Neglected Children Essays (Examples)

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Administration for Children & Families of the

Words: 1547 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Administration for Children & Families of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Children's well-being has become an issue of crucial concern not only in the United States but also across the world. Homelessness, poverty, racism, and violence shape the childhood experiences of millions of youth and children. Child welfare advocates and grass root activists have been working tirelessly to put the concerns of youth and children on the public agenda in both national and international realms. Major reforms are underway in some nations to offer new systems for considering the upbringing and care of children in traditional post-industrial world. A number of proposals are forthcoming for programs, intervention technologies, and policies. Nevertheless, some of these proposals have challenged the fundamental aspects of the child welfare system because it has been in place for centuries. This analysis is necessary to come to terms with the history of the ad…… [Read More]

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Mental Illness and Child Abuse

Words: 2109 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90755475

Mental Illness and Child Abuse

The physical abuse of children was 'rediscovered' by physicians over fifty years ago. Since then, some observers have expressed concern at the continuing 'medicalisation' of what they consider to be essentially a social problem (Parton, 1985). A widely-held view emerged from the ensuing debate that child physical abuse and neglect occurred through an interaction between parents, children and their social environment. The model described parents with emotional conflicts, caring for vulnerable children, while living in circumstances of social stress (Schmitt and Krugman, 2005). In the context of this model, parents who maltreated their children were not generally considered to be suffering from a psychiatric disorder.

However, recent research into child abuse and neglect has not fully supported this assumption. In particular, reviews of child deaths have shown significant associations with parental mental health problems. Research in this area has been hampered by problems of definition.…… [Read More]

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Self-Regulation Issues in Children and Adolescents With ADHD ODD and OCD

Words: 6305 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39399907

Self-Regulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD

Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…… [Read More]

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Programs for Children in the

Words: 3771 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16676278

However, from 2008 the number began to decrease slightly. The rate of increase in the number of children aging out of the United States foster care system from 1998 to 2007 is 71.7%. Whereas the rate declined by 0.71% in the year 2008. In the year 2009, there was again a decline of 0.33%. In the year 2010, the number of children aging out of foster care system declined by 5.4%. It can be concluded from the above figure that there was a significant increase in the number of children aging out of foster care system from the year 1998 to 2007. Whereas, this number started declining from the year 2008 and it is still following a declining trend. (McCoy-Roth, DeVoogh & Fletcher, 2011)

Challenges Faced by the youth aging out of Foster Care System

Children who age out of the foster care system generally face many problems in relation…… [Read More]

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Ainsworth Corsaro and Children's Relationships Theories of

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33374857

Ainsworth, Corsaro, And Children's Relationships

Theories of child development generally focus on whether there it is more indebted to their private relationships (typically consisting of the child's interactions with their family) or public relationships (involving the child's interactions with their peers.) The former theory is known as attachment theory since it refers to the child's reliance on their parents, while the latter is considered an ethnographic approach, as it places greater emphasis on the environment in which the child's development takes place. Although both approaches are scientifically viable, they are in many ways antithetical; this essay elucidates some of the salient differences between the two.

Mary Ainsworth's approach to child development is characterized as "attachment theory." In Ainsworth's seminal procedure "The Strange Situation," she offers a comprehensive model for measuring a child's sociability, with a complete taxonomy for various diagnoses. The procedure lasts for 20 minutes and involves the child,…… [Read More]

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China's One Child Policy

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72566010

China's One Child Policy

Historically, it is noted that Mao Zedong, once a China president encouraged population growth which saw the population of China almost double during that period of his leadership. This led to overpopulation and the stretching of the social amenities and most importantly the economy. In order to address this challenge, the one -- child policy was introduced in China. This is a policy which forbids any family from having more than one child especially in the urban areas. This was a rule that was established under the watch of Deng Xiaoping in 1979 as a temporary measure to the challenge of overpopulation, albeit more than four decades down the line, the policy still is in enforcement and there are no signs of it beings scrapped from the legislation of China (Matt Rosenberg, 2011).

There were punitive measures that are put in place in order to enforce…… [Read More]

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Importance of Setting Boundaries for Children

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64032101

Boundaries for Children

Rules and norms are an expected way of social living. They are predictable and part of our lives, and, therefore, we rarely stop to question their roots. We accept them as part of our routine, as demonstrative of our progressiveness as a nation, and are comfortable in their security. When children don't have boundaries, their lives take a much different turn than parents ever plan. Even if parents don't start out setting boundaries for children, it is never too late to start. The older the child the harder it gets, but the importance of setting boundaries never declines. Setting boundaries for children is important for all who come into contact with them from educators to child care givers to parents, of course, themselves.

Whilst some parents inculcate parenting styles from their own parents, either deliberately, in which intent they may seek to transmit inculcated patterns, or, at…… [Read More]

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Intervention in Child Abuse and

Words: 2291 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 73057886

By the 1970s most states had mandatory child abuse reporting laws. These laws aimed at identifying abused children and setting in motion legal procedures to investigate the child's situation and either to provide services for them in their own home or to remove them from their home and place them in a safer environment (Melli, 1998).

