juvenile delinquency including, rational choice theory, social understanding theory and labeling theory. Included in each analysis will be the important factors in each theory that correspond or do not correspond to Price's case.


In September of 1989 three dead bodies were found in Warwick RI. In an investigation into the serial…… [Read More]

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Decentralization and Policing Define Decentralization Explain the

Words: 1483 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83253226

Decentralization and Policing

Define decentralization. Explain the ties between this movement and labeling theory. What is, in your informed opinion, the single most important practice to emerge from the decentralization movement? Why do you think that this is the case? The idea behind this movement is captured by the phrase "less not more"; however, Blomberg and Lucken contend that "not less -- more" was the result. How was this possible?

Decentralization refers to the dispersion of power by the central authority to the existing local and regional authorities. The central authority decides to delegate its functions and power to the authorities. Labeling theory helps in illustrating the reason to why people may engage in defiant behaviors. For instance, an individual associating with thieve might receive the label of being one of the thieves. The individual getting the label may start incorporating the behavior into his daily activities. Blomberg states that…… [Read More]

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Elderly Care Death and Dying

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 58431892

The problem that exists in attempting to better understand elder care abuse from a clinical and social perspective, is that there are not enough studies relative to these contemporary times from which to gain insight in order to benefit a clinical approach to protecting elderly from the abuse, and to identity and intervene with a clinical approach at risk elderly people. Johnson, et al., describe elder abuse as interpersonal violence, that has beginning in the latter part of the twentieth century come to be identified as a violence against an age specific segment of the population (325). It is, Johnson, et al. say, a problem that has drawn focus on the same plane as human rights, gender, equality and population ageing (325). This is a timely focus and concern, because in the next decade there will be an unprecedented number of elderly world-wide, and especially in America, who are the…… [Read More]

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Armed Robbery and Criminal Behavior

Words: 1735 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 77246009

(2009). An Assessment of Scales Measuring Constructs in Tests of Criminological Theory Based on National

Youth Survey Data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46(1), 73-105.

Blatt, Sidney J., & Auerbach, John S. (2000). Psychoanalytic Models of the Mind and their

Contributions to Personality Research. European Journal of Personality, Vol. 14, 429-

Brannigan, Augustine. (1997). Self-Control, social control and evolutionary psychology:

Towards an integrated perspective on crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 403-431.

Heimer, Karen, & Matsueda, Ross L. (1994). Role-Taking, Role Commitment, and

Delinquency: A Theory of Differential Social Control. American Sociological Review,

59(3), 365-373.

Hoffmann, John P., & Miller, Alan S. (1998). A Latent Variable Analysis of General

Strain Theory. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 14(1), 83-105.

Isom, Margaret Delores. (1998). Theorist -- Albert Bandura: The Social Learning Theory.

Retrieved April 16, 2009, from

Klinteberg, Britt AF, Humble, Kristina, & Schalling, Daisy. (1992). Personality and Psychopathy of males…… [Read More]

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Justice of Restoration

Words: 1214 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49023831

Restorative Justice

The purpose of this article was to show that restorative justice is significantly more satisfying as compared to courts for both offenders and victims. This was achieved with a randomized experimental design known as Reintergrative Shaming Experiments RISE. This project is used to compare the effects of standard court processing with those of restorative justice intervention known as conferencing. In the article, the RISE data is used to examine whether conferences are equally beneficial for juvenile victims and adult victims as well (Gal, T & Moyal, 201).

The research method that was used in this article is a stratified randomized experimental design that was used to compare the outcomes of court and conference cases that were held in Canberra, Australia between 1995 and 2000. Shoplifting, drinking, property crimes and violent crimes were assigned within each other randomly to the Restorative Justice Conferences or traditional courts using a computer…… [Read More]

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Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…… [Read More]

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Family Deliquency and Crime Define

Words: 2992 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18765636

In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.

Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.

Question 4.

Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?

In essence,…… [Read More]

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Families Delinquency & Crime Describe

Words: 2165 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 31046334

It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.

7. Reflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?

I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…… [Read More]

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Deviance in Society

Words: 2330 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58956091

Abortion is the process determining the fate of a mother and a child who is not only unwanted but also is deprived of the opportunity to view the way the world is. All issues revolving around abortion have a strong connection with ethics, the "rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession" (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary) or ethics are also defined as "a set of principles of right conduct" as well as "a theory or a system of moral values" (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary). Hence, these carefully formulated rules and policies determine "the actions or reactions of a person in response to external or internal stimuli" thereby energizing behavior of the all human beings and motivating them to act accordingly (American Heritage Dictionary). Abortion, by some is considered the right of a woman or of the parents of the unbidden child, by some…… [Read More]

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Mental Illness the Foremost Question Relating to

