Neglected Children Essays (Examples)

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Child Abuse the Well-Known Attorney

Words: 3228 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44725613

Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.

As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.

Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:

Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse & Racial Inequality This Brief

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62473345

Child Abuse & Racial Inequality

This brief report focuses the social conflict perspective of sociology while focusing on the racial inequalities within the reporting and handling of child abuse cases, both with the children themselves as well as the parents that stand accused. Indeed, the reporting and handling of these cases is deemed by many to be disparate, unfair or non-existent as it pertains to racial minorities and their children. The trends of this subject matter will be explored over a series of years of American history.

Racial Disparities

Per the commonly held and accept facets of the conflict perspective, racial inequality is not what it is was prior to the Civil War or prior to the Civil Rights era that culminated in the 1960's in the United States, but problems still do certainly exist. Indeed, as recently as the 1980's, a survey that was conducted that asked the white…… [Read More]

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Child Development and Learning

Words: 1723 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41021441

Child Development and Learning

Child development is the psychological, biological and emotional changes which occur in human beings from birth till when adolescence ends as the individual progresses from being dependent to a state of increased autonomy. Child development is influenced by genetic factors and prenatal events. There are several theories of child development that have been put forth by different people. The first of the two major theories is the theory of cognitive development which was put forth by a Swiss theorist. The second is the theory of cultural-historical psychology which was put forth by Lev Vygotsky who was a Russian theorist. There are also other theories of child development such as Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and the behaviorism theory by John B. Watson. All these theories attempt to explain the processes of child development and the factors that influence the process.

Piaget's cognitive development theory

The…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse and Sexuality

Words: 2773 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32393386

Child Abuse and Sexuality

There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; Whitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (Whitaker, 2008).

The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…… [Read More]

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Child of Rage

Words: 874 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45412740

Child of Rage

The film Child of Rage (Home Box Office, 1992) depicts the devastating effects of child abuse. In the film Beth Thomas, a child who was severely abused and later adopted, discusses her shocking attitudes and desires that include wanting to kill her little brother and adoptive parents. She also discusses numerous incidents of abusing animals and her brother. Her depiction reminds one of a person with a psychopathic personality (now termed antisocial personality disorder).

Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of disregard for the rights of others that occurs since 15 years of age and presents with three or more of the seven symptoms that are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The symptoms include a failure to conform to norms or other rules, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggressiveness or irritability, disregard for the safety of oneself or others, responsible behavior, and a…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse in Adults Some

Words: 2155 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 24536863

Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental Biophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.

The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…… [Read More]

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Children Development

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57170717

Children Development

Differentiating between phenomena of Theory-Theory and Theory of Mind

The 'Theory of Mind' is a cognitive-based science that examines how humans develop and ascribe mental states to people around us and how such mental states are used to foretell one's behavior and actions. It delves into the process of mental abilities and mind reading (Marraffa). 'Theory -- Theory', on the other hand, focuses on the structure of concepts, how they are acquired and applied in real life. Theory-theory points out that concepts are woven around theories and that one must first learn the theories in order to acquire the concepts (Weiskopf)

Theory of mind grows over time. The intuitive social skills appear during the infancy stage while the reflective social cognition manifests during the preschool and the preceding toddler stages. Children aged three years understand that different people want and feel different things. Such mental stance is formidable…… [Read More]

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Children Refugees it Is Estimated

Words: 2172 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20528543

Manchester (2004) discusses the work in New Zealand of ON TRACC, Auckland's Transcultural Care Centre, which offers an intersectoral approach to severe behavioral and mental health issues for children and young people from refugee backgrounds living in the central city. Established as a pilot program last year, it provides specialized interventions involving the school, family and mental health services for refugee children who have been identified as having high and complex needs. Delivered in partnership with refugee communities, it involves three major services: The Ministry of Education Special Education, the Auckland District Health Board Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (Kari Centre), and the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services. The ON TRACC team consists of psychologists, a psychiatrist, social workers, cultural advisers and a behavioral support worker. Some of the team members are from refugee backgrounds. It is the first time such a transcultural and intersectoral service has…… [Read More]

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Diversity and or How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries

Words: 3623 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45470755

Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention

Diversity and How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries

There is developing debate regarding the suitable combination of programs and polices needed to react to concerns of child abuse and neglect. Child neglect and abuse hold significant effects for prospective health and mental health of a child. As a result, it is imperative to comprehend connections among different forms of maltreatment, family and child factors and connect with the systems for children welfare. The child abuse prevention programs and polices adopted in the New York State are generic and appears to be meant for the majority in the society. The programs are not cultural specific and hence, cannot benefit the minority group in the society. For instance, the Asian immigrants present an increased rate of child abuse. However, according to the Asian culture, worldviews, values and perspectives, suffering is an…… [Read More]

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Black's Law Dictionary 1991 Child

Words: 5968 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76815004

Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]

