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Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (Bowett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to Bowett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (Bowett, 1970).
In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…… [Read More]
War on terrorism took an important place in the foreign policy of Reagan's administration, in administration of Bush (father) and in administration of democrat Clinton. First, the war on terrorism was directed against the spread of communism and pro-Soviet tendencies in the developing countries as the U.S.S.R. supported and aided Marxist insurgents who fought in Latin America and Arabs in the Middle East (Lebanon and Palestine).
Chomsky gives a clear image of the approach used by the U.S.A. And its NATO allies in description of their militarism: "Intelligent bombs" in Iraq, "humanitarian intervention" in Kosovo. The U.S.A. never used the word "war" to describe that. Now they are talking about war against a nameless enemy. Why? At first the U.S. used the word "crusade," but it was quickly pointed out that if they hope to enlist their allies in the Islamic world, it would be a serious mistake, for obvious…… [Read More]
Also stated in their findings was that exposure in the laboratory of video games that were 'graphically violent...increased aggressive thoughts and behavior (2000:1) Also stated in this report is that other studies conducted by Anderson and Gentile give indication that videogames "have a strong effect on aggression..." particularly in children.
3. Coleman, Loren (2004) The Copycat Effect Paraview Publishing. Online available at http://www.paraview.com/coleman/index4.htm.
According to Coleman, the copycat effect has been a result of media coverage of events such as school shootings. Coleman brings to light how media affects culture within a society.
4. The Culture of Commercialism (2006) Media Awareness Network Online available at http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/ethics/rr_culture_commercialism.cfm.
This work states that "advertising projects false images commercialism distorts our culture by turning every event into a reason to consume.... [and that]...advertising perpetuates stereotypes..."
5. Digital Beginnings: Young Children's Use of Popular Culture, Media and New Technologies Popular Culture and Media Literacy: Research…… [Read More]
... led me to suggest, as an alternative to assimilation, the value of being asimilao.
IV. Reminders to Help
Kim & Lyons (2003) report that games can be successfully used to instill and enhance individuals' abilities to succeed in a multicultural firm. Game playing possesses numerous characteristics which could enhance the learning of competencies areas of skills, attitudes and beliefs, and knowledge. Games which include low-risk potential can increase a sense of safety, reduce vulnerable feelings, while also, and enhancing multicultural awareness.
For example, the use of games can balance out the inherent hierarchy between the trainees and the instructor (i.e., it levels the playing field) and potentially lead to an increased sense of safety on the part of the trainees" (Kim & Lyons, 2003). Increasing an individual's sense of safety can work tom eliminate prejudices and allow students and trainees to more readily examine their personal norms; cultural values;…… [Read More]
(Ford Motor Company: eRoom enables Ford to drive into new technology)
II. Marketing Strategies:
Target Market: Target Market 1
This market consists of institutional sales with large manufacturers or independent manufacturing divisions of corporations having a huge network of broker, dealer or distributor network. For these categories the ideal vehicle suited will be the sports wagon and minivans. Only last January, the managers publicized the Ford Fairline concept at the Detroit Auto Show as their vision a new 'people mover' being a minivan category of vehicle. The Fairlane was on Ford's Mazda6-based CD 3 platform. However the plan has developed to an analogous styled vehicle which is built on Ford's larger D3 platform that started with Volvo. The two are front-wheel-drive platforms. Through the period of 2010, Ford will depend immensely on these two car platforms. The initial three vehicles on the Mazda-based CD3 platform which are the Ford Fusion,…… [Read More]
Meanwhile, "False Balancing" is where "both sides are seldom accorded equal prominence," Parenti asserts. As an example of this tendency, Parenti writes that when it comes to a conservative issue, NPR (National Public Radio), perceived as a liberal institution, interviews a "right wing spokesperson" alone. But when it's a liberal issue being discussed, NPR has a liberal and a conservative on together.
Endorsement / Disparagement: Some media use "labels" like "the president's firm leadership" and "a strong defense" without offering any details as to why the president's leadership is "firm" or the defense is "strong." The campaign in California (Proposition 226) against unions used the phrase "union bosses" often, to give a negative tone to unions, but corporate executives were never alluded to as "corporate bosses."
