Nelson Mandela Essays (Examples)

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Ghana Blunch and Verner Determinants of Literacy

Words: 6824 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30089731


Blunch and Verner (Determinants of Literacy)

How does a country make progress? The answers seem to be obvious on paper - if difficult to effect in the world itself. Those of us who are citizens of the First World tend to believe that we understand what is required for a nation to "develop." But Blunch and Verner, in their study of literacy and numeracy skills in Ghana, demonstrate how complicated the idea of "development" is and how culturally specific.

That development should take different courses in different parts of the world should, in fact, not be a surprise to us at all. One of the problems of modernization projects has always been that there is a certain essential arrogance to nearly all of them because there is embedded in them the idea that every "backward" country could improve itself (i.e. become like the nation that is sponsoring the modernization…… [Read More]

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Paolo Freire Has Been Noted to Be

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73644033

Paolo Freire has been noted to be one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century and responsible for a tremendous amount of philosophical thought and meditations on consciousness and the human condition. Reading Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" means that one receives a truly innovative perspective on the educational experience for the student and introduces one to a truly novel approach to education -- the banking approach. Studying Friere's musings on education can be a truly illuminating experience even today and much of what he writes regarding pedagogy can spark empowerment and change.

Friere's innovation is obvious in the sense that he describes the culture of silence, but still sees the potential for development and transcendence within that culture. "Every person, however ignorant or submerged in the 'culture of silence' can look critically at his or her world, through a process of dialogue with others, and gradually come…… [Read More]

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Columbian Exchange

Words: 1535 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13807672

Columbian Exchange

Every culture has its own set of believes and value system. Culture is a phenomenon which is highly misunderstood by the people of the society. Culture is considered as a way of life which includes language, thought, spirituality, social activity, thought and other things as well. But is should also be kept in mind that culture is not limited to the above mentioned things only. The cultures of the societies keep on changing as the time goes on. Values and beliefs prevailing in eighteenth century do not necessarily be practiced in twenty first century. However society represents the group of people where different set of cultures often interact with one another. It reflects that there might be a possibility that when these cultures interact with one another some of the values of one culture might be liked by the people of other cultures and they start adopting the…… [Read More]

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From Personal to Political

Words: 1383 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26574097

Personal to Politics

Impacts of Racial Discrimination on American Society

The difference between white and black is centuries old. There were times when Nigers were considered as slaves, then there were times when they were declared free but I still believe that deep down the white culture lies the black foundation. Being a racist on the basis of skin color is nothing new in American culture. I was once a strong believer of discriminating on the basis of skin color but time proved me wrong and showed me how wrong I was and how humanity is above everything, every culture, every color, every race.

I had a friend with the name Dean, black guy from Nigeria. His parents shifted in New york long time but used to visit their home town very often. We spent almost our whole childhood together. Those were the good days when we were completely innocent…… [Read More]

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Racial Discrimination How it Affects the People

Words: 2674 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72869945

Racial Discrimination: How it Affects the People of South Africa and Its Impact on the Field of Social Work

Racial discrimination has for long been a part of the South African history. It is the country of Apartheid. Apartheid was the official policy of racial segregation implemented legally in South Africa by the ruling National Party governments from 1948 till 1994. Under the apartheid legislation, the rights of the non-white inhabitants were curtailed politically, economically, legally and socially. The white supremacy and African minority rule was in place. This meant that white people were considered superior to people of all other racial backgrounds. And that white people would get superiority having priority housing, jobs, education, and political power. Whites and nonwhites held different jobs, lived in different regions, and were subject to different levels of pay, education, and health care. The non-white population was forced out of their homes and…… [Read More]

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Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka

Words: 2194 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49176184

The pogrom initiated a large exodus of refugees, who fled to India and Western countries, Rasllngam continues.

In concluding his narrative, Nadarajah asserts that the international community in large part identified the LTTE as a terrorist organization, but not because the LTTE represented a "…threat to their international interests," but rather because those nations (including the U.S.) disapproved of LTTE's "political objective of establishing a separate Tamil state" (Nadarajah, 99).

Five Reasons for the Ultimate Demise of the Tamil Tigers

Rajat Ganguly writes in the Third World Quarterly that the first development that brought the LTTE to the negotiating table is that the Sri Lankan government showed that it was more willing to talk to the LTTE. The previous administrations had been very reluctant to have any conversations with the LTTE. Secondly, the Tamil National Alliance (TNA), which was made up of four Tamil parties that in the past had…… [Read More]

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Philosophy Exercise Extension and Denotative

Words: 908 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20956991

"Robert Frost the famous poet received four Pulitzer prizes for poetry." "There is small difference between a dramatist and a poet." "Shake spear is known more for his work as a dramatist, not as a poet"

Intention and Intensional definitions

Absurd is used to describe something irrational or illogical. Absurd is something which does not make sense, something which borders insanity.

Buffoon is a stupid person or a fool. A person who does things in an amusing way, e.g a clown.

Cemetery is a place where dead people are buried. A cemetery is a modern graveyard.

Dictator is a ruler who has complete power over a nation, mostly acquired through force. A person who behaves in an autocratic way in regards to other people.