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Violence Against Children

Words: 3060 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49177108

Violence Against Children

The structure of violence as related to children directly correlates to their perceived socio-demographic risk. Several factors directly relate to the likelihood that a child will be subjected to violence at some point during their lives. Social, economic, demographic and physical factors all have a dramatic impact a child's development, either positive or negative and these factors also influence whether or not a child is more or less likely to be subjected to violence. Children living in high risk environments typically serviced by human service agencies, including poverty stricken areas and foster care living arrangements, are among the children that are at increased risk for violence and abuse. Children subjected to violence are much more likely to subsequently exhibit violent behavior later in life as well. Health care providers, educators, foster parents, families and community members all have an impact on a child's development. It is the…… [Read More]

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Paramedic's Role in Reporting and Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41883271

In addition to physical indicators, the authors note that elder abuse can be recognized by behavioral or other indicators as well. Behaviorally, the elder person might be emotionally upset or agitated, withdrawn, fearful, depressed, and so on. Other indicators include an unexplained inability to pay bills, and a disparity between the income, assets and lifestyle.

To report cases of such abuse, adult protective services are available to receive and investigate reports. It is perhaps good to mention here that a paramedic should carefully examine the patient in question before making any reports. He or she should also interview the individual concerned to determine and substantiate suspected abuse. If such a report is made without grounds, it could needlessly damage the reputation of the individuals involved; which in turn could lead to legal expenses for the hospital.

However, if abuse that occurs is not reported, the consequences could be even worse,…… [Read More]

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Effects of Domestic Violence on Children

Words: 4184 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6389413

Domestic Violence on Children

Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…… [Read More]

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Spousal Violence and Abuse Effects on Children

Words: 1497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68247745

Spousal and Child Abuse

Child and spousal abuse is an intentional act that results in physical and/or emotional or psychological injury on a child or spouse (or partner) by a parent or a mate, respectively (Gelles 2004). In a child, abuse more often takes the form of neglect. Child and spousal abuse and violence are major social concerns today.

The extent that children are abused by their parents or adult caretakers is difficult to measure, although it appears to occur most frequently among lower-income communities and certain ethnic and religious minorities. Abuse of children ranges from physical and emotional abuse and sexual abuse to physical and emotional neglect (Gelles). Effects of physical abuse are varied and visible: unexplained bruises, fractures and burn marks. Emotional abuse destroys the child's sense of security and self-esteem. Sexual abuse includes all acts that expose them to the sexual satisfaction of the parent or adult…… [Read More]

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Abused and Exploited Children Child Abuse Is

Words: 1167 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27174022

Abused and Exploited Children

Child abuse is one of the most unfortunate realities of our society. In a world marked by progress, it is sad that there are still many households where young children are being subjected to violence both physical and otherwise. Child abuse is defined as any non-accidental harm or injury to a child caused by an adult. Despite the presence of numerous child protection services and agencies, children are still regularly facing violence at home which may often lead to fatal injuries. Even though child abuse is commonly known and understood as physical abuse, this is not entirely true. Abuse can occur in other forms as well and we shall now discuss some of the more common forms in which child abuse mars our society.

Define the 4 types of abuse and give 4-5 examples of the most common signs/symptoms of that type of abuse.

TYPES OF…… [Read More]

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Foster Care on Young Children

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59598899

From being exposed to such an unhealthy environment at an impressionable age, many negative effects occur (Weldon, 2001). This is because since more children are entering foster care in the early years of life when brain growth and development are most active. The younger a child may be, psychological effects become even more profound, and during the first 3 to 4 years of life, many traits are established, strengthened, and made permanent (Weldon, 2001). These traits include personality, leaning processes, and coping with stress and emotions. When a child is exposed to negative environmental conditions during the development of the brain and nervous system, serious effects will occur (Weldon, 2001). Finally, a child having no dominating parental figure during the early years of development may lead to a child never being able to receive nurture from any other person. This effect is the most devastating effect that foster care has…… [Read More]

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Servicing Children in Need and

Words: 1266 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17052970

I expect to find a pattern where as Lee (1992) might suggest, a hierarchical ethical theory exists, where the concept of "serving the needs of others" in need correlates directly to one's status, race, ethnicity and other factors.

This suggests some level of discrimination may exist especially amongst young children and adolescents who grow up in communities where they lack encouragement, support and family to shower them with love and affection. Indeed my initial responses included a feeling that I was obliged to provide each neglected child something to help fill the emotional void that must exist in the absence of proper parenting or family support.

A also feel it urgent that educators and community members consider their ethical and moral obligations to service those who might not otherwise be able to help themselves. In the face of such tragedy, such young children are more likely to grow into adults…… [Read More]

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Raising Children in the U S

Words: 4137 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 15568785

This often creates a frustrating situation within the home, as children and parents may clash over these ideas.