Framing: Another kind of manipulation mentioned by Parenti is "Framing": this involves "bending the truth rather than breaking it." Examples of framing include:…… [Read More]
Most movingly, perhaps, in the final part of his speech, Pericles turns to the fathers and mothers who have given up sons and spouses to the war. He states that the parents who are still young should have more children, children who will be able to enjoy the democracy that their older siblings fought and died for, and he tells the women to be strong too, in the face of the sorrows that they and their city are enduring over the course of the war. Pericles thus admits, without falsely creating a beautiful image of wartime, that casualties are inevitable during a violent conflict, and it is only because Athenian democracy is so unique, so worth fighting for, that men are willing to give up the comforts of peacetime to sacrifice their lives.
Of course, it might be protested that the ideal Pericles speaks of in the funeral oration was…… [Read More]
Also, viewers may perceive the negative advertising as an infringement upon their right to decide for themselves. Such a perception may result in reactance, a boomerang effect in which the individual reacts in a manner opposite to the persuader's intention. What these studies show, then, is that a candidate is never going to know how for sure how a negative ad may impact the voters. In the long run, it may be best to keep away from mudslinging unless able to deal with the consequences.
TV debates are another form of communication that provide input on issues and may impact the voters. Naturally, the debate that comes to mind first is the one between Kennedy and Nixon in 1960. Because Nixon hurt himself right before the TV lights came on, so he was not only exhausted but in pain as well. To top it off, his face always had a…… [Read More]
This would make the resource pool of charity large enough for the deprived sections of the society.
2): On the issue of morality Singer in his writing refers about the Brazilian film Central Station in which Dora, a poor retired school teacher gets an opportunity to earn $1,000 by handing over a 9-year-old homeless boy to an address where the boy will be fostered by wealthy foreigners. She hands over the boy, earns the money and buys a television to enjoy, only to be told by his neighbor that the boy will be killed and his organs used for human transplant. Dora gets upset and she decides to bring back the boy. In this situation Dora becomes a pawn of an immoral act without her knowledge following which she suffers from emotional turmoil. Had Dora acted otherwise without expressing any qualms of her actions, the author maintains, the audience would…… [Read More]
As Farrell (June 14, 2000) states: "The idea is to make milk the "cool" drink. The "mustache" still runs, with current stars such as Britney Spears." The success of such milk advertising to teens, it seems, represents an especially skillful endeavor, since milk is otherwise so much (and traditionally) associated with babyhood and early childhood, life stages (and self-images and reflections by others) that teens in particular generally yearn to leave far behind. Moreover, the considerable success of the "milk mustache" campaign proves very well the fact that just about anything can be successfully marketed to teens, as long as it is marketed to them with enough imagination, research, and skill (and with plenty of advertising dollars).
Some advertising for teens is also currently undergoing some interesting media changes, internationally. Within one global mega-conglomerate, Coca Cola, according to Foust (March 1, 2004):
Coke has diverted money into new initiatives that…… [Read More]
The overall diagnostic and symptomatic patterns described by these points indicate that BPD is a serious disorder and is "...classified as a major personality disorder involving dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior; intense, unstable moods and relationships; chronic anger; and substance abuse." (Boucher, 1999, p. 33)
There are a number of criteria which, in line with DSM-IV, are used to identify and characterize this disorder. The first of these criteria refers to "...unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, with marked shifts in attitudes toward others (from idealization to devaluation or from clinging dependency to isolation and avoidance), and prominent patterns of manipulation of others.."(Boucher, 1999, p. 33)
Perception also plays an important role in the identification and understanding of the BDP patient. This refers particularly to social perception. Benjamin and Wonderlich (1994) recognized that BDP patients showed differences in social perception when compared to bipolar and unipolar subjects. In relation to…… [Read More]
The level of subject matter knowledge and argumentative ability an individual involved in an argument possesses determine rationality. Finally, the rational world paradigm presupposes that the world is composed of logical puzzles that human beings solve through rational analysis. As can be seen both paradigms offer highly differing presuppositions over what constitutes human beings and how they communicate among one another.
