Maritime Essays (Examples)

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Nissan v Maryland Shipbuilding in

Words: 4405 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13969032

Only in conditions where ship owners fired up cold boilers, using Bunker C. fuel, when winds were blowing from the north, under not too dry or not too wet conditions, would possible damage occur. Under such conditions, the smoke particles could have turned to sulpheric acid, and had a corrosive effect on the vehicle paint (Nissan Motor Corp. v. Maryland Shipbuilding, 1982).

The Court found that the defendants did not fire up the boilers, and thus, were not directly negligent. Only the ship owners could have fired up the boilers when leaving the docks. The shipyard employees were clearly not directly responsible for the "light off" procedure and thus, could not be held responsible for any damage caused by such a procedure. Had Nissan chosen to sue the ship owners, the Court noted, the vessels could have been seized under admiralty process, and the ship owners could have been liable…… [Read More]

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Aeronautics Sea Cargo Transportation Ocean

Words: 2579 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96502256


Having the most profound impact on containerization and cargo-handling operations were the number of huge containerships that came online in the mid-1990s. In order to replace wasteful ships, meet shippers' demands, and maximize loads, larger, faster and more efficient containerships began to be introduced. The largest, dubbed super containers or post-Panamax vessels were engineered to carry 4,000 to 5,000 20-foot equivalent units (TEUs), rather than the most prevalent generation capacity of 3,000 to 3,400 TEUs. These large vessels have a force on land operations such as on-dock rail services and intermodal connections. Additionally, cranes must have a broad enough reach in order to stretch across as many as six containers (Marine cargo handling, 2010).

Many ports across the world have begun to gear up for the anticipated growth in container traffic, which is thought to likely increase for all of the world's major trades. Trade with Asia and Latin…… [Read More]

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Exxon Valdez Case Analysis Common

Words: 3133 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 72188550

Like most litigations on such complicated issues the company had little to do but show reasonable accommodation, adopt better surface practices and wait out a lengthy period before their liability was reduced substantially by the courts.

Ethical analysis:

The key ethical issues of the case are pretty clear, did the captain knowingly endanger the environment by continuing to retain his position and navigate tankers through the area and did the company know that such was the case. Both ethical dilemmas are clear and were ruled upon by many hours of court time and subsequent appeals, though the final Supreme Court ruling on Exxon's liability for the spill was split 4:4 every other deciding body laid full responsibility on Exxon's lap. ("Exxon Valdez Damages Reduced," June 2008, NP). An additional ethical issue, though much less openly understood or known by the average American is weather it was ethical to pay fishermen…… [Read More]

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Relevance and Effective of the

Words: 6848 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 37098702

The chambers approach may be more suitable for states that seek a quick resolution to a particular dispute or for other compelling reasons; however, like the full Court, these alternatives are likewise voluntary in nature and require the consent of the disputants to have the case heard by one of the three foregoing chamber types. According to the Court's published information concerning "Chambers and Committees" (2009), "Despite the advantages that chambers can offer in certain cases, under the terms of the Statute their use remains exceptional. Their formation requires the consent of the parties. While, to date, no case has been heard by either of the first two types of chamber, by contrast there have been six cases dealt with by ad hoc chambers."

Given the significant representation by most of the countries of the world in the UN, the UCJ has the capability to provide a valuable forum in…… [Read More]

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Transit Projects a Guide for

Words: 3806 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66638289

S. transportation infrastructure is a bad idea. But in contrast to these doom and gloom pessimists, a restructuring and revitalization of U.S. transportation infrastructure is not only an excellent idea, but is very necessary if the U.S. economy is going to survive and continue to be a major global economic superpower (Lindsey, 2007).

Without the highway infrastructure, the U.S. would have been unable to grow as it did in the 1950's and 1960's. The same idea is true for future growth. Since the 1960's there has been little development of the current system and many of the U.S.'s bridges and highways are falling into disrepair as other priorities, like the War in Iraq, have taken priority. But the transportation infrastructure, the skeleton and circulatory system of the U.S. economic body, is vastly important for both economic and political stability and security.

US power plants and the internet infrastructure are grossly…… [Read More]

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Improvement Plan for Criminal Narcotics Activity Along the Southern Border

Words: 1082 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19068733

Combating Criminal Narcotics Activity Along Southern Border

The initiatives the 2009 Recovery Act funds must accomplish program-specific goals, and must be developed for furthering at least one of its general purposes, which are creation and preservation of jobs, promotion of economic recovery; assisting individuals most adversely affected by recession; providing investments required for increasing economic efficiency, through spurring technological advancements in health and science; investing in environmental protection, transportation, and other infrastructure which will offer economic gains in the long-term and stabilization of local and federal government budgets, for minimizing and preventing increases in counter-productive local and State tax, and reductions in vital services (FDA, n.d.).

