Land Essays (Examples)

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Urban Encroachment on Agriculture in

Words: 3812 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56243840

In 2005, the average population density was 89 persons per square mile, and the majority of the population is located in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, and the Central Valley (MSN Encarta, 2006). The sections below examine the geographical patterns of California in relation to the issue of urban encroachment.

Literature Review

Many researchers have studies the historical patterns of agriculture in California and have determined that it's loss is quickly approaching. These researchers have studied the decline of agriculture as a result of urban encroachment. Researchers have defined urban "encroachment" as consisting of related growth, noise, and environmental issues. Research by Grunwald (1993), involved an analysis of the probable pattern of urbanization in California as indicated by the study of current trends. This study concluded that if existing trends continued, the increase of urban and metropolitan growth along Highway 99 in California would eliminate any sense of…… [Read More]

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Illegal Immigrants in the U S

Words: 2196 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39582268

So who is an American and what an America can or cannot do are questions which are critical to the issue of legalizing immigrants. Does being an American mean you cannot show allegiance to any other country? The images of people raising and waving Mexican flag had enraged many but it need not have. It should be accepted that people who come from different countries would forever hold in their hearts a deep respect and love for their homeland. However to put the interests of home country ahead of your adopted country or to work in a way that benefits the home country but not the new country would definitely cause serious concern. It would be definitely foolish to direct or guide the behavior of illegal immigrants regarding countries and allegiance, but they should be expected to not work against the interests of their adopted land. That is fair and…… [Read More]

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American Slavery After the Civil

Words: 2408 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16675642

"I was made to drink the
bitterest dregs of slavery," wrote Frederick Douglas as he describes the
horrors in which he had to work in slavery. "We were worked in all
weathers... work, work, work, the longest days were too short for him, and
the shortest nights too long for him" (Bayliss 57), helping to show what
was expected of the slaves. Slaves had to work under horrid conditions as
much as possible, and they could not expect these conditions to change if
working for their former masters. The former slaves are acutely aware of
such risks as they write, "The man who tied me to a tree & gave me 39
lashes" is the man who they will now work for, and that there will be no
change. The oppressor, the elite white, will still be oppressing the poor
black. "In a Condition of Helplessness," the freed slaves will…… [Read More]

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American West and Brazil the

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61778658

The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.

The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.

The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…… [Read More]

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Historic Preservation Is a Significant

Words: 3395 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39199289

Although the program is still relatively small it has developed into a well respected method of preserving important American landmarks. The program works at the federal, state and local level to guarantee the protection and preservation of these designated sites. Now that we have a greater understanding of Historic preservation and landmarks, let us discuss the constitutional issues that arise as a result of historic preservation.

Constitutionality of Historic Preservation

Although the federal government has established laws that provide guidelines to states as it relates to the preservation of historic sites, there have still been some challenges to such preservation as it relates to the constitutionality of the laws. According to Ross (2005) the constitutionality of historic preservation ordinances can be challenged under the First Amendment when a plaintiff asserts that a governmental endeavor infringed upon Free Exercise rights or debased the Establishment Clause.

An article found in William and…… [Read More]

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Agriculture in Italy Agriculture Products

Words: 2136 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15362955

But despite its registered success in the United States, the countries in the European Union, mostly Italy, France or Greece, but also others, have become affirmed as strong discailmers of GM. They mostly reacted in such a manner due to their ongoing battle against fast food, originating primarily from the U.S. And leading to unfavourable outcomes for the individual's health. Italy has even subscribed to the Slow Food Movement, promoting the natural growth process, or the cultivation of organic foods, without genetic modifications or the excessive usage of chemical fertilizers. The Italian consumers and producers have become increasingly hostile towards the GM products and some of them have even been banned in Italy and some other European countries, such as Luxembourg or Sweden. However in the beginnings of biotechnology, Italy received the GM products, they now refuse them. Foremost, they implemented a clear set of regulations, including detailed labelling, without…… [Read More]

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Natural Gas Drilling a Retrospect

Words: 3795 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6366641

7. Wells on Indian Reservations

Wells to drilling natural gas are often found on Indian reservations as the respective lands are rich in resources. Historically, debates have emerged based on the undervaluation of the gas extracted, which led to the inhabitants of the region being only limitedly remunerated for the usage of the land and the extraction of the natural gas. The matter has been addressed throughout the years (judiciary trials have even been filed) and the situation is more balanced in the present. Consequently, today, several Indian reservations base much of their economic development on operations of natural gas extraction. The most relevant example in this sense is given by the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, which generates income from leasing lands for gas extraction.

The large majority of the drilling operations were centered in the western part of the reservation, but an agreement signed in January 2009 allows the new…… [Read More]

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Conservation Preservation Conservation and Preservation

Words: 1517 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29195810

And given the highly loaded political implications of attempting to maneuver policy actions, it is unsurprising that these two camps had at one time become so aggressively aligned against one another. However, we are reaching a point of critical mass where the environmental movement is concerned, with the economic and environmental practicalities of sustainability inclining a more pragmatic understanding of the need to simultaneously find more effective ways limit commercial land use and to better manage those lands which are deemed acceptable for commercial use.

In this way, it becomes clear that the once divergent ideals of conservation and preservation are today more rightly understood as compatible out of necessity. The environmental movement has gained considerably in influence and importance, but it remains vulnerable to the slants and sabotage of short-sighted industry. Thus, it is a movement which can ill afford any ideological division, particularly where the ultimate goals remain…… [Read More]

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The Culture of the Eastern Band Cherokee

Words: 3152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79674094


The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…… [Read More]

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Water People Analyzes the Situation in Which

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43449160

Water People analyzes the situation in which, traditional land-based humans are to live with a new specie called the water people. The paper covers the topic through the author's perspective and outlines the consequences of creating discrimination among land-based humans and water people. This paper also covers the topic through various scenarios and emphasizes on the fact that no matter what, humans should always take the responsibility of their actions.