Of course, cultural issues are not the only differences in parenting in the United States. Phegley (2009) states that parents can easily identify what they want in their relationships with their children -- they wan the best. The best, she argues, "is entirely up to an individual's perception" (para. 2). Thus, parents often have different styles of parenting. These differences are often based upon differences in views about authority, respect, rewards, punishments, formalities, etc. While some argue that differences in parenting styles can benefit children, they can also become a source of tension within the family (Phegley, 2009). Because of this parents who have different styles of parenting might actually harm their children though fighting with each other about the best ways to parent. Thus, parenting styles in the United States further…… [Read More]

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Domestic Violence Child Abuse and Neglect

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81148507

Domestic Violence, Child Abuse and Neglect

Child abuse is normally characterized in physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Physical abuse is the non-accidental injury of a child. Sexual abuse entails any act of sex upon or with a child for the perpetrator's sexual gratification (Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, 2011). Emotional abuse entails engaging in chronic acts that interfere with a child's psycho-social health.

A classroom teacher can easily identify a child who has been abused or neglected because signs of abuse are observable in a classroom setting. Teachers also easily identify these children because of the significant time they spend with them (Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, 2011). The teachers can be sensitive to the chronic occurrence of the signals or sudden changes in a child's behavior which would point to a shift in this child's family environment. The frequency of repetition of these…… [Read More]

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Women and Children Research and

Words: 1196 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75923162

Finally, WIC is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (, 2011). WIC offers programs to ensure adequate nutrition for low-income women and infants, during and after pregnancy (, 2011). WIC also offers referrals for "prenatal and pediatric" health care through Medicaid (, 2011

Identify the philosophical attitudes and perspectives that have led to either the support or lack of understanding for and marginalizing of this group.

Women have faced many challenges that do not generally apply to men, including violence and abuse, low relative wages, unequal opportunities in the workplace, insufficient prenatal and general health care, and a lack of emotional and financial support for single-parenting. Progress along these lines has sometimes been slow due to discriminatory attitudes against: women in general (sexism, or objectification leads to abuse), women in the workplace, women who have children when unmarried, birth control and abortion, and low-income women.

In…… [Read More]

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Psychological Effects of Divorce on Children and Co-Parental Relations

Words: 6143 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21908297

Psychological Effects of Divorce on Children and Co-Parental Relations

Today, it is not possible for people to not take into account the considerable outcomes and consequences of divorce. According to social scientists, the ever increasing rates of parents ending their marriages is not only hurting the society but also upsetting and destroying the lives of children. Not only does divorce devastates the family life but also impacts the attainment of education, solidity of job, income potential, physical health, emotional well-being, alcohol and drug addiction and offensive activities (Fagan & Rector, 2000).

Millions of children all over the world suffer overwhelmingly when their parents end their marriages. Research shows that the outcomes of divorce go on with a child into his/her adulthood. Not only the adolescence of the individual is affected but it also crushes the next generation of children also. It is observed that the effects of divorce are mostly…… [Read More]

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Foster Children

Words: 8637 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87113745

Foster Children/Foster Care

Issues of a Foster Child

Child Abuse

Families and Children Served through Foster Care

The Policy Framework

This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.


Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…… [Read More]

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Understanding the Connection Between Child Abuse and Anti-Social Behavior

Words: 6698 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75798499

Abused children develop antisocial behavior that persists through three continuous generations. Such behavior grows out of angry, aggressive parenting and an overall negative home environment, perpetuated by sibling collusion, economic and biological factors. These children exhibit this in preschool by committing at least one antisocial behavior each day in class. As dysfunctional adolescents, their romantic lives and eventual marriages also fail. African-American children suffer from the affliction than Caucasian children. The current level of knowledge and efforts requires effective and efficient mechanisms at home, in school and the community in the crucial formative childhood years.

Understanding the Connection between Child Abuse and the Development of Antisocial Behavior

Abused children eventually become problem adults who are a burden to society.

Recent studies reveal the significance of parenting in the cross-generational transmission of aggressive or problem behavior up to three continuous generations. Stable evidence has long recognized and documented the negative effects…… [Read More]

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Parenting Programs Child Abuse Child Abuse

Words: 1277 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31634464

For example, Leventhal (2001) analyzed different intervention methodology and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect as well as promoting the health and development of the infant and mother, by specifically looking at the Healthy Families Olds' models.

Kass and colleagues (2003) from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids argue that the cycle of violence can be prevented with intervention methods including parenting education. Roberts, Wolman and Harris-Looby (2004, p. 101) state that "teaching students parenting skills may be the most cost-effective way to reduce violent and abusive behaviors and prevent the transfer of violent behaviors from generation to generation." They found that for less than $1,000, Project Baby Care, a parental training program developed for adolescents proved successful in improving parental knowledge and skills and attitudes toward caring for an infant.