Egotism is being obsessed with one's sense of importance making someone to think and act only in regards to one's importance. Egotism is to be utterly…… [Read More]

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Leadership in Organizations Organizational Leadership

Words: 12322 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 65691491

Leadership, according to La Monica (1938), is when a person has authority that is recognized by others, and the person has followers/subordinates under them, who believe that the person will assist them in attaining certain goals (carrying out specific objectives for the followers). Furthermore, anyone that is willing to assist and help others could be referred to as a leader (p.8)

Leaders see what others do not Most leaders have acuity, where they are able to observe things that others cannot see, hence setting them out from the rest. Leaders see things with greater scrutiny and clarity, and they analyze both possibilities and also the expected outcomes, including problems and risks involved in taking a certain path of work. In simpler terms, leaders are able to tell what the current situation is and future expectations. Leaders also define reality and only work under realistic circumstances. Some theorists such as Max…… [Read More]

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Hero One of the Most Pervasive Archetypes

Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65890408


One of the most pervasive archetypes in literature is the hero. The Greeks presented a complex and very human type of hero, often referred to as the tragic hero. Readers can relate especially to tragic heroes because tragic heroes have flaws. Their flaws make tragic heroes more human, and are effective protagonists even when their plans fail. The hero who is semi-divine or divine is a less compelling story, given that few if any human beings can relate to a figure who is flawless, immortal, and possessing of unlimited strength. Graphic novels present complex characters including some that fit the definition of tragic hero. Modern literature teems with examples of heroes who are just like us: they have good intentions, they are far from perfect, and they sometimes fail. Yet embedded in the definition of hero is the imperative that the individual must be able to put aside egotism,…… [Read More]

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Africa Since 1940 the Introduction to Frederick

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2300838

Africa Since 1940

The introduction to Frederick Cooper's "Africa since 1940: The past of the present," asserts that unless one has thoroughly researched African history, or has lived in Africa, it is nearly impossible for an outsider to chronologically organize all of the events that has happened within its borders in order to come up with some kind of clear statement about nationalism. Cooper enters his book with the ideas of colonialism (pre-colonialism, colonialism, and post-colonialism) and how that shaped Africa as it is today, and how that influences Africa as a nation together, a nation divided, and a nation trying to find some sort of statement about their own country.

Cooper's book about nationalism within Africa, and how Africa came to rest at this current (the present is 1994) climate of dualism between tribal bloodshed in Rwanda, and the victorious election of President Nelson Mandela in South Africa (1).…… [Read More]

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South Africa Is the Economic

Words: 1969 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60686368

Almost a third of the government's total revenue emanate from indirect taxes, mainly from value-added taxes (Brand South Africa, Niekerk).

3. privatization -- this process was viewed to create a robust flow of business opportunities in the next many years at a range of 100-150 billion South African Rands (PGI 2012). This is equivalent to U.S.$12-20 billion. There will be estimated and sustained business acquisition opportunities in agribusiness, agriculture and fisheries; hotels, restaurants, resorts and tourism; mining and mineral extraction; forestry, logging and wood products; electricity generation and power reticulation; manufacturing; road and rail transportation; telecommunications and information technology; financial services; and water, waste water and water management. Transactions are likely to be in the form of complete or partial sales, concessions or public-private partnerships (PGI).

4. trade and trade finance and investment -- the Department of Trade and Industry

formulated the trade policy, which the Cabinet adopted in July…… [Read More]

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Mayflower My Reaction to Chapters

Words: 1482 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54150090

It is not right, but it is the truth. That is the hardest part of learning about black history, I think.

Final Journal think that taking this class has given me a much broader idea of African-American history and what the black people have had to do to get along in America. Their ancestors did not ask to come here, and they did not ask to become enslaved. Blacks did not wake up one day and choose the color of their skin. It should not matter what color a person's skin is, but it does. This class has helped me understand that blacks have had to struggle for an eternity, and that their struggle is not over yet.

Probably the biggest thing I got out of this class was the black heritage, and how proud blacks should be of their history. They have risen up from despair and they have…… [Read More]

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Tony Blair's Speech on July

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92663200

Blair argued in his speech that the difficulties the world faces with the specter of terrorism is unprecedented, and that removing the Taliban and Saddam Hussein were not imperialistic acts but acts of liberation for the people of Afghanistan and Iraq (Windschuttle, 2003). While those people were liberated in that they are no longer ruled by the Taliban or Saddam Hussein, such forced liberation does remind some writers of the imperialistic actions of major powers in the 19th century (Windschuttle, 2003). But in addition, some of the imperialistic wars might tell us something about the nature of the terrorist foes we face. In 1898, 20,000 British troops faced 52,000 Sudanese Muslims. While the British were outmanned, they had superior firepower and gun ships on the river ready to face the Sudanese attack. The results of this battle tell us something about the soldiers who attacked the British army that day.…… [Read More]

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African-American History the Nationalism Movement

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63896113

The independence movement cites their influences for peaceful reform as "Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Nelson Mandela" ("Biafra Case"). Their devotion to a peaceful accord between Nigeria and Biafra, creating another independent Biafran nation is largely ignored and ridiculed by the Nigerian government.

The official group fighting for independence is the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), formed in 1999, and Nigerian police are cracking down on members of the group, making it even more difficult for Biafrans to fight for nationality. A June 2005 reporter notes, "Nigerian police officials declined to comment on record about MASSOB. Several described the Biafran nationalist movement as a banned organisation, but were unable to cite any law or decree banning it" ("Nigeria Cracks Down"). The reporter goes on to cite specific examples of peaceful MASSOB protesters being fired on by Nigerian troops (seven were killed), confiscation of…… [Read More]

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Role of Deviance in Societies

Words: 2460 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2456834

Role of Deviance in Societies

Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).

Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…… [Read More]

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Obedience to Authority

Words: 1985 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19489199

Obedience to Authority


I was obediently driving down the right side of the street last week when I dutiful stopped at a red light. I noticed a video camera mounted on the light's pole and thought that the camera must have been there to promote free flowing traffic. I did not think about the light and camera again until later that evening when I watched a very entertaining DreamWorks film by Ridley Scott called "Gladiator" starring Russell Crowe. That movie made me think about authority, subservience and obedience and how those topics pertained to that traffic light and camera. Was the camera there because people driving down the street usually obey the local traffic laws or was it there because they don't? I am sure that I would not have run through a red light even if the camera was not present because I feel that I am an…… [Read More]

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Business Ethics Magazine Recently Awarded the Chroma

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54076976

Business Ethics magazine recently awarded the Chroma Technology Corporation, a Vermont-based manufacturer of high-tech optical lens products, the "Living Economy Award" as part of the 16th Annual Business Ethics Awards. The Living Economy Award is offered to the company that best exemplifies "the living economy with practices of employee ownership, fair wages, and environmental stewardship," (Business Ethics). One of the key reasons why Chroma earned the accolade was due to its unique official salary structure: no employee earns less than $37,500 and none more than $75,000; therefore, no upper-level management official makes more than twice as much as anyone on the shop floor. Chroma's unique salary structure in part reflects my vision of corporate business ethics and the values I would like to embody as a professional. There are other reasons why I admire Chroma's policies. They employ an egalitarian meeting format modeled after the Quakers; they ensure environmental sustainability…… [Read More]

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Nina Simone

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5390154

Nina Simone developed a distinctive style of music and presentation that has proved to be popular across age and trend barriers. Her singing and compositions were a mixture and a subtle amalgam of elements of Jazz, soul, pop and blues. The range of her songs traversed almost every genre; including works by Bob Dylan and Jacques Brel, as well as many other artists. Some critics claim that the secret of her unique style and appeal lay in her background of gospel music.

The secret of her delivery has always seemed to me to lie in that background in the gospel church. She can muster the vocal majesty and electrifying force of a Southern preacher, or a singer such as Mahalia Jackson.

(Gayford, M. )

Others describe her voice and presentation of the songs as "haunting" and this can be ascribed to particular way in which she uses jazz phrasing and…… [Read More]

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Bush's Invasion of Iraq

Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48766896

Bush's Invasion Of Iraq

At the first whisper of invading Iraq, there have been expressions of concern and outrage the world over. In September 2002, Nelson Mandela said of the Bush administration, "They think they're the only power in the world ... they're following a dangerous policy, One country wants to bully the world ... We must not allow that" (Bleier Pp). The next day on September 23rd, Al Gore, sharply criticized Bush's plan to invade and complained that he "is proclaiming a new, uniquely American right to preemptively attack whosoever he may deem represents future threat" (Bleier Pp). In December 2002, Ronald Bleier wrote in "Middle East Policy" that Bush's determination to attack Iraq "absent a legitimate casus belli" and his administration's signals of embarking on a course of "perpetual war suggest that world civilization is facing a threat similar in significant ways to the one it faced 60…… [Read More]

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Multicultural Report on Peter Abraham's

Words: 1991 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55942003

The U.S.A. is known to be a host of people from varied origins like German, Scottish, Italian, Africans and so on hence the mixture of many cultures. This is the same phenomenon with South Africa as portrayed in the novel. There are the Africans, Irish, Dutch (Boers) and the English people among others (Stanford University, n.d).

The two countries also have a shared history of the segregation culture that saw one group of people given lesser preference on the major issues like governance and access to basic amenities. The societal stratification existed within the U.S.A. with the whites presumed to be superior to the rest of the Americans, and the same thing is portrayed in the novel where the whites held higher class than the rest. They were feared as they held the major offices and wealth yet the Africans there were despised, economically down and living in slums by…… [Read More]

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South African Apartheid System Many

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70389371

In addition, nonwhites could not bring their families with them to the living places near work sights, which encouraged a system of temporary labor. These legal restrictions on non-white increased until the system known as apartheid, which almost completely separated whites from non-whites and barred non-whites from any meaningful participation in any sector of society, became the norm for South Africa.

Under the Bantu Authorities Act of 1951, the South African government reestablished tribal organizations for black Africans and established Bantustans or homelands for Africans; while they were ostensibly free, they were politically and economically dependent upon South Africa and could best be described as ghettos. Furthermore, the government established a state of emergency, so that all protest, even non-violent protest, was dealt with harshly and swiftly. Many South Africans, both black and white, began to call for the end of apartheid in the 1970s. Nelson Mandela, who would eventually…… [Read More]

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Level-Six Leader Are You a

Words: 2103 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76621815

Firstly, in Piagetian manner, the subject is confronted with a moral dilemma, that is, a short story in which two or more moral principles oppose each other. He or she is asked to make a choice. Secondly, the interviewer uses intensive probing, that is, why-questions, and questions which stimulate the respondent to consider varying situational contexts. Thirdly, stage scoring of interview is based on well conceived and meaningful measurement units.Through the confrontation with moral dilemmas, the subject is stimulated to consider moral norms rather than merely technical knowledge of solving a problem (most people suggest a technical solution first, which seems an appropriate strategy in most every-day decision making).(Kolhberg)


There are six levels of leaders, according to the combined works of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohberg, and Robert Kegan. Research shows the majority of leaders are level four leaders or level five leaders. Level four leader 'Achiever' is categorized as…… [Read More]

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U S History Abraham Lincoln -

Words: 1833 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4776244

Soviet Union brought the missiles into Cuba to rile up the American military establishment precisely so that U.S. nuclear missile installations in Turkey and Italy could be brought on the table. Secondly as an ally, Soviet Union was concerned about the fate of Cuba which held a lot of promise for the Communist experiment internationally.