Identify two or three goals of your program

Goal #1: Recovery Act: Job Preservation

A significant decline has been seen in manpower at the Drug Enforcement Bureau in the last eight months, with a loss of four squads. These posts were transferred, because of…… [Read More]

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Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]

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Cross-Boundary Offshore Oil & Gas Resources Joint

Words: 4203 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81418808

Cross-Boundary Offshore Oil & Gas Resources

Joint Development Agreements & Frameworks


[Type the company name]


Table of Contents

1. Introduction 3

2. The rule of capture 3

3. The CooperationApproach 4

4. Legal framework to develop trans-boundary offshore O&G resources 5

4.1 Cross-border unitization agreements 6

4.2 Joint Development Agreements (JDA) 6

4.3 National law and its application in Co-operative Agreements 7

4.4 Bilateral treaties for trans-boundary oil and gas exploration 7

4.5 The Framework Agreement Approach 9

4.6 The Third Party approach to dispute resolution 10

5. Conclusion 10

Bibliography 11

Treaties & Conventions 11

Books 11

Articles 12

Websites 13

1. Introduction

Subsea resources such as petroleum and natural gas are important sources of meeting the energy demand of countries. Cross-territory disputes are arising among different countries. Advancement in technology in exploration and extraction of subsea resources has expedited the overall procedure of competitive drilling. This…… [Read More]

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British Empire This Informative Historical

Words: 5032 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39312596

In November they started making their upset known to diverse government officials. However for economic and political causes the prime minister along with his supporters could not disregard these commercial distress indications. In addition Rockingham and his chief financial minister, Edmund Burke and William Dowdeswell were assured that colonial reactions to the Stamp Act accounted for the recent turn down in British trade to North America and during 1765 British sells to America had descended by 15%. These identical men were also sure they might capitalize on the political prospect the stamp tax crisis obtainable. One vision involved cultivating extra parliamentary hold up in the chaotic biased landscape of the 1760s so Burke as well as other Rockingham Whigs were fimilar with the fact that any government or opposition was crippled if it could acquire no kind of sustain out of doors. Somehow, government officials realized that this sustain could…… [Read More]

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Nineteenth Century Prostitution Within the

Words: 2865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94666570

These new views lead to a growing change in the status and aggressiveness of women in the nineteenth century.

Furthermore the belief that al of Victorian society was virtuous and unblemished has even come under more scrutiny. "...historians now use letters, diaries, marriage manuals, and even one survey of sexual attitudes to argue that the Victorians were in fact far less restrained.

The power of the Catholic Church meant that theological teaching was translated into dogma, and from dogma into policy and action. However, the contradictions presented by the potency of the sexual drive, the sanctity of marriage and the fear of damnation made the institution of prostitution inevitable. It became the 'lesser' or the 'necessary' evil permitted in order to safeguard more cherished institutions and to prevent men from committing graver sins. Justifications multiplied. 'If you eliminate prostitutes from society, ' declared St. Augustine, 'you disrupt everything with lust.…… [Read More]

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Forbidden Religion to Hegemon of

Words: 2650 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14265769

In that same year as well, Portuguese ships reached China, re-establishing direct trade for the first time since its termination 150 years prior. The Chinese were particularly eager to purchase Spanish silver from the Andes, which the Portuguese provided in exchange for Chinese silk, highly coveted throughout Europe. The Portuguese even went as far as Japan, where they established contact briefly before that country's isolation. Expeditions were also sent to conquer Malacca and explore Borneo in 1511 and 1524.

Odd as it may seem, the Portuguese were the first to establish viceroys to govern over their colonies in India. Beginning under King Manuel I, the Portuguese presence in India was cemented by the appointment of the first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, who governed from 1505-08. His capital was established at Cochin, where he waged wars against a number of Indian rulers for control of commerce in the region. His successor…… [Read More]

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Mooting Assessment Problem Solving the

Words: 1449 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3491829

This is valid except otherwise provided for in the contract. Even if, provided for, the provision, further, need to pass the reasonability requirement.

Further credence to asserting that the clause contained in the contract had, in effect upon signing, become binding to the Landlord and the Tenant, get support from Section 3(2) (bi) UTCCA of 19996. The section stipulates that one party to the contract cannot provide that not provided for in the contract. Rather, any other provisions lie at the discreet choice of the party offering the provisions.

The above Section, therefore, explains that since a contract existed between the Landlord and the tenant, each party got bound by the terms contained in the contract. Therefore, the tenant deserves no right, in light of the contract, to demand that the landlord take responsibility on damages incurred as per the MP3.

In the court case of Suisse Atlantique Societe d'Armement…… [Read More]

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Strategic Marketing Perspective Evaluate the

Words: 4167 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7424057

Further increases are planned in the UK, wherein a 50% of 17 to 30-year-olds would enter higher education by the year 2010, and the fact that the acceptance rates to universities has increased to more than 14% in recent years shows that it would be infinitely easier for the UK to achieve its target for increases in the number of students enrolling for higher education. (Search View, Education, Higher)

Furthermore, since it is a fact that dropout rates remain significantly lower in the UK than in any other European country, and four out of five students complete their graduation courses successfully, Britain produces the largest number of graduates in Europe. The number of universities in the UK has also increased after the binary division between traditional universities and higher education institutions was abandoned in the year 1992, and today, all British institutions come as a part of a single system,…… [Read More]

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Foreign Direct Investment in Canada

Words: 3154 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 624237

This investment would become the most prevalent in the period after World War 2 British economic power declined and the U.S. became predominant ("Our History").

While in the paper industry U.S. FDI was not as prevalent till the 20th century after the Second World War, in the recovery and processing of minerals this occurred in the late 19th and early 20th century as gold, nickel, zinc and other nonferrous metals. This created a mining industry in which U.S. And a lesser amount of British capital soon played roles. Goldwas extracted first by individuals then by large-scale, capital-intensive methods. Established American mining companies set up Canadian branches to carry on this type of prospecting activity such as furnishing skills and capital as well as experience.