Words: 2457 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5796050

Mental Illness

The foremost question relating to mental illness concerns about its very existence - whether mental illness actually exists or not? According to Thomas Szasz, mental illness is a mere myth (Szasz, 1960) and does not exist, as illness can be defined only in terms of physical pathology and most mental disorders have no such demonstrable pathology. In a similar viewpoint, it was argued that biology was not relevant to the disorders of mind and behavior and such disorders could be fully understood from a sociological point-of-view. (Laing, 1960) Another theory is that some forms of mental disorders are the result of social incompetence and can be cured by social skills training. (Tower, Bryant and Argyle, 1978)

However, the medical profession holds the opposite view and is satisfied that mental illness does exist and is usually divided into two major groups - the psychoses and the neuroses. (Roth and…… [Read More]

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Howard Becker's Seminal Work in Sociology

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57962481

Life of Howard Becker and Key Concepts of the Labeling Theory of Deviance

Criminology theory has roots in sociology and psychology, so it is not surprising to learn that Howard Becker, a sociologist, developed social reaction theory or labeling theory. Becker observed that the language used to describe the attributes or groupings of individuals can influence their behavior and impact their self-identity (Miller, et al., 2009). Labeling theory addresses the idea of a self-fulfilling prophecy and the strengthening of stereotypes as a result of the propensity of more privileged classes of people to use pejorative linguistic labels when referring to less privileged classes of people (Miller, et al., 2009).

Becker learned to play the piano at an early age, studying music and playing the piano throughout his life. He was exposed to the deviant cultures of musicians who often used drugs or smoked marijuana. During the years that Becker taught…… [Read More]

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Field Experiment on the Interactive Perspective of Deviance

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66312090

Behavior Experiment

The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.


The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…… [Read More]

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Deviant Behavior Explain the Role of Norms

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69148966

deviant behavior? Explain the role of norms and societal reactions. *According to Stark, what is wrong with defining crime as "actions that violate the law?"

Deviant behavior is any sort of conduct that goes against the norms of a specific community / culture. Norms serve to create and regulate a certain order in society; societal reactions keep these norms in check and modify them when appropriate (when the powerful functionaries of the society so decide).

What is differential association theory? According to the text, what are some aspects of deviance that are not consistent with differential association theory?

This is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland that states that offenders learn attitudes, values, strategies, modes of behavior, and motives for criminal behavior through interaction with peers and others in their community. It does not explain though why some individuals, growing up in a poor and violent-ridden community are resilient to…… [Read More]

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Social Inertia Quotation Analysis This

Words: 354 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99379963

This is also true of defendants labeled as child molesters -- even if not convicted, the label or suspicion is so insidious, it is difficult for juries or even witnesses to apprehend the facts with an unbiased eye ("In the Supreme Court of the United States," 1990, IPT). There is also a psychological reason for labeling theory, suggested by this example of prejudice -- once a first impression is created, it is difficult to forget that first impression, as all subsequent actions are interpreted in relation to that first negative image or label.

Works Cited

O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007.

In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007.

Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007.… [Read More]

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Bastards of the Party and

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50968263

Merton also incorporated Durkheim's observations of the difference between intrinsic motivation for work and economic profit and purely superficial extrinsic motivation for the tangible trappings of success and/or social status. Since post-Industrial Revolution social values tended to focus so much more on acquisition and less on contributing to society through work, individuals experiencing psychosocial strains from the lack of available opportunities for legitimate work often sought to acquire the same outward social status through deviant and criminal means (Schmalleger, 2008).

The documentary traced the evolution of organized neighborhood protection and political rights organizations in vast criminal enterprises after the discovery of the economic profit potential associated with selling illicit narcotics. In Los Angeles, a parasitic relationship developed wherein the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) extracted protection money from the gangs while simultaneously increasing their official budget to upgrade their facilities and equipment on the basis of the increasing firepower and…… [Read More]

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Athlete's Identity

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7724276

Athlete's Identity

Interactionist Theory and the Female Athlete

The social role is the group of expected behaviors that a person in a certain social situation has given to him or her. Role confusion is when an individual has difficulty figuring out what the expected behaviors are in a certain situation. Role strain is when fulfilling the expectations of one social role conflicts with filling those of another social role. Social roles, as well as these two elements of the social role, are important to interactionist theory, which may also be referred to as the social action theory. The concept of the role was adapted from anthropology, and to interactionists it represents the constantly changing and adapting set of expected behaviors which are negotiated between the people in a situation. The interactionist social role is rather meaningless if looking at one individual isolated from others, as it develops only through the…… [Read More]

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Carbon Footprint One of the

Words: 512 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84069682

In modern school cultures, for instance, we often say, "Oh, they're Asian, they must be smart." So, the Asian-American person hears that they "must be smart, must overachieve, must get good grades." They then come to believe that this is far more than what society expects of them, but instead, what they are supposed to be as a person. So, they become that person, they apply themselves a bit more, study a bit more, and soon the prophecy seen from the outside world is internalized and factual.

