Physiology Essays (Examples)

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NPR Health and Science Special

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 99954997

Silk and tassel look similar but the two structures are functionally different. The NPR interviewer uses them synonymously without correction by the farmer.

However, the farmer is correct in emphasizing the importance of the silk and tassel, the stigma and the male inflorescence, in the reproduction of the corn. Moreover, the farmer stresses the relationship between wind and corn fertilization. Pollen grains are "borne in anthers, each of which contains a large number of pollen grains" that emerge only during certain morning hours (Thomison). The farmer in the NPR segment fails to mention the crucial timing involved in corn pollination.

Corn ovules are potential kernels, which are the fruits of the corn. The seeds of the corn are its pollen: which is created in the anthers and which travel along the male inflorescence to fertilize the stigmas. Stigmas are essentially pollen receptors. In many plants, the stigma is part of…… [Read More]

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Shin Splints From Ecs Conditions

Words: 4210 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40062881

Practical Research Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I

The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.

Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…… [Read More]

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Calcium Neuro the Role of

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67501431

It had been hypothesized that the release of four calcium ions is necessary for the release of one acetylcholine packet (which is necessary for the neuromuscular communication taking place at the neuromuscular junction), and thus that calcium has a cooperative impact on neuromuscular transmissions (Dodge & Rahamimoff, 1967). Specifically, these researchers noted a logarithmic scale that described the relationship between calcium ion concentration and the level of neuromuscular activity taking place during a given activation cycle that suggests the fourth power of calcium concentration is equal to action at the junction (Dodge & Rahamimoff, 1967).

Later research into the same basic phenomenon has yielded still greater understanding of the mechanism by which calcium achieves its purposed ends in neuromuscular transmission. Augustine and Charlton (1986) have shown that the cooperative aspect of calcium's involvement in neuromuscular transmission likely does not take place at the presynaptic areas of transmission, but rather that…… [Read More]

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A proper lesson plan

Words: 536 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51959802

Lesson Plan

Materials Needed

• Diagrams

• Glossary of terms

• Whiteboard/Chalkboard/Computer Projector

• Textbooks

• Paper

• Pens

• Pencils

• Pencil Sharpeners

• Quick reference guides for lesson

• Computer file copies of information (PDF's, etc.)

Lesson Objectives

• Teach physiology terminology in English

• Teach physiology terminology in Spanish

• Be able to describe major functions of each body part

• In both Spanish and English

• Teach general fitness guidelines and metrics

• Teach students to be able to synthesize both narrative/report speech relating to the subject as well as graphs, charts and diagrams

• Drive home the importance of having a strong and fluent understanding of terminology and contextual information within the medical paradigm

• Be able to explain Spanish narratives and speech into English

• Same thing in reverse

• Full

• Teach proper sentence structure. Define types of words (nouns, verbs, etc.) as…… [Read More]

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Sensory Information and the Central Nervous System

Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35994845

sensory cells in the human body and delves into the transmission of sensory information from various parts of the body to the central nervous system. This paper uses bona fide scholarly publications as sources for the materials presented.

Sensory Receptors

When humans respond to various stimuli (cold, pain, heat, light, sound or touch) it is because sensory receptors have transmitted the body's response to those stimuli to the central nervous system. Sensory receptors are specialized cells that are working for humans by detecting environmental stimuli and first passing those stimuli notices to "sensory neurons," and those neurons, in turn, send the messages (information) to the brain (Central nervous system / CNS) (Darpan, 2006). So, to make it easier to picture how this works, it could be said that the sensory receptors are basically "portals through which nervous systems experience the world" (Darpan).

Types of Sensory Receptors

The "mechanoreceptors" receive stimulation…… [Read More]

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Our Body and the Function of Homeostasis

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56074763

body and the function of Homeostasis

Define the process of homeostasis, then list and explain five homeostatic functions that our bodies perform.

According to Steve Nakoneshny, who quotes a definition from Thibodeau & Patton, homeostasis can be defined as "the relative constancy of the normal body's internal environment."

However, this definition is somewhat incomplete and we should mention the fact that homeostasis, even if generally used when referring to the human body, can also be applied to nature. In this case, it is referred to as ecological homeostasis. Second of all, we should reassert the fact that homeostasis is a condition and not a process, even if it is generally associated with the action.

In order to briefly explain the definition, we should remember the fact that, as any system, the human body has certain parameters between which it functions best. The moment any of these are surpassed, the body…… [Read More]

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Psychology in Order to Develop Effective Treatment

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31250655


In order to develop effective treatment programs for drug addicts, it is essential to maintain a basic knowledge of the physiological basis of their cravings. Given social and political mandates calling for a cessation of drug abuse or at the very least for the implementation of harm reduction, it is just as important to administer to those exposed to addictive substances as it is to develop methods of preventing exposure. In addition, an ability to explain the neuro-scientific effects of drug use allows those that are responsible for prevention to provide potential users with deterrents that are less dogmatic and more circumspect. To these ends, neuroscience has developed a new understanding of the reasons for addiction.