Water People

The specie of Water People, created during the year 2010, might be new for human beings inhabiting planet Earth but the case of distinction created between two different species or race on the basis of different creed is very old and stretches as far as the beginning of time. It has always been a norm for humans belonging to one class/race to reject humans from another class/race. If history is carefully searched than one can easily determine that…… [Read More]

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Australian Social History

Words: 2540 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43763601

Aboriginal Activism in Australia

The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the centuries of new exploration; the scientific discoveries had allowed Europeans to build better ships and navigation system and to explore the new worlds. The French, British and Spanish explorers were more successful in these endeavors. They not only found new lands but were able to exploit the small local population of Natives to control the land. North America is perhaps the most significant example of this. The British first went as explorers, then traders and in the end easily managed to control the lands, building their own colonies. It was the advanced technology of the Europeans that played a significant part in their control of the "New Worlds."

Australia in this respect is no exception. It is said that the Aboriginals came to this part of the earth some 50,000 years ago and they came from the neighboring islands…… [Read More]

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Shape and to Create Our Modern World

Words: 1799 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35724750

shape and to create our modern world?

The modern world was shaped by a range of events and powerful people. One of the first most influential people was Clovis. Clovis was the founder of the Merovingian dynasty of Frankish kings, and one who defeated the Roman rule in Gaul along with defeating a range of Germanic people, creating the kingdom that is known as France nowadays. Most notably, it was this ruler's conversion to Christianity which had a profound impact on the nation for years to come. Charles Martel might not be as famous as other rulers, but he had a significant impact on the development of the modern world in that he was able to stop the advance of the Moors into his land. Charles the Great is remembered more profoundly throughout time in that he was the leader of numerous holy wars against a variety of non-Christian groups.…… [Read More]

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U S Supreme Court Kelo v New London

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11308488

U.S. Supreme Court: Kelo v. New London (2005)

Supreme Court case Kelo v. City of New London involved the issue of eminent domain which is granted to governmental bodies including federal, state and local governmental bodies by the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which means that the government is authorized to take land that is privately owned if the land is to be used by the public and the owner is paid a fair price for the land or what is referred to as 'just compensation'. Prior to Kelo v. City of New London the power of eminent domain was typically exercised by cities for acquisition of facilities that were clearly intended for public use such as schools, bridges or freeways. The case of Kelo v. City of New London however, involved what was a "new trend among cities to use eminent domain to acquire land for the redevelopment…… [Read More]

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Creation Account Is Focused on

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19590325

(Radhakrishnan, 1953)

The Indian deity also preoccupied himself with creating most famously the Ganges.

The Chinese tale too has symbols of China (specifically the turtle) ("She used the molten rock to patch the holes in the sky, and she used the four legs of a giant turtle to support the sky again" (Walls & Walls, 1984) Aside from which, note that all names of gods are typically Chinese.

The acts of the Creation generated an entire world with a host of nations and geographical environments. Each of the narrative accounts however focus on a sliver of land, usually the land lived in by the author / authors of the narrative.

The author's purpose in centering in and focusing the tale around one specific country may simply reflect the fact that for primitive people born, living, and dying on one specific part of earth, this was all they knew. For people…… [Read More]

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My Antonia Trifles and a Raisin in the Sun

Words: 3032 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11850593

Antonia: Introduction etc.

The landscape of the agrarian lifestyle in Nebraska is such that Mr. Shimerda is the least suited for this type of life. He has the soul of an artist and so longs for a more refined world in which to express himself. He is a man who needs to live among people with ideas who express those concepts in conversation, which is not the world he finds in Nebraska. Indeed, he is like a man sent to this part of the world as a punishment. He admits that at times life on the farm has made him "crazy with lonesomeness" (367). He is refined in a world that does not recognize that refinement as anything but a weakness. This sense of being out of place contributes to his death.

The relationship between Antonia and Jim in the section "The Shimerdas" is an antagonistic on her part because…… [Read More]

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Businesses the Delivery of Cargo or Freight

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41634062

businesses, the delivery of cargo or freight is often determined by the lowest cost provider. The provider who can offer the best value at the lowest prices garners the most business. The same is true regarding government contracts and freight orders. In the case of Sea-Land Service, Inc., they were in competition with both international and domestic shipping firms. What complicated this issue, Sea-Land contends, was the ambiguous and discriminatory nature of the business dealings surrounding potential delivery (1). Additionally Sea-Land disputes the methods of determining a "fair" and "reasonable" price.

To begin, Sea Land Service Inc. is a shipping and containerization company. It was established in 1960 and now exists as Horizon Lines Inc. As a publicly traded company. Sea-Land has a long and storied history which includes shipping numerous containers' in the Vietnam War, to various contracts with the U.S. government. One such potential contract was with the…… [Read More]

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Sustainable Development Is the Process

Words: 4234 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21930188

Interior and Commerce Department agencies are to determine which species should be listed; individuals may petition the agencies to have species designated. The Fish and Wildlife Service, in the Interior Department, deals with land species; the National Marine Fisheries Service, located in the Commerce department, has jurisdiction over marine species. Any 'interested person' may petition the Interior Secretary to list a species as either endangered or threatened. The 1978 amendments to the ESA created a Cabinet-level committee to resolve conflicts between species protection and federal projects -- labeled the 'God Squad' or the 'Extinction Committee'.