Another study (Hughs & Gottlieb, 2004), regarding the effects of the Webster-Stratton parenting program on parenting…… [Read More]

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Sociology Parenting Neglect

Words: 1896 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70312400

Maryland couple was charged with neglect because they allowed their children -- aged 10 and 6 -- to walk one mile home from a park. The irony of this situation is that those doing the charging likely made similar walks by themselves as children, and they did it all the time. It is not strange that some parents prefer to hover over their children obsessively -- the lines of cars outside any school at 3 o'clock attest to the commonality of this approach. What is amazing is there is an actual charge for letting your children do as you did, and as the law makers who wrote the law also did. Laws protecting children make sense, but such laws appear to have pushed past the point of reason. The case in Maryland is but one example of administrative overreach into parenting. What needs to happen is that parents need to…… [Read More]

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Alternative vs Traditional Therapeutic Methods and Interventions Used to Treat Children in Foster Care

Words: 6843 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12027758

Alternative and Traditional Therapeutic Methods and Interventions:

The Treatment of Children in Foster Care

Children who live in a foster care environment often have emotional difficulties that must be dealt with by their caregivers. It is true that some of these children also have physical disabilities and ailments, but most of these physical problems can be handled more easily than some of the emotional scars that these children carry. Many of these emotional scars run very deeply, and they deal with issues and topics that no child should have to face, especially from their families.

Because of the difficult times that many of these children experienced before they came to foster care, and because of the pain and scars that they now carry from their previous conflicts and experiences, many of these children are involved in different kinds of therapy and intervention strategies. These strategies are designed to help children…… [Read More]

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Domestic Violence on Children Studies

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 2586369

Each day, thousands of New Yorkers experience violence at the hands of someone they love. But only a fraction of victims know where to get help" (p. 3).

Moreover, many domestic violence victims are coerced by the perpetrators into not testifying against them. In this regard, Glaberson (2011) reports that, "The defendants in domestic violence cases are in constant contact with their victims, and they use various means and methods to try to have the case dropped. Many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening . . . The women they were charged with abusing" (p. 3). Because even abusive relationships can be strong, some women who have experienced domestic violence -- even many times -- may be reluctant to prosecute their spouses or partners. In some cases, domestic violence shelters encourage abused partners to seek formal divorces in order to facilitate the…… [Read More]

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Comparing Behavior Responses for Two Children

Words: 2244 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97884262

Human Behavior Social Environment


This paper begins with an observation of a 4-year-old boy at the train station setting. The surrounding company is the family that consists of father, mother, a son, and three-daughters. The goal of the observation is to establish the boy's entire behavior together with his reaction to punishment and reinforcement. The method used was the Systematic Observation consisting of event sampling and specimen record that lasted for 53 minutes.

The report gathered information through "Systematic Observation." I formulated the design through the simple form of recording data through event sampling and specimen record. In most cases, researchers can record descriptions of the entire scope of behavior using this method (Hutchison, 2008). Further, the particular behavior instances of the specified period were recorded.

The Piaget Cognitive Development Theory was used in analyzing the behavior of the child. The child is at proportional stages of between two…… [Read More]

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Policies on Child Abuse and Neglect

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21124910

Social Policy: Child Abuse and Neglect

One of the essential components of the social work profession is safeguarding children from neglect and abuse. Professionals in this field work towards ensuring that children are protected from abuse and neglect in order to promote their development and growth into healthy, well-being adults. To achieve these goals, social work professionals carry out several initiatives including creating, implementing, and evaluating policy initiatives. The various initiatives adopted by social work professionals are targeted towards lessening child abuse and neglect as well as providing necessary resources and support that enhances children's development and well-being. The development of policy initiatives that target reduction of child abuse and neglect is crucial because policies govern the practices of social work professionals when offering support and resources for promoting children's development and well-being.

Given the significance of policies in helping social workers to lessen child abuse and neglect, several policies…… [Read More]

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Social Work Assessment of Children and Families

Words: 3531 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61297674

UK Children and Families

Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…… [Read More]

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Effects of Family Violence on School Aged Children

Words: 5115 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95936710

Family Abuse on Children

The widespread prevalence of family abuse has been increasingly the focus of media, societal, and scholarly attention. This research paper examines the effects of various forms of family abuse on the psychological development of children, and its long-term consequences for adult functioning. The scope of the paper includes research on the causes of family abuse and a discussion on the need for social interventions to minimize the effects of abuse on children.

The well-rounded development of children is a matter of great societal concern since they constitute the citizens of the future. As such, society has a definite stake in ensuring that its children are nurtured well today, in order that they function as responsible adult members of society tomorrow. This is a well-recognized fact as evidenced by governmental, societal, and legal interventions in providing for the development of children through free education, child care subsidies,…… [Read More]

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Efficacy of TF CBT with elementary aged children

Words: 3088 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 38021854

treatment of any victim of trauma can be circuitous and nebulous at times due to the many factors, implications and issues involved. Even with that being the case, there are ways to do it, with time and directed effort being the key item to focus on. When it comes to the subject of children, however, a good amount of care, diligence and alternative methods, at least as compared to adults, is necessary to heal and address the aftereffects and results of trauma. What follows in this document is a summary of fifteen different sources that all focus on cognitive therapy for children after the latter has been exposed and subjected to trauma, whether it be acute or prolonged.