Behavioral neuroscience has taught us that humans, like other animals, crave certain pharmaceutical agents. Studies have enabled scientists to better understand the neuro-chemistry of pleasure and of cravings. A side effect of these…… [Read More]

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Woman Entered the National Institutes of Health

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43959445

woman entered the National Institutes of Health Research Hospital in Bethesda Maryland with a serious, but fairly routine infection; however the subsequent events were to prove anything but routine. The article titled "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Whole-Genome Sequencing," traced the effort to discover the cause of the woman's illness, as well how the staff at one of America's most advanced hospitals dealt with the subsequent outbreak of disease. (Starr, 2012) This article interested me because it focused on an outbreak of illness, something which anyone could have been affected, but also because it discussed two aspects of the course and it's text: single-celled life forms and genetics.

The woman brought to the NIH research hospital was suffering from an infection caused by an antibiotic-resistant organism, but it was a new strain, never before encountered. About a month after she was treated and discharged, another patient…… [Read More]

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Modeling Mitosis Structured Investigation Inquiry Modeling Mitosis

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30607457

Modeling Mitosis

Structured Investigation Inquiry: Modeling Mitosis

Students will be required to understand the process of mitosis and demonstrate this by drawing pictures of the different mitotic stages in the correct temporal order. These drawings will be judged by how complete they are. For example, the subcellular organelles involved in each stage, including the nuclear membrane, chromosomes, spindle fibers, and centrioles, should be clearly labeled and depicted in a manner that reflects the correct structure for a given mitotic stage. The students will then provide a written, overall summary to demonstrate their grasp of the terminology used to describe mitosis.

Class Performance Ranking Results for Modeling Mitosis:

Exceeding expectations: 50%

Meeting expectations: 33%

Below expectations: 12%

Critique of Student A, an Example of Meeting Expectations:

The student's description of mitosis revealed minor discrepancies in her grasp of the knowledge that included the following:

Cytokinesis was defined as one cell splitting…… [Read More]

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Advanced Practice Nursing Admission

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Admission Essay Paper #: 65619622

Advanced Practice Nursing Admission

Summarize your nursing-related educational and professional activities. Explain your rationale for seeking a graduate nursing degree. Articulate the personal challenges and approaches to managing graduate school, work, and outside commitments

As a nurse, I have worked in many capacities over the course of my career. I currently occupy the challenging role of case manager at a hospice. It is a daily privilege to help individuals and families face chronic illnesses and cope with end-of-life care. The dignity and grace that I see is inspiring, and constantly rewards me with the knowledge that I am making a difference through the career of nursing. I have also worked in a leadership capacity as a director and team leader at a home health agency. My team encompassed RNs, LPNs, PTs, OTs, MSWs, and aides. In this role, I was required to coordinate patient care, create a sense of community,…… [Read More]

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Instructional Design Models Including Elements Defining Ways

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10809582

instructional design models, including elements defining ways traditional methods encourage learner involvement. References required. A peer reviewed journal article, textbooks, and current journal articles credible websites.

Discuss the various instructional design models, including elements defining ways in which traditional methods encourage learner involvement.

The foundational instructional design model is called the 'ADDIE' model: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. During the analysis (planning) phase, the designer identifies the "learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience's needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project" (ADDIE Model, 2012, Learning Theories). During the design phase, learning objectives are further specified as the instructional plan takes shape. The development phase involves the actual creation of the content. The implementation phase is the execution of the instructional plan. During this execution phase, input is solicited from learners…… [Read More]

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Spina Bifida

Words: 2732 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62761041

Kyle Thornton

Spina Bifida

Statistics of Disease

Etiology of Spina Bifida

Pathology and Physiology of Spina Bifida

Signs and Symptoms

Diagnostic Tests

Medical Treatments

Physical Therapy of Spina Bifida


Neural tube defects are the second most common congenital defects in the United States. This occurs due to a defect during early fetal development. These defects are classically of two types, open and closed. Spinal NTDs (spina bifida), anencephaly, and encephalocele are examples of open defects. Common examples of closed NTDs are lipomyelomeningocele, lipomeningocele, and tethered cord. Occasionally more than one type of NTDs can occur simultaneously.


