Person Centered Therapy Essays (Examples)

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Multi-Modal Treatment of the Client's

Words: 4593 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 602220

Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).

The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."

Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.

Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or…… [Read More]

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Life Transition a Well Balanced

Words: 1632 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10600519

In this mix, the therapist will have to identify what the client's view of the situation is. If it reflects reality, the humanist-existentialist. If not, the other solution-based approach may be the best. If this author were the therapist, it would be prudent to see if the entire family unit could be engaged for family therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy might be necessary for dysfunctional behaviors on the part of the adults. The therapist will need to see if the issues are two, three, or four levels based upon Rogers' humanist approach based upon a discordant relationship between these levels. Rogers lays out several conditions that would provide for a client-centered therapist the discover the depth beneath the upper layer. In general, the deeper the layer, the more extensive the intervention that is necessary (Rogers, 1957, 96-97).


To sum up, a well balanced therapist, should have the expertise to combine…… [Read More]

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Diagnosis of S Johnson Diagnosis

Words: 1526 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 52374485

Therefore, she should be assessed for any possible medication that may help her depression or anxiety. But she also needs a therapeutic approach that addresses her isolation and her needs for healthy and appropriate attachment.

A excellent therapeutic for this need is a Rogerian approach that incorporates the positive regard of Carl Rogers. The following describes the approach that such a therapist would take:

Rogers' strong belief in the positive nature of human beings is based on his many years of clinical experience, working with a wide variety of individuals & #8230; the theory of person-centered therapy suggests any client, no matter what the problem, can improve without being taught anything specific by the therapist, once he/she accepts and respects themselves & #8230;.the resources all lie within the client. (Pescitelli, n.d.)

While critics argue that Rogerian therapy is not sufficiently rigorous, it remains extremely effective as a long-term approach for…… [Read More]

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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12402637

Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings

An Abstract of a Dissertation

This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the content of a dreamer's dreams, and if therapists actually "guide" their clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the therapist "suggesting" to their clients that they had suffered some type of early childhood trauma, when in fact, there were no traumas in their early childhoods. The origin of psychiatry is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, therapy or any other even faintly scientific endeavor. Its original purpose was not even to cure mental affliction.…… [Read More]

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Clinical Psychology Psychodynamic Cognitive-Behavioral Humanistic

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 71685561

Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the client may use the therapy sessions more to complain or go over old grievances, than use the therapy to move forward in his or her life (Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders).

Another type of therapy that has radically escalated in popularity is that of family or marital therapy, which, like cognitive-behavioral therapy, tends to be focused on specific problems and of a fairly short duration. "Marriage and family therapists regularly practice short-term therapy; 12 sessions on average" FAQs, 2009, AAMFT). The…… [Read More]

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Non-Directive Communication Theories of Communication

Words: 3036 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Ghost Writing Paper #: 38946940

The Rogerian Model

This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).

Motivational Interview

This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…… [Read More]

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Humanism Versus Existentialism Modern Psychological Theories

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86346949

Humanistic and Exestential Therapyies

Humanistic Existential Theories

Strengths and limitations of humanistic and existential theories

Over the course of the 1950s and 1960s, there was an increasing emphasis on new theories of the human personality and on ways of treating psychological disorders that offered alternatives to conventional psychodynamic, Freudian theory and the deterministic behaviorism of Skinner. Both humanistic and existential theories offered an alternative perspective. "They are united by an emphasis on understanding human experience and a focus on the client rather than the symptom. Psychological problems (including substance abuse disorders) are viewed as the result of inhibited ability to make authentic, meaningful, and self-directed choices about how to live" (Brief interventions, 1999). In humanistic and existentialist thought, there is a unity of philosophical speculation about how to enable the client to live a meaningful life.

Humanistic theories of psychology stress the fundamentally 'good' nature of all human beings. All…… [Read More]

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Diabetes Mellitus in This Report

Words: 5199 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54423857

Some patients feel helpless, hopeless, depressed, isolated from others, belittled, and do not know how to seek appropriate help from others (Rutter 2004). Socially supportive arrangements were addressed as the attributes of socially legitimate roles which provide for the meeting dependency needs without loss of esteem. Socially supportive environments were presented as pattern interpersonal relationships mediated through shared values and sentiments as well as facilitate the performance of social roles through which needs are met. In summation, social support has been defined as an intervening factor tied directly to the coping process (Pearson, 1986).

Regardless of the differences in definition, social support has been the subject of medical and behavioral research for over two decades and the universal outcome has been that social support has therapeutic value in mental and physical health. The majority of studies have been correlational, and so statements about cause and effect remain tenuous. Nevertheless, it…… [Read More]

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Differences Between Counseling and Life Coaching

Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54132729

Life Coaching vs. Counseling

There are many differences between life coaching and counseling. While counselors are required by state law to pass specific examinations after meeting requisite hours of education, life coaches are under no such demands and may enter into service without having completed any education or achieved any certification or license. Yet both life coaches and counselors work towards achieving similar goals -- that is, they both put the needs of the client before their own and help the client to identify objectives and work to meet them for a positive outcome. Counselors may work with clients who have behavioral and/or psychological problems, while life coaches tend to work with clients who need assistance focusing on a specific outcome and working to achieve it. Life coaches help clients prepare an action plan, stay motivated, block out specific activities, and pursue a life goal that will give the client…… [Read More]