Annotated Bibliography

Chae, Y., Goodman, G. S., Eisen, M. L., & Qin, J. (2011). Event Memory and Suggestibility in Abused and Neglected Children: Trauma-Related Psychopathology and Cognitive

Functioning. Journal Of Experimental Child…… [Read More]

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Child Neglect Is Described as the Failure

Words: 2442 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65481036

child neglect is described as the failure of a parent or a custodian liable for the child's care to make sufficient food, clothing, protection, supervision, and/or medical care available for the child. In the United States, child neglect is the most commonly recognized type of child mistreatment and abuse. The theoretical definition of child neglect by Polansky is generally acknowledged which states child neglect as "a condition in which a caretaker responsible for the child, either deliberately or by extraordinary inattentiveness, permits the child to experience avoidable present suffering and/or fails to provide one or more of the ingredients generally deemed essential for developing a person's physical, intellectual, and emotional capacities" (Pagelow, 1984).

Mother is commonly considered as the neglectful parent. Polansky and his colleagues identified the distinctive mental characteristics of neglectful mothers and categorized them into five separate types i.e. impulse-ridden mothers, apathetic-futile mothers, mothers suffering from reactive depression,…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse The Issues of Child Abuse

Words: 2331 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75017424

Child Abuse?

The issues of child abuse in the larger society are often unnoticed until it is too late. Unfortunately, public perceptions of the precursors to abuse are limited, and the unfortunate reality of 'out of sight, out of mind' is prevalent in a society which moves as quickly as ours, and in which individuals are completely engaged in their own lives, expressing little ability to watch out for, or concern for the well being of others. The following studies look into the well-being of children, the impact of foster care on the well being of children, and the community's overall involvement in the problem of child abuse.

In order to construct a viable policy regarding what to do about the problem of child abuse, researchers must first accurately perceive the problems which exist in the larger society, and make sure that they have accurately measured the important factors. Since…… [Read More]

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Children Child Abuse and Neglect

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10365146

Describe how teachers may use assistive technology effectively with students with cerebral palsy or other physical disabilities.

Children with cerebral palsy can be aided with assistive technology that allows them to communicate more effectively, such as manual communication boards. This form of technology allows the student to speak in class and participate, just like his or her peers.

Question 3: Describe some of the possible effects of substance abuse by the mother during pregnancy. How do these effects impact the child's development?

Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause delayed intellectual development, as well as many other physical health problems that affect the child's appearance and social functioning. It has been hypothesized that drug addiction can cause children to be more hyperactive, and have attention-deficit problems. Although this correlation is not certain, it is noteworthy that substance abuse is often linked to premature and low-weight births, which in and of itself can…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse Commonwealth of Australia

Words: 827 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89149657

Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? Retrieved June 1, 2013 from,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects

It identifies effects such as emotional, physical and psychological problems as well as trauma. The various forms of abuse lead to emotional problems to the child particularly distrust and low self-esteem when they are adults. The children who have been abused are also depicted to be aggressive or self-destructive, they are also more likely to go into drug abuse and even become young the long run, adults who were victims of child abuse end up abusing their own children.

Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from

There are some immediate effects from child abuse which are serious especially to infants as depicted in the source above. Serious injuries and fatalities occur in children who are just under 12 months.there are various signs which indicate that a…… [Read More]

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Child Protection States of Japan

Words: 3482 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69519954

Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.

Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]

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Children in the Military

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38865446

Military Children

Military life and civilian life differ in key ways, and these differences affect families in particular. Since September 11, there have been higher rates of deployment and a correspondingly increased rate of family stress and domestic abuse. Deployment and the stressors associated therewith are especially important to understand. A review of literature shows that PTSD and other problems are linked to increased rates of abuse among military families. Research also shows that abuse can be prevented, whether or not PTSD exists. The ways to prevent abuse include developing resilience. Resilience includes a range of coping mechanisms that help parents be more able to deal with change and uncertainty. Parents can then pass on these traits to their children. Developing a strong social network has been proven especially helpful in both military and civilian families. Both civilian and military parents benefit from the development of resilience, coping skills, and…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse and Reporting Protocols Describes in

Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64992191

child abuse and reporting protocols describes in detail federal and state definitions, as well as the professions legally obliged to report. Definitions of child abuse include child neglect as well as sexual abuse. However, in the state of New York there are separate categories of abuse based on severity, with abuse being at the top of the hierarchy, followed by neglect. Emotional abuse is also covered. A large portion of the lecture is about how to recognize child abuse, and especially on how to report it because there are legal as well as ethical obligations to do so. However, the lecture also discusses various types of abuse, the causes of abuse such as addiction, and the impact of abuse on the children.