Statistics from March, 2011, estimates that averages of 1500 babies with spina bifida are born each year. The incidence is higher for Hispanic women, almost doubling that of non-Hispanics. The bright side of the situation is that the occurrence for spina bifida, in the United States, has been…… [Read More]

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PTSD and Abuse

Words: 4018 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 77446264

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Abuse

This paper will highlight post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its related causes such as abuse. The main idea here is to overview some of the causes of this disorder and to relate it with physiological and sociological aspects, some other important facts related to the topic will also be mentioned in order to give the reader a better idea about those individuals who are diagnosed with the post traumatic stress.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

It is commonly observed that there exists a strong relationship between abusive behavior, PTSD and any experience of traumatic incident. The fact is that intimate partner abuse occurs more than expected by any common individual. According to the national estimates in the United States, around the time frame of one year some eight to twenty percent of individuals who are in a serious relationship would go on to get involved…… [Read More]

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Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems Static and

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88782789

Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems

Static and Dynamic Equilibrium

Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium

There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.

The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…… [Read More]

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Nursing Related Case Study Tom's Vitals in

Words: 3386 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 27331105

Nursing Related Case Study

Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.

Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.

Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…… [Read More]

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Drugs and Health

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53181604

Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career

Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.

As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…… [Read More]

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Homeostasis An Analysis of Energy

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82421057

The central nervous system is responsible for interpreting the signals sent by these organs, which are meant to reflect energy stores, the recent nutritional status of a person and other factors related to energy metabolism. Further the authors point out that parts of the central nervous system including sections of the hypothalamus then coordinate energy intake and expenditure. The authors suggest that manipulation of any of these components may be an avenue for obesity research. Like the previous researchers discussed, the authors suggest that the homeostasis of the body can be manipulated both intentionally and un-intentionally by individual's lifestyle and personal behaviors.

In fact all organs of the body work synergistically to promote homeostasis. As Westerterp, Plasqui & Goris (2005) note water is vital to energy homeostasis and is directly impacted by factors including physical activity and water loss due to temperature. The authors conducted a study of forty-two women…… [Read More]

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Boyle's Dalton's and Henry's Laws

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60223145

relationship among Boyle's, Dalton's, and Henry's Laws and the physiology of the lung. Robert Boyle investigated the relationship between the volume of a dry ideal gas and its pressure. Since there are four variables that can be altered in a gas sample, in order to investigate how one variable will affect another, all other variables must be held constant or fixed. Boyle fixed the amount of gas and its temperature during his investigation. He found that when he manipulated the pressure that the volume responded in the opposite direction. For example, when Boyle increased the pressure on a gas sample, the volume would decrease.

A physiological example of Boyle's Law is the action of the diaphragm. This muscle is located just below the lungs. When one inhales, the diaphragm moves downward allowing the lungs an increased volume. Consequently, this decreases the pressure inside the lungs so that the pressure is…… [Read More]

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Human Brain One of the Most Complex

Words: 1683 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10528582

Human Brain

One of the most complex organs in the universe, the human brain, continues to be a scientific mystery. In vertebrate and most invertebrate animals, the brain is the central aspect of the nervous system. The brain can be simple, as in some insects, or extremely complex, as in the human brain which can encompass anywhere from 15-33 billion neurons linked with 10,000 or more synaptic connections. The brain is the control and interpretive mechanism for the senses -- vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain also controls other body systems and organs with the release of chemicals allowing a more centralized, and often speedier, coordinated response to environmental stimuli. In vertebrates the spinal cord is the communication track that links the brain with the rest of the body. And, while scientific progress in many other areas of human physiology has been rapid over the past few decades,…… [Read More]

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Emotions What Is an Emotion

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37957571

However, anxiety, like all emotions, is not the same for every person who experiences that emotion. One person may value the relationship more than the other person who is engaged in a conflict. Thus, the stakes are higher in the conflict, and one party has more motivation to instigate resolution.

There is also the potential for different levels of post-resolution anxiety to vary between individual to individual. A highly suspicious person may still experience intense anxiety, even after the conflict has been resolved, and continue to feel the heightened sense of awareness that goes along with the physical changes induced by conflict resolution.

Living in a social group presents conflicts of interest but is the result of interests in common. Explain how social interactions can result in positive emotional responses and influence the strength of a social bond. How is physical contact important for maintaining relationships and facilitating conflict resolution?…… [Read More]

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Renaissance the Trend in Medicine

Words: 2914 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48408487

It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.

The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…… [Read More]

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Alzheimer's Disease According to the

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2571036

One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).