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Sexual and Drug Addiction Biology and the Mind

Words: 3000 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36155290

Addiction: A brain disease with a biological foundation

Addiction is a brain disease with a biological foundation, which means that it couples together the mental and physical states of the individual in an action which can lead to negative or bad behavior. There are many types of addictions but two of the biggest addictions in modern times are sexual addiction and drug addiction. Many young people develop both addictions or one or the other, either becoming addicted to Internet sexual sites or becoming addicted to illicit street drugs like heroin or marijuana. Either addiction can be damaging to the person's health, and in some cases they can even be deadly. In fact sexuality and drug addiction can sometimes even be linked (Newcomb, 2014). For young people these two issues are especially dangerous as "experimentation with addictive drugs and onset of addictive disorders is primarily concentrated in adolescence and young adulthood"…… [Read More]

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Bess Case Study Applying the Right Treatment

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31825908

Clinical Case Study: Bess

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) would be an appropriate intervention to assist Bess in overcoming her OCD by targeting the psychological foundation of the disorder. Bess's neurosis is related to a strong, overbearing impact from her mother in her childhood, now verging on agoraphobia, which is having a negative effect on her social and psychological life. Her symptoms do not appear to have a strong biological basis, thus CBT should be an effective intervention.

The rationale for selecting CBT is that it provides a goal-oriented strategy for overcoming negative behaviors and replacing them with positive ones. Because Bess is a goal-driven person, who has been highly motivated in the past to accomplish tasks, this strategy should be helpful in re-orienting her with a more positive focus. Her confused sexual experience followed by the forced abortion on her mother's orders have substantially deprived Bess of any ability to…… [Read More]

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Frank Seems Like an Ideal

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16195102

Seeking therapy is a good first step, but given Frank's stunted emotional life, having concrete behavioral goals might be helpful, especially at the beginning of the therapeutic process.

Q2: Integrationist point-of-view

No single personality theory can heal all individuals: every person presents the therapist with unique challenges. Some patients, for example, with personality disorders such as bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or schizoid personality disorder may benefit from having clear, concrete behavioral goals that they must perform, to help wean them from ineffective coping mechanisms (such as self-injury, obsessive rituals, or isolation). More searching types of 'talk' therapy alone may encourage patients to stall rather than to actively change their life in proactive ways and will not address some of the root, habitual causes of the patient's behavior.

Other patients who feel unfulfilled but have a more structured and healthy lifestyle might benefit from more exploratory types of therapy, including Rogers'…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Approaches to Group Counseling Group Psychology

Words: 2826 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 26972070

Group Psychology: Theoretical Approaches to Group Counseling

Case Vignette 2: Phil, the Japanese-American

Phil, a Japanese-American expresses his discomfort and anxiety during the second meeting of his group. A keen listener, he is having difficulty speaking up whenever he is required to, and he is contemplating leaving because he understands that all members are required to participate. Moreover, he fears rejection so he prefers to sit back and watch during the group meetings. To prevent them from leaving, some group members plead with him to give them a second chance; some ask him not to quit and challenge him to prove he is not a coward; while others resort to pressuring him to remain in the group.

Interventions for those attempting to coerce Phil to remain in the group

Every individual works as part of team or in a group at some point in life and therefore, it is imperative…… [Read More]

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Humanistic Psychology

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74620388

Assignment 1:

Ever since I began my doctoral program I have grown a lot as a person. There have been many instances that have taught me about myself and what I would like to achieve in life. However, there was one experience in particular that truly helped me understand my path in life and what that will lead to as a doctoral learner. My identity as a doctoral learner was experienced by observing people and how they lived their lives, specifically from a woman named Jill. Through her story, my desire to further explore humanistic psychology grew.

Humanistic psychology centers on the belief that humans are innately good. For example, good intentions are one of the driving forces of good behavior. When people experience something bad in their life, it promotes deviation from the natural tendency of being good (Felder, Aten, Neudeck, Shiomi-Chen, & Robbins, 2014). Jill is a 28-year-old…… [Read More]

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Teacher Observation Adolescence Is a Tumultuous Period

Words: 2081 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45396733

Teacher Observation

Adolescence is a tumultuous period characterized by significant physiological, social, psychological and cognitive changes that often cause considerable stress and anxiety, as the youth faces numerous demands from family, school and peers and fights negative ways to respond to these demands, such as truancy, drug abuse and isolation (Steinberg & Sheffield, 2001). Transitioning to high school requires the teens to communicate with a new and larger peer group and handle greater academic expectations. Counsellors clearly recognize that healthy relationships are the essence of mental, emotional, and psychological health. Many of the crises teens confront today are related to relationships -- with parents, teachers, siblings, and friends. Problems such as loneliness, low self-esteem, peer-pressure, rebellion, homosexuality, and underachievement have their foundation in unhealthy or broken relationships that can occur anytime during a youth's lifetime.