The American leadership understood that what they faced in Cuba was a catch 22 situation. If they failed to act, they would live under threat and shadow of nuclear war. If they carried out a full fledge invasion of Cuba, the Soviet Union would respond by taking over West Berlin thereby severely denting the credibility of the United States of America in the eyes of its European allies. Able master of political chess that Khrushchev was he played the inexperienced but charismatic President Kennedy like a fiddle. There were of course some in the military…… [Read More]

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Race Relations in Disgrace Upon

Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51758283

All she does is avert herself: avert her lips, avert her eyes…as though she had decided to go slack, like a rabbit when the jaws of the fox close on its neck (Coetzee, 1999, p. 25).

This quotation indicates that the sexual encounter between Lurie and Melanie was forced by him and a grotesque violation of her will -- and body. Most disturbing of all about this quotation and this salacious act is Melanie's immediate subjugation and acquiescence to this vileness -- the likes of which can be attributed to her insubordinate status due to the aforementioned intersectionality as a woman of color who is a student of her attacker. By depicting such scenes as this that symbolizes Europe's conquest over Africa and her peoples, Coetzee is definitely representing conventional racists modes.

This point is also demonstrated in Lurie's relationship with Soraya, a female prostitute who is also a black…… [Read More]

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Malcolm X Director Spike Lee's Portrait of

Words: 3300 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41792053

Malcolm X: Director Spike Lee's Portrait Of An American Hero

Malcolm X was not a man who could be easily characterized and the same is true for Spike Lee's 1992 film. Malcolm X was a labor of love for Lee, who was only thirty-five at the time of the film's release. Lee had been a young child when Malcolm X was assassinated, so his knowledge of the man was not based on any personal recollections. Instead, he read The Autobiography of Malcolm X as a junior high school student and has said it changed his life forever (Hopkins, 2004). Lee's goal in making the film was to introduce Malcolm Little, later known as Malcolm X, to a new generation of African-Americans. He felt it was an important piece of history that may otherwise be forgotten. Lee realized that Malcolm X was a controversial figure, both in life and in death,…… [Read More]

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Trait Theory the Central Premise in the

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27689042

Trait Theory

The central premise in the argument that leaders tend to be taller than followers is based on a logical fallacy concerning the nature of trait theory and leadership in general. Leadership theory focuses on what makes leaders effective, not the characteristics that put people into a leadership position in the first place. This essay will break down the argument for trait theory, why trait theory fell out of favor and why the point about leaders' height is irrelevant to the entire argument.

Trait theory is based on the assumptions that people are born with inherent traits, and that many of those traits are suited to leadership -- those who make good leaders are those with the right combination of traits in the right amount (, 2011). In general, trait theory was based on personality traits as opposed to physical -- adaptability, assertiveness, decisiveness, self-confident, tolerant of stress, intelligence…… [Read More]

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Social Deviance Social Deviancy Can Be Understood

Words: 1997 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98281755

Social Deviance

Social deviancy can be understood through biological and psychological factors. Discuss drawing on sociological approaches to deviancy

Social deviance is a phenomenon which comes under the domain of sociology. It refers to those acts, thoughts or beliefs which are against the social norms of any particular culture or value system. This phenomenon was not so much popular till twentieth century however it has gain a lot of importance in twenty-first century. Movements of lesbians, gays and feminism can be considered as an example of this social deviance. It will not be an overestimate to say that these movements and other movements like this are the product of this century. In past such deviances were not valued by the people of the society and it was considered as a deformity. However now a days it is not considered as bad as it was considered in the past. Freedom of…… [Read More]

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Sociology Discussion Responses Response to Post 1

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32444414

Sociology Discussion Responses

Response to Post #1

I agree with you completely about the moral travesty of the continuing social and political inequality in many African nations as well as the continuing detrimental effects, even today, of European colonialism on the African continent. Likewise, it is inexcusable that racial inequality still persists today. However, the inability of many African societies to overcome the challenges that still bar significant social reform and progress today are, unfortunately, also largely attributable to the degree to which the government authorities in some African nations have ignored the needs of the population and even diverted international supplies sent by Western nations intended as relief for the impoverished masses.

As you point out in your post, South Africa serves as a model of how much progress can be made under the leadership of individuals like Nelson Mandela, although local culture, practices, and customs also present significant…… [Read More]

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Logical Fallacies Hasty Generalization On

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37824674

Then he uses an appeal to authority by quoting a chemistry professor at Columbia University, Dr. Harold Urey, who said, "All of us who study the origin of life find that the more we look into it, the more we feel it is too complex to have evolved anywhere." That's a patently absurd, baseless evidence.