In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional Research in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIRAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…… [Read More]

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Biology Ligament Osteoclasts a Blood Cell Production

Words: 333 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 9427276




a blood cell production (I guess the marrow is considered distinct from the skeleton)

a sacrum

d sarcomeres

oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli

isometric contraction

antidiuretic hormone


b thrombin


left atrium









spongy bone or epiphysis

Blood is a transportation mechanism, moving gas, waste and nutrients throughout the body. Some are dissolved in blood, but oxygen is transported by the erythrocytes. Blood is a regulator, for example helping to regulate the body's pH and water balance. Blood is also a protector. Some blood cells (leukocytes) attack invading cancer cells, for example, and other pathogens. Blood also clots, which helps to protect the body against blood loss. Platelets are an…… [Read More]

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Regulations of Urine Output Through Hormones

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41098157

Hormonal Regulation of Urine

Human beings are made of 75% water. The huge percentage of water in the human body is attributed to the constant need to sustain fluid balance through drinking water. However, the quantity of ingested water needs to be balanced with the amount and concentration of urine generated so as to regulate the volume of fluid and osmolarity within an ordinary range. Urine is formed in the human body through three major processes that occur in the nephrons i.e. glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and turbular secretion (McCann et. al., 2002, p.605). The quantities of substances reabsorbed and secreted in the nephrons are varied by the kidneys, which contributes to changes in the composition of excreted urine.

Urine output or excretion is usually regulated by several hormones that also play a crucial role in regulation of urine. Vasopressin is one of the hormones that regulate urine output and…… [Read More]

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Renin-Angiotensin System and Control of Blood Pressure

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89147192

Endocrine control of BP

Hormonal Control of Osmotic pressure: Stimulation

Arterial blood pressure (BP) is under tight control by the mammalian nervous system, cardiovascular system, kidneys, and endocrine system (Vivas et al., 2014). The VII, IX, and X cranial nerves conduct peripheral taste, osmo-sodium, volume, and baroreceptor information to the solitary tract, while the distinct bundles of neurons in the lamina terminalis respond to changes in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid sodium levels, osmolality, and angiotensin II levels. The information thus received is transmitted to the median preoptic, supraoptic, paraventricular, lateral parabrachial, and dorsal raphe nucleus for integration. The neurotransmitter systems involved include angiotensin, vasopressin, oxytocin, and serotonin.

The overall response to reductions in BP and electrolyte content of bodily fluids is to trigger the sympathetic nervous system, endocrine system, and appropriate behavior to correct the deficiency (Vivas et al., 2014). The most important arm of BP control is the…… [Read More]

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Social Justice in Global Health

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12906124

Blog: Place Within Populations

Blog -- Place Within Populations

How individual and community social behaviors and responses to the physical environment alter, disrupt, impair and/or damage the ability of human physiology to fight infectious diseases. The following concepts will be explored: drug resistant microorganisms, herd immunity, and re-emergence of vaccine preventable diseases, genetic susceptibility of some populations.

The idea that individual and social responses to the environment can impact human health, particularly with regard to the ability to fight off infectious disease is not new. As far back as the 1800s when John Snow connected an epidemic of cholera to sewage in the Broad Street pump, epidemiologists (as they are now known) have been making connections between behavior, environment, and disease. Some variables influence public health through policy rather than through medical practice. The public health system has labeled phenomena such as these social determinants of health (SDH). The World…… [Read More]

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Journal Writing A Modest Proposal by Jonathan

Words: 3216 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: 'Discussion and Results' chapter Paper #: 27279767

Journal Writing

"a Modest Proposal" by Jonathan Swift

As the name suggests, this is a proposal put forth by the writer on the way to help Ireland out of the problem of beggars along the streets and an ever increasing population of poor people within the nation. Indeed, he not only views his suggestions as viable towards decreasing the population of the poor, but to also earn the country foreign money that will help strengthen the economy of the nation at large.

When the wrester opens up his police, he begins by outlining the genuine problems of the nation in particular relation to the poor people the nation dwelling in the cities. He gives statistics of the people who are victims of poverty hence turned to beggars in a bid to show how dire the situation is within Ireland. It is at the point where he starts giving his suggestions,…… [Read More]

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Genetic Modifications

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 99188165

Genetic Technology

Ronald (2014) outlines some of the advancements that have been made in agricultural technology, including crop improvement, and how these have helped us to feed a rapidly growing human population. She notes that translational research is research that has been translated to agricultural practice. Some of the outcomes of this research include market assisted selection, which is a refined plant breeding technique; genetic engineering, where plants have their genes altered for a variety of reasons; and genome editing, which involves precisely altering DNA sequences in living cells, which is likely to lead to new crop varieties in the future.

Ronald also advocates for the translation of this research to aid subsistence farmers. She notes several advances, such as drought-resistant corn, rice with added Vitamin A and eggplant that is bred to be resistant to certain pests. The thrust of her paper is that there needs to be more…… [Read More]

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Freda Smith a 64-Year Woman Referred Local

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48141670

Freda smith a 64-year woman referred local hospital community Health centre ongoing care. Freda discharged home 2 days ago. She diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis 10 years ago chronic heart failure 5 years ago.


Freda smith is a 64-year-old woman who has been referred by the local hospital to the community Health centre for ongoing care. Freda was discharged home 2 days ago. She was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis 10 years ago and chronic heart failure 5 years ago.