The committee can authorize projects to proceed even if they jeopardize the continued existence of a species if five of seven members decide that protection interferes with 'human' needs. The specific criteria to be used in exempting actions from the act include: (1) there are no reasonable or prudent alternatives to the agency action; (2)…… [Read More]

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Yak Milk Niche or Nightmare

Words: 1534 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43048470

As Yogurt and ice cream as a product category are pure milk-based products, the richness and superior quality of Yak milk will definitely make a highly successful brand. Product proliferation and also its extension into rural markets through repeated does of reminder ads will also help in cornering greater market share as a whole. On the other hand, shopping malls, city kiosks and supermarkets could be the point of sales in the urban markets where it could serve as good impulse purchase. Since the product i.e. ice cream and yogurt is in the initial stages of product life cycle, a good headway could be to launch a competition among the customers for generating brand awareness. The competition could highlight on the unique attributes of the product to be given by the consumers and also the consumers will be asked to give a slogan for the product that can be used…… [Read More]

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Local City

Words: 2095 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24211276

location will lend knowledge to the present and the future. As a citizen of any region understanding the how and why of historical reflections upon the landscape of a city or town is crucial for a holistic view of the culture, economy and even of that town landscape. Without this knowledge decisions made by an individual can seem to lack in depth and purpose. The history of California, it's place within the union of the United States and also it's pre-union history is not only fascinating but it is also poignant when used to reflect upon current circumstances, be they positive or perceptually negative.

One city's history lends particular interest to this theory in all aspects of culture, economy, and landscape. The city of Downey California has a substantial pre-1900 history and is also home to three firsts, which have become international symbols of American culture and ingenuity. "We are…… [Read More]

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Pre-Negotiation Memorandum

Words: 2123 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86286981

Prenegotiation Memorandum (pm)

Negotiation Team

Re: Tamarack, MN and Twin Lakes Mining Company

Position Structure

Twin Lakes Mining Company

The Twin Lakes Mining Company (hereafter known as 'company') makes significant contribution to Tamarack, Minnesota - employing 21% of the residents, providing 33% of the total real estate tax base - and is considered an integral entity to the town's longevity. The city needs Twin Lakes to maintain the current standard of living the residents enjoy.

The City of Tamarack

The city operates on a zero deficit per annum decree. Twin Lakes Mining Company has directly caused some of the need for improvements concerning water quality, air quality, and effluvia and pollution management. The city also relies upon the heavy property taxation to provide economic, culture, and recreation services to the community. Twin Lakes Mining Company does not need the City of Tamarack (hereafter known as 'city') to continue operations in…… [Read More]

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First Contact of America and European Creation Myths vs Those of the Native Americans

Words: 2111 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55323269


New Lands? Old Ideas

The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries were the great age of European exploration in the New World. Spain concerned itself with South America and the Caribbean, while countries such as France and England turned northward to the great, unknown vastness of the North American continent. Men such as Verrazzano, Hariot, and Champlain arrived to explore and to record their experiences of this mysterious land. Strange new plants and animals, curious native customs, and assessments of natural resources all appear in the pages of their respective accounts. Yet their visions of this New World were colored by the expectations of the old. European dreams of hidden riches, and Spanish discoveries of gold and silver enliven their observations. These earliest of descriptions of North America are as much commentaries on contemporary European society and its aspirations, as they are catalogs of new things and new places.

The earliest…… [Read More]

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Offshore Wind Energy

Words: 5974 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: 'Introduction' chapter Paper #: 85587999

Offshore Wind Energy

Wind Energy

(Facts and Features, Usage, Future Prospects, Strengths and Weaknesses, Recommendations)

It is an undeniable fact that human activity needs energy as a basic requirement. Energy input is a fundamental need for transportation, water and food provision and mobility services. In the contemporary energy system, non-renewable fossil fuels are the principal resources that satisfy the global energy needs. They are preferred due to their dependability and low-cost. On the contrary, wind energy, hydroelectric power and biomass are also used as energy resources all over the world, especially in developing countries (Edinger & Kaul, 2003, p. 43).

The exchange of goods and energy has become an imperative process as globalization has been pursued trendily. This trade guarantees efficient production and advantageous exploitation of proportional costs. On the other hand, the need for energy in the developing countries is increased continuously as they put efforts to strengthen their…… [Read More]

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Palestine How Would You Feel if Someone

Words: 2393 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89135980


How would you feel if someone came in your home, took over and kicked you out? Surely, no one would like that feeling. Worse than that, that certain someone found it morally acceptable to be doing such an act and everyone was supporting him. The aforementioned scenario is the simplest version of the state that Palestinians are in today. Their situation is present on a larger and much more gruesome and violent scale. The best solution to this conflict is that justice should be done with Palestine. The history, current problems and possible solution will be discussed below.

The British empire the controlled Palestine in the years from 1918 to 1947. They had worked to seize Palestine from the Turks subsequent to which they were ruling the area. At time, the Arab population significantly over numbered the Jews which clearly indicated that the Palestine land belonged to Arab Muslims.…… [Read More]

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Social Significance of 1763 in America an

Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88961375

Social Significance of 1763 in America

An Inevitable First American Revolution

In 1763, France and Spain ceded much of eastern North America to the British as part of the peace deal that took place in Paris on February 10 (Galloway 8). This brought to an end the Seven Years War, otherwise known as the French and Indian War. The amount of land that Britain won with its victory was massive, extending east from the Mississippi River, north to the Hudson Bay, and south to Florida. Concessions were also made in an effort to appease France and Spain. The British monarchy returned Havana, Cuba to Spain, a critical way point for ships entering and leaving the Gulf of Mexico and ports south. France retained the northern most sections of Canada around Hudson Bay and several Caribbean Islands, including the sugar-producing economic dynamo Guadalupe.