Number 13 -- Slippery Slope. Blair Magida Waddick writes to the Chicago Tribune that he is "horrified that the naive men on the Supreme Court have sided with Wal-Mart" (rather than with the class action suit against them by women claiming to have been discriminated against). "They should now be required to wear the same jump suits worn by race car drivers covered in corporate names, so we all know who owns them" (June 21, 2011).

Number 5 -- Appeal to Tradition. A mascara ad (LashBlast Volume Mascara) by Cover Girl asserts "You may never…… [Read More]

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Terrorism Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Define

Words: 4573 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21286311

At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.

War on Terror

War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…… [Read More]

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Multicultural Studies Indeed the Interests

Words: 3493 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41381912

One of the best examples of the mentality behind the development of the pedagogy of the oppressed, with regard to education is the evolution of the official restriction of curriculum to that which the African would need to survive in the economy of labor.

A the solutions to the "poor Whites" problem, as was indicated in the Carnegie Commission of Inquiry into Poor Whites in South Africa in 1932, were not bearing the expected fruits of "innate superiority." Thus, Verwoerd emphasized that the African "school must equip him [the African] to meet the demands which the economic life of South Africa will impose on him" (Mbere 1979, 106).The relationship between production and what is learned in schools reproduces unskilled and semiskilled labor power that allows domination and exploitation to occur. According to the CNE policy, Whites were perpetual parents who had to guide their "children," the Africans. This relationship of…… [Read More]

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Equal Education Opportunities Act Education

Words: 1927 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52387394

S. educational system. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators. However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education.

State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. The experiences of some schools and/or states regarding the influx of enrollees suggest that regardless of the catalyst for reform, education reform can and should include elements of both equity and adequacy.

More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…… [Read More]

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Enemy of the People in

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98424946

Way before Enron, and again in present-day society, how many companies polluted the water with PCBs and other chemicals despite the fact that they knew it would be harmful to the people living in the area? The Love Canal was the first case of many on hazardous waste and its health impact. and, how many years after Ibsen's play was this? Too many! The more people change, the more they stay the same.

In order for a democratic society to remain democratic and not be controlled by an individual or group of individuals, the Dr. Stockmanns are needed to notice and speak out against the corruption that exists. How else can the world be made into a better place for future generations, without people who want to see it improved? Look at what happened in Nazi Germany, because people saw what was happening but looked the other way.

Change does…… [Read More]

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South African The Rise Fall

Words: 3742 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93278598

This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and demands of the Colored. Similarly, the Non-European Liberation League, another group that opposed the current practices, were the proponents of the issues of immediate concern to Colored but African people. This lack of unity proved decisive, taking into consideration the immediate rise to power of the Nationalistic Party in 1948 and the subsequent inability to immediately react to the measures that would be taken in the following years.

The South African society, following the war was left without a well-defined national identity because of the continuous struggle to face the conquering forces of the Dutch and the British. Consequently, the rise to power of a nationalistic party can be seen as predictable, taking into consideration the general trend existing in the…… [Read More]

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Sarafina Film Review Sarafina 1992

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53470978

The soldiers attack the students, spawning white on black violence, and even black on black violence. Thus, the intended audience of the film is somewhat difficult to determine. On one hand, "Sarafina" is not a purely educational film about apartheid, as the filmmakers seem to assume a certain basic familiarity with the issue on the part of the audience. The film is told from the black perspective, and clearly shows apartheid as evil. However, it also unsparingly shows the violent methods often used by the desperate black populace as well as the unjust actions of the government.

Furthermore, Sarafina's teacher is not particularly wise, as she foolishly offers to hide a gun, even though she knows she is likely to be caught. Therefore the film is not about the inspirational power of education. The film juxtaposes inspirational images of students engaging in political activism with images of violence that can…… [Read More]

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Capitalism and Class Ecdriesbaugh Capitalism

Words: 4740 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20389238

52). Furthermore, Marx felt that money had "deprived the whole world, both the human world and nature, of their own proper value. Money is the alienated essence of man's work and existence; this essence dominates him and he worships it..." (Strathern, 2001, p. 52). From Marx's point-of-view, owners or holders of capital were in a position to exploit workers because of their "systematically privileged position within the market" (Pierson, 1995, p. 94). The system was structured in favor of the owners of private property. If private ownership were abolished, the opportunity to exploit workers would disappear. A cornerstone of Marxism, then, was the prevention of large scale capital holdings.

Labor as a Commodity

Marx also thought that labor had become a commodity in and of itself, and that this concept further dehumanized the worker. Capitalists had no feeling for laborers as human beings but saw them merely as something to…… [Read More]

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Globalization of Art and Pop

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2415014

Increasingly, the majority of black South Africans became disillusioned with the political system and those ruling it. In the opinion of many, they had simply traded one form of oppression for another - they are now exploited not only by white rulers, but also by those who are black (Clark, 2007). This is expressed in the current forms of South African Hip Hop. Artists working against the apartheid of the past are now working against the exploitation of the poor.

In addition to being politically oriented, Hip Hop also focuses on the African enjoyment of dancing. The earliest forms of this, also advertised and accepted via the media, included break dancing. Currently, South African Hip Hop has evolved to a form of house music called kwaito. This music is very popular among the black youth, whether oppressed or not. As such, it is a well established form of music in…… [Read More]

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Countries That Hold Elections South Africa

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59185242

South Africa: Electoral and Institutional Arrangements, Party Competition, and Checks and Balances in Government

South Africa's government is a constitutional democracy based upon a system of proportional representation. In other words, its national legislature is a parliament, with two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The parliament called the National Assembly awards seats to each political party based upon that party's proportionate support in the national election. Elections for the National Assembly are held every five years. The second general democratic post-apartheid election in 1999 in yielded a majority for the African National Congress (ANC) Party, the party famously lead by the imprisoned Nelson Mandela during the years of apartheid that disenfranchised most of South Africa's majority black population ("Government in South Africa," SouthAfricainfo, 2008).