Historically, the laws and regulations of the present are the children and grandchildren of the laws that were pioneered in the 1960s and 1970s. Certainly, experience makes any process better and smoother, but essentially, the system of three to four decades ago would have been very similar to today. What would not have percolated down to teachers, principals and other team personnel yet would have been the knowledge of the new legal system and how to function in it. This uncertainty would have undoubtedly have slowed the intervention as wary professionals move cautiously, balancing…… [Read More]

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Media on Child Abuse and

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89289149

e., "Christian Choate was 13 years old when he died two years ago in a dog cage and was buried in a plastic bag near an Indiana trailer park" and "They also believe Christian's father, who led police to the grave, had for years beaten the boy and kept him in a cage") in an effort to alert readers to the problem of child abuse and neglect at the national level, and emphasizes time and again that the problem is likely underreported and current statistics most likely just represent "the tip of the iceberg" (p. A7).

Having prefaced her article with this disturbing example of the extremes that child abuse can assume, Wetzstein goes on to explain the differences in definitions used by different states makes precise national prevalence estimates difficult, but all signs indicate that there is a national problem that is expected to increase unless and until something…… [Read More]

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Impact and Cost of Child Care on Single Parents

Words: 2371 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64248034

Child Care on Single Parents

Over the past several years, more single parents with children, mostly women, have joined the workforce (Ford, 1995). As a result, childcare has become an extremely important social policy issue. Many single parents, particularly those with low incomes, find it difficult to finance the cost of decent childcare.

In addition, poor quality of childcare has become an increasingly significant problem in the United States. Low wages for childcare workers result in high turnover and inexperienced childcare providers.

As more and more single parents have moved, by necessity or choice, from the home into the workforce, the need for affordable, quality childcare has become a crucial social issue. However, this need often goes unmet. As a result, there is an enormous impact and cost placed on single parents.

Recent research reveals that 71% of parents reprimanded for child neglect did not have enough money to pay…… [Read More]

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Sexual Abuse of Children Is

Words: 3429 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53732823

2003). In addition

Fergusson, Horwood, and Lynsky (1997) also examined the extent to which exposure to CSA was associated with increased rates of sexual risk-taking behaviors among 520 young women (aged 18) in New Zealand. Retrospective reports of CSA indicated that females who experienced sexual abuse (intercourse) were 4.4 times more likely to engage in sexual activity and be pregnant, 9.3 times more likely to have had five or more sexual partners, and 6.6 times more likely to have had sexual intercourse before age 16. The association remained significant even after controlling for other adverse childhood experiences. Further, Brown, Lourie, Zlotnick, and Cohn (2000) conducted a study of 208 adolescent patients who attended psychiatric day schools and residential programs, and found that more than half reported a history of sexual abuse (Addy et al. 2003)."

Prior research has also found that students that were sexually abused as children were times…… [Read More]

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Social Marketing Napcan Prevent Child

Words: 2493 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 96782281

These "interventions are strategies that target whole communities in order to build public resources and attend to the factors that contribute to child maltreatment" (Holzer et al. 2006 p 3). In NAPCAN's 2006 campaign, the organization was promoting parental education through social marketing. NAPCAN's campaign is directed at individuals in order to bring awareness of how their parenting can negatively impact their children.

SWOT Analysis


One of the biggest strengths the campaign boasted was its price tag. The cost effectiveness of social media is a major strength to the overall campaign. Prevention programs are often less likely to be rigorously funded and supported by government agencies and institutions, with most funding coming only for short periods of campaign management (Tomison 1998). As a result, social media serves as an extremely beneficial platform because of its cost effective nature. The cost of the campaign is much less than other forms…… [Read More]

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Parental Violence Toward Children

Words: 2152 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38688584

killing of a child in real life has no symbolic meaning, no power other than that of an expression of evil and is, therefore, one of the worst acts a human, let alone a parent, can commit. In literature, however, the killing of children is symbolic of a diseased mind or of a diseased culture. Euripides' Medea kills her children, but she is a symbol of Mother Earth, of the Gods, and of nature all of which can exert, with no warning and no necessity of explanation, a death upon any or all of us. That which we are given can be taken away. The killing of a child in literature is, in some contexts, a symbolic reminder of the seeming arbitrariness of nature. While some critics interpret Medea as being a proactive population reducer, she can be rightly understood as a sick woman who, like the animals that eat…… [Read More]

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Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse Rights Suspected

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50273449

Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse

Rights: Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse

More than three million reports of child abuse and neglect will be filed in the United States this year (Children's Rights 2012). In many states, reporting suspected or alleged child abuse is mandatory in which certain steps must be followed to ensure the immediate safety of the child and the confidentiality and privacy of the accused family. Sadly, at least four children die from abuse or neglect every day -- many in homes that are already known to child welfare agencies, and some in foster care placements made by the child welfare agencies themselves. Moreover, children and their families still have rights that must be honored during an investigation (Big Brothers 2009).

Parent's Rights When Investigated

Whenever the department completes an investigation of a child abuse or neglect report, the department must notify the alleged perpetrator(s) of the report…… [Read More]

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Preventing Child Abuse Is a Top Priority

Words: 1717 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94335256

Preventing child abuse is a top priority for social service agencies, families, teachers, and others in the community. Certainly it is a top priority for government agencies and law enforcement as well. This paper reviews and critiques the importance of taking those actions that prevent a child from being maltreated in any number of ways; the paper also reviews the statistics relating to child abuse, and provides information on how to detect that a child has been abused in some way.

How many children are abused in the United States each year?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates the number of children that are "maltreated" each year in the United States at 900,000. There are other reports that have differing data on child abuse. The organization Child Maltreatment Reports has compiled what the Health and Human Services (HHS) department explains is the "most recent data from the…… [Read More]

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Social Justice and Children

Words: 3432 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55245614

He then went to work for the family business, lived in a nice home and drove a nice car, but had no reported income. Since the birth of their child, who is now a teenager, he has contributed virtually nothing to the child's support, though his mother has established a college fund for the child.