Of course, this idea may be pejorative as well -- homosexuality being labeled as deviant, "you fag, you queer;" mental illness as "looney, nutty, off their rocker;" and so many negative ethic terms one's head would spin: "kike, spick, nigger, cholo, slant eye, towel head, beaner, etc."

We must then ask, why do we label? Perhaps it is the human tendency to box…… [Read More]

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Legal Response to Drugs

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9481766


Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more…… [Read More]

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Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal

Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452

Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Law Enforcement Some Things Are

Words: 1827 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3428902

Criminal Justice

Law enforcement

Some things are fundamental to the history and progressive development of human society. The evolution of technology brings with it new challenges in the management of the security of the state. For this motive that law enforcement systems is set in the society to maintain and promote law and order (Law enforcement, 2002). Law enforcement systems act in organized manner, in the process of promoting adherence to the law of the country and identifying those who violate the laws and norms that govern the society. Law enforcement engages in the patrols and surveillance in dissuading and discovering criminal activities, investigating and apprehending the offenders. Law enforcement agencies and systems work in conjunction with judiciary services and correctional facilities, following the constitution of the land.

Parts of the Constitution of the United States most relevant to the ethical standards of law enforcement professionals

The United States law…… [Read More]

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Deviance in Society the Sociology

Words: 2786 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25523926

For example, the young woman knows it is wrong because her friends have spoken to her in the past about how awful stealing is. They have seen her steal before and told her that she is wrong. Among her friends, she is known as a thief. Deviance here has less to do with self-determination than the judgment of others. It is this external judgment of the audience that acts as the social control, if it works, and social reaction makes someone a deviant outsider. Becker (1963) says, "Social groups create deviance by making rules whose infractions constitute deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders" (1963, p. 9). Wanting not to be stigmatized as an outsider creates the social control that keeps people conformist. In this view, the woman would choose not to steal if she were concerned about avoiding stigmatization. In our example,…… [Read More]

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Treating Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Justice Delinquency Treatment

Words: 2908 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7511071

Treating Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile Justice

Delinquency treatment program:

Peer mentoring program for African-American male juveniles

A brief description of your community

African-American males are disproportionately represented in the incarcerated juvenile population, relative to their percentage of the general population. The reasons for this have been hotly debated amongst criminal justice professionals and laypersons. Possible reasons include racism within the police and justice systems, the ways laws are written, and also a lack of vocational opportunities. According to one study conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice in New Jersey, while 10% of white juveniles were adjudicated and sentenced for their first-degree offenses, more than 31% of African-American juveniles received sentences for the same crimes; white juvenile offenders were similarly found to receive lesser sentences than African-Americans in the state of Florida (Drakeford & Garfinkle 2000). Dealing with the unique problems of African-Americans within juvenile detention centers is clearly an essential…… [Read More]

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Sociology of Deviance

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16507393


Quite often in our day-to-day lives we hear the word "deviance," but never truly know the concepts behind it. It is not a complicated term although it is one with many theories behind it giving a vast variety of interpretations of just what deviance is and is not. Questions arise as to its relativity. Of course, no one can proclaim deviance is not relative, as deviance is behavior that does not follow common perceptions. An important sociological concept states that people conform, or perform to societal expectation or norms (Brown, 1965). Conformity provides order in the society. Thus, when someone is doing something that the rest of society find unacceptable, or out of the ordinary, he or she is considered deviant.

One sociologist, Erdwin Pfuhl, believes that the label "deviant" depends on a group's notion of actions and conditions that should and should not occur. This view also suggests…… [Read More]

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Sociological Perspectives on Social Problems

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61979728


Social reaction manifests the behavior of an individual, how he reacts with the situation and how he will behave with it. The first reaction is acceptable as long as it is light and tolerable but if you do harm to someone that is not acceptable it is a behavior that is unbearable and punishment should follow to the deviant individual. There are two deviance based on Becker that can be found on the online source,

Primary deviance is the first "step," and this primary act may be either intentional or unintentional (Becker 1963). The second "step" on the way to secondary deviance and a career in crime involves the acceptance of the deviant label (Becker 1963). Becker (1963) describes how certain rule-breakers come to accept the label of "deviant" as their master status.