Prior to the lecture, I did not know how many professions were legally obliged to report child abuse. I also did not know the exact protocols for reporting,…… [Read More]

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Child Psychiatry Probably Had Its

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8988016

It should be comforting for parents to know that if their child develops a serious psychological disorder it does not mean they are terrible parents. It would also be important for them to know that how they raise a child with a psychological or psychiatric can make a difference in the outcome. The research indicates that parenting alone cannot solve significant psychological problems, but that by combining good science with good parenting, children with psychological problems can be helped.


Bouchard, Jr., Thomas J.; Lykken, David T.; McGue, Matthew; Segal, Nancy L., and Tellegen, Auke. 1990. "Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota study of twins reared apart." Science, Oct. 12. Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05.

Macindoe, Ian, Ph.D. 2004. "Happiness: What studies on twins tell us about nature, nurture, and the happiness set point." Accessed via the Internet 2/7/05.

Mota-Castillo, Manuel, and Auvil, Erica, MSW 2004. "Bipolar…… [Read More]

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Child Predators What Should Be

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 78022801

However, for a non-pedophile child molester, sex drive may have little to do with the assaults and chemical castration may result in the child being sexually assaulted with objects or physically assaulted instead of sexually assaulted. Therefore, before one could attempt to answer this question, it would be critical to know what proportion of convicted child sex offenders are also pedophiles.

Discussion 2: Explanations for Elder Abuse

Which of the theories presented in Chapter 9 of the text explaining elder abuse do you find to be most compelling? Explain.

Before answering this question, be sure to review the PowerPoint presentation on Elder Maltreatment and read the relevant Handout.

Please post one original response. Each original response should be a minimum of 125 words in length.

Like any other type of family violence, there are numerous reasons that someone might engage in elder abuse. It seems clear that stress plays a…… [Read More]

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Child Characteristics Parenting Stress and

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 85104789

Only after this a further section returns to the fact of the lack of research involving father involvement and how this is influenced by child characteristics.

Once the document turns to the investigation and methods to be used, the presentation of information becomes more logical and academically stronger. The research questions are for example pertinently mentioned in "The Present Study" section. The questions directly pertain to the issue previously indicated, i.e. The parenting involvement of fathers, and how this is influenced by children and various aspects in their character.

In the "Method" section, I noticed that participants were mainly homogeneous in terms of race and age. No specific reason was given for this, but I presume it is for the purpose of consistency, as cultural values and social status would probably influence the parenting paradigm. In this way, I believe the study provides a valuable springboard for futher studies in…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse in the United

Words: 2728 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62744955

Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).

The Religious Theory

The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse in the United States Today

Words: 431 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60689702

Antecedents and Implications of Child Abuse in the United States

In spite of increased attention to the problem in the United States, child abuse continues to take place across the country. When children are abused and neglected, their lives can be adversely affected in severe ways that can last a lifetime. Therefore, identifying the antecedents and implications of child abuse in the United States represents a timely and valuable enterprise as discussed further below.

Despite corporal punishment being outlawed in a majority of the United States, child abuse remains a major problem across the country (Lambie, 2005). For instance, according to Lambie (2005), "Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem" (p. 249). Child abuse is generally defined as involving the infliction of ongoing physical harm or psychological damage to a minor (Lambie, 2005). Not surprisingly, when children are subjected to this type of treatment on a sustained basis, the…… [Read More]

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Children in Dysfunctional Families the

Words: 1730 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 67754779

We are essentially powerless to prevent all dysfunctions - but, the mental health and social support structures within communities have the responsibility to do as much as they possibly can to promote healthy family life for all. This support often involves early identification of dysfunctional families, counseling, disruption of negative patterns. The schools, churches, hospitals and any other institution both public and private have a responsibility to reach out and try to help those who are suffering - and often that suffering must be alleviated at the source, the dysfunctional family.


Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant Birthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).

Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).

Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning…… [Read More]

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Children's Spirituality Temperament Self-control Teacher What

Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82155089

According to Zohar and Marshall (2000) for instance it is:

The intelligence with which we address and solve problems of meaning and value, the intelligence with which we can place our actions and our lives in a wider, richer, meaning giving context, the intelligence with which we can assess that one course of action or one life-path is more meaningful than another (pp. 3-4).