Although Fisher has not explicitly mentioned it, the conduit metaphor can be said to share certain similarities with the rational world paradigm. The conduit metaphor stresses that thoughts and feelings are transferred via language between individuals. This entails that senders of information put their thoughts and feelings into words, which have to then be extracted out by receivers using objective interpretation (Reddy, 1979).
The metaphor's assumption that receivers will be objective while interpreting the message is similar to the rational world paradigm's assumption that individuals will objectively examine how…… [Read More]
What are the ways in which your college experiences have prepared you for a career?
How do you evaluate success?
In what ways do you think you can be productive to our organization?
Describe a contribution you have made to a project on which you have worked in the past.
What qualities should a successful manager possess in your opinion?
Was there an occasion when you faced a conflict of opinion with a supervisor's decision or company policy? Describe how you handled the situation
What accomplishments have given you greatest satisfaction so far and why?
What interests you about our firm?
What led you to choose the field of study?
What kind of work environment are you most comfortable with.
How do you handle stress and work pressure?
Describe a task in which you worked as part of a team. What role did you take on? What went…… [Read More]
Detail Five-Year Plan for Career, Including Jobs You Want, How Leverage Education and How Prepare Yourself for This Path.
Experience has taught me that despite one's best intentions sometimes the unexpected evolves. Taking this into consideration I gladly outline my five-year goals understanding that unexpected events or circumstances may change my path slightly, but ultimately not interfere with my primary purpose, which is to develop and manage my own company.
In the next five years I plan to acquire the professional skills and experience needed to start my own information-systems business in the global economic market. To facilitate this dream I intend on seeking employment with Wall Street in a position that will endow me with practical knowledge in product development within the international finance market. I plan to acquire a position that will teach me how to market products successfully so I can translate these skills into solid business…… [Read More]
Homeric heroes exhibit the fundamental values and qualities that ancient Greek culture esteemed. Doubtlessly, this is true of Achilles in the Iliad, Odysseus in the Odyssey and even Odysseus' son Telemachus. Yet, another pervasive theme in mythology is that the characters rarely exhibit any evolution or are changed very little by their experiences: this is certainly the case with Achilles, Penelope, Poseidon, Athena, and Agamemnon. It is obvious that all of these characters are quiet interesting and complex, but their identities seem to be limited by a set number of unchanging characteristics. From this standpoint, it is clear that Odysseus and Telemachus break this mold. Odysseus takes up the identity he left off with in the Iliad; he is strong, brave, cunning, bold, a decisive leader, and a man looking for glory. Although he certainly possesses these same traits be the end of the poem, he has been humbled by…… [Read More]
In addition, repeating ACSI can provide trend data (Hall, 2002, p. 23+), important to government agencies, but also to new industries. Hall notes that, "Besides the ability of the ACSI to maintain a pulse on customer satisfaction, the ACSI is an index, not just a survey. This means it groups all participants and provides an integrated score, or index" (2002, p. 23+).
Schay et al. reported that the United States federal Office of Personnel Management uses a similar instrument that measures nine core dimensions underlying customer satisfaction. "These dimensions were distilled from 139 dimensions identified in the management, marketing, and organizational psychology literature. The dimensions are empirically related to organizational effectiveness and relevant to all service sectors" (Schay et al., 2000, p. 30), and therefore would need to be developed specifically for each industry.
While ACSI is the dominant measuring tool in much of U.S. consumer satisfaction research, the Kano…… [Read More]
teachers assess only the final product of a student's writing work. The result of this is that students are left with the impression that writing is a one-time product that cannot improve beyond the first attempt. Teachers are faced with the dilemma that students deliver work with too much room for improvement. This makes adequate assessment, teaching and improvement strategies difficult. If writing in class is treated as a process with various stages, then improvements are easier, less overwhelming for the teacher and more understandable for students. The lesson will therefore focus on the point the chapter makes regarding writing as a process, and the fact that writing can be improved throughout every stage.