Increased stress occurs for adolescents across the board: Students who are in enrolled in rigorous…… [Read More]

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When to Use Projective Tests and What to Do With Them

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23919562

Projective Test

Under certain situations would I administer a projective test to a client. A projective test would be administered to a client when there are questions about the client's personality. The projective test is designed to elicit responses from the client that reveal underlying emotions, thoughts, desires, or tendencies within the person. The questions are open-ended and allow the responses to be analyzed and assessed in terms of content. The content gives clues as to the personality of the individual.

These tests are most effective with adults because by then the personality has been established. They are less effective with children because with children, researchers find that behavioral tests are more effective in revealing whether or not the child has a behavioral disorder by using "behavior rating scales" (Groth-Marnat, 2009, p. 7).

Thus I would use projective test in adult settings wherein it is helpful to gauge the individual's…… [Read More]

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Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning

Words: 1467 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50822349

Androgogy & Self-Directed Learning

Historically, the term andragogy was a long-time reaching the common vernacular. The term was a wildcard, meaning different things to different individuals and groups according to whim, nacent theory, or flowery rhetoric. When the term did crop up, it was associated with attributes that were sometimes difficult to pin down, but hinted at constructs such as self-reflection and life experiences (Reischmann, 2007). Always, as the term was used, there was a cleaving between education and training, as education was seen as serving the inner self rather than simply preparing for the world of work (Reischmann, 2007). Andragogy was raised to higher levels than could be captured in the dyad of mere teaching and learning


What exactly is andragogy? The term andragogy is used today to label an academic discipline -- it pertains to the scholarly study of in a field or discipline, while the actual…… [Read More]

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Business Plan Any Physical Therapy Center Has

Words: 2070 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 47476258

Business Plan

Any physical therapy center has one thing in their agenda, to lead a patient towards living a pain free life in the future and enable the patient revert to the previous good status that they were in there before the sickness or before the surgery.

This report aims at divulging the finer details on how a post surgery physical rehabilitation center can be opened and run as well as identifying the likely benefits and he profits that can be earned from such a business. It also seeks to put clear the expected expenditure that will be involved in terms of the running costs as well as the human resources that will be required.

The report also puts forth the various equipment that will be of great sue in the center and the services that these equipment will be offering alongside those of the therapists.

Since the administrative aspect…… [Read More]

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Massage Therapy Local Miami State florida Institution Miami

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94502717

MASSAGE THERAPY Local: Miami State:Florida Institution: Miami Dade College Health Care Career Report Instructions 1 Miami Dade College Medical Center Campus Health Sciences Related Studies HSC 0003, Introduction Health Care Health

Job description

A massage therapist is an individual who has been trained to provide massage therapy to patients or clients mostly for medical benefits. There are many kinds of massage therapies, but the most common are aromatherapy massage, Swedish massage, deep tissue massage, hot stone massage, Thai massage, and reflexology. A massage therapist should specialize in different techniques to ensure they can cater for different client needs. Massage therapists are required to provide the following in their job description. Apply hand and finger pressure to specific places of the body, they should assess a client's joint quality, joint function, soft tissue condition, motion range, and muscle strength Crosby, 2000.

They should also interview clients in order to establish the…… [Read More]

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Physical Therapy Assistant

Words: 2920 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17244510

Physical Therapy Assistant

Job Description

Care/Service provided by the Physical Therapy Assistant

Physical therapy assistant, also known as PTA, has the responsibility of working as the integral part of a therapy team for the provision of physical therapy services as an assistant to a physical therapist who directs and supervises him/her accordingly. The job of a PTA is the implementation of specially chosen mechanisms/procedures for the treatment of patient/client according to the prescribed instructions. he/she is also responsible for obtaining the relevant data about the preferred interventions (Dreeben-Irimia, 2011). In addition, the job requires him/her to make amendments/alterations in selected treatment methods for the progression of the patient/client condition as recommended by the physical therapist or for making the patient/client well-being and consolation certain ("Role of a Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA)," 2013).

In addition, a physical therapy assistant is responsible for giving assistance to the physical therapist for the treatment…… [Read More]

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Psycho-Educational Models of Family Therapy and Transgenerational

Words: 4976 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60849041

Psycho-educational Models of Family Therapy and Transgenerational Models of Family Therapy in Correlation to Physical and Sexual Violence and Abuse

Molestation, commonly known as sexual abuse, is defined as forced sexual behavior by one individual with another. However, sexual assault is one which is not so frequent, lasts for short duration, and is immediate. Pejoratively, sexual abuser or offender is referred as a molester. It also means any act on behalf of an adult in order to arouse child or adult sexually. Any sexual act is referred as child sexual abuse if the age of victim is below the age of consent. Mentioned below are the acts that are included in sexual abuse:

Sexual assault and rape, which is forced and non-consensual.

When a child or adult touches without any need.

Exhibitionism, genitalia's exposure, fondling, sexual kissing, or sexual assault.

Showing pornography to a child.

Child molestation, in which child…… [Read More]

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Dialectical Behavior Therapy Dbt Dialectical

Words: 2722 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12226336

For them to survive crisis they are equipped with the skills to; self-soothing, thinking of the pros and cons, improving the moment and looking for destructive things to do. They can also exhibit acceptance skills by turning the mind to accept, radical acceptance and willingness vs. willfulness.