Internalizing spirituality in our children is never more important than today where division between state and religion is severe and where uncertainty, fear, anxiety, greed, and selfishness amongst a horde of other evils can so easily afflict and topple our children. The current tensions, too, arising from terrorist attacks in the U.S. In 2001, in Bali in 2002 and in London in 2005, and the continuing apprehensions in the Middle East have spread a blight on religion that has made 'spirituality' a corrosive name. Yet, it…… [Read More]

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Child Risk Assessment for Therapy

Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60527567

Nine-year-old Afro-Caribbean, Lennox, was referred by professionals and his teacher to the therapist. Those who suggested counseling were worried about the boy's conduct and behavior when at school. As Lennox's previous therapist resigned his job during the summer school-term, the boy was referred once again; by this time, he had reached the age of ten. Lennox was offered twelve months of one-on-one therapy. The problems cited in the original referral for counseling included lack of concentration in studies, attention-seeking behavior at school, persistent unpunctuality to class, and the boy's washed-out look. Another referral by an educator in the year 2009 cited the boy's weak concentration in class, poor social skills apparent in groups, defensive stance, need to remain "in control," lack of self-esteem, and failure to accept responsibility for his conduct. According to both referring educators' behavior rating, they were highly concerned about the boy. When he reached the age…… [Read More]

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Child Abuse and Neglect Is an Ongoing Problem

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80775386

Non-Traditional Parenting

The main point of the article, "Moms at Work and Dads at Home: Children's Evaluations of Parental Roles," is that when children are given a chance to express their opinions on traditional vs. non-traditional roles, they speak up. In this case, the children used in the survey (67 second-graders and 54 fifth-graders) saw it as "acceptable for both mothers and fathers to work full-time" (Sinno, et al., 2009). However, children found it not as acceptable for fathers to be stay-at-home parents as it is for mothers to be stay-at-home parents. Clearly, 2nd graders were "more likely to rely on ... stereotype knowledge of appropriate roles" (mom home, dad at work), and when dad was the key child-rearing parent it became a non-traditional family. (This is an ABC News report on the growing trend of fathers raising children.)

Another non-traditional family is the Foster Care family. According to…… [Read More]

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Child in Crisis What Would Your Immediate

Words: 1298 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86771502

child in crisis; what would your immediate response be? For those in the field of social work, the response would be to act without hesitation. The question arises, however, if whether a preventative, community based approach benefits service recipients better than a crisis management approach. The issue of how to best allocate limited resources is but one of the issues facing the field of social work today. Another issue is the exclusion of front line service providers from the decision-making process. Service providers who relate to clients directly have an inside view on what action is needed to bring about positive change; however, life-altering decisions are often made by remote administration unfamiliar with the needs of their clients, resulting in change that often is too little, and occurs too late. Finally, middle level management walks a delicate tightrope in the social work field. Their job of balancing compliance with directives…… [Read More]

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Child Labor in the 19th Century in Europe

Words: 3347 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19434692

Labor in Europe in the 19th Century: Exploitation and the Rise of Labor Unions

As Carolyn Tuttle of Lake Forest College points out, the first textile mills in England were bad enough to elicit the opprobrious condemnation of none other than Charles Dickens in the 19th century, who scorned them as "dark satanic mills" (Tuttle). By the beginning of the 19th century, the First Factory Act of 1802 was passed -- but it did little to amend the strict, severe, and inhuman conditions in which "labor shortage" issues were solved by "employing parish apprentices" (i.e., via the exploitation of child labor) (Tuttle). Dickens would become a proponent of labor and education reform in England, depicting the latter as pernicious as the former in Hard Times (a novel which portrays the headmaster of a school as stubbornly insistent on the rote memorization of "facts" and "nothing but facts" (1) -- a…… [Read More]

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Child Obesity and Fast Food

Words: 755 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 84408262

childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. The researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors

Previous study: What has the previous study found out?

A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. These were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.


The hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.

Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…… [Read More]

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Child Offenders and CPS Cases

Words: 2432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 37569946

Family Law Midterm

Rachel Faybyshev

Ally, Esq.

Instructions: Please respond to each question in essay format. Each question highlights the week in which the subject matter was covered but please do not forget to include the subject matters (and themes) covered in week 2. Also, please include "practice points" wherever practical. Please read each question first before starting to answer. For each question, you should assume that you have told your client that he/she should consult a lawyer but you are giving advice learned from this class.

Each question is worth 25 pts.

We learned about the laws of child support in New York State. You have a client who is 21 years old who has been dating a woman who is also 21 years old. Your client tells you that his girlfriend is pregnant. The couple is not married and do not live together. Your client has mixed emotions…… [Read More]

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Child Attachment Theory and Its Analysis

Words: 2327 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65607269


Attachment is defined as a deep and enduring emotional bond usually that links an individual to another across space and time. Attachment is at times not reciprocal, in other words it may not be shared between the two. Attachment is characterized especially in children by specific behaviour, whereby a child seeks proximity with the individual to whom they are attached when they are threatened or upset (McLeod, 2009). Attachment-linked behaviour in parents towards their children encompasses responding appropriately and sensitively to the needs of their children. Such behaviour is seemingly universal across different cultures. Attachment theory offers an explanation of the manner in which the relationship between the parent and the child emerges and how it impacts subsequent development (McLeod, 2009; Bretherton, 1992).