In addition to the ANC, South Africa has sixteen registered political parties under the Independent Electoral Commission, spanning a variety…… [Read More]

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Functioning of the Electoral System

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9207072

In terms of outcomes and successes, it can be said that the small voter turnout, especially in the recent elections of 2004 when only 54% of the population with the right to vote actually exercised it (Pimbo, 2004) it is of little importance the actual result. The rule of Thabo Mbeki has been certified twice in the Presidential office in 1999 and 2004. Nonetheless, in both occasions, the fact that the ruling party, the African National Congress, has held an undisputed majority was obvious in the electoral results. Bu comparison, "the opposition share of the vote has declined since 1994" (Pimbo, 2004). Therefore, there is little evidence of an important opposition force, an aspect which limits the democratic process.

There are other issues which are relevant for the electoral system in South Africa. Given the historical background, representation of the minorities is a crucial matter. According to statistics, it may…… [Read More]

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African Studies Racial Policy The

Words: 2852 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34202767

Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for Whites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]

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Human Rights Violations in Nigeria

Words: 6410 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41993424

Shell Oil in Nigeria

Discussions on economic hardship, environmental devastation, and political corruption in Nigeria always seem to come back to the Dutch Shell Oil Company. The company is charged by activists and Wiwa as influencing the Nigerian government to act illegally and, if we believe the allegations, monstrously in violation of human rights in order to exploit the oil resources in the Niger River Delta area (Livesey 58; Saro-Wiwa 7). In a final message to the public, just before his death by hanging at the hands of the Nigerian government, Saro-Wiwa blamed Shell for its influence leading to abuses in Nigeria (Saro-Wiwa 7). Saro-Wiwa wrote:

Shell Oil is here on trial, and it is as well that it is represented by counsel said to be holding a watching brief. The company has, indeed, ducked this particular trial, but its day will surely come and the lessons learnt here may…… [Read More]

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English as the Global Language

Words: 2993 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81265468

Dovring makes a good point when she says that it is difficult for a person to free their self of their own communication realm (Dovring, 115). However, Dovring goes on to say that individuals who are required to learn a language other than their own for purposes of communicating with others, can cause them to become victims the language they acquire (Dovring, 115-116). It can, Dovring says, alter not just their language, but their personality too (Dovring, 116). Dovring equates forcing a second language upon another culture as cultural annihilation, and suggests that it is tantamount to suppression and oppression as was experienced under communism (Dovring, 115-120).

Again, when we consider the need to overcome the obstacles that are facing the world today - and they are very serious obstacles - Dovring's arguments are weak. Developing English as a universal language is possible, and it is possible to do this…… [Read More]

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Nadine Gordimer July's People Gordimer

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92699613

Maureen tries to purge herself of the old South Africa, going so far as to stand naked in the rain at night, in kind of a baptismal ritual. However, this fantasy of purity is untenable in a reality where both black and white viewpoints are tainted with old notions about sexuality and race. Maureen constantly sees July in sexual and sexualized terms. This becomes most stark when the two of them fight over who will hold the keys to the 'bakkie,' the car they drove to the village, and to wrest control over the keys Maureen brings up July's mistress. She seems partially motivated by jealousy, as well as a desire to win a power struggle in this exchange, and although July eventually hands over the keys, the victory feels hollow.

Maureen's use of a sexual threat shows that she has still evidently internalized the exotic image of black sexuality…… [Read More]

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Life of Jack Kevorkian Jack

Words: 1484 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21937256

The aging brochure states, "Older workers, however, are more dependable, have lower turnover rates, have fewer absences and accidents, show better judgment, and are as productive as younger workers" (Schmall and Pratt, 1996, p. 8). His most productive time in promoting his cause came in his 60s and 70s, and he is still doing it at nearly 81 years of age, illustrating that older workers and older people in general, still have plenty of capabilities to work hard for what they believe in.

Exercise Awareness

This exercise helps the student become more aware of the great gift of growing old and learning from your experiences. Dr. Kevorkian did not begin his work with PAS until well into his career, another indication of older adults being able to change, and his dedication to his cause is inspiring and educational at the same time. At age 80, he still travels the country…… [Read More]

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Women in Media A Barbara

Words: 3223 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 36543893

Soon thereafter, she started working with CNN channel in handling their Washington bureau. For the forthcoming seven years, Couric was engaged with CNN bureaus across the nation as a producer and also as an on-air reporter. She returned to Washington in 1987 taking up job as a reporter at an NBC affiliate station. She rose from her ranks to hold the number two position as a reporter at the Pentagon for the Washington bureau of the NBC news. ("Katie Couric Biography," n. d.)