Individuals with under this therapy are taught how to regulate their emotions. This is because most of those suffering from this disorder are known to be angry, depressed, intensely frustrated and anxious among other behaviors. The steps taught towards emotional regulation include; identification and labeling of emotions, identification of obstacles to any change of emotion, reducing of vulnerability to having an emotional mind, by having more positive emotional events, giving the patient the ability to control the current emotions and wherever a negative one presents itself he/she can take the opposite action, and lastly, he/she can apply the distress tolerance techniques taught (Heard,…… [Read More]

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Adlerian Therapy as With Other

Words: 1003 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38464615

That is to say that the video does not really address the crux of the problem as much as it enunciates the communication skills of the therapist.

Adlerian therapy is a more comprehensive and thorough approach, which involves understanding the self-better and is focused on change not just at the individual level but on family level and consequently at a much broader social context. It follows an equalitarian approach wherein the client does not feel any inferiority in the presence of the therapist and mutual respect, understanding and establishing good rapport are fundamental to the approach. Goals are identified and client is made to understand his behavioral tendencies, maladaptive behaviors and guided towards reorientation. Adlerian therapy is thus a holistic one, which integrates a persons mind, body and the spirit in the therapeutic process when compared to other traditional models. In short, Adlerian theory emphasizes on living life in a…… [Read More]

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Psychiatry Electroconvulsive Therapy Electroconvulsive Therapy

Words: 4067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34718744

Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.

Adverse Effects

The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…… [Read More]

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Session Christ-Centered Psycho-Educational Process Group Program for

Words: 2728 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56585779

Session Christ-Centered Psycho-Educational Process Group Program for Adolescents and Young Adults

The purpose of this initiative is to develop a six-session Christ-centered psycho-educational process group program for the population of interest described further below. This intervention is designed for six weeks duration.

The population of interest for the initiative outlined herein is male adolescents aged 13 to 17 years and young adults aged 18 to 25 years who have experienced a significant personal loss or transgression by another individual in the past that requires forgiveness.

Male adolescents and young adults experience higher levels of involvement with the criminal justice system by virtue of family-related problems and emotional turmoil compared to their female counterparts, indicating a lack of self-control and impulsivity (Hartwig & Myers, 2009). For instance, according to Hartwig and Myers, "These additional problems include family and relationship dysfunction, higher incidences of violence, drug use, deficiencies in mental health, sexual…… [Read More]

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Group Therapy Case Study John

Words: 2325 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 2960010

In understanding further that the session referenced is focused on imparting ways in which group members may improve their own lives, group members additionally view John not as a friend but as an enemy capable only of passing judgment upon them.

Leader Interventions and Potential Outcomes

At this point, in viewing the severe lapse in productivity due to power structure and lack of trust within the group, it is clear that an intervention must be undertaken by John in order to move the group forward into the realm of positive outcomes. There are two main routes that John can take in order to alter the dynamics within the group. The first would highly ineffective, but can be seen as a route John would take based on his initial choice to ignore the comment directed toward him about the group's unhappiness from being "lectured to" each week. Such ineffective group leadership…… [Read More]

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Solution Focused Brief Therapy Sfbt

Words: 1994 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14165036

Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFBT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.

Bitter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):

brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…… [Read More]

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Glbt Substance Abuse Therapies the

Words: 3295 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76452211

Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).

Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.

It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…… [Read More]

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Music Therapy Charms to Soothe

Words: 4015 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7149700

Music is sound, which enters the outer ear and passes through the middle ear into the inner ear and the brain by means of electrical energy. In the brain, it can generate motor responses, draw emotions, release hormones and trigger higher-order processes. The brain develops its response as it perceives the sound. If a loud sound creates fright, calm music can soothe.

Records on music therapy date as far back as Aristotle and Plato. Egyptian and Biblical documents also bear out that music was used to lighten illness and sorrow. American and European researchers in 1800 discovered the connection between music and the states of the body and the mind. They measured the connection in terms of cardiac output, rate of breathing, pulse and blood pressure. Numerous studies on the effect of music on health have been conducted since the 80s. Dr. Susan Hallam of the Department of Psychology and…… [Read More]

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the origins and types of behavioral therapy

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32631060

Behavioral therapy has its roots in basic behaviorism, the principle that human behavior can be modified through systematic training or interventions. Since B.F. Skinner first laid the foundations for behaviorism through experimentation, the methods used in behavioral therapy have changed dramatically. Behavioral therapy, or behavior therapy, is not one but a variety of approaches that psychological counselors use to help clients change their behaviors. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) advocates the use of behavior therapy as an “effective treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” (p. 1).

Behavior therapies are designed not just to change target behaviors but also to change the ways people feel about themselves and the world, which is why behavior therapy can improve self-esteem (Herkov, 2016). Some of the most common approaches to behavioral therapy fall under the rubric of cognitive-behavioral therapy, which is used in a variety of clinical settings. In fact, Craske…… [Read More]

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Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies Cognitive-Behavior

Words: 1519 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58151900

The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)


Behavioral Therapy, (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.

Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for Reality Therapy. Retrieved September…… [Read More]

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Counseling Therapy Theories Solution Focused Brief Therapy

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97649973

Counseling Therapy Theories

Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT)

The solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a type of therapy that is used much in counseling and a lot of time referred to as talking therapy that is based on the social constructionist philosophy. This therapy focuses on the aim or goal of the customer rather than the problem that drove him to seek help. It does not focus on the past events but primarily pays attention to the future.