On the surface, it seemed that all three…… [Read More]

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Knights Templar

Words: 1374 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55485032

Knights Templar

Who were the Knights of Templar? They were the earliest founders and followers of military orders, and protectors of pilgrims, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia. But they were much more than that, as this paper will point out. They began as very humble warriors, they continued with surprisingly strong growth period but their ending was tragic. This paper reviews the origins, the purposes, the actions and the endings that are attributed to the Knights of Templar.

The Knights of Templar was a Christian organization that was founded during the First Crusade, originally asked to provide military protection for pilgrims that were traveling to visit the Holy land following the conquering of the Holy Land by the Crusades. Most importantly in terms of the Crusades' goals, the holy city of Jerusalem had been taken back from Islam, but the Knights of Templar had a duty to protect believers who…… [Read More]

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Cecilia Penifader Medieval Life Cecilia Penifader the

Words: 1515 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58158303

Cecilia Penifader

Medieval Life: Cecilia Penifader

The extent gender and class played in Cecilia's life experiences

Looking at the life of other peasants, Cecilia was from a wealthy family. They had a large house constructed from twigs, moss and mud covering approximately 150 sq. Cecilia came from a one-roomed family house, with a fireplace at the center for cooking and warmth. Cecilia spent much of her life as a child in the garden surrounding their house, where she played and helped with caring for her younger sibling (Agnes), cooking, and gardening. Cecilia's home was surrounded with a diverse and large community. Cecilia came from a village whereby people lived close to one another and sometimes shared a wall. Most trade and businesses took place in the villages while critical economic activities occurred in the countryside. The economy of this village looks upon arable fields and pastures, arable fields comprise of…… [Read More]

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Global Systems Vitousek Et Al Issues Vitousek

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24510885

Global Systems

Vitousek, et al. Issues

Vitousek says the major sources of land transformation are pastureland, agriculture, and urban industrial activity. Agriculture (fisheries, artificial environments, row-crops) are high on the list of land transformation, urban industrial activity medium, and pure pastureland low, depending on human involvement.

Humans alter the oceans in many ways, although some are not easy to quantify. Population centers are concentrated near coastal areas and coastal wetlands are also altered. Fishing alters the ecology of the oceans by focusing on the top predators and throwing the system out of balance. Pollutants and other man-made activities cause algal blooms that are toxic to the ecology of the oceans as well. It is the relationship between the different parts of the food chain that are most effected by human involvement.

Part 3 -- The earth can be viewed as a system concept, with the forests the lungs, the waters…… [Read More]

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Civilization Historical Analysis the Daring Voyages Made

Words: 1535 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1990947

Civilization Historical Analysis

The daring voyages made by explorers from Spain and Portuguese resulted in exploration and discovery of new lands as well as new routes between various regions. It was by these endeavors that Aristotle's 350 BC idea of a round Earth was validated and the world witnessed tremendous progress and development in trade. Europe saw much more development in this era relating to new techniques in navigation, ship building and metallurgy.

Initially the reason for these voyages was the need to discover an alternate route to Asia, known as Indies back then. The land route was blocked and made dangerous to travel on by ruling Muslims hence the alternate sea route was around Africa or set sail towards the west in a hope to reach Indies by going around the globe. It was Christopher Columbus who sailed west looking for an alternate route but he landed in Americas…… [Read More]

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Business Growth in Export Trading

Words: 1701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39209693

In certain situations the landed cost can also include customs duties, and other taxes that apply to the shipment in case.

Shipping and insurance -- 7.5% of the product's cost.

Packaging -- 5% of the product's cost.

Profits -- 20% of the product's cost.

Organic bread landed cost - $15+7.5%+5%+20% = $19.2

Organic fruits landed cost - $17 +7.5%+5%+20% = $21.76

Organic vegetables landed cost - $16 +7.5%+5%+20% = $20.48

Organic desserts landed cost - $32 +7.5%+5%+20% = $40.96

Organic cheese landed cost - $45 +7.5%+5%+20% = $57.6

Organic wine landed cost - $46 +7.5%+5%+20% = $58.88

The landed cost is established in accordance with the profits requirements of the company. The company must also identify the profits that distributors in Germany are interested in. This is intended to help Naturally Green develop a pricing strategy that can satisfy the company, its distributors, and its customers. It is important to…… [Read More]

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Law and the Legal Systems

Words: 804 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29918446

11. The issued rose in this case is unauthorized use of a company vehicle, which resulted in an accident. Prater was told to bring the truck home over the weekend to work on the body only. His boss never gave him permission to use the truck for any other purpose. Besides, the insurance on the truck would probably only pay for the accident if it occurred on company time. Prater could be charged for stealing the truck and unauthorized use. The ruling in this case should be for the plaintiff. Prater should have to pay for the accident and repairs to the truck.

Week 8

5. In this case, the city is still the rightful owner of the piece of restored artwork. It does not matter how long Hoeltzer had the artwork, it is still the property of the city. Therefore, the city has legal title to the artwork unless…… [Read More]

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Japanese Colonization of Taiwan Over

Words: 7015 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93101329

Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (

In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at ( Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at ( events also assisted in the creation…… [Read More]

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Geography of Mice and Men

Words: 1043 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51736887

Of Mice and Men ends much the same way it began: with rich, lyrical descriptions of the local geography and landscape. Salinas means "salt marsh" in Spanish. Marshy waters make up much of what Steinbeck describes in the novel. At the end of the book, Lennie and George meet at a watering hole, their secret spot. Here, Lennie sees a heron, a grand, green water bird. Hungry, the heron tries to capture some water snakes slithering around its feet. Although marshy, the surrounding areas are also heavily wooded; the lynch mob arrives through the woods nearby. Moreover, Steinbeck notes that the landscape is rather hilly.