For the next three years she was in charge of covering the U.S. invasion of the Panama as also Persian Gulf War in her Pentagon position as also as a new post at the NBC's morning newspaper, Today. In the early part of 1991, she discharged her role as a co-anchor of Today. Her immense popularity with the viewers was because of her pleasant and charming demeanor…… [Read More]

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Global Inequality South Africa Is

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46485616

The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 continued the government's social engineering projects. Black Africans were assigned to "homeland" states, independent regions with artificially created governments ("The History of Apartheid in South Africa"). The South African parliament officially ruled the homeland states, but residents of those areas were denationalized under the Bantu Authorities Act ("The History of Apartheid in South Africa"). Between 1976 and 1981, the government of South Africa denationalized nine million Africans by deporting them into the homeland zones ("The History of Apartheid in South Africa"). Denationalization officially stripped black Africans of their legal and political rights and made it almost impossible to create change.

Bombings, poisonings, and beatings were some of tactics sanctioned by the government to enforce apartheid. The government cracked down on protests by invoking a state of emergency to quell crime, authorized under the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act ("The History…… [Read More]

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Heroes as Cultural Ideals Changing

Words: 331 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16478489

Odysseus's claims to fame are also strength related, his actions in the Trojan War and on his journey home. This suggests that the idea of the ideal man had changed significantly. No longer do we revere men for their might, but for their diplomacy.

For women, too, the expectations have changed. Shamhat, a character in The Epic of Gilgamesh, is a temple prostitute whose claim to fame is her ability to civilize the wild man, Enkidu, by having sex with him. The trapper tells Shamhat, "Spread out your robe so he can lie upon you / and perform for this primitive the task of womankind!" (The Epic Tablet I). This means that Shamhat is a hero because of her sexual ability. Today, those women who are able to succeed because of their intellect, not because of their sex, are considered to be heroic.

Works Cited

The Epic of Gilgamesh. Academy…… [Read More]

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WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present

Words: 2515 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66978809

Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President Reagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. Research continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…… [Read More]

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Leadership My Assumptions About Leadership

Words: 6193 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41969591

However, the sum total of the organization's output extends beyond the realm of the quantifiable. Qualitative measures also exist, and they can impact on the quality of the organization's output as well. It can be argued that even qualitative outputs will eventually impact on quantitative outputs. Ford's loss of reputation as the result of the Pinto scandal, for example, cannot be quantified but the sales and profit decreases that flow from the scandal can be quantified. The implications, however, of the damaged reputation cannot be avoided once the damage has been done. Thus, it is important for managers to control the qualitative output before the impacts appear in quantitative form. It may be impossible to control the impacts once the damage has already occurred.

In this way, the notion of quality as typically defined in production-oriented theories like Six Sigma or TQM, proves inadequate. As Ordonez, et al. (2009) showed,…… [Read More]

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Nadine Gordimer's the Moment Before

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 39819321

Van der Vyer is repulsed by the idea of living in close proximity to blacks, as is reflected in Gordimer's physical description of his home. He is angered by the calls for freedom of blacks such as Nelson Mandela, protesting in the townships. He is also angry at himself that his accident has given anti-apartheid activists more 'ammunition' in the fight to end state-imposed segregation. He feels sad for Lucas, but it does not occur to him that Lucas may have wanted more in life than merely serving Van der Vyer. Lucas' life is a tragedy, not simply because it has ended but because it never really began, due to the fact he was denied an appropriate education and opportunities.

It is interesting that the story is entitled "The Moment Before the Gun Went Off:" surely the story is about what occurs afterwards, the reader might initially suspect. However, Gordimer's…… [Read More]

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U S Relations W South Africa Racism

Words: 2594 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 65496668

Apparently, when taking computers into account, the U.S. dominated the South African market. The U.S. had sales of hundreds of millions of dollars in South Africa, with the South African public system practically becoming addicted to using computers in order to work correctly. Not only had the U.S. collaborated to South Africa, in spite of the extremist regime existing in the country, but it had also sustained it by making it even more effective with the help of computers. The largest group from South Africa to use computers had been the government, with it using computers for a large number of duties.

The South African government largely based its apartheid system on a computerized population registry. IBM officials claimed that their computers did nothing to encourage the unequal racial system, and, that it made no contribution to people being denied their basic human rights. As they had been aware that…… [Read More]

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Bringing the Fifa Soccer World

Words: 2709 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 17820883

Developing a country's "brand" is one of a variety of intangible advantages that not only will be garnered by South Africa, but for any other nation chosen to host the World Cup as well. An event of this magnitude will build both the image and the identity of the host country. There is also the benefit of publicly displaying, for the world, a country's capabilities, expertise, and modern infrastructure. This can be a significant aid in attracting other events in the future, whether they be other types of sporting events, or corporation events, or industry-sponsored events -- establishing the country as a business tourism destination. For South Africa, and other areas where security is often a concern of travelers, events like the World Cup will serve as an opportunity to not only upgrade safety and security measures, but then also to showcase these measures to the world, enhancing their tourism…… [Read More]

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World Wars WWI 1914-1918 and

Words: 1426 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30406383

On July 20, 1969, astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin stepped onto the moon.

The American success gave the "entire free world a huge and badly needed boost."

President Kennedy used the space race to boost the idea of the "free world" over Communism, commenting that we would govern space "by a banner of freedom and peace."

Space technology was not the only form of competition taking place in the 20th century. The Wright brothers and Samuel Langley, the secretary for the Smithsonian Institution, were competing to put the first aircraft flown by a human into flight. They both were attempting to build a powered aircraft and on December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers sent their aircraft into flight for 12 seconds.