She also has a cataract in her left eye which will be removed in 3 months.

During her recent hospital stay she has been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes and commenced on insulin, her regular BGL have been high ranging from 18.5 to 25.6 mmol/L.

Freda lives with her husband John in a 2 bedroom second storey unit.

There is lift access within the building,.John works full time as a builder and…… [Read More]

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Mrs Mansfield Is Being Handed Over to

Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 87175716

Mrs. Mansfield is being handed over to care from the operating theatre nurse. We would require an update chart information. She has had an ovary removal (bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy) and is currently on an IV infusion of .8% Normal Saline. In order to continue her care, we would need previous vitals, lab work, and any details on her condition. We know she has a bellovac drain insitu and a PCA along with O2 via nasal prongs. We would need the orders on the PCA and the physician's assessment of pain medications. There would likely be instructions on wound draining, as well as potential additional fluids and/or blood transfusion information (part of vitals in chart). Post-operative care instructions would be mandatory -- including diet, hourly rounding instructions and additional materials to assist with her post-operative care condition (Fogel & Woods, 2008 p. 428).

Q2 -- Research shows that unrelieved pain has a…… [Read More]

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Endocrinology Amazing Hormones Counterbalance of Sugar and

Words: 2340 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87661716



Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon

Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (Bowen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (Bowen).

Insulin and Glucagon

The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]

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Diabetic Vascular Disease

Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3201728

Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. But in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…… [Read More]

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Androstenedione in the Major League Baseball Season

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84928160


In the Major League Baseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the Baseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.

There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…… [Read More]

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Classification or Division of a Whole Entity

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68216835

Classification or division of a whole entity into numerous specific groups has long been embraced as a method in which focused attention can be applied to the different areas, with the end result being the smoother function of the entity in general. Dividing organizations, government, studies, written works, and species of plants and animals into specific categories allows for more complete or focused attention to be applied to specifically functioning members within the given macrocosm. The same principle of division and classification can be applied to the human body and its various, specific, functions within a medical setting. It is perhaps the understanding of classification of the human functions that has brought about the concept of classification to be applied to the world around us.

Whether focus is upon a government structure, a company, a military structure or upon the individual human body, specific compartmental functions can be singled out…… [Read More]

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Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Recent Studies

Words: 3683 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55971983

Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell

Recent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipRGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipRGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…… [Read More]

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Effects of Stress on Kidneys and Resistance Phone of Gas

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89780924

stress on Kidneys and Resistance phone of GAS

Effects of stress on Kidneys and Resistance phase of GAS


Stress is an emotional or physical strain normally caused as a result to the tension or pressure from the outside world. Some of the most prominent reactions to stress include tension, agitation, increased heart beat and lack of concentration. Although, it is inevitable to lead a life without stress still there are ways in which this situation can be controlled. (Health Information Publications 2002-11). This research essay aims to delineate the affects of stress on the renal system. It seeks to explain the physiological activities of the kidney under normal homeostatic conditions, and what may occur in the kidneys when the body is experiencing the resistance phase of the general adaptive syndrome


A human brain works in mysterious ways. It can regulate functions throughout the body, without…… [Read More]

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MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54966225


Magnetic resonance imaging uses magnetic field and radio wave energy to diagnose and capture images of the organs and the structures inside the body. It is a test which uses nuclear magnetic resonance in order to take pictures which can then be used to diagnose problems for instance injury, blood vessel disease, tumors and the like. A highly unique method, it's known for diagnosing problems which cannot be found with other imaging methods. Usually, an MRI is carried out to add on to the information already provided by the ultrasound, X-ray, or the CT scan, so as to give a clear cross-section view of the problem. To perform an MRI test, the patient has to be placed inside a special hallow machine which contains a strong nuclear electromagnet. The electromagnet then becomes active, causing the nuclei of atoms to align magnetically. The aligned nucleus changes its position shortly as…… [Read More]

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Biology and Social Construction Involved in Training

Words: 1484 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73515229

Biology and Social Construction Involved in Training Children

It has been quite a continuing debate over the years upon whether biology and genetics play a more important role in the upbringing of children and adaptation of roles or whether social construction and nurture overrides the innate nature. As soon as the child is born and opens his or her eyes into the world, there is a need to determine the kind of person they are going to be, the way they will deal with things and the relationships they will have with people. Human beings are the most social of all animals and are on a constant need to indulge with people around them. It is however recognized that each and every individual out there is different by nature, beliefs, values, morals and much more.