Undoubtedly Weed was far more mountainous than Salinas, however. While Lenny and George do not describe Weed in any detail, it is clear they worked there for a while. In fact, a similar situation occurred in Weed as in Salinas: Lennie got in trouble for…… [Read More]

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Texas History

Words: 3692 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43630442

German Influences on Texas Culture

If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.

Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…… [Read More]

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Morality Then and Now the

Words: 7400 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97224467

This is the perfect way to end this poem. The ending is in fact effective and consistent. The entire time, the duke speaks about how it was to have his wife besides him and how much he did not agree with her behavior. He then makes an insinuation that it was him in fact that had her killed. The ending leaves the reader in a sort of shock. The lines, "...Notice Neptune, though, / Taming a seahorse, thought a rarity, / Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me!" are so effective in clarifying that the Duchess did not die of natural causes and it was in fact the Duke that wanted her to act in a certain way, and he did: by having her killed. And the only thing left of her is the portrait, which he praises for capturing her, after he managed to "tame" her.

2.…… [Read More]

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U S Sugar Deal Purchase for

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 68291345

What would make you decide to put an end to th e project/

What are you solutions for dealing with the problem?

Part of the problem of cost and procrastination is the continuous spate of law suits. What can be done, if anything, to resolve conflicts between the opposing parties and to make opposing parties more amenable to th Sugar deal?

Further resources

Learn & Teach About the Everglades

Everglades Foundation

Florida's Water

Water's journey Everglades


Burnham, Michael. (2010). Energy and Environment News. Energy by the Acre.

Caperton Morton, Mary. (May 20, 2010). Land Deal Likely to Improve Everglades, Ecologists Say. Inside Science News Service.

Freechild, a. (2010).Sugar Barons and Stakeholders:the Impact of the U.S. Sugar Deal on Everglades Restoration

Eye on Miami Blog. (2010) Kendrick Meek's sweet tooth could doom his political campaign for U.S. Senate.

National Research Council of the…… [Read More]

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Agriculture and New Technologies Agriculture and New

Words: 2866 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71639559

Agriculture and New Technologies

Agriculture and New Technology

Agricultural techniques and technologies have changed vastly over the last several decades contributing to significant improvements in productivity. Today, farming has become a knowledge intensive practice with more than 90% of the farmers across the world using scientific farming methods to minimize their cost and improve their yield. . The cost savings effected in terms of efficient use of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides under precision farming are providing great profits for farmers who invest in such scientific methods. Genetic engineering and the emergence of GM farming have drastically improved crop yields across the world. There is no question of doubt that technology has had a significant positive impact on agriculture. Precision farming, no till farming, integrated farming and GM farming have all contributed to this positive impact.


Global agricultural production has increased significantly over the last 50 years. The economic growth…… [Read More]

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Polaroid R I the Story of

Words: 332 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58764912

Because of this perceived value, Land was also able to capture a large amount of value in terms of profits.

After the 1970s, however, technology exploded with ever more powerful computers and eventually digital photography. Digital cameras and later cell phones that incorporated digital technology diminished the perceived, created value of the Polaroid. Hence capturing value from this product also diminished. The limited success of later products from the Polaroid company further demonstrates their difficulty in creating the same value as they were able to do with instant photography. Newer technology is simply better, faster, and cheaper.

In addition to the fact that technology changes at an increasingly rapid pace, one of the lessons that can be learned from Land's story is that, to capture value from technological products, value needs to be created by constant innovation.… [Read More]

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Strategic Analysis of Some Geographical

Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 6390015

Instead he had run into a trap, and had faced a triple defeat -- in Kharkov, in the Crimea, and in Leningrad -- that allowed the Germans to attack again, this time across the great plains of southern Russia" (115).

Following the defeat of the Germans at the hands of the Russians, though, the Soviet army planned its counterattack but the same enormous land mass that adversely affected Hitler's ability to successfully prosecute a long war against Soviet Russia also affected the Russians' efforts to invade Germany because of the enormous land mass involved in the process. As Beevor emphasizes, "Even as the German army was clearly on the run, the Soviets feared it. German soldiers remained formidable to the end, and as the Ardennes offensive had shown, they were quite capable of pulling surprises" (114).

Indeed, there was legitimate cause for concern on the part of the Russians because…… [Read More]

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Patricia Limerick's Legacy of Conquest Review

Words: 1770 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13265602

Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West by Patricia Nelson Limerick. Specifically it will contain a book review of the book. "The Legacy of Conquest" is a new look at the settling of the American West, from the 19th century to the Reagan era. She has a new take on how the West was settled, and does not look at it as a frontier, as most historians do, but as a land of conquest, where many different nationalities came together and learned to live together, and conquest was always at the forefront.