Students too often feel that writing exists only to complete a finish product. Teachers often encourage them in this view. The rationale of this lesson is then to focus students' attention on the fact that…… [Read More]
An empowered employee may disobey rules and procedures to help a customer and in turn the organization itself.
For further analysis of delegation and empowerment, we need to understand the concept of power itself. In bureaucracies, work is simply done by following preset procedures. Leadership doesn't usually have to impose power, in fact power is granted to employees to choose the best available choice (decision-making) cohering with the rules and regulations. Most discussions on power often incorporate the five categories of the social power identified by the psychologists John French and Bertram Raven (1959). These five classic types of power include reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert. Reward, a source of power is based on a person's ability to control resources and reward others; while the target of this power must appreciate these rewards. Coercive power is as the name suggests, related to fear. The person with coercive power has…… [Read More]
The object still exists as well, even if it only perceived inaccurately by the material world and by the sensations
Mathematical proofs and mathematical calibrations are accurate, when correctly done, according to Descartes, because they can be proven by logic that the existence of such things exist with tools outside of the body. But although Descartes' Christian world of a non-deceitful god may have been persuasive to his readers, a contemporary reader might ask, what about when the body is affected by the mind -- for example, when one's heart pounds when the mind is nervous, or when one feels hungry because one has seen a television commercial? The sensations are correct in the sense that they perceive a sight, but the pilot of the ship, in essence, interferes with the correct course of action. This suggests a connection between mind and body that is less causal and easy to…… [Read More]
black women contribute to the early abolitionist movement? What types of restrictions did women (both white and black) face in American society at this point? Why did more people at this point accept the idea of freeing blacks than giving women equal rights and opportunity?
American women, black and white, were prohibited from voting in both the antebellum Northern and Southern states. Yet African-American women still played a prominent role in the early abolitionist movement. The most famous such participant is of course Sojourner Truth, a freed slave who protested, 'ain't I a woman,' after listing the many ways she had been denied the traditional middle-class comforts extended to white females, and still survived, despite being a member of the supposedly weaker sex. However, even before emancipation, many black women were participants in the abolitionist movement.
Often these women were liberated escaped slaves such as Harriet Jacobs, who told her…… [Read More]
However, such strategy has the outcome in compliance in absence of commitment and feelings of frustration and resentment.
The fourth strategy is I lose a little, you win a little. The placate yield style represents a concern for the effects of conflict on the welfare and durability of all relationships that is entered. The hypothesis is that human relationships are so flexible that they cannot endure the trauma of working through normal differences. Therefore, the inclination is towards withdrawing from the conflict and pleases others by ignoring, denying and avoiding conflict. When the differences continue it is found worthwhile in placating and submitting oneself to ones objectives being seen as effective modes of self-protection and safeguarding our relationships with others. One-sided domination in ones relationship is evident in such type of strategies.
Finally, the strategy is 'I win, you win'. This approach to conflict resolution is regarded as the dominant…… [Read More]
Psychology of the Bigot -- the Anti-Semite vs. The Racist
In "Anti-Semite and Jew," the existentialist philosopher John Paul Sartre, a gentile, analyzed the psychology of an anti-Semitic individual who hates Jews. He did so from the perspective of an outsider to the group he was examining over the course of his essay, as well as attempting to plumb the psychology of the 'insider' of this group. In "The Fire Next Time," James Baldwin examined the American racist's perspective from the point-of-view of the object of racial hatred and ostrication, namely his own perspective as a Black man in America. Both, however, attempted to relate the psychology of hatred to larger political concerns, in Sartre's case that of a biased and class-oriented French society, and in Baldwin's case that of the Cold War, which he suggested caused the fear of tragedy to intensify racial divisions in America.
At the beginning…… [Read More]
They gain a sense of distance, distrust, and constraint in their institutional experiences, a distrust that is common to White working class Italian households, and Black working class housing projects alike. Middle class children learn to regard leisure time as a time of skill building, to deal with strangers, even strange adults, to look these adults in the eye, and to comport themselves like members of the privileged class. This is particularly crucial in a nation of advancement like America, whereby one's social and outer demeanor translates into one's educational opportunities, evaluation of one's job performance, and the ability to advance in a still class-bound society.