Sociologists and scientists have had a long obsession with trying to determine the extent to…… [Read More]

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Fantastic Voyage

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77807088

Fantastic Voyage

[hs130, section: ____ ]

I walked into my office at 8:00 AM with an empty mind. I was worried about the transmission that I needed to air in two days. When my boss asked me that morning about what the transmission would be, I lied and said, "Let that be a surprise!" I quickly logged online for ideas. Just then, I was interrupted by a man who wanted to speak to me. Annoyed at his persistent nagging, I grabbed my camera and decided to follow him to where he wanted to take me. During our ride, he asked me the most bizarre question, "can you film inside a patient? The doctors can't seem to understand what's going on in her body." My reaction was rather quick and loud, "Are you insane?" He pointed to a medium sized box in his backpack, "Whenever you're ready!"

He escorted me to…… [Read More]

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Emotional Drivers of Consumer Toward Swarovskis Brand

Words: 5791 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: 'Literature Review' chapter Paper #: 39300258

Emotional Drivers Swarovski

The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes. De Mooij (2005) defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology." The characteristics of emotion that or of greater concern to luxury brand managers are that emotions are learned and that they vary from culture to culture.

The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij (2005, p. 116) explains luxury brand buying motives in terms of collectivism/individualism and masculinity/feminism. Conformance…… [Read More]

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Literature Dry Needling

Words: 3480 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 52083263

Dry Needling

Cover letter

Department of Science


Over time, dry needling has turned out to be a well-liked therapy method in manual physical rehabilitation (Dommerholt et al., 2006). Physiotherapists as well as other healthcare service providers in numerous nations utilize dry needling within the clinical therapy of individuals with myofascial discomfort and trigger points. Within the U.S.A., roughly 20 states and also the District of Columbia have authorized dry needling by physiotherapists, that is an impressive improve ever since 2004, when only 4 states authorized dry needling (Dommerholt, 2004). During 2009, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physiotherapists implemented a position proclamation that dry needling is actually in the capacity of manual physical rehabilitation. The benefits of dry needling happen to be significantly reported (Dommerholt and Gerwin, 2010) and consist of an instant decrease in local, known, as well as prevalent discomfort (Hsieh et al., 2007), recovery of variety…… [Read More]

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Team Experiences Working in a Team Is

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33385576

Team Experiences

Working in a team is a skill set that everyone must learn. There are many classes and professions that require individual work, and nearly just as many that require teamwork at some point as well. In my experience, I have had successes and failures working in teams. Last semester in a physiology course, I had to work as part of a team for a final presentation. The presentation took place before the class, the department, and faculty members of the departments, so at least I know I felt some pressure to do well. My team prepared for several weeks. The preparation was not entirely smooth. Management of the team proved difficult. Conflicting opinions and tensions ran rampant throughout the group. We disagreed about many aspects of the experiment and the presentation. The disagreements were fierce and proved to be the greatest challenge of the experience.

I had more…… [Read More]

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Disorders of the Veins and

Words: 794 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35911285

Mostly proteins and platelets combine to form blood clotting in order to heal wounds inside the arteries. However, the accumulation of fatty protein and platelet deposits on the artery walls can sometimes cause the arteries to become narrow and hardened. This makes the artery more prone to damage and if it ruptures, the blood clotting occurs and thus, the artery becomes infected by arterial thrombosis.

Impact of patient age on the path physiology of CVI and DVT

The age factor is critical towards understanding how a disease might impact the sick person and how the person's body would respond to the various treatments applied on it. As mentioned earlier, these disorders are more common in the adult population. In the case of CVI, the vein walls weaken as the age of the person increases. This is due to the reason that the internal system of the person has become old,…… [Read More]

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Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility

Words: 1287 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24499898

For example, in some patients, the stomach is unable to defend itself from the caustic nature of the acid, which creates lesions in the lining, called gastric ulcers.

How Age Might Impact the Pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and Gastritis?


Most patients with GERD suffer from symptoms of other conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) which produces pain, abdominal distress, and the need for frequent bowel movements (Gasiorowska 2009,-page 1829). GERD is more prevalent with patients who are over the age of forty although it has been found in patients much younger than this. Pregnant women or those who have other medical conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as diabetes or hiatal hernia, are more likely to develop GERD. Age is a major factor as some of the preconditions for GERD such as slower stomach emptying come naturally age. There are three tests which have been traditionally used…… [Read More]

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Personhood Debate vs IVF in

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71572460

Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.

Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness…… [Read More]

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Nervous Systems the Central Nervous

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29107936

The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system carries out the motor commands that are sent from the central nervous system. These commands or signals are then sent directly through the nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system to the target organs where they will then be signaled to perform the desired action (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 380).