The SFBT at times referred to as solution-focused or solution-building therapy was initiated and developed by Steve Shazer (1940-2005) in collaboration with Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) and their colleagues from the late 1970's in Wisconsin. This therapy is future focused, focuses on the goals and the solutions rather than on the problem (Institute for Solution-Focused Therapy, 2011).

Here, it is the duty of the counselor to invite the client to try…… [Read More]

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Occupational Therapy Not Every Person

Words: 503 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79690092

There are some very important characteristics for an individual that wants to be successful in Occupation Therapy; compassion for others and their situations, dedication to consistently staying educated and striving for continued excellence. Commitment to making a positive change in clients lives, being a positive and making a positive impact on the field of occupational therapy. Purpose, knowing why you are helping people, and realizing the true rewards come from seeing a client leave in a better physical and mental state than when they first entered the rehabilitation facility. All of these characteristics I bring to the table; I bring my love for people, my commitment to excellence, and my hunger for continued knowledge and understanding in the field of occupational therapy. Very few fields allow such a hands on approach, and that is what draws me to it the chance to be apart of something amazing, and help people…… [Read More]

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Physical Therapy Involves the Rehabilitation

Words: 3137 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6171067

The therapist must also avoid making any diagnosis that is outside of their professional licensing and specialty. For instance, they should avoid making notes that state that the client is "depressed" or any other similar comments (APTA, 2008). These comments are often unintentional, but they can lead to a serious potential for liability risk.

The physical therapist has many sources of information available to them, including the internet and conversations with other therapists. They often exchange information and pass on techniques that work for them. This is the nature of improvement within the profession. However, use of these techniques represents a legal grey area. They may result in improved patient outcomes and may be safe in many regards. However, when one does not use evidence-based practices, they set themselves up for legal malpractice. In a court of law, the opinions of other professionals do not hold as much weight as…… [Read More]

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History of Art Therapy Art

Words: 1913 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82790342

Hope the readers found pleasure in reading the history i.e. The experiences of the former innovators.


Betensky, M.G. (1973). Self-discovery through self-expression. IL Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

Case, C., & Dalley, T. (1992). The Handbook of Art Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Detre, K.C., Frank, T., Kniazzeh, C.R., Robinson, M., Rubin, J.A., & Ulman, E. (1983). Roots of art therapy: Margerat Naumberg (1890-1983) and Florence Cane (1882-1952): A family portrait. American Journal of Art Therapy, 22, 111-123.

E.Scholt, C. (2008, August 21). Family therapy approaches. Retrieved from

Handbook of Art therapy. (2003). New York: The Guilford Press.

Hogan, S. (2001). Healing Arts: The History of Art Therapy. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Junge, M.B., & Asawa, P. (1994). A history of art therapy in the United States. Mundelein IL: American Art Therapy Asscociation.

Kwiatkowska, H.Y. (1978). Family therapy and evaluation through art. IL Springfield: Charles C.

Lachman-Chapin, 2., Jones,…… [Read More]

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Music Therapy in Autistic Children

Words: 2858 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16155262

Melanie's frequency of inappropriate behavior was not consistent; she experienced unpredictable increases and decreases in hair pulling, screaming, scratching, and tantrum behavior.

The study occurred in a self-contained classroom for children and youth with autism, which was housed within the special education department of a large state medical center. The classroom included four students, one certified classroom teacher, and three paraprofessionals. Students received one-on-one instruction; group instruction; speech-language, music, art, and adaptive physical education; and occupational therapy

An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of rhythmic entrainment as a calming technique. The first and third phases of the study were baseline conditions during which Melanie interacted in her structured classroom environment as was typical for her schedule. This included walking into the classroom, hang'rag up her backpack, reviewing her daily schedule, eating breakfast, checking her schedule, going to the rest-room, rechecking her schedule, and participating in calendar time.…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Classical Freudian Analyses

Words: 1868 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52015059

Cognitive behavioral therapy with Classical Freudian Analyses

How do therapists with each of these persepectives view the client and clients problem?

Let's take the following problem that I recently encountered: The situation of a child being estranged from the parents and whilst parents seek contact with the child, the child, based on a long and entrenched history of child abuse, refuses to maintain contact with the parents. The classical Freudian approach attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorder by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on sexual and aggressive urges. The analyst, accordingly, may perceive the situation as one arising from covert sexual urges on part of child, possibly initiating from some infantile / developmental dislocation of one or more stages occurring in either child and/or parent, and certainly as the influence of early childhood experiences as regards all three individuals…… [Read More]

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The Palm Gardens Center for

Words: 1379 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 11281726

All these professionals work together in order to establish a
rehabilitation plan that works best for each individual. The component
members of the team are subject to change in accordance with each
individual's needs and requirements. Also, the center holds
interdisciplinary conferences.
The Palm Gardens Center does not use volunteers in its activity. The
reason behind this choice relies on the fact that this center is a for
profit organization. All the individuals employed here are paid. Most of
them work full time, but there are also part time employees.
In management's opinion, it is not a good idea to use volunteers,
because people that are not financially motivated tend to not perform their
tasks as good as they are supposed to. Basically, if one wants something
done properly, the activity in cause must be remunerated in accordance.
The Palm Gardens Center is very involved in the life of the…… [Read More]

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Family Systems Therapy Strengths and

Words: 899 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27485534

Bowen therapists would respond that all members of the family unit share the same emotional 'skin' in a unique fashion. Within today's cultural context, because the nuclear family is given such importance, it often must be subject to particular examination. But "each concept in Bowen theory applies to nonfamily groups, such as work and social organizations. The concept of societal emotional process describes how the emotional system governs behavior on a societal level, promoting both progressive and regressive periods in a society" (Societal emotional process, 2009, the Bowen Center). Bowen theory ultimately does take a macro view, and sees the family system as interlocked in a series of family systems that make up a society.