It is said that there are two steps in deviant behavior, first is the instinct…… [Read More]

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Edward Scissorhands and Its Association With Deviance

Words: 1114 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68892123

Edward Scissorhands

Scissorhands is a cross-generic, film mixing elements of teen romance, fairy tale and gothic horror into a modern story concerning the need to at look past external appearances. According to Burton (2000), it is a movie made as an opposition to the manner society judges and groups individuals in alignment with preformed ideas concerning normative outlook (p. 87). The film is meant to denote a "freakish" disabled character; in a classic fairy tale design, his external bizarre disability becomes a symbol of internal emotional insufficiency (Church 2006).

The town in 'Edward Scissorhands' is quite colorful and united. Even though this town is united, there is one house that is odd; it is gloomy and creepy and Edward lives there. No one knew of his existence. One day, a certain woman made up her mind to take Edward home and mingle him with the rest of the neighborhood. Edward…… [Read More]

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Tackling Drug Abuse

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22657399

Inhalants refer to the ordinary household products that are sniffed or inhaled by individuals so as to get high. There are many household products that are misused as inhalants. Some of these products include gasoline, hair spray, fabric protector, air conditioner fluid, nail polish remover, and correction fluid, propellants in aerosol, cleaning fluids and cooking spray. These products are mainly bagged, sniffed, snorted so as one to get high. They can be sniffed directly from the containers. In most cases when an individual is under the influence of such inhalants one is likely to engage in anti-social or criminal behavior (Ksir, 2002). This report endeavors to explain the theoretical and empirical literature regarding theories of drug information and addiction.

The intoxicating inhalants that have volatile vapors are ingested through the trachea and nose. However, some inhalants are used for medical reasons as in the case of nitrous oxide. The inhalation…… [Read More]

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Consensus and Conflict Models

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95026946

consensus vs. The conflict model

Consensus and Conflict Models

Compare and contrast the consensus model and the conflict model:

And how do both fall short?

The 'conflict'-based model of criminal justice theory views all of human society as inherently gripped by conflict, with a specific emphasis on class-based conflict. Marxism is the economic theory primarily associated with the conflict theory. Marxists take a broad, sweeping view of all of human global history as an eternal, polarized struggle between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world. The haves, which in modern, industrialized society are the bourgeois property-owners, try to hold onto their power by manipulating all existing political and economic structures to disenfranchise the have-nots.

Naturally, the have-nots of the world occasionally chafe against this control. But, they often do so ineffectually, through petty crimes and unorganized and organized criminal activities. Crime can actually act as a kind of 'safety'…… [Read More]

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Causes Crime & Process Change Choose Country

Words: 3639 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52403436

Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).

There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. With the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the World Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of…… [Read More]

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Child Observation Deviant Behavior

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83687034

Child Observation (Deviant Behavior)

Labeling Theory and Deviant Behavior

In his book "Studies in the Sociology of Deviance," Howard Becker takes an unconventional approach to the concept of social deviance. Becker discusses the labeling theory in detail, giving examples of people whose behavior is deviant simply because it is labeled as deviant, such as marijuana users that are only deviant because of the label given to them. Becker discusses that once the "deviant" is so labeled, it will affect that person and to some degree he or she will accept this label, and the original behavior will be amplified. An observation of children at a day care center between the ages of four and five years old reveals an occurrence of labeling theory affecting social deviance.

The day care facility observed had twelve children under the supervision of two adults. The location of the facility was in an average middle-class…… [Read More]

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Crime the Importance and Significance

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3336847

The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.

These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…… [Read More]

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Education and Crime

Words: 872 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 95612855


Measurement of Crime and Crime Theories

Crime is perhaps one of the most widespread problems in society today. It can take any form, and range in violence, which is what, perhaps, adds to the danger aspect. However, crime not only affects the victim, but also the perpetrator. In order to truly understand how one views crime, one must not only understand how crime is seen by society, but also how it impacts and how it is impacted by the perpetrators and those mixed within it. This paper will thus analyze research that has assessed the effects of crime and especially of juvenile involvement in the justice system during high school education, and the outcomes of this involvement, in order to see how crime can affect a population, how it can be measured, and what theories can be drawn from the research about crime and criminal activities.

According to the…… [Read More]

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Slavery by Another Name

Words: 1858 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1621686


The emancipation of slaves did not lead to the dismantling of the underlying structures of slavery. Its most formidable social, economic, and political institutions persisted in spite of federal legislation following the end of the Civil War. Limp federal legislation enabled the racist social and political climate in the American South to fester, depriving all Americans of the opportunity to experience a "more perfect union." The PBS documentary Slavery by Another Name examines the perpetuation of slavery under the guise of the peonage system. The peonage system represents one of the great failures of Reconstruction. PBS bases its Slavery by Another Name documentary on the Pulitzer Prize-winning book by the same name. The documentary adds a visual dimension to the harrowing imagery Douglas A. Blackmon writes about in his book. Slavery by Another Name raises some difficult, important, and often embarrassing questions about the failure of the United States…… [Read More]