From the first, base-metal deposits were exploited in the main by companies that were established and controlled by U.S. mining firms. In the 1920s, U.S. companies…… [Read More]

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Argos Shipping Company Business Plan

Words: 1471 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35798088

Business Plan for Argos Shipping Company

The proposal attempts to inaugurate a new shipping business to meet the demand for an overwhelming increase in the shipping services. Moreover, an increase in the level of international business has led to a rapid increase in demand for shipping services that offer reliability, convenience, speed, and promise. Moreover, the shipping industry is rapidly changing and growing because of the rapid rate of international trade, however, it is still pertinent to realize that shipping industry involves a lot of money because the business is competitive and capital intensive. More importantly, starting the shipping business requires having in-depth knowledge of container, import, and export, and logistics industries. Despite our intention to start the shipping business, we still need a business plan to realize our goal.

A business plan is one of the strategies that can assist a start-up company in succeeding in the shipping business,…… [Read More]

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Transportation of Coal Using a Ship

Words: 1893 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99413752

Coal is one of the major cargos that are shipped every year in hundreds of millions of tons though it is no longer used as a major ship fuel.  Currently, coal is mostly shipped for power consumption and for industrial purposes such as steel production.  However, shipping coal is associated with several safety concerns for the dry bulk industry (Ott, 2012).  These safety concerns are attributable to the fact that coal can self-heat, ooze corrosive substances, generate explosive gases, and liquefy.  A ship (Ship M/V EVRIDIKI) managed by this operations department has been scheduled to load coal 42’ at port of Gladstone (Australia) on 20th November 2016 under a voyage charterparty.  The destination of this shipment is the port of Constanta in Romania.  The distance is 9510 nautical miles (8392 to Suez) and the discharging will be carried out with the ships’ gears.  Some of the important issues to consider…… [Read More]

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how border'security interacts with homeland'security

Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39598739

National borders are far from arbitrary; they are important demarcations between one sovereign state and another. The foundation of national sovereignty depends on each nation protecting its own border, to achieve its own homeland security goals. In the United States, homeland security goals center on protecting the nation from foreign and domestic threats. To protect the nation from threats, it is essential to prevent would-be terrorists and criminals from entering, and also to prevent hazardous goods from crossing the border. Border security prevents the illegal flow of people, and therefore protects the world from human trafficking, illegal weapons trafficking, and drug trafficking. Preventing contraband from coming in is just one of many roles the border protection services provide in the interest of homeland security. One of the functions of border patrol is the maintenance of the nation’s domestic and foreign economic policy, essentially ensuring that all goods that enter the…… [Read More]

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Why the U S Wants to Pivot to Asia

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62886148

China in the South China Sea

The geopolitical and economic consequences of China's occupation of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea can perhaps best be measured the West's (or simply Washington's) response to China's move. As Durden notes, the South China Sea is not just important to China; it is important to Washington, too, which is accused of "militarizing the region" by the Chinese. But this is essentially what the U.S. is accusing China of, while Japan meanwhile claims that China is siphoning natural gas from its side of the "economic zone" (Durden). Thus, by building islands and runways in the Spratlys and expanding itself in the South China Sea, China is provoking a host of reactions from other nations (Western or Western-supported), indicating that there is a serious economic and geopolitical clash at hand over this issue. The main economic consequence coming from the U.S. will be…… [Read More]

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Safety of Four Modes of Transportation

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77578695

Transportation Safety

There are a number of different modes of transportation, and each mode has different safety considerations. This paper will look at road, rail, sea and air freight in particular. Obviously, there will be some safety issues that can affect any mode of transport -- human error or mechanical breakdown can happen to anything, anytime. But within each mode there will be unique risks, and it is important to understand what those risks are, in order that they be addressed effectively.

Rail transport is generally considered to be one of the safer modes, but rail accidents are surprisingly common. The particular issues relating to rail tend to be issues with track maintenance, and trains taking corners too fast, both resulting in derailment. The Federal Railroad Administration provides oversight on railroad safety issues, in order to minimize the number of accidents that occur on the rails. However, derailments still occur,…… [Read More]

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Scrutinizing for Bias in Research

Words: 1691 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49984648

outlaw sea: The lawless sea of today's modern age

The word piracy commonly brings to mind men with peg legs, funny accents, and parrots on their shoulders. However, William Langewiesche's book The Outlaw Sea underlines the fact that piracy is still a way of life for many people even today. The book demonstrates that international waters are just as rife with danger and under-regulated as they were many centuries ago, despite the efforts of numerous nations and international agencies to bring pirates to justice. Piracy might seem to be used purely for economic reasons on its surface but it can also be deployed to fuel and support terrorism. Langewiesche's 2004 book is a clarion cry about the need to do something to address the problem before more lives are lost. However, there is little evidence that the ten years since the book was published have brought forth substantial improvements.

One…… [Read More]

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Arctic Sovereignty Introduction to International Relations Written

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 50183977

Arctic Sovereignty

Introduction to International Relations

Written by: OCdt Jennifer Wotherspoon

Major Brister

Early 20th century explorer Vilhalmur Stefannson was correct in his assertion that the Arctic was essentially a treasure chest of natural resources, and in his corresponding prediction that the far North would become a vital national interest for Canada and the British Empire. Stefannson urged Britain, Canada and the U.S. To acquire Wrangel Island and to set up naval and air bases there as early as 1919, claiming that the island could be a strategic vantage point in future wars, in addition to a plentiful source of natural resources.[footnoteRef:1] His views were not appreciated in Ottawa, where government officials regarded his as an adventurer and self-promoter, and he found that "the wheels of government were to turn very slowly" whenever he offered his advice.[footnoteRef:2] He later established a private company for the purpose of exploiting Wrangel Island…… [Read More]

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Outsourcing Shipping Management Outsourcing Is a Process

Words: 5600 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34866974

Outsourcing Shipping Management

Outsourcing is a process by which an organization takes the services of an external party to perform some of its operations or functions. Outsourcing is also done by shipping firms all over the Globe (Outsource Freight, 2012). Ship owners generally outsource their operations and management functions to the external parties against for a particular period of time and against a specific sum of money (Lorange, 2009). Outsourcing of the shipping management enables the ship owners to focus on their core competencies and hand over the strategic decision making and policies to the outsourcing parties (AB Crewing, 2012).