The author makes her thesis clear in the Introduction. She writes, "In this book, I have undertaken to pull the pieces together to combine two or three decades of thriving scholarship with a decade of thriving journalism in Western American subjects" (Limerick 30). She has a new way of looking at western history, and rejects…… [Read More]

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Peace Keepers of the Northeast

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92147282

This dance was very powerful as it did scare the European people. They did not fully understand the reason behind the dance and the religion, but they were very clear as to what the apocalypse was and they wondered if the Indians were somehow summoning the end of the world. Not soon after this Ghost dance caused such a commotion, an Indian by the name of Handsome Lake who was a leader for the Seneca tribe brought a new message to the Iroquois people. His message was to end the drinking. The Iroquois people had began to drink a lot of alcohol that was often offered to them from the European people during the fur trade. Handsome Lake believed that many of the problems that the Iroquois people faced was related to the alcohol. Many of the Indian people were drunk when they were trying to handle problems of poverty…… [Read More]

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Cree's Opposition to the James

Words: 2991 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82822455

In fact, environmentalists were often dismissed during that time period. Moreover, environmental regulation was seen as an area of concern for each individual country, so that other countries would rarely, if ever, provide international pressure for environmental issues. However, the growing body of scientific literature about the environment changed the game between the 1970s and the 1980s/1990s. For example, when the James Bay Project was first conceived, it was considered a very green source of electricity because it lacked emissions and other hallmarks of pollution. The reality, however, is that the project resulted in incredible environmental damage:

It has been shown that environmental impacts of the first phase include: methyl mercury contamination of water in reservoirs and downstream rivers and mercury accumulation in fish; reversal of the natural seasonal flow pattern of rivers; conversion of La Grande estuary from a saltwater environment to a freshwater one because of regulated peak…… [Read More]

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Planning and Pollution Control Annex

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17816333

The policy has discussed the issue of contamination as a whole, it should be more specific about the threats posed by different types of chemicals, organic materials or other dangerous materials and in a broad perspective and compare these problems with one another in order to justify which is a bigger threat and which is considered a nominal threat, in this regard the policymakers should have given more info on the most common types of hazardous materials which pollute the land, and then compare them with one another to justify to the reader about which is the bigger threat comparable to other threats

The main emphasis of the policy is to remediate the land affected by contamination in a sense that only if there is something new being developed in the proposed land,

"Close co-ordination between planning authorities, transport authorities and pollution control regulators is essential to meet the common…… [Read More]

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Israeli Expansion in Palestine Is Unlawful

Words: 1426 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59071621

Israel-Palestine Conflict

Root of the Israel-Palestine Conflict

The Israel-Palestine conflict is rooted in a decades' long battle over land rights. Israel declared statehood in 1948, with only 500,000 settlers in the area, authority over which had previously been linked to a British mandate -- but that had ended. Following WW2 and the "moral imperative" that the Holocaust supplied the Zionist movement, more Jews began to migrate to Israel (Tyler 17). Led by the military strategist, David Ben-Gurion, who, like many Zionists of the day, changed his name to emphasize a certain Hebrewness, the Zionist state of Israel took on a distinctive militarism that would characterize the nation's actions all the way till today. These actions are best understood as a chain of events with one, single goal: to seize surrounding territories for Israel, which claims a historic, God-given right to them. Palestinians and other peoples from surrounding states declare that…… [Read More]

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Environmental History of Sandia Mountains New Mexico in Albuquerque New Mexico

Words: 1936 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84146352

Sandia Mountains

Environmental History of Sandia Mountains

The view from the top of Sandia Peak is breathtaking. Showing off some of Nature's finest work, the Tramway glides along the cable climbing the rugged Sandia Mountains presenting spectacular views of the Rio Grande Valley and nearby Sandia Crest. Even though you're just a few miles from Albuquerque, the 15 minute tram ride has taken you far away from the everyday world. As your eyes sweep across the mountain range, appreciating one geological feature after another, you're taken by the spirituality of the scene. You have discovered what every Pueblo Indian knows, that this is indeed a sacred space. At the same time, you understand too why Robert Nordhaus was inspired to build the Sandia Peak Tramway to share this picturesque bounty with millions of tourists. For Sandia Mountains, past and present, is a place where residents and tourists, Native Americans and…… [Read More]

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Colonial Hispaniola Citation Primary Source Las Casas

Words: 1552 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99742411

Colonial Hispaniola

Citation (Primary source)

Las Casas, Bartolome de. "Brief account of the devastation of the Indies," 1542. From Human

Rights: An Anthology of Texts. Warsaw: The Office of the Commissioner for Civil

Rights Protection, 2008. Accessed December 21, 2011 at

This primary source account offers a highly idealized view of the colonized persons of Hispaniola. It is said that the natives are peaceful, hold no grudges, are humble, patient, and kind and willingly serve their Spanish masters. However, they are also called weak and said to easily perish of infirmities. They are said not be covetous, and are said to want no gold or wealth. They are portrayed as simple, humble, natural men and women of a primitive, giving, yet proud disposition. The Spanish are condemned for their barbaric behavior against the inhabitants who resist the Spanish only when the Spanish began to try to take over their…… [Read More]

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Slavery in the New World

Words: 2251 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36982666

Slavery in the New World

Characters who are always in need of discrediting the United State and to oppose its role as pre-eminent and most powerful force for goodness, human dignity and freedom focus on bloody past of America as a slave holding nation. Apart from mistreatment and displacing native Americans, they enslaved millions of Africans, which is one of the worst mistake which has ever happens in the history of America. When this republic was found, slavery had already taken other forms in most section of the World, and was an accepted aspect of human history as from the start of the societies. It is believed that human being moved to an important leap towards civilization almost 10,000 years ago, in form of submission, domestication as well as training some of the important animals, and at this time they also started ownership and domestication of fellow human being that…… [Read More]

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Battle of Marathon Strategy and

Words: 1941 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52263480

The Greco-Persian Wars were still in their early stages at this point, but it would be Xerxes, not Darius, that continued and stepped up efforts to invade and conquer the Attic Greeks.