One area of research that has influenced my view of social justice is the research on wealth disparity in America:

In the United States, wealth is highly concentrated in a relatively few hands. As of 2001, the top 1% of households (the upper class) owned 33.4% of all privately held wealth, and the next 19% (the managerial, professional, and small business stratum) had 51%, which means that just 20% of the people owned a remarkable 84%, leaving only 16% of the wealth for the bottom 80% (wage and salary workers). In terms of financial…… [Read More]

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Documentary of Incest

Words: 2958 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 86259778

Child Abuse and Neglect Intervention

Child Abuse Neglect & Intervention

The documentary Family Affair was written, narrated, and filmed by Chico Colvard ("IMDB," 2010). The film is focused on a retrospective look at events that took place in his family over a period of several decades. The four siblings featured in the film are the children of a black veteran named Elijah Colvard, Jr., and his wife, a white German Jewish woman he met while stationed in Germany. The children were raised as "army brats," moving from base to base, from state to state during their schools years. Chico and his three sisters [Angelika (Angie); Chiquita (Chici); Pauline (Paula)] lived with both parents for many years, until an accident catapulted family secrets into the open. In 1978,when Chico David Colvard was just 10 years old, he obtained his father's gun and bullets and accidently shot Paula in the leg. While…… [Read More]

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Foster Children History of Foster

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31558143

One explanation is the fact that mental health services are generally allocated based on the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis, and older children are more likely to meet criteria for specific disorders. Although younger children may exhibit certain symptoms, they are less likely to meet the full criteria for a classified disorder (Fisher 2005). Moreover, the behavior of older foster children may appear to pose more of an immediate threat, either to themselves or to others (Fisher 2005). Even in the general population, risks for violence, juvenile delinquency and other behavioral problems, increase with age, thus in high-risk populations (as defined by factors such as poverty and violence), the risk gradient associated with age increases, therefore the need for services may be the greatest in the short-term among older foster children (Fisher 2005).

In a study published in the January 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of…… [Read More]

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Crimes Against Children Need Stability

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41765690

The safety of children is the most important function adults can perform and "the key to their safety is awareness, education, and prevention." ("What You Can Do") Children must be taught self-esteem and self-preservation, that they can talk to adults about problems, where are the safe places to play, and to be aware of their surroundings and those in it. It is paramount that parents know the people in their neighborhood, the friendlier one is with their neighbors the safer they will be. In this way the neighbors will always be on the lookout for trouble and everyone can watch over everyone else. But most importantly adults, especially parents, must recognize that they are responsible for their own actions and should retain a measure of level-headedness and self-control at all times. Finally, parents need to take personal responsibility for their children's care, providing both physical and emotional nurturing.

Because of…… [Read More]

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Family Violence and PTSD Children

Words: 5408 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21707001

Not all physical force can be characterized as violence, and not all violence is created equal. There are numerous controversies regarding definitions of violence and abuse and no clear consensus among researchers on how to characterize acts as one or the other. Presumably, there should be commonalities among different types of violence so that all can be characterized first as violence, and yet some violence is socially approved and so would be placed in a separate category. Even the issue of whether it should be assumed that there are many different kinds of violence is controversial, with some holding that violence is violence in any setting and at any time. At the same time, while there are important differences among the different forms of family violence, all may be caused by similar social and psychological factors. Research has shown that the some forms of violence are more damaging than others…… [Read More]

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Post-Traumatic Stress in Children

Words: 2753 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19041717

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with war veterans. Researchers have, however, increasingly recognized this condition in women, children, and men from all backgrounds and for a variety of reasons. According to Roberts et al. (2011), the condition results from the experience of an event that is traumatic, and that makes the individual feel helpless, horrified, or afraid. A common factor among sufferers of PTSD is persistence. The individual persistently avoids stimuli he or she associates with the event, for example. There is also a tendency to re-experience the event persistently. There are also several health consequences associated with the condition. These include a tendency towards suicide, substance abuse, impaired functioning and general health problems (Roberts et al., 2011). When it occurs in children, post-traumatic stress disorder can have significant long-term consequences on their development. Several studies have investigated the demographic nature of…… [Read More]

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Effects of Deployments on Children

Words: 2177 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37655377

Military Children and the Effects of Long Deployments on Them

Over the last several years, the children of parents who are serving in the military are facing increasing amounts of scrutiny. This is because one or both of their parents are being sent on long deployments to Afghanistan. These shifts are directly resulting in them and their caregivers having to make dramatic adjustments. (Wells, 2012)

According to a study conducted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), they found that their ability to adjust will involve the family situation, age and their environment. These factors are leading to some adapting more effectively than others. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from the report which says, "Children's reactions to deployment-related parental absence vary by age, developmental stage, and other individual and family factors. While young children are likely to exhibit externalizing behavior such as anger and attention difficulties, school-age…… [Read More]

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What Are the Advantages of Mediation in Family Law Cases Involving Children

Words: 2323 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90546672

Mediation in family law cases is recognized as a viable alternative to the courtroom because it has proven to work effectively in most cases if both parties make a reasonable effort to solve their disputes. Approximately 98% of family law cases settle without the need to proceed to trial. The mediator, an unbiased third party who does not represent either party, will listen to both sides and assist the parties to come to a mutually agreed resolution of the issues in their case. The entire focus of the mediation process is find a mutually agreed upon resolution, with both parties making suitable compromises to resolve financial issues equitably and to agree upon a parenting plan that is in the best interests of the child.