Ship owners select the outsourcing parties by analyzing the different aspects of their operations and business environment (Outsource Freight, 2012). There is a full fledge selection criteria which helps the ship owners throughout the outsourcing party selection process (National Freight Management, 2012). The process starts with analyzing the business environment…… [Read More]

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Billy Budd -- a Tale

Words: 2844 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35654305

Frequent interception of American ships to impress American citizens was a major cause of the War of 1812. ("Impressments." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 10 Aug. 2005, (

The enforced and arbitrary nature of the fate of impressment, and Budd's fate of facing the code of military law, which was different from the life he was accustomed to, did not understand, and had not agreed to, was thus the result of Billy being forced to obey a social contract in an environment that necessitated individuals obey without question to fight an armed enemy. This differing social contract is not necessarily 'worse' than life upon a non-military ship. The problem is not necessarily the innocent civilian Billy is good and that the military men are bad, but that two orders of individualism and the collective good are clashing on a ship -- it is through impressment that this has occurred, not because…… [Read More]

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Shipping Economics Definition of the

Words: 1332 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20922558

As other have pointed out, ports need to be prepared to handle the carrier industry special characteristics, in terms of "frequency, punctuality, reliability and geographical coverage" (Slack, 1996).

Further more, ports need to be able to keep down the landslide costs, in close connection with some of the things I have previously mentioned when referring to dry bulk cargo and transportation. The competition, brought about by the growing demand and growing numbers of competitors, is more and more significant and ports need to be able to offer the best services at the lowest prices. This means operability, flexibility and productivity at low landslide costs.

The container shipping industry, due to the cost challenge and necessity that every carrier is facing, is currently facing a concentration phase, where many of the international carrier choose vertical integration solutions in order to cut down on costs and gain a cost advantage. This means…… [Read More]

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Port of Baltimore Brief Over

Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17027874

The MdTA Police and the Office of Security (and thus the private security personnel under its supervision) are the extent of the state's commitment in terms of securing the port, aside from the Maryland Area Maritime Security Committee, which works to coordinate the efforts of the MdTA and Office of Security with the relevant federal agencies.

On the federal level, regular port security is handled by the United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP), while threat response and emergencies involves the U.S. Coast Guard. CBP is responsible for maintaining and disseminating examination standards and procedures, and in recent years has placed a special emphasis on cargo container examinations with its program the Container Security Initiative (CSI) (U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012). The CSI program has three core elements geared towards identifying and stopping threats in cargo containers: "identify high-risk containers […] prescreen and evaluate containers before they are shipped…… [Read More]

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Demands Being Placed on the Global Transportation

Words: 1391 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 13716982

demands being placed on the global transportation industry are creating unprecedented requirements for international commerce during a period when peak oil is being approached and the need for more environmentally responsible alternatives has become especially pronounced. The responses to the varied needs of the global transportation industry have included research and development of alternative energy sources as well as innovative supply chain management approaches that make global transportation more efficient and reduce energy requirements in the process. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop a current overview of the global transportation industry and the challenges it faces in the future. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the paper's conclusion.

Global Transportation Challenges


Innovations in telecommunications have contributed to an increase in global transportation needs as international commerce and business-related travel have grown significantly in recent years. At…… [Read More]

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Defoe's Pyrates Images From History

Words: 2162 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44359372

But you can substitute the myth with the authentic, amazing, wonderful truth. In the end, I think the truth would make a far better movie."


Bonanos, C. "Did Pirates Really Say 'Arr'?" Slate Publications. Cited in:

Defoe, D.A General History of the Pyrates. Dover Books, 1999.

McGinnis, R. "The Real Life and Fictional Characters Who inspired J.M. Barre's

Captain Hook." Literary Traveler, 2008. Cited in:

Cordingly, David. Cited in:

____. Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Harvest Books, 1997.

Johnson, C. Pirates: A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most

Notorious Pirates. Conway Maritime Press, 2008.

Leeson, P. "An Arrghchy: The Law and Economics of Pirate Organizations."

Journal of Political Economy. 115 no 6 (2007): 1049.

Ossian, R. (n.d.) "Book Review: A General History of the Pyrates." Cited in:

Pennell, C.R. Bandits at Sea:…… [Read More]

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CTPAT Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism

Words: 1823 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28989308

This paper examines the role of the Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (CTPAT) in the successful application of transportation management for businesses in the 21st century. A literature review was conducted for this paper using the University library; scholarly peer-reviewed articles were selected based on relevance and publication date (studies published within the past five years were deemed acceptable to obtain the best up-to-date information on the Partnership). The study found that CTPAT certification can help mitigate risks in shipping and the supply chain by requiring companies to obtain documentation that signals trustworthiness and the integrity of their lines, thus allowing for expedited modes of transportation to be implemented. In the age of terrorism, this precaution is both necessary and helpful in protecting cargo and supply chains as well as in managing logistics and easing congestion. The paper concludes that transportation managers should work towards obtaining CTPAT certification to…… [Read More]

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Economic and Environmental Benefits of Short Sea Shipping

Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84089767

Sea Shipping Services in Europe

The study aims to identify the impact, benefits, and drawback of implementing a short sea shipping policy within Greece. Within the paper, arguments have been made for supporting the adoption of the policy, and there have been clear facts presented. The paper also attempts to make comparisons between the different modes of transport available with an aim to show how cost effective and environmentally friendly short sea shipping is to a country. The results presented are backed by previous research that has shown the impact of marine transportation and made comparisons with road or rail transportation.