If the Battle of Marathon had turned the other way, as many at the time expected it to and as many historians and tacticians believe it easily could and by all rights should have, the entire course of Western and even world history would have been drastically altered. Europe was built on the ideas and culture of the Greeks, particularly the Athenians. The eventual conquering of the Greek and the establishment of the Roman Empire led to the spread of Greek philosophy, art, and science throughout the then known world; if the Persians had been successful in their attempt to conquer the Greeks, this culture would most likely not have existed by the time the Romans came around.…… [Read More]

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Ethnic and Religous Sources of Conflict Reference

Words: 866 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16849468

Ethnic and Religous Sources of Conflict

Reference groups within my workplace.

I work part-time in a tax preparation office, answering phones, filing, helping with a calling campaign, Xeroxing, setting up furniture, answering customer questions, setting up appointments, and doing other tasks and errands, as needed. Reference groups in my workplace are (Group 1) the group of us five part-time assistants: Wendy, Tiffany, Angelica, Dawn, and myself; (2) twelve tax preparers, Steve, Marcia, Katrina, Obie, Lyle, Silvia; Erika; Dwight; Tim; John; Rocio, and Mark; and (2) two office supervisors, David and Luz.

Group 1: Of my own part-time assistant group, two people are African-American, two are white, and one is Hispanic.

Group 2: Of the tax preparer group, four are African-American; four are white; three are Hispanic, and one is Native American.

Group 3: Of the Office Supervisor group, one is white and one is Hispanic.

Identify the situation in my…… [Read More]

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Carey Mcwilliams Southern California An

Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95285744

Climatology, in "semi-tropical" Southern California, a place that was as dry and hot as Italy although mercifully "without the Italians," tourists even from the United States "discovered that umbrellas were useless against the drenching rains of Southern California but that they made good shade in the summer; that many of the beautifully colored flowers had no scent; that fruit ripened earlier in the northern than in the southern part of the state; that it was hot in the morning and cool at noon...jack rabbits carried water on their backshere, in this paradoxical land, rats lived in the trees and squirrels had their homes in the ground" (96; 105) Economic fortunes seemed as unstable as the weather -- wharfs, railways, hotels sprung up only to be abandoned after the bubble of expectation in the real estate market went bust (116).

However, almost despite itself, the booms and busts increased the population…… [Read More]

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Black Mesa Mine the Black

Words: 2067 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49625594

Lands are reclaimed to a condition that typically is 20 times more productive for grazing than native range. These results, which are nationally recognized, are important to local American Indian families who make their livelihood raising cattle, sheep and goats (Peabody Western Coal Company 2007:1).

Of course, the company is ignoring the damage to the water supply when it makes these claims and does not account for this damage against the benefits. The intent of the company is clear in a settlement proposal it made to keep Black Mesa in operation while giving the federal government control over the aquifer and dismissing all claims against Peabody for injury to the groundwater (Helms 2007:1).

A call to action by a group called Honor the Earth makes the implicatiosn for the sacred land clear:

If the plan to allow Peabody to restart its Black Mesa Mine goes ahead, the cultural implications will…… [Read More]

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Ethnic Studies -- Indian Removal

Words: 1962 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6358184

However, our continuing humanitarian obligation to the Indians cannot allow these primitive peoples to stand in the way of national progress. They must be removed and granted only a reasonable amount of territory.

Editorial Against Indian Removal

I regret to say that our potentially great nation is being sullied by the way that it has approached the question of Indian removal from the Great Desert. Largely to escape the oppression of a Royal Crown that failed to respect the autonomous rights of individuals, the Founder of this nation sought a new form of government that respected individual rights. Now, it is the American people who have been guilty of oppression. Practically, since our first settlers explored the land of opportunity, they have wronged this continent's native peoples. In some cases, this was accomplished by trickery; in others it was by force; in still other instances, we have pledged our word…… [Read More]

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Testing Materials -- Sensitive in Nature Do

Words: 3174 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21523306

Testing) Materials -- Sensitive in Nature

"Do Not Copy, Print, Transmit, or Save Unless Specifically Authorized"

C400T Tactics and Sustainment Exam

Instructions: This is a take-home, open book exam, worth 40% of your overall C400T grade. All work must be your own. Do not discuss this examination or your answers with anyone other than your instructor. You will turn in all exam sheets and any additional supporting paperwork. In the interest of academic integrity and fairness, do not provide this test information to inbound students

This exam has four sections:

Section #1 is worth 20 points and is comprised of 20 separate multiple choice, true-false answers. Each question is worth one point.

Section #2 is worth 40 points and based on a brigade level situation & sketch. You will be asked to write a brigade mission statement a commander's intent and depict your battlefield visualization on a sketch .

Section…… [Read More]

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Momaday the Way to Rainy Mountain

Words: 1109 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34737492

Rainy Mountain

Memory and its preservation have always played an important role in man's life. Memories make him a unique person, different from others because of his different and unique life experiences, and for this reason preservation of memory is an important concern especially where their evaporation is a constant threat. In cultures and societies, where old traditions are rapidly being replaced by new values and beliefs, it is considered important to preserve memories of the days gone by. However people differ in the way they choose to preserve memories. In our modern life, we choose to protect our important memories by video taping important occasions. However the same technological facilities were unavailable to older generations and for them, the most important preservation method was story telling. People would preserve their traditions by orally transporting their stories from one generation to another. However these oral traditions have now been replaced…… [Read More]

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Imaginative Landscape 1 One Night Moon - Director

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16585364

imaginative landscape 1.One night moon - Director: Rachel perkins 2.peripheral light, selected poems - John Kinsella Prompt ' place real space .' task complete an extended written response expository style.