The peripheral nervous system can be further broken down as being a part of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). The efferent division works in both of these systems as they are only possible through the motor commands sent from the central nervous system. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary movement. The signals innervate skeletal muscles that a person can consciously control (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 376). A reflex is also controlled by the peripheral nervous system and the somatic nervous system. When an…… [Read More]

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Cardiovascular System Allows Humans to Survive It

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76406900

Cardiovascular system allows humans to survive. It is an essential component to the very complicated machinery that guides the functioning of the human body. It is this reason that has led to numerous research projects in order to discover news ways of making the heart function better. By improving the heart, the remainder of the body will be able to better operate. It was with this exact purpose that research teams were able to come up with a way to regenerate cardiac muscle cells in order to reprogram the heart into making new cells and repairing itself. As explained in Scientific American (2012), the heart already has the capacity of regenerating itself, however, the regeneration process is an extremely low one, and is tremendously limited. The actual study conducted by Eulalio et al. (2012) and published in Nature (2012) provides the proof necessary to support the idea of cardiac cell…… [Read More]

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Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axis in Order to

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96369381

There are two types of steroidal oral contraceptives: combination estrogen-progestin and progestin-only (Patton & Thibodeau, 2012). Combination estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives suppress the release of GnRH, LH, and FSH, which inhibits the follicular development portion of the menstruation cycle; this means that no ovulation will occur. Because of this co-administration, alterations in tubal peristalsis, endometrial receptivity, and cervical mucus secretions occur, therefore preventing the egg, if it is indeed released, from implanting itself in the endometrial wall of the uterus. The thickness of the wall is determined by the release of LH and FSH during the normal menstrual cycle, however oral contraceptives inhibit this release and instead the estrogen-progestin combination control the endometrial lining directly. Estrogen thickens up the wall, however, too much estrogen alone can cause abnormal cell growth and could potentially lead to cancer; combining it with progestin helps maintain a balance and prevent too much growth of the…… [Read More]

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Biology and Evolution The Case of Snakes

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58051491

Biology and Evolution: The Case of Snakes

Snakes are incredible creatures. They have evolved very unique features that have allowed them to adapt to a wide number of environments. Snakes can be fond in some of the hottest deserts, the densest swamps, and even on the ocean floor. Part of their success comes from the physiological evolution of their organs and anatomical structures that has provided for their evolutionary success.

The snake's anatomy is truly unique. It is a reptile that has elongated its body and internal organs by sacrificing its legs. All of the major organs of the snake have been elongated to allow for a tubular body shape that has helped re-engineer the way a snake moves. The entire skeleton has morphed in order to account for this evolutionary process that allowed snakes to succeed in a wide variety of environments. According to the research, a snake's skeleton…… [Read More]

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Blood Vessel Resistance and Heart Function In

Words: 802 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69970190

blood vessel resistance and heart function. In the paper, four peer reviewed journals are looked at to highlight any potential relationship between blood vessel resistance and the heart's functioning.

In normal functioning of the heart, there are critical factors that influence blood resistance. These factors include blood vessel's radius, blood viscosity and vessel length (Cinar, Demir, Pac, & Cinar, 1999). Of the three factors, vessel diameter is the most important in determining blood vessel resistance and heart functioning. Vessel changes due to contraction and relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle in the wall of the blood vessel directly influencing blood resistance which then affects heart functioning. In addition, small variations in vessel diameter leads to large changes in resistance which affect heart functioning.

Effect of Blood Vessel Radius on Blood Flow Rate

Increase or decrease in blood vessel radius can either increase or reduce blood flow rate to the heart.…… [Read More]

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Nervous System

Words: 1709 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23459086

Nervous System:

In order to achieve its function, the nervous system is divided into two major parts i.e. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The central nervous system is basically made up of the brain and spinal cord and has the main function of receiving information from the body and sending out instructions. While the brain is protected by the skull, the spinal cord is guarded by the vertebral column. On the contrary, the basic structure of the peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and sensory receptors ("Nervous System," 2001). The system is responsible for sending messages from the brain to other parts of the body. PNS is divided into the afferent and efferent divisions with the afferent division consists of distinctively structured sensory receptor for transmitting information to the CNS about the body's internal environment ("Peripheral Nervous System," 2010). The efferent division…… [Read More]

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Reshaping the Sensory Environment Sensory Accuracy Survival

Words: 1297 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91865122

Reshaping the Sensory Environment

Sensory Accuracy

Survival of all animals depends on the accuracy with which sensory information is processed by the nervous system. Integrating this information in an efficient and effective manner depends on dynamic strategies that the nervous system relies on to determine the reliability and accuracy of the sensory inputs (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). This essay examines contemporary theories that attempt to explain how these strategies function.

Reliability-Based Cue Combination (RBCC) Theory

The reliability of a sensory cue is believed to determine the weight an organism assigns to a given cue, such that a more reliable cue may have a greater influence on behavioral outcomes (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). Empirical support for this theory has come from studies examining the integration of multisensory information. This theory has been called reliability-based cue combination (RBCC).

