Police Training Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

American Policing Issues Why Is

Words: 1853 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32212869



11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?

Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).

12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?

The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Canadian vs American Policing This

Words: 2615 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 93210565

" (2003) the police force from this view was held as "ideal for exerting order across the vast territories of Canada, whose sheer scale made law enforcement, public administration and the assertion of sovereignty difficult." (Newburn, 2003) the police force in this area was known as the "North-West Mounted Police" whose influence extended early [in the] twentieth century...taking on security and counterespionage services during the First World War and, in 1919, helping to break the Winnipeg general strike."(Newburn, 2003)

In 1920 this force was renamed the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and expanded throughout the 1930s. During the 1930s, this police system is described as "chaotic...replaced by one in which officers earned wages almost one third above the national average. (Royal Commission on the Police, 1960; as cited in Newburn, 2003) Following World War II changes occurred in British policing and the relationship between the police and local communities and…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Recruitment Selection and Training of

Words: 1782 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13256720

They fear that the public may feel awkward and this may lead to panic attacks.

Therefore, having meticulous and comprehensive training is a very important component in the making of effective and efficient police officers. It should not be taken for granted and everything, from the recruitment stage to the final and polishing stages, should be given due considerations and attention. The committees assigned in choosing the police officers should also be impartial. No form of racism or sexism should be done. Overlooking certain training levels could also be a symptom that could lead to even greater problems.

References

Missouri Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (1994), Race Relations in Pemiscot County, pp. 23-24.

Ogletree, C. (2000) statement before the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, National Police Practices and Civil Rights Briefing, transcript, p. 14.

Police. (2007). Retrieved March 10, 2007 at http://www.stpete.org/police/pdf/emp-selection_standards-12-05.pdf

Policeman. (2007). Retrieved March…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ethics in Law Enforcement Sometimes Police Officers

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69717510

Ethics in Law Enforcement

"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)

Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? What do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.

Deception in the Interrogation Room

Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Evolving Police Service and Community Involvement

Words: 1493 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 51219960

The future of law enforcement
Introduction
The contemporary world has seen evolution of virtually every sector of the society, from communication to trade, from food production to medical care procedures and from foreign wars to the inland security. This same revolution needs to be fully implemented in the law enforcement which looks forward to being effective in the highly globalised society. There is need therefore to critically evaluate and analyze areas in which pertinent factors like technology, leadership/organizational culture, community policing and police training can be improved and modernized in order to make them palatable to the current society, with the current law adherence challenges.
Problem statement
The USA law enforcement officers face challenges in handling and effectively resolving the contemporary crimes and the ever changing faces of criminal tendencies. The main problem that perpetuates this status quo is the stagnation in the approach to combating crimes, despite the fact…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Criminal Justice - Cim Training

Words: 823 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2891749

In this regard, the law enforcement community has begun implementing scenario-based strategic planning in the nature of that used by American military strategists since the Cold War. Interagency strategic planning now includes scenario-based training wherein the specific components of local, state, and federal agencies charged with responding to critical incidents participate in joint exercises simulating the foreseeable demands for their joint services (Koestner 2006).

Benefits and Potential Difficulties:

Scenario-based tactical training in law enforcement has undoubtedly improved the safety of officers, subjects, and victims at crime scenes by conditioning officers to respond reflexively after hours of repetitive simulated tactical exposure (Lynch 2005). In the case of strategic planning, operational synchronicity and resource implementation are the goals rather than reflexive individual responses, but, the benefit is analogous. In much the same way that scenario-based tactical training ensures the desired application of force on the force continuum authorized for use by police…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Preliminary Study of Police Motorbike

Words: 7490 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18461619

Secondly, that a positive correlation exists between the instruments CNSVS and the PMRC-Q and therefore improve road craft awareness. The alternative null research hypotheses are that: Firstly the intervention program did not produce any significant difference in the concentration levels of Police motorbike riders, and secondly that no positive correlation exists between the instruments CNSVS and the PMRC-Q. Therefore there is credence to suggest that a program of cognitive training should be implemented to improve the Police motorbike riders' concentration levels.

As this study is a pioneering study there is a great importance placed upon conducting a pilot study prior to the main study. Thomas & Nelson (2001) report that 75% of research papers are not publishable and make no contribution to theory or practice because of crucial methodological blemishes that could have easily been eradicated if a pilot study had been conducted first. A pilot study helps to develop…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Selection the Selection Process for Aspirant

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26067583

Police Selection

The Selection Process for Aspirant State Police Officers

Becoming a police officer at the state level requires dedication, courage and tenacity. Indeed, the process for state officers can often be more streamlined, bureaucratic and selective than that engaged at the municipal or local levels. Therefore, becoming a State Trooper will call for a commitment to the recruitment, preparation, testing, and training processes that are streamlined and specific to each state. As the discussion here shows, there are a number of eligibility requirements, guidelines and expectations which can help the aspirant officer navigate the process.