Thus family systems therapy does allow for an analysis of an extended family, when these relationships are sufficiently impactful upon the individuals. The therapy analyzes multigenerational influences upon the family's collective psyche. It examines how…… [Read More]

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Animal Assisted Therapy Within Society Is it Helpful to Those Who Seek Its Services

Words: 2596 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Only the Literature Review chapter Paper #: 80753384

Society Feels About Animals

As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…… [Read More]

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Substance Abuse Group Therapy African Americans

Words: 2219 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3103029

Substance abuse is a significant problem for all Americans. Research has revealed increased risk factors including exposure to drugs among African-American males, making a race-specific intervention program necessary to ensure recovery success rates (Wallace & Muroff, 2002). Moreover, psychological counseling and intervention programs need to be culturally sensitive if they are to be successful. Variables such as communication styles, worldviews, family values, gender roles and norms, urban vs. rural living environment, and socio-economic class status will all impact attitudes toward treatment, treatment decisions, and treatment outcomes. Moreover, comorbidity issues also vary by racial category, including comorbidity with alcohol abuse, anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and affective disorders (Ziedonis, Rayford, Bryant & Rounsaville, 1994). Research comparing prevalence of substance abuse between white and black patients is contradictory in nature, with Nauert (2011) claiming that "substance abuse issues are more prevalent among African-Americans than other groups," but Broman, Neighbors & Jackson (2008) finding…… [Read More]

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Art Therapy

Words: 1602 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24334424

Art therapy entails creative procedures that work well with provision of a safe environment, and trust, which allows patients with psychotic disorders to express desirable emotions. Creative procedures promote awareness, expression as well as enhance insight hence promoting an individual mental health. Art therapy improves quality of life and at the same time promotes social functioning. To people with schizophrenia, art therapy reduces negative symptoms and help patients to build up new ways of connecting with other people. In this regard, this paper evaluates an article based on the cost effectiveness and effects of group art therapy to people with schizophrenia. The paper highlights the article, purpose and hypotheses used by the researchers. Additionally, this brief overview highlights the research design, major findings, strengths, weaknesses, and the value of the article in the field of psychology and to the article consumer.

Killaspy, H., Barrett, B., Patterson, S., & Tyrer, P.,…… [Read More]

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Psychoanalytic and Adlerian Therapies Analysis

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53227913

It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)

In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…… [Read More]

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Personal Theory of Therapy the

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78835853

These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)

Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:

1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.

2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.

3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)


Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at Accessed on February 15, 2005

Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…… [Read More]

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Art Therapy and PTSD Art

Words: 4716 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 94542291

Children need special attention when dealing with traumas they might not fully understand. Thus art therapy has been proven to benefit the increasing number of children dealing with PTSD and other trauma related disorders creating fear and anxiety within the innocent child. Another major benefit of art therapy is that of the informal nature of the expression. Unlike language which is complicated through strict grammatical rules, artistic expression has the freedom to express complexities outside of language (Malchiodi 2006). In children, who do not yet have a full grasp and understanding of the complexities of language, art therapy allows certain emotions to come out which would have otherwise been unable to be expressed using a limited word bank and language ability, "Children do not have extensive vocabularies for describing their feelings and experiences, but they are generally comfortable with art as a natural way to communicate," (Malchiodi 2006:13). And so,…… [Read More]

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Group Therapy Dynamics by the

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57406059

Goals -- For Bion, groups have specific goals that are differentiated by the manner of dissonance individuals bring: drug dependency, sexual abuse, a fatal disease, etc. This coming together out of homogeneity with a clear and stated aim -- dealing with the issue. Each group may or may not be identical in make up; for instance, there can be commonalities within the group, but the goal is the same. Uncovering the barriers to good health in the individual. It is clear rehabilitation from the issue that harbors negativity or an inability to be complete that allows for group therapy to use the interplay of the individual for a synergistic goal (Bion, 2004, 26).

Yalom, as noted, came to realize that there was really no such thing as a cure for the issues that surround dissonance. There is no such thing as permant conflict removal because humans continue to evolve and…… [Read More]

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Dance Therapy to Help an

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17836626

" Suzi Tortora, Ed.D.,a certified movement analyst and dance therapist contends that when a parent or caregiver understands his/her child's nonverbal expressions, he can more effectively help them improve their socialization, as well as manage their tantrums.