The findings and implications for teachers
What can teaches do to remedy such findings? Teachers can seek awareness within their own minds and backgrounds. They must try to translate that greater class and cultural awareness into monitoring the progress of students from culturally deprived…… [Read More]
Politics, literature and the arts -- Transformation, Totalitarianism, and Modern Capitalist life in Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis," Fritz Lang's "Metropolis," and Albert Camus' Caligula
At first, the towering heights of the German director Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" may seem to have little to do with the cramped world of the Czech author Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis." Fritz Lang portrayed a humanity whereby seemingly sleek human beings were dwarfed by towering and modernist structures, where one class of thinking humans were drunk on pleasure while others suffered in pain so that the upper classes or regions of Metropolitan society might prosper. Franz Kafka portrayed a man named Gregor Samsa who became a grotesque creature, increasingly beset upon by his tiny and encloistered environment until he is transformed into a gigantic cockroach. Rather than focusing on the higher echelons of society, Kafka focused on its lower elements immediately.
In Kafka, the transformed Gregor Samsa becomes…… [Read More]
Frequent interception of American ships to impress American citizens was a major cause of the War of 1812. ("Impressments." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 10 Aug. 2005, (http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/history/A0825052.html)
The enforced and arbitrary nature of the fate of impressment, and Budd's fate of facing the code of military law, which was different from the life he was accustomed to, did not understand, and had not agreed to, was thus the result of Billy being forced to obey a social contract in an environment that necessitated individuals obey without question to fight an armed enemy. This differing social contract is not necessarily 'worse' than life upon a non-military ship. The problem is not necessarily the innocent civilian Billy is good and that the military men are bad, but that two orders of individualism and the collective good are clashing on a ship -- it is through impressment that this has occurred, not because…… [Read More]
So, I committed as much of this section as I could to memory, so I can call on these skills in the future. I especially liked the notation, "But as a manager, you should establish a communication culture that emphasizes accuracy, integrity, fairness, and objectivity rather than mere showmanship and image projection." I think those are all essential and valuable traits for any manager, and I have begun to think about and establish my own communication culture because of reading this chapter and I have been looking at my writing style, too. I also found the section on communicating with different cultures quite helpful. Sometimes we forget the entire world does not think as we do, and this was extremely helpful to remind us all that we have to be considerate of other cultures just as we are of other people in our own culture.
Personally, I do not enjoy…… [Read More]
The fact that his labors are more often than not, fortified by beer, to steel him to the unpleasant task of destruction, underline Hanta's futile attempts to disengage himself from the physical, material act of cultural destruction through drug-inducted dissociation. (2) Hanta records, particularly during the first part of the book, in excruciating detail the masses and masses of words he has rendered for the scrap heap, and his solitary existence and life of labor that is compelled by a domineering government. He lives and works in a material world of cultural destruction, but a world so horrible, he does all he can to shut it out -- and one of his tools is to read, read, read, and ingest material deemed to be wrong.
The paradox is that as much as Hanta destroys, he can still appreciate that for "fifteen generations" his people have dwelled in a cultured land,…… [Read More]
Different cultures have vastly different communication norms. For example, different cultures have different expectations about eye contact, body gestures, and especially proxemics and tactile communication styles. "In areas of the Middle East and South America, people stand very close when talking. European-Americans like to have more distance between them, while some African-Americans prefer even more space." (McGee)
Low-contact cultures, such as North American, Northern European and Asian cultures, prefer to communicate in the Social Zone (four to twelve feet) and tend to avoid physical contact. High-contact cultures, such as Mediterranean, Arab, and Latin cultures, prefer to communicate within the Intimate and Personal Zones (up to four feet) and do use a great deal of tactile communication. (Bremer) Even different races within the same country may have a difficult time with tactile communication because of the significant differences in comfort levels. "Halberstadt's (1985) gave a review of race differences in nonverbal…… [Read More]
However, there were certain specific people it seemed to wish to motivate, more than others. In particular, it looked to motivate women to take a stand for the protection of children. In the end of the article, it specifically states, that she is calling for "an effective movement (that) may be inaugurated and prosecuted by women" ("Seduction" 4). It also played to legislators to change the current laws that allowed such immoral conduct without punishment.