According to the Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC), the process of being hired into a department as a state level officer can actually take up to 9 months. This is because of the lengthy testing, monitoring and training periods which follow the acceptance of the candidate's application. According to the LEPC, "the requirements to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Brutality There Are Certainly Cons When

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39304177

Police Brutality

There are certainly "cons" when discussing the problem of police brutality, but are there also positives ("pros") when those events occur? This paper points to the issue of police brutality from several viewpoints and critiques the literature.

Police Brutality Cases on the rise since 9/11

Incidents in which police, prison guards or other law enforcement authorities have used "excessive force" or otherwise have violated civil rights "…have increased 25% from fiscal years 2001 to 2007 over the previous seven years" (Johnson, 2007). Why are there more incidents that involve police misbehavior? James, Pasco, the executive director of the National Fraternal Order of Police (the largest police union in the U.S.), believes part of the problem can be explained because there has been "…reduced standards, training and promotion of less experienced officers into the higher police ranks," and that tends to undermine "more rigid supervision" (Johnson, p. 1). Johnson…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

police culture

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73049144

Description

Law enforcement has a distinct professional culture that is comprised of both formal and informal elements. Formal elements are ensconced in rules and regulations. For example, training, hours of work, how to fill out paperwork, and wearing a uniform according to an individual’s status in the organization are formal elements of the culture. Informal elements are unspoken, including norms of behavior and the jargon used between officers. For example, informal cultural norms are what have a direct bearing on “how to go about their tasks, how hard to work, what kinds of relationships to have with their fellow officers and other categories of people with whom they interact, and how they should feel about police administrators,” (“The Police Culture,” p. 98). Both formal and informal culture impacts productivity, identity, and performance.

Language and Behaviors

One of the defining features of a culture is language. In the professional sectors, jargon…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Policing Issues Affecting 21st Century Law Enforcement Officers

Words: 2520 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77159469

Militarization of Police

The 21st century has provided in a very short time, major changes to the way society interacts and operates. Governmental structures and institutional principles have also greatly swayed in recent decades. It is apparent that the world is drastically changing and evolving into a new form of culture and society that presents many problems and issues, especially in cases of the law and law enforcement.

The law is changing rapidly and the requirements that are placed on law enforcement professionals in this extremely turbulent time in history have grown and expanded to many different areas of responsibility. Terrorisms and the threat of massive societal upheaval are potential threats to the current and accepted way of life and the burden to protect society from these threats often falls I the hands of law enforcement professionals.

The purpose of this essay is to explain the gradual and sustained militarization…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Community Relations

Words: 1063 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33436936

Answer the following questions for each video in paragraph form. Also for each video, provide a thought provoking question of your own for discussion and attempt to provide a response to it.

Video one: Bill of Rights Overview

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXopINJmxkE

Which amendment do YOU value most?

I consider Amendment I the most crucial aspect of the Constitution's Bill of Rights.

WHY?

Amendment I safeguards the five most fundamental freedoms: speech, religion, assembly, press and the right of petitioning governmental bodies for righting any wrongs. The above safeguards were missed most by Antifederalists within the novel Constitution (Feinberg, 1987).

Is our justice system better or worse than other systems around the world today?

Accessible reports and scholarly works reveal that the American justice system is neither the most effective nor the most unsuccessful justice system of all. Some nations (e.g., Scandinavian nations) enjoy a more superior system while others (e.g., Middle Eastern…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police in America

Words: 853 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72197491

Lessons of Police Force

A History of the United States Police Force

The story of the American experience is one of principled laws that reflect the values of our society. Laws establish the boundaries of permissible conduct that guides particular aspects of interactions between individuals. While the military is generally tasked with countering large scale and organized external threats, the modern police force accomplishes the bulk of maintaining order and security at the local level.

The history of the police force demonstrates three primary themes illustrating that its duties are both reactive and proactive, the size and scope of the organization is an adaptation of the local community, and the unique role in upholding justice entails a greater expectation of virtuous conduct. Recognizing the themes that characterize the history of the police force demonstrate that the future will encompass change, yet the guiding principles of the past enhance us with…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Training and Effectiveness K-9 History

Words: 1330 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58930931

The following chart illustrates the orientation and where the dog's social, sexual and micturition behaviors should be oriented.

Orientation

Source: Tieken (1999)

The appropriate socialization of the dog is also important. Guidelines for socialization of the dog is shown for the age appropriate socialization in the following table.

Age/Appropriate Socialization

AGE

APPROPRIATE SOCIALIZATION

0-5 weeks

Dog needs nurturing from the dam and to be protected from environmental extremes.