There are many advantages to mediation. First of all, it enables the parents of children to be creative and explore options that may not be available…… [Read More]

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Domestic Violence and Its Effects on Children

Words: 1985 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83833186

Domestic Violence and Effects on Children

In the western culture, childhood is referred to as the period of special protection and rights. When a child is brought up in a safe and nurturing environment their development is expected to unfold.When a child is born, their brain is about 25% of its adult weight, which later increases to 66% by the end of first year. During the developing stages the brain is most susceptible to the impact of traumatic experiences (Perry, 1997). Latest research implies that exposure to extreme trauma can change the organization of the brain, which can result in problems in dealing with stresses later in life (Brown & Bzostek, 2003). According to the attachment theory, a child's sense of security depends on security of attachment to its first caregiver. In addition, the kind of relationship developed serves as a model of how to relate to people later in…… [Read More]

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Women Who Kill Their Children

Words: 2425 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22538701

When their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.

The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).

With all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…… [Read More]

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What to Look for in Child Care

Words: 920 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15380403

Day Care Services

When both parents need to work to support the family, but the family has a child and there is no family member available to provide care for that child, the only option for those parents is to locate a child care facility and trust that the care will be of good quality. This paper reviews the process that parents will go through in determining which facility to use, and then what they should know before selecting a high-quality child care facility.

The city is Fresno and the state is California.

There are minimum standards for child care in California, including that they must be licensed by the state. One child care center can include infants, toddlers, preschool or school-aged children, but separate licenses are required for each category. It is more common to have a child care center specialize in just one age group, but as mentioned,…… [Read More]

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Young Diverse Children Living in Big City

Words: 2600 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26026878

Young Diverse Children Living in Big Cities

This paper will focus on the lives and challenges minority and culturally diverse youths face growing up in major urban city environments, such as Newark, New York, Baltimore or Seattle. The advent of major metropolitan areas has stimulated a rapidly increasing population of disadvantaged and volatile youths. In today's America, it seems that more and more young people growing up in major cities are subjected to poor socio-economic conditions, which anymore lead to an increased likelihood for violence and life disruption.

Today's youths growing up in major urban cities are often disadvantaged; they lack the self-esteem, confidence and tools necessary to succeed in their later adulthood. I hope through my research to uncover facts related to urban distress among youths. I hope to also explore community organizations that have focused their efforts on improving the conditions prevalent among urban youths. I propose that…… [Read More]

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Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared With Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents

Words: 10855 Length: 39 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27647890

Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents

I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)

II Behavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)

II Hypothesis #2

I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's

II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's

Comparing the Differences Between ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships

IV Protective Factors For Resiliency

I Participants

II Instruments

Annotated Bibliography

Children of Alcoholics Screening Test

Are You an Alcoholic?

Intimate Bond Measure

Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale

Self-Esteem Scale

The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…… [Read More]

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Correlation Between Television Viewing and Reading Literacy in Children

Words: 1962 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77739948

Television and Child Literacy

Ever since it became a household fixture more than fifty years ago, parents and educators have asked the same question - is there such a thing as too much television? Can television interfere with a child's desire to learn to read? When television first debuted, it was touted as the wonder of the age, a miracle of technology that would bring the world into everyone's living rooms. Television would be an invaluable educational tool, opening up vast new horizons of knowledge. This was the dream. The reality was quite different. While television's "Golden Years," the 1950s and Early 1960s, did feature some wonderful documentaries together with a number of outstanding theatrical productions, on the whole TV quickly became, as Federal Communications Commission Chairman, Newton Minnow, put it in 1961, "A vast wasteland." (Mander) Yet, it is not only what television does or does not offer that…… [Read More]

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How Sexual Child Abuse Can Effect the Child's Psychological Development

Words: 2187 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25023031

Sexual Child Abuse

Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. Definite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.

For Definitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…… [Read More]

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Stress Impact an Autistic Child

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74982274

One study examined the impact that spiritual or religious faith had on families with autistic children. In this study 49 families of autistic children were examined for signs of stress either psychologically, emotionally or health wise. The study looked at participants who had autistic children between the ages of 4 and 20 years old. The study concluded that parents who have a strong religious or spiritual faith and support from religious groups showed a stress level that was no higher than families that do not have an autistic child (Pargament, 2001). The study attributed part of this contentment to the belief by parents that a higher power placed the autistic child in their life for a reason and he or she was one of God's gifts designed for that family. In addition, the support socially and emotionally that the parents derived from religious belonging helped the parents feel less alone…… [Read More]

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Developmental Counseling With Children First

Words: 1963 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67411161

Interestingly, in social skills assessment research, a separate empathy factor of skills emerged through multivariate analysis on the adolescent version of the Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment. This factor was not identified on the elementary-age version of the same scale, a finding that corroborates the notion that the advanced cognitive and affective skills needed for empathy do not tend to emerge until adolescence. The advanced language development that occurs by friendships seems to become more autonomous during this period, although increasing interdependence relating to psychological support tends to occur simultaneously. Adolescent friendships are typified by the process of self-exploration and self-definition. According to Gottman, adolescents use friendships to explore who they are, what they believe, and what they will become through complex verbal interactions in a supportive environment. Thus, the adolescent quest for personal identity seems to take place in the context of adolescent friendship patterns.