Short Sea Shipping is defined as the movement of passengers and cargo by sea, between ports that have a shared coastline without crossing an ocean. Short seas shipping has been at the forefront of the European Union's transport policy mainly because it offers the potential to reduce road congestion…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Tlm Security Measures

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23629510

security measures. The primary focus while analysing security measures will be on the overall effectiveness and hindrances in their implementation in the aspect of transportation and logistics management (TLM).

Security Measures in Place / Are They Effective?

In order to ensure safety in sensitive areas, to observe traffic or to keep a check on criminal activities, CCTV, video cameras and high-tech surveillance systems are very useful devices. They also play an important role when it comes to the delivery of cargo. In order to prevent cargo theft during the loading / unloading, transporting and storing process, these activities should be carried out under surveillance of video cameras. The primary advantage of using surveillance in these circumstances is that they can significantly reduce premise liability because of access control systems and thus only authorized individuals can access certain areas. (Transportation and Logistics Security Protection 1. n.d.).

For each employee as well…… [Read More]

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Chinese-American Relations What the Future Holds

Words: 3451 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19865291

Sino-U.S. Relations in the Post-Cold War Era

Today, China and the United States are inextricably linked in the modern world and some observers maintain that any disagreements that emerge between the two countries are relatively insignificant and will not adversely affect this growing economic and political relationship. By contrast, other international analysts argue that recent trends in China's economic and military growth will inevitably result in armed conflict between these two superpowers. To determine the facts, this paper provides a discussion concerning the accuracy of these respective viewpoints concerning the status of Sino-U.S. relations in the post-Cold War era, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

China's development in the 20th century

The 20th century was a turbulent one for China, marred by major famines, foreign occupation and civil unrest.[footnoteRef:1] Despite these problems and the enormous challenges in achieving self-sufficiency in food production, the…… [Read More]

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Native Peoples of the Aleutian Island Chain Specifically the Aleute Alutiiq

Words: 2861 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78213401

Native Americans

The Aleutian Islands run from the Peninsula of Kamchatka in the Asiatic portion of Russia to Alaska. All the islands are bare and mountainous and the coasts rocky and surrounded by crashing waves and enormous breakers. (Larkin, unpaged) Some believe the Aleutians offer the worst weather in the world: Weather fronts originating in the South Pacific create storms hundreds of miles long and many weeks in duration (Sipes, unpaged) that pick up the frigid moisture of the waters and air as they move northward. It would seem that anyone desirous of living there would need some overwhelming reasons to do so. The Russians and Scandinavians who first 'discovered' the area for non-natives, and later the Americans, did have good reasons to be there. As for the Aleuts and Alutiiq, an abundance of fish and sea mammals might have been the attraction if, as some theories surmise, they arrived…… [Read More]

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Swanson Shipyards Case

Words: 1793 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76703067

Swanson Shipyards Case

The Swanson Shipyards Corporation has been operating since 1981 on a somewhat volatile market, where governmental purchases (and I am referring here to contracts with the navy for example) played a high stake for the business. Additionally, there were other factors to be considered in what the business was concerned, factors relating to the location of maritime accidents (I am assuming that the shipyards closer to the accident area would have been used), availability and scheduling of maintenance overhauls (if the first factor would have been an external factor, not related to the company, this is an internal factor and regards the way Swanson is able to best schedule its activity so as not to have any "dead times") and the conditions in the maritime industry as a whole (again an external factor).

If we are to resume the main factors determining Swanson's activity, we will notice…… [Read More]

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Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuelan Conflict Whenever

Words: 1141 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39422232

Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuelan Conflict

Whenever countries share resources there is the potential for conflict to arise between the two nations, which may each feel entitled to a greater share than it is receiving and each of which has different legal systems, cultural value, and sometimes languages. The ability of two countries to negotiate with each other is limited by a number of pragmatic issues as well as by the desire (or lack of desire) of the two sides to find any common ground. This paper examines one such international conflict - the stance between the nations of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago over fishing rights.

It is important to note at the beginning of this discussion that the mining of natural resources (whether gold or fish) that a dependence on extractive, primary resources tends to keep nations poorer, thus making them more desperate to claim what they can…… [Read More]

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Tonkin Gulf Crisis

Words: 4928 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5576711

Tonkin Gulf Crisis

The Debate over the Tonkin Gulf Crisis

The Tonkin Gulf Crisis 1964 ranks with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as events that David Kaiser of the U.S. Naval War College refers to as "controversies in American political history that dwarf all others (Ford, 1997)."

There is evidence that President Lyndon Johnson deliberately lied about the incidents leading to the Vietnam War to ensure that plans for war were supported. However, many opponents of this claim say that this is not so. According to Sedgwick Tourison in the book Secret Army, Secret War and Dr. Edwin Moise's Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War, evidence that Johnson's administration was deceitful is becoming clearer than it was (Ford, 1997).