3-5 weeks

Some human contact is advisable

5-8 weeks

Continue nurturing, but allow some mild stress such as cold or short-term social isolation. Also increase human contact with some interaction. Studies have revealed that pups that experience mild stress grow up to handle stress better than littermates who were protected from all stress.

8-10 weeks

This is a fear imprinting period. Avoid negative forceful reinforcements; minimize all stress; be careful to avoid threatening situations (e.g., close proximity to large strange dogs, manwork,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Policing Through Community-Oriented Police Techniques

Words: 2484 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19790162



In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.

Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Officers Are Faced With

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: 'Literature Review' chapter Paper #: 9418985

Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). According to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West African street vendor, Amadou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the American public that the police are out of control.

All of this is not to say, of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Relations

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10706032

police forces are run, and Thibault et al. take examine some of the important issues that have prompted these changes. Their work on police management, and the research that they have pursued on the ways in which police departments are constituted, have helped to created the kinds of community-based, progressive forms of policing that are becoming more and more widely used - even if they are still in the minority overall in this country.

In the preface to their work, the authors argue for three elements to be included in every progressive police department:

First, we believe that sound management is management based on a combination of theory and practice. Practice without analysis will cause us to repeat the mistakes of history, so our theoretical analysis must be directed toward the practical for implementation into the day-to-day rigors of operating a police department.

Second, we reject complete adherence to the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Department Rewards for Defusing Violent Situations

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94318131

Recent fatal attacks by police against unarmed citizens -- in particular African-American males -- have been portrayed as insensitive, illegal, and unnecessary violence by cable news programs over the past few years. And those televised reports (shown over and over) have caused angry citizens to participate in large demonstrations in American city streets. Fairly or unfairly, these incidents have caused citizens to turn against police departments -- albeit most police departments do not train their officers to shoot unarmed suspects. Because everyone with a smart phone can take video of police actions, and share videos with news organizations, this has become a negative for law enforcement. In response to these incidents, some police departments are offering rewards to officers that show restraint in the line of duty. This paper presents examples of those strategies by police departments.

The Philadelphia & Los Angeles Police Departments

In Philadelphia, the police department rewards…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Administration

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90389885

Decision Making Process

Discuss the persons/organizations that would/could place pressure on a police administrator in the decision making process of that administrator. For each of the influencing persons/organizations, discuss if their inputs should be used in the decision making process."

Police administration could face pressure or conflict from many different sources both internally and externally. One of the tasks that the administrative management team has to handle is the internal workings of the police force. They have to make decisions based on historical rates of crime and special events to staff the region in which they patrol. They must deal with salaries, expenses, training, repairs and a host of other necessary functions to keep the operations moving and the public safe.

Another organization would be the public in general. The police force is ultimately accountable to the public and therefore must constantly justify its actions with a level of transparency…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Departments the Metropolitan Police

Words: 740 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40469851

Other ranks have their areas of responsibility and control covering a geographic area, a detective division, or a specialized division (Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions, 2006).

The internal structure of the two departments is not that different, while the areas covered and the number of officers in each department varies greatly. The LAPD covers more territory and does so with a smaller force, also relying more on the patrol car than the officer on a beat than is true in London (or in many other American cities, for that matter). The LAPD has also been characterized as a more paramilitary organization than many police departments, and this would mean more than the Metropolitan Police as well. Of course, another major difference generally known is that the police in London do not carry guns as a rule (except under special circumstances), while the Los Angeles police do carry…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Subculture

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84724099

individuals join the police academy, they undergo rigorous training. This training teaches these individuals about many subjects such as criminal law, defensive tactics, and verbal judo amongst many others that the individuals may be required to apply during the course of the job. However, regardless of these teachings the professional culture influences the behaviors of these individuals separately creating a bias in the learning techniques. The police subculture is not taught as a curriculum, but adopted by the individuals. The police subculture impacts the behavior of the individuals in a powerful way. This means that studying this subculture makes it easy to understand the behavior of the members of the police force.

Purpose Statement

This paper is the study of this subculture. It will briefly talk about the various characteristics of this subculture.

Argot

Communication is a very important dimension of this subculture. Officers rely heavily on communication as they…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Field Now or Within

Words: 1104 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47309033



Subsequently, the primary focus of this editorial is to urge Police Magazine, individual law enforcement offices across the country, as well as law enforcement officers themselves, to implement these type of measures (which allowed for such a coordinated response from these disparate entities) across the country. The benefits of implementing programs such as the Metropolitan Medical Response System in cities and states throughout the U.S. would certainly be manifold, as it would dramatically assist in the work efforts of the aforementioned departments were they previously familiarized with working together in the face of adversity.