Conclusion…… [Read More]

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Television Violence on Children in

Words: 2447 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91653564

Two of the most important things that the industry is doing now is making sure that all television programs are rated, and using v-chips to keep children from seeing programs that contain violence (Szaflik, 2000). Neither one of these ideas are foolproof, however, and therefore more must be done. Unfortunately, not that many parents and educators are aware of what else can be done to help, and therefore television violence continues to grow. This can also lead to the idea that violence in the real world is increasing and that people are in more danger, regardless of what the actual facts are (Gerbner, 1994).

There are, however, things that parents can do to help their children when it comes to protecting them from excessive violence on television. These include:

Paying attention to what kinds of programs their children are watching and watching some of the programming together

Setting limits on…… [Read More]

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Cartoons and Comics Affect Children Media Has

Words: 2136 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11621112

Cartoons and Comics Affect Children

Media has a powerful impact on society. Media alters our buying habits, controls our tastes, incites our feelings against or for one or the other group or country, it is a powerful weapon indeed. Considering this influence of media over our lives psychologists and social scientists have become concerned that violence depicted on our media; TV, videos and videogames is responsible for increased violence among the children and in the society.

A number of studies claim to have conclusive proof that violence in the media and bad habits seen in cartoons and comic are making our children aggressive, fearful and developing a negative attitude towards the society. Other researchers and analyst dispute this theses and point to other factors as a cause of increased violence.

This paper reviews the arguments presented by both sides of this divide and also the writer's on opinion on this…… [Read More]

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Social Work With Children in

Words: 5015 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9927330

I told her that there had been three caseworkers since I had been in foster care this time, but none of them had ever gone to visit my mom. She had been alone in all of this. It wasn't fair for her.

The third caseworker visited my mom and saw how hard she was trying. I was able to go home overnight and then, finally, we were all back together again after two years of being apart. I'll never forget how my being bad affected my family. It makes me mad, and mad at myself, but my counselor has helped me to understand what has happened and I can deal with it"

Calvin's mother is a more patient and understanding mother now and is currently a parent advocate for the ACS (Timmons, p. 1).

This story is a good story, compared to the story that a young girl named Peggy,…… [Read More]

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Popular Culture Affects Children Today

Words: 2178 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76613011

In fact, it is interesting to note that violent television and video games become more likely to lead to aggression in children as they get older (Krcmar, 1998, p. 251). Factors that cause this include the fact that from new-born to the age of eight, children pay an increasing amount of visual attention to television. This increase levels off at the age of eight. Moreover, as they get older, children appear to grow increasingly likely to identify with television characters. This may be because they become more cognitively sophisticated, and thus can better understand what they are watching. Krcmar (1998, p. 251) notes that these changes may partly explain the fact that as children grow older, the likelihood that viewing violent television will result in increased aggressive behaviours becomes higher. They also become increasingly desensitized to media violence as they age. There seems to be little doubt that exposure to…… [Read More]

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Obligation of Children Toward Their Parents

Words: 400 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18169808

Obligation of Children Toward Their Parents

Moral philosopher Jane English argues that adult children have no moral obligation to support their parents. This theory is founded on a basic tenet of her philosophy that one only "owes" that which he or she consensually accepts as an obligation. Parents choose to have or adopt children, and are therefore morally obligated to provide support and sustenance for their young children. Children, on the other hand, do not ask to be brought into the world or adopted, so they can not be morally required to take on the reverse obligation of caring for their parents in their old age.

English argues that when parents care for their children, this is a "favor" or a voluntary sacrifice. Such a favor does not cause a moral obligation to incur for the recipient party, the child, and it does not therefore create an "owing" relationship. Thus,…… [Read More]

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Oregon Child Research Data and Publications the

Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10909569


Child Research Data and Publications

The facts that I reviewed on the Child Defense Fund's Child Research Data and Publications were specific to the state of Oregon. They gave me both new and familiar information that will be a benefit for me to know as a teacher in order to best assist my students in succeeding.

The race with the largest population in Oregonian children was white non-Hispanic, at a count of 593,483 out of the entire 872,811 population. Of this entire population, 19.2% are considered poor. Shockingly, 8.1% are defined as being at an extreme poverty level. It is not uncommon for the children in Oregon to start their life fighting. Oregon has ranked eleventh for infant mortality rates, one child dying each day before reaching their first birthday. This information should unfortunately not be considerably alarming, as 11.6% of the child population in Oregon is living without…… [Read More]

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Young Children's Spirituality Temperament and

Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 72109186

b. Nurturing

i. Prize warmth, explanation and encouragement over the pursuit of obedience. Differentiate between discipline and suppression of exploratory impulses.

c. Showing Compassion

i. By showing compassion to a child, a parent teaches morality rather than insisting upon rule-following. This produces a child in whom "morality is not imposed…from outside but emerges from within and is learned by cooperating with their parents." (Gray)

IV. Personal Identity

a. Self and society

i. A child is only beginning to understand the connection between herself, her community and her larger world. A positive personal identity allows the child to be defined as part of a greater spiritual wholeness. Hart refers to 'interconnectedness."

b. Finding Inner Guidance

i. Personal growth is marked by a distinctly youthful wisdom. Hart indicates that "in spite of their inexperience in the world (or perhaps because of it), children have remarkable access to deep inner guidance and insight."…… [Read More]

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Effects and Challenges Facing Children and Adolescents With Depression

Words: 1686 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83676654

Children and Adolescents with Depression

Statistics show that up to 2.5% of children and 8.3% of adolescents suffer from depression in the United States. Depression is thought to affect school performance, social interactions and family relationships. However, diagnosis and treatment of depression in children and adolescents have been hampered by the confusion of the symptoms of depression with normal adolescent behaviors. In order to reduce the incidence of depression and its effects on young people, the researcher aims to provide information that will help to clear up some of the controversy. Most of the research on depression has been done with adults but depressed children and adolescents show some different symptoms. There is not enough research on the topic of depression in children and adolescents in general, and on how depression affects their lives.