Today, Tonkin Gulf researchers are still examining the evidence to determine whether or not Johnson's administration intentionally instigated the…… [Read More]

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Japanese vs Russian War the War Between

Words: 2275 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36714583

Japanese vs. Russian War

The war between Russia and Japan is a conspicuous occurrence. This was the initial thunderbolt blow of Admiral Togo upon the exposed Russian fleet in Port Arthur as well as the end maturing of the quarrel plus the continuity of the war, which were manifested through a swift unattainable decisiveness under the same circumstances a century ago. It could be true that win of Japanese over Russian was due to strategic and operational skills but not their opponent blunder. The circumstances could be the capacity of the leader and the conditions upon which they are called so that they could act; Lesser and Napoleon men differences could be another factor. The well-known concern was that the war had to turn on only sea and land co-ordination right from its initial by the involved belligerents. Though all of them tried this kind of co-ordination, Japanese were the…… [Read More]

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Macville Villiano Coffee Project Plan Final Project

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21394489

MacVille Villiano Coffee Project Plan

Final Project Overview

Overall, the project has been a success. Despite a few mishaps and lessons learned, the venue was a hit and the budget was satisfactory enough to pull off a great marketing campaign for the event and the brand. With the whole team working together, it was a successful event.

Still, there were some clear issues that could have been worked out better before the event took place. For one, the choices of the venue was sufficient, but could have been more cost effective and have provided a more pleasurable ambiance for the event. The venue that was chosen for the event was at the South Australian Maritime Museum. This venue offered a great location, close to modern development and amenities. Yet, in hindsight, the Greenway Art Gallery might have been a better choice. The South Australian Maritime Museum was the costlier of…… [Read More]

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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787…… [Read More]

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Transportation Attention Because I Do Not Have

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1205172


(Attention: Because I do not have the full citation information for the 3 articles provided, I have referred to them as follows in the text. Powerpoint, Japan PDF and Carbon PDF. You will need to insert the correct citation and add a Works Cited page, if that is required.)

As the global supply chain evolves and matures, there are several considerations to take into account in the areas of transportation and distribution. The global economy is in full swing, and exports are outpaced world GDP significantly. This high demand food goods has resulted in an increased need for more international shipping options, especially maritime transport -- moving materials by ship. Changing to a more international system is not without consequences, however, including the quite serious possibilities of piracy, terrorism and a substantial negative effect on the environment. For managers in charge of logistics and supply chain management, the "right…… [Read More]

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Organizations the Structure of the British Army

Words: 3006 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1769012


The Structure of the British Army Compared to a Civilian Business Organization

Military life, especially during combat situations, is difficult for the individual who has always been a civilian to imagine. The structure of the organization is rigid, strict control is maintained of all personnel, the management style is historically largely authoritarian, and conditions can be harsh. However, there are always people who volunteer for this service for many reasons. The individual lacks responsibility and wishes to gain it, there is a scarcity of sustainable employment, the promise of adventure awaits the soldier. Other reasons exist, every soldier or sailor has one, but whatever the reason when a person joins the military they soon understand the organization. There is no mystery regarding large goals or minor objectives. The British Army has a unique history and purpose that can be useful to companies that want to survive and remain successful…… [Read More]

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War on Global Terror Terrorism

Words: 1591 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50689999

According to a report in the New York Times, the level of piracy in Somalia's treacherous waters has fallen sharply in the year 2012. This is according to statistics that were released by the U.S. Navy. This fall is credited by the U.S. Navy to the aggressive patrolling by various international forces as well as increased vigilance by the commercial maritime operators (Shanker).

In my opinion, I do believe that ransom money gained by the pirates were being used to fund terror and other illegal activities. This belief is fueled by the previous observation by the Kenyan Central Bank that the amount of unexplained forex into the country dropped by a whooping 96%. There is also a possibility that this unexplained forex was drug or weapons money which was being laundered through the Kenyan financial system.


In conclusion, the fight on terror is far from over.This is due to…… [Read More]

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Dynamics the Company General Dynamics

Words: 3865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77456136

General Dynamics employed WBS to connect their Integrated Product Teams, known as Design Build Teams -- DBTs having the established design goals. Hence every DBT possess a particular design goal allocated by management. The WBS is planned to wholly describe everything inside the program. A WBS defines the product(s) to be developed or produced and connects the constituents of work to be attained mutually and to the final product. Hence the role of WBS is important in planning and assigning management and technical duties; and evaluating and controlling the progress made and also the position of the engineering endeavors, resource allocations, cost estimates, expenses, and cost & technical performance. (Clark; Littrell, 2002)

Giving a logical framework for mentioning the technical purposes of the program, the WBS initially defines the program on the basis of the hierarchically associated, product-oriented factors and the work processes needed for their accomplishment. Every constituent for…… [Read More]

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British Navy From 1461 Through

Words: 1752 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11025395

Historian Lloyd concludes, "Sixty-four ships were lost and over 10,000 men before the remnant of the Invincible Armada found refuge in the harbours of Northern Spain" (Lloyd 30). This marked the pinnacle of the British Navy's power and prestige. After they beat Spain, they ruled the waves, and that continued until the 18th century.

In conclusion, the rise of the British Royal Navy during the Renaissance period is still legendary in naval circles and in history. The British Navy was powerful, formidable, and managed the seas of the globe. Much of the Royal Navy's success is founded in the practice of privateering, and had it not been for men like Sir Francis Drake, the British Empire might not have had the funds to develop their navy, and dominate the world's oceans for so long. The Navy was not initially formed to defend the country, but rather to defend the privateers,…… [Read More]

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Port Productivity the Various Changes

Words: 1602 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71120547

One of the first pioneer's in this activity was the Australian company Mcllwrath McEacharn of Melbourne. They began by offering to ship cargo in containers on a door to door basis from the Eastern States to ports in Western Australia using three ton Seatainers. (Taming the Australian Stevedoring Industry: who really runs the show?)