In her therapy sessions, Dr. Tortora implements dance therapy to mirror the type and emotional quality of an autistic child's movements. This helps the child relate to her instead of reverting into hi/her private, inner world. This tactic includes riding out a tantrum, using movement to remain nonverbally connected. In turn, this will help that shall begin to learn to communicate and remain connected, consequently regaining control of him/herself. "The key is that children with autistic spectrum disorder have a difficult time relating," Dr. Tortora explains. "They are idiosyncratic in their movements. They are sensorially over- or understimulated, and they can quickly escalate to a place of total body dysregulation." (Splete) From "Out"…… [Read More]

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Psychology Practicing Existential Therapy Personal

Words: 1544 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 97616321

This does not mean that there are no general principles or guidelines established for care, however, and I intend to compensate for the lack of a codified structure in existential therapy by reading extensively on techniques and methodologies both for existential therapy and other psychological therapies. By maintaining a wide arsenal of theories and techniques, I will always be ready to adapt my method of care for an individual patient, and will be constantly opening myself to new ideas and avenues by which to pursue therapy. This ability to readily adapt should make up for the shortcomings of not having an established system of procedures and recommendations to follow.

Every branch of psychological theory has some insight to offer on the workings of human minds and emotions. For me, existentialist theory offers the best approach to treating patients professionally. The underpinnings of the theory align most closely with my personal…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Psychoanalytical

Words: 2924 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38678874

The therapist encourages openness and honesty on the part of the patient. This parent-like role gives the therapist the power to influence the patient positively, and to interpret his self-defeating behavior and distorted beliefs about reality. The patient must be able and willing to profit from it. Since offenders are assumed to suffer from denial, lack of motivation to change, and unwillingness to cooperate with voluntary treatment, individual psychotherapy is generally thought to be ineffective. Suspicion and lack of rapport in the criminal justice context also interfere with effective use of the method. There are few reports on individual psychotherapy with sex offenders against children.

Group psychotherapy gives members the opportunity to share experiences, gain insight, learn to control unacceptable impulses, and find acceptance. Although used more commonly than individual psychotherapy, the effectiveness is unknown. There have been no replicable, controlled studies. One review found that studies were based on…… [Read More]

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Crystal Therapy Crystal Healing and

Words: 3700 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66936769

Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet thus correspond to the seven chakras located along the spinal column." (Fuller 242) Crystal therapy is therefore based on the control and manipulation of these energies so that there is the "correct" or appropriate and balanced amount of this energy in each of the chakras.

The most touted of New Age healing techniques has been the use of crystals. Enthusiasts claim that because rock crystal is almost entirely devoid of color, it is an almost perfect capacitor of divine white light. Explanations of exactly how crystals wield their healing powers vary from practitioner to practitioner. Some maintain that the unique properties of crystals make them excellent receptors of metaphysical energies.

Fuller 242/3)

Brief history of crystal therapy

As has already been mentioned, the history of this form of therapy is to be found in many historical documents and in myths, stories and…… [Read More]

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Solution Focused Brief Therapy Today

Words: 2292 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 64226686

For example, Jones and Charlton note that it is possible to develop appropriate problem-solving techniques in the following four major areas:

1. Identifying the goal which is appropriate and achievable;

2. Identifying exceptions to the usual pattern of problems;

3. Measuring the student's progress towards achieving the goal; and,

4. Providing useful and positive feedback.

Finally, SFBT can be used either as a "stand-alone" counseling approach or in tandem with other techniques. For example, Linton (2005) emphasizes that SFBT ". . . can operate as a stand alone approach or in conjunction with traditional models of treatment. Solution-focused mental health counselors do not view SFBT and traditional models of treatment as incompatible. Collaborating with clients to create counseling goals, be they directed towards abstinence, self-help group attendance, changes in thinking errors, or some other goal of the client's choosing, selves to enhance motivation to change" (p. 298). Likewise, Jones and…… [Read More]

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History of Massage Therapy Is Literally the

Words: 794 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97014910

history of massage therapy is literally the history of human touch. If one looks at other primates one can see that, like human beings, they use touch as a means of comfort and healing to one another. Of course, in human beings, this practice has been elevated far beyond mere touch, with different types of massage capable of producing different effects in clients. Massage therapy has been used as a therapeutic art in India since at least 3,000 B.C. (History of Massage 2012). Massage can be used for relaxation and rehabilitation, so that massage therapists make positive contributions to quality-of-life in a wide variety of individuals.

I wish to study massage therapy for a wide variety of reasons. First, I want to help people. To me, massage therapy is a helping profession; whether the reason a person seeks out a massage is to help deal with daily stressors or to…… [Read More]

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Physical Therapy According to Kathleen

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95868231

When working in hospital settings, physical therapists have frequent interactions with nurses. According to an interview done by XXX with XXX, physical therapists communicate with nurses daily as part of secondary patient care. The hospital's original mechanism for consults between nurses and physical therapist was paper medical records; however, that method of communication has since been replaced by face-to-face consults and electronic medical records. A recent article in the Journal of Interprofessional Care found that interactions between different types of health care professionals (including nurses and physical therapists) were "richer and lengthier, and consisted of negotiations which related to both clinical as well as social content" than those between health care professionals and physicians (Reeves, Rice, Conn, Miller, Kenaszchuk, & Zwarenstein, 2009, 633). The study also showed that these types of positive communications and interactions improved the quality of patient care and decreased the risk for negative patient outcomes.