One Night the Moon - 'the place within us is just as real as the space around us.'

Individuals in the contemporary society are obsessed with the idea of materialism and this sometimes makes it difficult for them to acknowledge the presence of concepts like spiritualism. People practically come to guide themselves in accordance with generally accepted legislations and lose they personal identity as they do so. Jim Ryan, one of the protagonists in Rachel Perkins' 2001 film One Night the Moon is inclined to put across great prejudice when he comes across the opportunity of using an Aboriginal tracker, Albert Yang. The man is blinded by his preconceived thoughts and is unable to realize that it would be more…… [Read More]

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Large Scale Restructuring Has Taken Place in

Words: 1544 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 67659632

Large scale restructuring has taken place in major urban centers of the worldthat included London, Singapore, San Francisco, Vancouver, and may more. 'Inner city' assumes much importance in the regional economics as the impact of globalization and rapid transformation in land use occur at inner parts of these cosmopolitan cities. "The New Economy of the Inner City: Restructuring, Regeneration and Dislocation in the 21st Century Metropolis" by Thomas A. Hutton addresses the critical issues of place and process in the development of 'new economies' in postindustrial cities. Thesis agenda of the book asserts that restructuring initiatives in cosmopolitan cities, specifically London, have enabled the emergence of creative enterprises in the 'new inner city' and thus has dislocated traditional industrial and manufacturing oriented regional economy (Hutton, 2009). Urbanization, migration, policy shifts in land use, restructuring initiatives, clustering of industries, and change in production-consumption has transformed the 'inner city economy'. The book…… [Read More]

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New Orleans' Hurricane Katrina Hurricane

Words: 4582 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75945030

Folkman, MI. California Engineer Sees Fears About New Orleans Levee system Come True, 2005

The author writes about the thoughts and experiences of Robert Bea, civil engineer at the University of California in Berkeley on the recent killer hurricane in New Orleans. Bea studied the city's levee system since 1954 when began working for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, He discovered that it was not high enough and that parts of the city were far below sea level. Fixing the levee system permanently could be a multi-year and multi-dollar effort. The Corps of Engineer reported that major breaches of the levees at the 17th Street and London Canals had been sealed and that water was being pumped out of the city. It, however, said that the entire system was designed to contain only up to Category 3 of a fast-moving hurricane. When Katrina reached land, it was a strong…… [Read More]

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Grapes of Wrath

Words: 2952 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48517897

Grapes of Wrath

John Steinbeck's 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath, starkly and vividly describes the mass westward immigration of tens of thousands of displaced American Midwestern migrant workers, and the symbolically representative Joad family in particular. Steinbeck's editor Pascal Covici states: "John Ernst Steinbeck was born February 27, 1902, in Salinas California" (p. xxxvii). After graduating from Salinas High School, he attended Stanford University, but did not obtain a degree there. Determined by then to become a writer, Steinbeck moved to New York City, where he worked in construction to support himself while he honed his craft, and then as a reporter for the American. In 1926, he returned to California, where he worked at various odd jobs to support his writing. His first book, Cup of Gold, was published in 1929, and his second, The Pastures of Heaven, in 1932. Steinbeck's better-known works Tortilla Flat and In Dubious…… [Read More]

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Oceanography Identifying the Current Location

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11945363

They are responsible for transporting the heat from tropics to mid-latitudes. On the other hand, speed is said to be lower in the case of eastern currents (e.g. California Current) which transport cold water to the tropics where this is heated and pushed back to the poles by the western streams. Consequently, ocean surface currents help the Sun energy spread from the equator to the poles ((

Swells, breaking surf, tsunami

Swells may be defined as "a long series of ocean waves, generally produced by wind, and lasting after the wind has ceased" ( may be generated thousand of miles away from the beach by tropical storms or wind systems. Such a genesis explains their higher stability in direction and frequency, and the major attractiveness that they exert on surfers. Thus, swells are the so called wave trains which display considerable wavelength or period. This is a parameter measuring "the…… [Read More]

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Real Property Is Often Restricted

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62845853

(California EPA Land Use Regulations and Covenants NP) Without such covenants and restriction there is a clear sense that ignorance would drive selfish decisions about property use that could have lasting effects on the property and the whole region.

Thomas Jefferson, would have been unlikely to have experienced the extreme nature of environmental devastation that can be caused by overuse or poor use of land and property. In Jefferson's time questions regarding individual rights were the questions of the day. Questions regarding how toxic substances leech into groundwater was limited to urban human waste not complicated chemical agents. Additionally, there is a clear sense that individuals and agencies are far more informed today about environmental issues and their long-term impacts on the earth than ever before. This information and the abuse of it has broad implications on the earth as well as future planning and development. One example of the…… [Read More]

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Lewis Anthology Questions From Bernard

Words: 1637 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46810825

The lands thus granted were generally publicly held prior to the grants, which usually meant that the lands themselves had at one point been the rewards of military conquests, making them fairly just rewards for military service. Others would cultivate this land and pay taxes or tributes to the landowner, who in turn had to pay a tithe to the public government, creating a system very similar to feudal Europe and perpetuating the large land holdings through hereditary inheritance. As conquests faded away, the actual granting of lands became far less common (as there was simply less land to go around), but the permanence of previous grants continued to perpetuate the growth of a hereditary land-owning class. New grants were issued that gave certain individuals the right to collect taxes on certain areas of public land, but these individuals had to collect the taxes themselves and make what profit they…… [Read More]