The study will address the following research questions:

How does depression affect the academic performance, social…… [Read More]

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Calcutta's Red Light District and Children Who Live There

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 79011066

Born Into Brothels

What issues doe these children face?

First of all, even though the children in this film are living in what seems to be (and probably is) and environment of squalor, with prostitution as the main theme in their little communities, they do play and the do silly fun things like kids anywhere in the world. But on the other hand when the viewer sees what these children are up really against in this ghastly, horrific environment, it is heart-breaking.

When Shanti says she would like to get an education some day, her eyes reflect the eyes of every child in the world that is struggling in poverty and cultural neglect. At least the viewer gets the sense that there is hope in some of these little children's hearts.

"Even if I was poor I would have a happy life," a little girl explains, adding, "One has to…… [Read More]

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Policy Analysis Child Protective Service Include Abuse Foster Care and Adoption

Words: 2761 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61832890

Policy Analysis Child Protective Service Include Abuse, Foster Care and Adoption

Child physical abuse did not receive widespread attention in this country until a 1962 medical journal article discussed patterns of suspicious injuries in children. Within four years, all 50 states had passed laws requiring certain professionals to report cases of suspected child maltreatment. These laws were intended to protect children because they are a particularly vulnerable portion of the population. As reporting increased, states developed systems to support their child protection responsibilities, and a number of federal laws were enacted that have guided the development of states' child protection systems. The primary responsibility for responding to cases of child maltreatment rests with state agencies. States must comply with federal child abuse and neglect guidelines to receive federal funds and have some independence of how the services are provided.

The policies of Child Protective Services (CPS) and the Department of…… [Read More]

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Childhood Neglect on Adult Relationships

Words: 1750 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69186991


Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,

Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family Relations. 57 (3): 335+.

Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior

in Children." Social Work Research. 28 (3): 153+.

Itzin, C. (2000). Home Truths About Child Sexual Abuse: A Reader. Routledge.

Jouriles, E., (2008). "Child Abuse in the Context of Domestic Violence."

Violence and Victims. 23 (2): 221+.

Lincoln, B. (NDI). Cited in:

Miller, K. (2003). "Understanding and Treating Reactive Attachment Disorder." Working

Papers from medical Educational Services Workshop. Arlington, Tx, February, 2003.

Minnis, H.,, 92006). "Reactive Attachment Disorder." European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 15 (2): 336-42.

NAI. (2010, April). Definitions in Federal Law. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from Defining Child

Abuse & Neglect:

"National Child Abuse Statistics." (2009). ChildHelp. Cited in:

Saisan, J.,…… [Read More]

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Influence of child abuse in adulthood

Words: 2448 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77699058

Effects of child abuse in adulthood
Child neglect and abuse are usually a result of the interactions of several environmental, societal, family and individual factors. Child neglect and abuse are not unavoidable- steady, safe, and nurturing environments and relationships are crucial for prevention. Prevention of child neglect and abuse could also prevent other kinds of violence, given that certain kinds of violence are interconnected and have common protective and risk factors, repercussions, as well as tactic of prevention (CDC, 2019). Child neglect and abuse together with other negative childhood encounters could also have significant influence on an individual’s lifetime health and wider wellbeing if left unattended to. For instance, being exposed to violence in early childhood raises the risks of future perpetration and victimization of violence, injury, delayed development of the brain, sexually transmitted diseases, taking part in sex trafficking, reproductive health issues, restricted employment opportunities, lower academic success,…… [Read More]

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Abuse Effects of Abuse in Children Abuse

Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60342891


Effects of abuse in children

Abuse: Effects and Impacts on Children

The purpose of this paper is to research the subject of childhood abuse in view of what is suffered both immediately and on the long-term basis in relation to the child's psychological, biological and social development.

Child abuse is all too common in today's world and is a subject that is almost daily splashed across the news. Physical abuse is by Merck Manual as being "battery'. Battery has the same meaning as physical violence to the body. Further the manual reveals that it is an element in every race and throughout every layer of societal structure leaving no one race, sex, group, or religion unscathed by its' effects. Two million children are abused in the United States each year; the numbers are likely much higher with 2000 to 5000 children dying each year as a result of abuse…… [Read More]

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Minor Child Sexual Assault

Words: 3474 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 28892200

The case
In this particular case study, the client is a 15-year-old minor. She has suffered neglect and abuse and has lived with toxic parents and guardians for a while. As of today, she has had residence in 8 separate communities. Her problems started when she was ten in 2010. At that young age she was sexually abused by somebody who was a friend of her family. The man who abused her is now in jail serving for his crime. When the client was abused at such a young age, she specified that she did not receive any intervention, psychological support or counselling from anyone let alone the Human Services Agency. In 2012, she was arrested and put in detention. Her crime: the murder of an older male schoolmate in her school’s compound. She was detained in the country’s only jail and she specified in her statements that she ended…… [Read More]

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Social Work Under the California Child Abuse

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62730600

Social Work

Under the California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law, counselors, teachers, and other professionals are legally obliged to report suspected abuse or neglect. The legal obligation to report instances of child abuse or neglect to a local, state or federal social services agency is generally a good idea because it ensures reporting by teachers, counselors, and others who are in contact with the child. It is assumed that mandatory reporting means immediate and beneficial intervention. The reality is more complicated than this. Alerting child protective services can have unwanted detrimental effects on the child. As Lough (n.d.) points out, "nagging doubts about how the person suspected of abusing a child will react, what the outcome will be, and whether or not the report will put the child at greater risk" are what make the mandatory reporting laws controversial.