Attachment theory is the field of psychology emerged from the influential work of John Bowlby in 1958. In the 1930's, Dr. Bowlby worked as a psychiatrist…… [Read More]

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How Child Poverty Effects Crime Rates Amongst Teens and Young Adults in Today's Society

Words: 3252 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 86501174

Child Poverty Effects Crime Rates

How Child Poverty Effects Crime Rates Amongst Teens and Young Adults in Today's Society

How Child Poverty Effects Crime Rates

How Child Poverty Effects Crime Rates Amongst Teens and Young Adults in Today's Society

The entire human race is in the midst of a breathtaking era that is attributed to numerous advancements and innovations. However, it is very unfortunate to state that this unbelievable industrialized world is full of social dilemmas that have made millions of people to suffer from its drastic impacts. While taking United States into consideration, the statistical records expose the fact that with the expansion of racial and minority groups, the nation has become an increasingly diverse society with numerous young people. In this diverse society, child poverty has become one of widespread and prominent social issue with serious consequences and wider implications (Lindsey, 2008).

Indeed, in this contemporary world, the…… [Read More]

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Data on Child Abuse

Words: 426 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89807774

Child Abuse: The Cold, Hard Facts

The United States has the highest recorded number of cases of child abuse of any industrialized nation

million reports of child abuse occur annually, involving 6 million children

children die every day due to abuse-related causes (National child abuse statistics, 2013, Child Help).

Abuse can take many forms: of all recorded cases of child abuse, 78% contained instances of neglect; more than 17% contained reports of physical abuse; 10% contained instances of sexual abuse; 8% reflected psychological abuse; 2% contained instances of medical neglect; and 10% contained other types of abuse (National statistics on child abuse, 2013, National Children's Alliance).


Most forms of child abuse are not stranger-related. "80% of reported child fatalities as a result of abuse and neglect were caused by one or more of the child victim's parents" (National statistics on child abuse, 2013, National Children's Alliance).

As brought to…… [Read More]

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What Victimology Says About Child Abuse Data

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57474223

Child Abuse and Victimology

Victimology is the study of the victims of crime and how their psychology is affected by the experience. Thus, child abuse relates to victimology because it is abuse is a crime endured by the victim (the child) at an early age. The psychological effects of the abuse can be hidden for years (though not always), which makes the victims of child abuse an important focus for victimologists. This paper will discuss child abuse and show how it relates to victimology.

Child abuse can take different forms. It can be mental, emotional, or physical. It is any action that exacts harm on a child, and because children are young and vulnerable to their surroundings, the abuse can be very subtle or it can be very extreme, and this can be found in either case, mental or physical (Daigle, Muftic, 2016, p. 188). Child abuse is also prevalent…… [Read More]

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Violence and Its Impact on Children

Words: 2816 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48898604

Children and Violence

Exposure to domestic violence can have negative effects on children that may result in short-term or long-term complications in the child's life. Taking timely and appropriate measures help limit the negative effects such experiences may have on children. Young kids living in families experiencing domestic violence are a disempowered lot. They develop limited emotional literacy and verbal skills. Further, the environment occasioned by domestic violence is that of intimidation and secrecy. The caregivers are also less emotionally available to the children. Together, such factors restrict the children's opportunity and capacity to make their opinions heard. To help the children, their preferences should be considered and a healthy environment that ensures the maintenance of the daily routine of children is maintained in the temporary shelters. They should be continually supported and support structures established in every area that the children are. Discussed in this paper are the consequences…… [Read More]

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Foster Care Alternatives for Child Abuse

Words: 785 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62378761

I like this approach to dealing with kids in foster care. The ultimate goal should be to have a little contact with the system as possible. The foster families and the birth families should work together to make sure that the child has the safest and most healthy environment possible that includes the birth family. The goal in the end is to help the families with whatever issues they are having so that they are able to care for their children once again. This approach will probably not work for every child and every family but it should be used as much as it possible.

Challenges to Working in a Bureaucracy

Working within a bureaucracy can be a very challenging thing to do. Bureaucracies are often laden with rules and regulations that have to be overcome in order to get things accomplished. A lot of times these rules and regulations…… [Read More]

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PTSD in Children and it Impacts

Words: 2227 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 72431129

Child and PTSD


Post-traumatic Disorder

Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). But in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).

The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. But it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).

Social Workers and PTSD

The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…… [Read More]

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Effective Discipline for Children

Words: 4828 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48897121

Discipline for Children

Understanding effective parental discipline, defined as social projection of parents' concepts onto their children, their impact and hence its development in the children's mind, comes under a number of mechanisms and paradigms of research literature. They range from learning theories, morality theories, and parental styles of social delivery to socio cultural cum environmental approach (Halpenny, et al., 2010).

According to Clinton and Sibcy (2006), it is deemed that children are emotionally sensitive parts of the society who need parents, care, leadership, love and nurturing from someone whose primary duty is to take care of the child. According to the authors, it is possible that some decisions undertaken by the guardians in the name of love may result into deteriorative outcomes detested by the children and may form a bad effect on their lives. Following is a table (p. 6) extracted from Clinton and Sibcy defining different traits…… [Read More]