In 1969 two more container ships were added to their fleet. This move of using containers to move cargo on ships and on a door to door basis threw open the flood gates to increase the through put of ports and was very soon embraced by almost all other shippers in the movement of cargo around the world. This increased movement of goods by sea and in containers saw a sea of change in the way goods were handled at the ports by the use of bigger and better cranes and efforts at increasing their efficiency…… [Read More]

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Spain and the European Union

Words: 4781 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92145898

grants would also be offered under revitalization measures and for the support of local enterprises either small or medium, and improve the company's access to finances and to credit, giving direct aid to certain investments, etc. (Structural Funds) Cohesion Funds are those granted to those states that are lagging behind in terms of economic development concerning areas like transport and the environment so that their chances of integration into the Economic and Monetary Fund are not spoiled. The funds granted under this Cohesion fund are to be used for the development and implementation of projects in the field of the maintenance of the environment and the field of transportation. The beneficiaries, generally, are those authorities, public or private, who are responsible for carrying out and completing the project successfully. (Cohesion Funds)

What must be stated at this point is that Objective 1 and Objective 2 Interventions, Structural Funds, and Cohesion…… [Read More]

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Galileo Product Idea Description Most Technical Innovations

Words: 4668 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2888636


Product Idea Description

Most technical innovations in any field have been combinations or amalgams of software and hardware applications that were never meant to be used together. However, they have nevertheless come into existence because someone decided to marry up these unimagined elements in combination with each other.

To midwife these projects to full fruition, startup money is needed. As usual, the military is the usual maternity ward for such applications and often requires mission specific applications for certain situations. Telematics is certainly no exception to this and such applications have increasingly found usage in the war on terror to pierce the classical "fog of war." Like the American GPS system, this has certainly been the case for telematics operations in the NATO European environment that would operate with the Galileo GNSS system. The handmaiden of our Red Force Tracking Telematics application in this proposal will be the Google…… [Read More]

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Congestion in Seaports Literature Review Overview- Globalization

Words: 2487 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25614845

Congestion in Seaports, Literature Review

Overview- Globalization and modern technology over the past 20-30 years has increasingly caused complexity and overcrowding with the world's seaports. In fact, in 2008, the IAPH World Port Conference was so alarmed by trends in the industry that it outlined what it say to be three critical issues and challenges facing global seaports:

In the increasingly complicated global environment, it is vital for port executives and experts across the globe to share information and ideas.

The world port community is vital for the global economic health, and must effectively address global issues like maritime security, environmental protection of the oceans, and communication with host countries.

It is naive to think that port management issues are solvable by one port, one country, or even one region. It is also inefficient to do so. Instead, with modern technology, IT applications, technical data, and the exchange of human…… [Read More]

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Globalization and Organized Crime Globalization

Words: 3395 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51194259

Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.

The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)

OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…… [Read More]

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Songbird Habitats and Preferences When

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33946610

In order to determine the accessibility of certain areas in the event of a warming climate, "the researchers averaged month-to-month accessibility rates for two time periods: 2010 to 2014 and 2045 to 2059" and "then compared the two scenarios," finding that Canada and Russia will lose the most land access, although they will gain much greater maritime access along with the United States and Greenland. While this will likely result in a boon for coastal communities, and especially those located on the busiest trade routes, inland communities will be forced to change how they move goods across the Arctic, likely having to resort to air travel, which greatly increases the costs of transporting goods.

The study discussed in the article "With global warming, Arctic access will diminish by land but improve by sea" demonstrates the unexpected and potentially costly effects of global warming on international trade as well as the…… [Read More]

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Passamaquoddy Tribe & Harbor Porpoise

Words: 3256 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 8341569

These gunboats would devastate wildlife area and other immense and indefinite environmental impact. These tankers would carry liquefied natural gas or LNG in cruising through Head Harbor Passage. It would take at least 90 minutes for each tanker, the size of Queen Mary, to cross the passage of whale and porpoise feeding areas, breeding grounds and nurseries as well as aquaculture sites and fishing grounds (Figart).

Legal Battle

The Passamaquoddy people and their ancestors have, for thousands of years, lived, fished, hunted and cultivated land in the Quoddy region (Harvey, 2004). They have thrived on marine species for survival. But over 200 years of permanent European settlement in the region since the late 18th century introduced environmental predators and developers. With the passing of the years, they increased and became more and more efficient (Harvey). In response to the situation, the United Nations Environment developed the Global Programme of Action…… [Read More]

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Italian Domination of Commerce in

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87240298

Wrote one later historian: "Historians who wax eloquent and indignant -- with considerable reason -- about the sack of Constantinople... rarely if ever mention the massacre of the Westerners in Constantinople in 1182 ... A nightmarish massacre of thousands…the slaughterers spared neither women nor children, neither old nor sick, neither priest nor monk. Cardinal John, the Pope's representative, was beheaded and his head was dragged through the streets at the tail of a dog; children were cut out of their mother's wombs; bodies of dead Westerners were exhumed and abused; some 4,000 who escaped death were sold into slavery to the Turks" (Carroll 1992, p. 131).