Theoretically, with a legal obligation, the individual is more motivated…… [Read More]

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Intervention Minors or Children Under

Words: 2896 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47675269

On the whole, the Academy calls for the abolition of exemption laws and endorses initiatives to educate the public about the medical needs of children (Committee on Bioethics)..

While AAP recognizes the importance of religion to people's lives, it also warns physicians and other health care professionals should put the health and welfare of children over religious considerations (Committee on Bioethics 1997). It encourages pediatricians to respect parents' decision but not when their religious convictions interfere with medical care necessary to prevent harm, suffering or death. When this happens, pediatricians should seek the authorization of the court to override parental authority. If the threat to a child's life is imminent, the health care practitioner should intervene over parental objections. Securing court authorization should, however, be the last course of action. The health care practitioner should cooperate with the family in applying appropriate palliative care. Even when the securing of court…… [Read More]

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Personality Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children

Words: 2146 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89837821

Personality Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children

Child sexual assault is a wide spread problem in today's society that presents a severe risk to the victim's mental health, both during childhood and into adulthood. For many sexually abused children, the effects continue long after the abuse has ended.

Sexually abused children have been proven to develop a variety of personality characteristics, as the result of experiencing fear, hostility, guilt, shame, depression, low self-esteem, poor self-image, physical and sleep complaints, and sexual behavior disturbances, that will impact how their personalities develop (Lynch, 1978: 111-113).

For millions of children, sexual abuse is a painful reality. Sexually abused children often suffer from shame, humiliation, anger and sadness, which undoubtedly affect their personalities.

According to data obtained by the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect, approximately 826,000 children were abused in 1999 (National Clearinghouse, 1999). Of these victims, 58.4% suffered from neglect, 21.3% suffered…… [Read More]

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how domestic abuse affects children

Words: 1466 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88023766

Domestic Abuse Affects Children

Children are exposed to violence in several ways. In some cases, it could be the surroundings, at school, at home or even within his/her family. There has been a recent study, using the ecological-transactional model, which aims to establish a link between these different types of violence and their effect on a child's development. Though it has been proved that exposing a child to general violent acts could affect the child's growth adversely, there is an even stronger indication that domestic violence has the highest negative effect on children and thus, we need to pay close attention to this (Manetaa, White and Mezzacappa, 2017).

The effects of domestic violence on children could be immediate or long-term. From research, children who were exposed to domestic violence have higher tendencies of being exposed to disturbing events, neglected, physically abused or in severe cases, getting bereaved. It is a…… [Read More]

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How Dysfunctional Family Affects the Future of Children

Words: 1982 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33283680

Dysfunctional Family and Its Impact on Children's Future

A dysfunctional family can be described as a family characterized by constant and regular misbehavior, conflict, and behavior that become accommodated by members as part of normal daily life. As a result, family dysfunction can be regarded as any abnormal situation that interferes or disrupts the normal functioning of a healthy family. While healthy families are not perfect since they experience misunderstandings, conflicts, and tension, they differ from dysfunctional family in the sense that these conditions do not occur all the time. Moreover, these conditions are not accommodated and accepted by family members and as usually addressed as soon as they emerge. For dysfunctional families, these conditions persist to an extent that they are regarded as part of normal everyday life. These conditions have tremendous impact on the health and well-being of family members. Dysfunctional family has significant psychological and social impacts…… [Read More]

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Parental Drug Addiction & Impact on Children

Words: 1615 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87989241


Impact of parental drug use

Neurobiological causes of drug addiction

Social support to victims of parental drug addiction

Child needs during treatment of parental drug addiction

Impact of parental drug use

Barnard and McKeganey (2004) investigated the impact that parental drug use created on their children and ways and means that can be helpful in mitigating these effects. The study was aimed at reviewing the literature on this subject. The researchers adopted 'narrative review' as the qualitative method to review the research on this subject. Intervention studies were selected for this purpose and studies published in last three decades were made part of this study sample. The authors reported some insightful findings. Primarily, the study found that problem drug use did impede the parenting ability and responsibility of parents that were drug addicts. The study found that such parents used to neglect their…… [Read More]

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Social Learning Theory Children That Grew Up in Domestic Violence

Words: 4658 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86334212

Domestic Violence and Social Learning Theory

Domestic Violence on Children and Social Learning Theory

Domestic Violence on Children, Juvenile Delinquency and Social Learning Theory

Domestic Violence on Children and Juvenile Delinquency in the light of Social Learning Theory

This research paper includes and talks about the global issue of family or domestic violence experienced and observed by children. The first part defines and explains the domestic violence and child abuse. The second part explains the various forms of domestic violence that are prevalent in the society. Physical, emotional, economical and psychological abuses witnessed and experienced by the children are discussed in detail. Later, explanation of perilous physical and emotional effects of domestic violence on children has been given to understand their subsequent behaviors. The paper then talks about the factors relating to the juvenile delinquency in violence-affected children. In the last part of the paper, the principles and postulates of…… [Read More]

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Conflict When Christians Foster Children

Words: 3030 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57214345

" By telling stories, allows for a certain level of openness or vulnerability on the part of the parent and makes them human to the child. Stories give children a captivating medium in which to explore their emotions but really stories give them something to believe.