An analysis of the article finds that it indeed is motivating. The author effectively raises the moral consciousness of the reader, through emotion-laden discourse, forcing the reader to either agree with their position or take the position of a moral scoundrel and pedophile supporter. In today's day and age, it is almost inconceivable that this could have been the case that the rape of a child of seven could be allowed as consensual.
Seduction…… [Read More]
Freedom of Speech, or the right to express oneself, verbally and in writing, as one chooses, and how, when, to whom, and in what manner one chooses, is a guarantee of all American citizens, protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Specifically, the First Amendment to the Constitution states: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances
." It is my opinion that freedom of speech has always been, and remains, a necessary component of any open society. However, the political and social value of freedom of speech tends to become forgotten when a people feel that they are unsafe, or begin to feel threatened by their own peers (current…… [Read More]
The American government's use of these normative values reflects not only their internal beliefs, but the beliefs of a larger community. Write Gleb and Roesnethal (2004), "These values are now widely shared around the world by different religions and cultures. Movements for democracy or justice for war crimes are no longer merely American or Western idiosyncrasies."
The widespread nature of the normative beliefs that guide American foreign policy make the use of normative power in the American foreign policy organization highly effective. This use of normative power that is already highly accepted within the worldwide community only aids members of the American government's foreign policy division to successfully "internalize organizational values which become their own and guide their behavior naturally" (Brunel University).
Microsoft demonstrates a strong and effective use of normative power within the organization. Writes Thielen (2000), "All Microsoft employees know in their gut what their primary goal is.…… [Read More]
Human Resource Management Book Review:
The Management of a Multicultural Workforce
Tayeb, Monir H. (1996) The Management of a Multicultural Workforce. London, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Issues pertaining to diversity and cultural education that once used to be the sole province of major multinational corporations have now become central issues even in many small and medium-sized companies today. No company can take comfort in its currently enclosed organizational culture and simply assert that 'that is the way things are done,' as an answer to all questions of cultural difference and organizational diversity. Also, Monir Tayeb suggests in the text The Management of a Multicultural Workforce that it is not simply enough that a company pats itself on the back that it has a manifestly, culturally diverse workforce in its demographic makeup. Rather, such medium- and small-sized businesses as well as to multinational organizations must institute specific human resource management…… [Read More]
" (Voltaire, Chapter 30) as much as the reader might have suspected Pangloss' increasing embitterment, irrational emotional ties to creed, in the world of the novel, still hold true, although rather than believe him or attempt to show disrespect towards the former tutor who has proved so useless to him, Candide stresses that the mans remarks are "excellently observed...but let us cultivate our garden." (Voltaire, Chapter 30)
Let us, in other words, suggests both Candide and Voltaire -- the first time the author and the protagonist are really united in their sentiments and voice -- return to nature and the inner cultivation of the self and one's personal life and soul in an independent fashion, rather than debate outer, political philosophy that adheres to the ideology of others. This is an ideal that is the soon to be stomping ground of Romanticism, as depicted in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, a work…… [Read More]
old Chinese proverb that I believe encompasses my feelings for the nursing profession. With the healthcare industry in its current state of disruption, it has become very important to re-evaluate the relationship of patient care and patient satisfaction. "Sometimes patient satisfaction needs to be measured one patient at a time. This usually has nothing to do with the impersonality of the plan, the aloofness of the provider, or the quality of the specialists to whom one is referred. Rather, it involves the basic rationing philosophies of HMOs, particularly the for-profit variety." (Birenbaum, 107) We can't forget that the business objectives of HMO's aim to purchase services and materials at the lowest price possible and trying to lock in a price in advance. HMO's have therefore changed the philosophy of the healthcare industry. As nurses, we have to make the best of this atmosphere. This essay therefore serves as the final…… [Read More]