The policies that gave rise to such hatred were the result of Imperial policies and the imprudent regulation of duties, not simply religious prejudice: "Almost equally disastrous was the fact that the powerful Italian maritime republics were able to coerce the Emperor into granting…… [Read More]

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Rules of Engagement What Are

Words: 2151 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66980364

According to National Public Radio, after U.S. forces invaded Iraq in March of 2003 Blackwater received another contract, to provide security, as mentioned in the introduction. A terrible incident happened in 2004 in the city of Fallujah, Iraq. Four Blackwater contractors were killed, dragged through the streets on fire, and hanged from a bridge over the Euphrates River (Flintoff, 2007). Some weeks later the U.S. military attempted to capture Fallujah, a stronghold for insurgents, but the U.S. failed in that effort.

The U.S. authority in Iraq (Paul Bremer) issued an order in June 2004 that basically gave Blackwater immunity from Iraq law, Flintoff writes. When you are above the law, there are no rules of engagement. And several incidents subsequent to June, 2004, have brought negative attention to Blackwater. Blackwater guards shot and killed a man in June 2005 and failed to report the incident, Flintoff writes in NPR. A…… [Read More]

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History of the Atlantic Slave

Words: 4085 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 86148004

A "linguist" would bring the slave broker on board the ship that had traveled upriver, and at that point there were negotiations and the broker (owner of the slaves that he had kidnapped) wanted to know of course what merchandise was being offered, what the commission the captain of the vessel was to receive, and he wanted to know what other offers might be out there on the coast from the other slavers. At the end of the day, if the broker liked the deal, and if the trader liked the slaves that the broker brought to the river (or the coast), the company "surgeon" was called in to check the health of the prisoners, and if that passed muster, a deal was struck. The male slaves were put in irons on the main deck; the children and women (not ironed) were placed on the quarterdeck; and the boys were…… [Read More]

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International Commercial Law

Words: 3519 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35933824

Jurisdiction and Applicable Law

The first issue that Barcelo faces concerns which nation's law governs the contractual rights and duties between himself and George. Because this was an international voyage between England and Spain, and because the contract appears to involve English and Spanish parties, the question is whether the parties' rights and remedies are supplied by English or Spanish law. Although maritime law is primarily governed by international treaties that create uniform rules across national boundaries, there still could be legal differences between England and Spain on crucial issues. Moreover, the correct forum for the dispute could be determined by the answer to the choice-of-law question.

As a general rule, the terms of any charterparty and bill of lading are governed by the law chosen by the parties. This rule emerges from the funamental princple of all contract law that the governing law should be determined by the same…… [Read More]

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BP Crisis

Words: 2866 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 55103452

Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…… [Read More]

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China and U S Naval Competition

Words: 3353 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73432736

S. For its weapons sales to Taiwan. (Janbo)

It must also be noted that China's Naval expansion is a departure from what many experts conjectured in the recent past. Like many before, Lee Lai To commented just a few years ago that China, regardless of its even then obvious desire to expand its naval might would be very unlikely to challenge the U.S. In any significant way. To argues that:

"U.S. military deterrence and U.S. interests -- particularly with regard to maintaining the security of the sea-lanes and forward deployment of the U.S. military in the Asia-Pacific region, including the South China Sea area -- have made and will continue to make China extremely cautious about engaging in actions that might draw Washington into the South China Sea disputes. (To 26)" (Wong)

To was also quick to note that up to the time of his research and work in 2003…… [Read More]

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Australia Imports the Australian Import

Words: 2631 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6628644

Gelineau reports that "the 755-foot (230-meter) Shen Neng 1 was successfully lifted off the reef Monday after crews spent three days pumping fuel to lighten it. Salvage crews later towed it to an anchorage area near Great Keppel Island, 45 miles (70 kilometers) away. Its refloating left a scar 1.9 miles (3 kilometers) long and up to 820 feet (250 meters) wide." (Gelineau, 1)

Indeed, according to environmental workers reporting on the site, this is seen as one of the most catastrophic groundings in recent decades. The report claims that it will be at least another twenty years before the immediate ecosystem can recover from the damage inflicted upon it both by the flattening of reef and marine life and by the intrusion of toxins from paint on the ship's hull into the devastated habitat. For the wildlife sanctuaries which are in the immediate surround of the impacted area, the…… [Read More]

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Transportation General Strategic Intermodal Transportation

Words: 1890 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40941267

, Target Stores Inc. And Mattel Inc., are growing increasingly nervous about open threats of a work stoppage by dock workers at the Ports of Los Angeles (Greenberg, 2002). They actually turned to congress in hopes of preventing a strike. There appears to be a constant struggle between shipping companies and employees. Again in 2008 there were heated debates brewing. With 14 weeks to go before the agreement expired, contract talks between the International Longshore and Warehouse Union and the Pacific Maritime Assn began in hopes of preventing another disruption in port activities (White, 2008). This marked the earliest beginning of talks between the two groups in the history of there negotiations.

Though a port owner doesn't have a considerable amount of control over what the union demands, it seems evident that it is of vital importance to recruit and train top notch employees. To stand the greatest chance of…… [Read More]

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Water Legislation Origins of Environmental

Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 87395038

The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…… [Read More]

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Private Security and the Law

Words: 2858 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17187228

Private Security and the Law: International Use of Private Security in Support of U.S. Interests Abroad
To support U.S. interests abroad more and more resources have been diverted to private security as American military have been scaled back in places like Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria. But is the international use of private security in support of U.S. interests abroad justifiable or lawful? Certainly it is both—but then why the controversy among certain groups? The controversy among some constitutionalists and conservative circles is that private security defense contractors take the place of the military and thus put distance between the American public and the continuation of wars abroad, which the public is under the mistaken belief have ended. As Jennifer Elsea notes, “the use of private security contractors (PSCs) to protect personnel and property in Iraq and Afghanistan has been a subject of debate in the press, in Congress, and…… [Read More]