Thus with the invention of the powered aircraft, transportation was forever changed and would cause a tremendous impact on the events of the 20th century. The aerial age…… [Read More]

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Personal Reflections and Vision- Looking

Words: 2720 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23606083

Part 2. A. SLOT

In order to reach a better self-evaluation, it is important to bear in mind which are my strengths and my limits, as well as the deriving threats and opportunities. Naturally, the future development can come only through the diminishing of the threats and the increase of the opportunities.

As far as my strong points are concerned, I could start with the capacity to see the positive in every situation. This does not mean being optimistic to the point of becoming stupid, but rather keeping an open mind and knowing that through intelligent steps, opportunities can be created to your advantage. In addition, I challenge convention. I believe that flexibility is fundamental and that one should do what he considers best, regardless of what the others or society in general might try to impose.

As far as the leadership style is concerned, I assume both authoritative and…… [Read More]

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African Colonization in the 1870's

Words: 905 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89826922

Before the Scramble for Africa of the late 19th century, Africa was hierarchical, authoritarian, and paternalistic, just like the European countries invading them. Insubordination and disobedience to the deference pyramids were punished by violence. Some tribes carried this violence out against their neighbors, from whom they stole cattle and other property. The strength of white settlers in Africa came from their technology. Before the nineteenth century, some African prophets and seers foretold of great human suffering at the hands of white invaders. There were many in tribes who resisted white settlement from the beginning, while other tribes studied the ways of the white man and tried to form alliances with the Europeans against their enemies. Many tribes were neutral, although their chiefs might accept gifts in return for cooperation. The presence of white man changed the dynamics of power in Africa in many ways.

New forms of power brought by…… [Read More]

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Sports World Cup Unifying the

Words: 6706 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15665876

It's well-known that soccer, like religion, can provoke violence like hooliganism and tramplings at overcrowded, large stadiums, and this is what many Americans assume it is all about. "But soccer has also proved unique in its ability to bridge differences and overturn national prejudices. The fact that the World Cup could even take place in South Korea and in Japan, as it did in 2002, was a victory for tolerance and understanding. In less than half a century South Korea had gone from not allowing the Japanese national team to cross its borders for a World Cup qualifier, to co-hosting the tournament with the former occupier" (Soccer, 2009).

Soccer's universality lies in its simplicity. It lies in the fact that the game can be played anywhere with anything. Children from anywhere can kick the can on concrete or kick a rag wrapped around a rag, barefoot, on the dirt. Soccer…… [Read More]

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Burma Non-Violent Resistance in Burma Was

Words: 3785 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30824083

Since 1996, military abuses have forced one million villagers to flee their homes.

The presence and conduct of the military are central to the plight of these civilians. Military operations have placed a particularly heavy burden on rural populations affecting their ability to sustain livelihoods.

Cases of rape and sexual violence committed by military personnel, many of them against young girls and adolescents, have been reported by human rights organizations.

It should also be noted that after the crushing of the pro-democracy movement in 1988, the regime"…took a number of steps to increase their military strength."

Instead of considering the extent of popular dissent the government in fact increased their supply of arms and military strength in order to act even more effectively against any protests. "… the regime had begun planning an ambitious ten-year program to expand the armed forces and significantly upgrade their operational capabilities. The SLORC also…… [Read More]

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South Africa Spitcerow Analysis of

Words: 2033 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74521962

The South African also played a role in its purposeful lack of involvement (Von Feigenblatt 2008).


The eventual outcome of the South African conflict was the establishment of a new government and new constitution in the country, headed for some time by the African National Congress (Von Feigenblatt 2008; Ottoway 1993). This also marked one of the most successful and most peaceful transitions of a post-colonial African government to date, providing a very positive outcome not only for the country of South Africa but for the region as a whole (Von Feigenblatt 2008). New economic standards, policies and frameworks were also established in the country and internationally during this time, with their inclusion in the new South African structure of government a direct result of the conflict and constituting yet another positive outcome of the conflict's eventual resolution (Ottoway 1993).


Of the two primary players in the conflict…… [Read More]

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Analyzing the Post Modernism Phenomenon

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43434736

Post Modernism

Still I Rise" - Maya Angelou

Which ending would you like to change?

"That I dance like I've got diamonds

At the meeting of my thighs?"

Why would you change that particular ending?

In Ted Wu's view, the above line is a playful one, and has something in close relationship with women. The reason is, perhaps because the poem is about an Afro-American woman's hardships against racist treatment and general societal hatred.

Briefly explain how you would change the ending

Some similar lines such as 'Cause I walk like I've got oil wells

Pumping in my living room' 'Cause I laugh like I got gold mines

Diggin' in my own back yard'

Assist the reader figure these scenes in their mind and personify the lines. A line such as this one that we want to alter addresses a sensitive subject. Female sexuality is one of the central themes…… [Read More]

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Graduation Speech Why Should I

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16923029

I have been volunteering lately with a church called Rod of God Ministries. I asked the Rod of God what they needed from me and they responded frankly with some embarrassment.

"We need someone to clean our toilets."

At first I thought the man was joking. Surely he took one look at me and did not see me with a toothbrush scrubbing toilet bowls. When he did not laugh, I knew immediately that I had a choice to make. It was one of the best decisions I ever made in my life. The next day, I bought a pair of latex gloves and went to work scrubbing the porcelain bowls that held the waste generated by people like you and me. The work is thoroughly humbling, but it is never humiliating. Someone has to do it. Someone has to do the dirty work of making a difference in the world…… [Read More]