Jesus was the original storyteller. Reynolds Price discusses Jesus' involvement with establishing how stories promote the act of good works among His followers with, "Leviticus 19:18: 'you shall love neighbor as yourself.' This provides an insistence that no human relation can proceed with any pretense of moral foundation" unless of course, one moves away from God's love.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this proposal is to act as a vision in which groundbreaking research can be facilitated. This research will focus on religion as a catalyst for conflict among people who share a parent-child relationship within the foster care framework. Specifically, the…… [Read More]

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Annie John the Parent-Child Struggle

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50574891

The Red Girl is a significant symbol in this novel. Not only does she represent the colonialism in Antigua at the time, but she also represents Annie's growing independence, her maturation process and the changes she is going through in her life. The Red Girl comes from a very different life and background than that of Annie John, and that is both inspiring and interesting to Annie. She begins to become a bit more comfortable with the idea of living a life separate from her family once she begins a relationship with the Red Girl. The Red Girl represents independence and change. She is Annie John's age, but she is already beginning to go through many of the changes that Annie John dreads. Annie's entire life is defined by what is expected of her, but this is not the case with the Red Girl. She is her own person, who…… [Read More]

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Effects on Poverty of Young Families Children and Early Childhood Field

Words: 853 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 68472239

Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families

My goal is to make a positive change in the lives of young children, families, and the early childhood field by targeting childhood poverty.


Poverty is increasing most rapidly in families with young children. While poverty only rose by 1.3% in the childless 30-64 age bracket, it rose by nearly 8% in families with a head under 30 years old with one or more children in the home (Sum, 2011). In fact, young families with children are more than six times as likely to be impoverished as older families (Sum, 2011). This marks a shift in communities at-risk for poverty, from the elderly to children (Sum, 2011). In addition, this wealth disparity is not only visible among the impoverished. "By 2010, slightly more than one-third of the nation's young families were poor or near poor, up by nearly 10 percentage points from…… [Read More]

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Sexually Abused Children Cause for a Problems in Adulthood

Words: 2708 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56302172

Difficulty in Adulthood in Individuals that were Sexually-Abused as Children

Introduction to Sexual Abuse in Children

Sexually-abused children commonly develop problems that persist into adulthood. Child sexual abuse has come to be regarded as a cause of mental health problems in adult life. The influences of child sexual abuse on interpersonal, social and sexual functioning in adult life has only recently attracted attention. Research into child sexual abuse was initiated by the self-disclosures of adults who publicly admitted to their abuse as children. These victims, predominantly women, often attributed personal difficulties to their sexual abuse as children.

Early research into the effects of child sexual abuse frequently employed groups of adult psychiatric patients (Jones, 1974), which further reinforced the emergence of an adult-focused psychiatric discourse about child sexual abuse. The manner in which child sexual abuse has been brought to the public's eye and the nature of the advocacy movement…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Development Children Are Complex Creatures Who

Words: 2248 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77805681

Cognitive Development

Children are complex creatures who develop in various ways at various developmental stages. According to Thompson (2001), children grow in four interrelated areas (body, person, mind, and brain), and these four components involve the complex interplay of many factors: physical size, motor coordination, general health, thinking, language, symbolism, concepts, problem-solving, relationships, social understanding, emotions, neural and synapse. With respect to overall cognitive development in infants and toddlers, while countless environmental factors appear to have a measurable effect, the degree of significance of genetics is still under debate. Abundant recent research covers a wide range of topics related to environmental effects (or lack thereof) on the development of intelligence, learning, memory, and problem-solving in very young children. Some areas studied and analyzed include the effects of audiovisual stimulation, playtime and fun, interactive story-time, father involvement, and socioeconomic status.

Audiovisual stimulation from "Baby Einstein" type DVDs has become a popular…… [Read More]

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Forensic Psychology & Child Custody

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41582816

" (Franklin, 2006, p.1) Assessed are personality factors and an attempt is made to determine which parents is closer to the children on a psychological level.

The children are evaluated as well in an examination that involves the psychological assessing he emotional connection of the child to each of the child's parents. As well the psychologist examines whether the children appear to have any psychological problems of a significant nature. School adjustment is examined as well are any behavioral problems at school and as well an examination is conducted regarding the child's involvement in school, the effects of the extended family and any stepfamily issues. Finally, the psychologist assesses whether the parents will be able to work cooperatively for the child's best interests. (Franklin, 2006, paraphrased)

The work of Mart (2006) entitled: "Getting Started in Forensic Psychology Practice" relates that the child custody evaluation typically includes the use of the…… [Read More]

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Brazil's Street Kids Brazilian Street Children A

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78548303

Brazil's Street Kids

Brazilian Street Children: A Historical and Causative Perspective

The presence of children working and living in the streets of Brazil's cities and towns is nothing new. In the 1960s, these moleques, or scamps and rascals, were known for their ability to survive on the street using their own wits (Scheper-Hughes and Hoffman, 1994). They would try to find work when they could, beg in the streets when they couldn't, or occasionally sell themselves for sex. In essence, society seemed to tolerate their presence, if not occasionally exploiting them.

Tolerance and even compassion for the plight of the vulnerable segments of Brazilian society date back to the period of slavery that ended in the latter part of the 19th century (Filho and Neder, 2001). The Church was tasked with taking in the infirm, elderly, and the young, since plantations had little room for persons who could not contribute…… [Read More]