Reliability, as defined by RBCC, is used interchangeably…… [Read More]

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Pathophysiology What Is a Functional

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 22748871

The implication of narrowing is that blood flow to the myocardium is impeded thus leading to the condition described as ischemic. Therefore, occurrence of this condition in the left ventricle is because of impeded oxygen blood flow rather than oxygen content per cubic millimeter of blood (Mann, 2010).

5. Draw a normal ECG wave pattern and show how it relates to the action potentials of cardiac muscle cells. What causes the delay between the P. wave and QRS complex?

The delay between P. wave and QRS complex is attributed to the pause that causes the transmission of electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles to take longer than expected.

6. What is a ventricular ectopic or estrasystole, what area its effect on stroke volume, and what might cause an extrasystole?

Extrasystole refers to the additional beat, or contraction, which causes an interruption in the standard rhythm of the heart…… [Read More]

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Behavioral Training Therapy Dogs

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25645556

Behavioral Training for Therapy Dogs:

Therapy dogs basically refers to dogs that are trained to offer affection and comfort to individuals in hospitals, nursing homes, stressful conditions, retirement homes, schools, and mental institutions like disaster areas. Throughout the years, health care professionals have recognized the therapeutic impact of animal companionship like lowering blood pressure, stress relief, and raising spirits. As a result of the huge recognition of the therapeutic influence of animal companionship, the demand for therapy dogs has continued to grow. Actually, in the past few years, therapy dogs have been enrolled to assist children suffering from emotional and speech disorders.

The use of therapy dogs in assisting individuals in the health care facilities and other relevant institutions to provide affection and comfort originates from the human-animal bond. In most cases, the human-animal bond outcomes are based on affection and/or respect. Behavioral training of therapy dogs effect the human-animal…… [Read More]

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Changed Drastically Within the Last

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9649713

I have worked in research and DNA analysis in formal laboratory analysis, and believe in the paradigm of lifelong learning.

I am a lifelong student, and each year realize how many wonderful new ideas need exploring; how many exciting and vital places visited through reading; and how much joy I receive simply by having the right set of tools that allow me to read, research, study, analyze, and make decisions based on information. At present, I am studying the physiology of reproduction and assist in laboratory research with Drs. Forrest and Talcott. This technical expertise well qualifies me for the position, although it is my passion for expanding the understanding and synthesis of learning about science that can help BGS expand its membership and relevance for society at large.

The task, then, of a modern leader at any level is to be a good corporate citizen, practicing the very tenants…… [Read More]

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Aging and the Elderly The

Words: 2421 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 54480525

The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."

Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…… [Read More]

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Disease of Arthritis Differences Between

Words: 1358 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85760436

The text authors note it is an "autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its own tissues" (Tortora and Derrickson 285). In fact, the joint can even become misshapen. It can have longer-lasting affects than osteoarthritis, but it can also have flare-ups and remissions, which osteoarthritis does not have. Osteoarthritis is degenerative, while rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease. It affects two to three times more women than men. Symptoms are different from osteoarthritis, and include inflammation and swelling of the joints, pain, warmth, and pain or stiffness in the morning or after long periods of rest. In addition, rheumatoid arthritis is usually symmetrical, meaning it will affect both wrists, both knees, etc., although this is not always the case. The disease can also lead to a low-grade fever, a general feeling of tiredness, and affect other parts of the body, such as the heart lining.…… [Read More]

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Anatomy Major Cavities of the Body and

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15740631


Major cavities of the body and their organs:

Our body is made up of solid structures and many cavities. The organs are packed in these cavities and they fill these cavities. The major cavities in our body are: the ventral cavity, which is surrounded by the rib cage and the abdominal musculature and dorsal cavity, which is surrounded by the bones of the skull and vertebral column. (Introduction / Terminology)

Significance and Process of Protein synthesis:

The genetic material of life is DNA. It is present in all the organisms on the earth and it has genetic information, which the organism uses for producing the protein essential for life. The DNA, whether it is in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, it is in the iconic form of the double helix, and it uses the same common genetic code that permits it to be converted to proteins. The procedure of forming…… [Read More]

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Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, Rodriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]

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Sexual Disorders According to Croucher 2003 There

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48523824

Sexual Disorders

According to Croucher (2003), there are five layers in the erotic life of human beings. The first of these is sexual identity. This is the physical differentiation between male and female, which is fixed by the end of the first trimester in the development of the foetus. Transsexuals feel that they have the "wrong sex" and therefore the wrong core identity. The second layer is sexual orientation, which refers to hetero- or homosexuality. This is also almost impossible to change, since a genetic component plays a role here. The third layer, which is sexual preferences, refers to the elements of sexual stimulation. For men, for example, this would generally be female body parts, while women are aroused by factors such as intimacy, character, and other more subtle factors. The fourth layer is sex roles, where roles are assigned accordign to gender. This demarcation is strongest in young children.…… [Read More]