In these times, we do not just need to be good, or have a hazy sense of right and wrong but what we actually need is strength and courage to actually act on our beliefs and values. Kant maintained that goodness is something that gives " a positive command to a man, namely to bring all his capacities and inclinations under his (reason's) control and so to rule over himself... For unless reason holds the reins of government in its own hands, man's feelings and inclinations play the master over him." (Kant 1991, 208)
The concept of good will is also closely associated with Kant's theory of goodness. Kant felt that for a person to display signs of goodness, he must work with a good will. Good will is something which doesn't need any verification or additional evidence of it being a good and positive force. He further explained that…… [Read More]
American Elections Have Become Undemocratic
The American electoral process has been criticized on several points. This paper addresses some, though not all, of the ways in which the American political process has been criticized. Starting with campaign finance and whether expensive advertising exerts an influence on the outcome of elections out of proportion to its importance, I discuss the difficulty faced by potential candidates in getting their names on ballots when they are not the candidate being promoted by either the Democrats or Republicans. I then address whether the idea of plurality in national elections is a rational one and conclude with a discussion of the Electoral College and whether its presence and influence in the outcome of the presidential race runs contrary to the expressed democratic spirit of the United States.
First, there is the issue of campaign finance. Essentially, the uncomfortable question is this: is the American system…… [Read More]
Paine's decision to write of high philosophical and political issues in common speech, and of used "graphic metaphors and his simple sentence structure [to] reflect a language understood at the time by common Americans," (Moss & Wilson, ed) has much the same purpose as a translation of the Bible from Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic into Latin, which is to say the need to initiate common people into profound truths.
Paine may not have been the greatest philosopher of his day, but he was certainly the greatest rhetorician. (it is a distinction which has been open to debate since the time of Socrates and the Sophists) the needs of rhetoric, as Aristotle himself has said, demand using emotion, sentiment, self-interest, and logic together with fine and comprehensible speech to persuade an audience. Both his synthesis of modern ideals and his simple straight forward manner aided him in fulfilling these demands:
Disavowing…… [Read More]
Appropriate time management facilitates a student's ability to learn and to improve one's overall quality of life, as well as make the most of the quantity of time one has for certain tasks.
For instance, when studying, tackling the most difficult subjects first, when one is mentally fresh, whether one is a morning or a night person, can be an effective method to grasp a difficult study area. Using short and frequent study sessions throughout the semester rather than cramming is another important time management technique -- and even simply making the most of one's spare moments leaves one with the satisfaction that one does not simply have clean laundry, but can go to bed an extra hour earlier, rather than begin one's calculus homework at midnight! ("Time Management," 2002)
Understanding the dangers of fallacious thinking is the last important step in taking what is learned in the classroom and…… [Read More]
In the second chapter of Common Sense, Paine wrote: "Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness Positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices." Also, Paine's philosophy was also unusually critical, compared with the singers of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, in its uncompromising embrace of a non-theologically-based state order, a state based upon the concept of the author's beloved vale of reason. The value of reason vs. religious ideation was a popular concept during the Enlightenment amongst some European philosophers, but a controversial one on a mass level -- still, Paine was unafraid to advocate the idea of religious belief always being subordinate to political doctrines that could be justified through logic.
This is important to remember when issues of religion are debated today, in the contemporary public discourse. It is interesting to remember…… [Read More]
gather some information that will help identify the main characteristics of lobby groups. It is certain, for one thing, that they represent the interests of a certain category of voters, a certain part of the population and that they work to promote certain legislative acts in favor of the respective category they represent. This is done by presenting the appropriate information to the legislative body members and by attempting, by logical arguments, to persuade the necessity of adopting such a law. Unfortunately, the original way of action of lobby groups, as presented previously, was modified so as to include significant financial contributions to the political campaigns of the legislators, which may have also brought that the name of pressure groups.
As such, on one hand, lobbyists work by presenting information that they think will influence positively the voting procedure. On the other hand, "lobbyists work through relationships"
and, in order…… [Read More]