Even…… [Read More]

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Psychological Therapy in Nigeria Person

Words: 1800 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57494755

It focuses on relationships as the basis for solving problems. As such, it can lead to the decrease in depressive symptoms according to local cultural practice. Interpersonal therapy has also proved to be effective in treating depressive symptoms of patients who are HIV-positive. This is considered quite important, considering the high prevalence of HIV incidence in Africa (Bass).

With the findings of trials on the efficacy of psychotherapy as an approach to depression in Nigeria, researchers believe that membership of an interpersonal psychotherapy group proved more effective in controlling the disorder than not becoming a member. Interpersonal psychotherapy perceives depression as developing out of disturbed human relationships or triggered by stressful life events (Bass). Considering the overall environment and situations in Nigeria, depression is not unlikely to occur and prevail. Interventions, such as psychotherapy, can reduce symptoms in disturbed personal relationships, although the political, cultural and economic aspects require other…… [Read More]

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Adult Day Care Center What

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 55908815

The Short-Term Rehabilitation Unit at Palm Gardens has 40 beds, rooms with private and semi-private accommodations, and a gymnasium. The rooms all have "large windows" so patients can enjoy plenty of natural light. The rooms are equipped with televisions, phone lines, a small refrigerator and pantry so snacks for the patient and visitors are close by at all times.

Is the Palm Gardens Center associated with any particular religion? No, the facility is "non-sectarian" - so patients of the Jewish faith, Christianity, Muslim and other faiths are all welcomed and should be comfortable without the pressure of having to go through rituals or traditions of a particular religion.

The modern equipment on site offers the latest in therapy for all patients. Palm Gardens has the following technologies: Ultra Sound, Kinetron, Paraffin Bath, Electrical Stimulation, Electric Standing Box, Kinetic Exercise Equipment and Electric Mats. The center has computers, parallel bars, and…… [Read More]

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Gambling Addiction Center the Center

Words: 2915 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54761222

Only a small percentage of people with severe AOD problems seek treatment (Loveland, 2003). Among those who do, there is a high attrition from initial contact through screening, assessment, and admission, and even greater attrition when this process involves a waiting list for services (Loveland, 2003). The BHRM model seeks to infuse front-end, or pretreatment, recovery-support services into the community (Loveland, 2003). The goals of such pretreatment services are to:

1) "encourage the self-resolution of AOD problems through natural or mutual aid resources as an alternative to professionally directed treatment, 2) intervene at early stages of problem development before high-intensity services are needed, 3) intervene in severe forms of AOD problems before recovery capital is fully depleted, (4) reduce the attrition in sobriety-seeking and help- seeking experiments, 5) help individuals use community-support systems (Loveland, 2003), 6) engage individuals within their current developmental stage of change. In short, these services are…… [Read More]

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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85016672

Persons with generalized anxiety disorder often worry excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipate disaster." People with GAD are accustomed to approaching life as "worriers," and the disorder can be difficult to treat. They often become highly, negatively emotionally aroused when mentally imagining future events; effective treatment must deal with these stress-inducing mental images. While the idea of "generalized anxiety" may sound like a mild problem, experts have concluded that the social, emotional, and financial costs to a patient can be severe. Michael Dugas and Naomi Koerner have identified four root psychological contributors to GAD that can be effectively approached with cognitive-behavioral based therapies: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, poor problem solving, and cognitive avoidance. (Dugas and Koerner)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) refers to a condition in which individuals are highly susceptible to worry as a result of negative beliefs about uncertainty in life. These…… [Read More]

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Psychological the Most Creative Person

Words: 3872 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20626197

Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.

Question 14.2

The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns…… [Read More]

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Cancer Center Registries the Number of Cancer

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41235061

Cancer Center Registries

The number of cancer deaths around the world has been calculated to be approximately four million each year with an overall incidence rate of 143 per 100,000 people per year. At both the national and community level, cancer registration schemes are essential to research into the nature and causation of cancer, to the preparation of health service resources and cancer control programs, and to the evaluation of their success. Cancer registration is therefore part of most modern health information systems (Jensen & Whelan, n.d.).

Cancer registration is often defined as the process of ongoing, organized compilation of data on the incidence and characteristics of reportable neoplasms with the idea of helping to evaluate and manage the impact of malignancies on the community. The cancer registry is the office which tries to gather, store, analyze and interpret data on persons with cancer. A hospital-based cancer registry reports all…… [Read More]

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African Centered

Words: 2535 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56825933

African Centered Education

In 'The Miseducation of the Negro', Carter Woodson (2000) argues that the education provided to African-Americans ignored or undervalued African historical experiences, and overvalued European history and culture. This has caused the alienation of African-Americans, who became dissociated from themselves, by ignoring or cutting African-Americans' links with their own culture and traditions. Woodson argued that this type of education has caused African-Americans to reject their own heritage, while positioning them not at the center of European culture, but rather at its margins. Woodson predicted that such an education would result in the psychological and cultural decline of the African-American people.

For Woodson and many others, the solution to this problem could be found in the development of an educational system that responded to African-Americans. This model, built on the traditional African-American colleges, would teach both the history and culture of Africa together with that of the United…… [Read More]