I do realize, of course, that the coordination of this type of municipal cooperation would require a substantial amount of training for the various employees involved, which would ideally be an addition to the training necessary for the respective jobs in these organizations. I am also aware that such organization would require a significant amount of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Women and Maternity Leave

Words: 3460 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92670565

Female Police Officers and Maternity Leave

Female police officers, much like female firefighters and females in the military, are a fairly recent development and evolution in history that was long overdue and met with some resistance initially. While females have experienced and overcome barriers to entry in numerous occupations, female police officers, female firefighters, and females in the military have had to deal with a culture and mentality that was (and still is to some degree) so firmly entrenched, i.e., the good old boys network taken to its extreme. Although certain individuals in society may believe that females should be excluded from becoming police officers, firefighters, or from joining the military due to their perceived emotional and/or physical weakness, the reality is that countless females are as qualified, if not more qualified, than their male counterparts. In addition, once a female becomes a police officer, firefighter, or joins the military,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Leadership Crime in Britain

Words: 3110 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96027454

The events occurred within a month in the UK and reported even by international media. A radical re-examination of the conduct of UK's leaders needs to be done for the future of its population (Cockindale).

More or less of the same disaster occurs within the service itself. A study found that four out of five police officers who resign do so because of poor management ((BBC News 2008). Despite record-high recruitment earlier in the year, a number of officers were leaving the service. The common reason was the lack of fairness and effectiveness on the part of management. The Home Office, for its part, said that it had been working to improve police leadership skills. It also noted that the police service had lower levels of resignations and transfer than other members of the public sector (BBC News).

The study also said that many of those who resigned were ethnic…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Organization and Administration

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83299079

1.  Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory states that every individual has different levels of needs that must be met for them to reach their ultimate potential. The basic level includes the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, and shelter, while the more advanced levels require such things as positive social relationships and self-esteem. An officers job can be difficult, especially over a number of years. The reality that most officers eventually face is how to deal with stress and staying motivated. Applying Maslow's model can be beneficial to ensure that as many officers needs are as possible so that they can be resilient in their roles and maintain a positive attitude.

2.  Herzberg's Hygiene/Motivators Theory

The hygiene/motivators theory considers satisfaction on two different dimensions. Factors such as salary, benefits, work environment, and others may lead to a satisfied officer who is not necessarily a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police and Law Enforcement Officers Have More

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: 'Discussion and Results' chapter Paper #: 1110033

police and law enforcement officers have more or less discretion? Why? Give an example of a specific discretionary power in your answer. What parameters may be used to set the limits to discretion, apart from the provisions of applicable laws? Consider the role of ethics in society and discuss how those ethics are funneled to policing and law enforcement. What impact do varying ethical norms of the increasingly diverse American society have on policing? As the police force itself becomes more diverse, would we see different police responses to similar situations?

Although the Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, the police have considerable latitude in determining what constitutes probable cause. In general, "courts ordinarily suppress evidence obtained during an unreasonable search or seizure and offered against the accused" and a warrant must be obtained (Fourth Amendment, 2013, Cornell University Law School). However, exceptions to the Fourth Amendment include…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Suspicion and Discretionary Decision

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66549585

The data compiled pointed to some interesting conclusions, and they were not what many people would imagine causes police stops. This is not what most readers would expect, and it seems that while racial profiling may take place initially, it is not always the final aspect of behavior that causes an office to actually pull over a car or confront a citizen. The authors concede there are many variables in their research, and that they do not "address the question of police fairness" (Alpert, Macdonald and Dunham 427). Their data was presented completely and in detail, and was still easy enough to understand that most laymen would understand the issue and the results.

The value of this paper was twofold. The data the authors finally compiled was quite useful in really understanding just what causes an officer to find something unusual - unusual enough to make a stop or confront…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Role in Society

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77541078

role of police in the society. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and elaborate the relative functions, which the police officers have to perform in the country for the protection of the citizens from the criminals, and injustices, which have been made to them.

"For the first time in decades, a consensus began to emerge in the 1990s about which duties and responsibilities should be included in the police role. Also for the first time, Americans began to confront the complexities of police work and the conflicting demands being placed on officers."

The Role of Police in American Society: A Documentary History

Book by Cynthia Morris, Bryan Vila; Greenwood Press, 1999

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=28023295

The American government and its authorities have made certain standards and the individual are selected on the basis of these standards. The government authorities want their police officers to be strong enough so that they…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Officials and Stress

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55239266

Stress in Law Enforcement

Stress and Law Enforcement

Professionals of law enforcements are responsible for some crucial and informative decision-making in their offices and fields which requires a standard operating procedures or codes to find the solutions of many issues. This procedure may look simple at first glance, but it can easily build up stress due to unpredictable situations and add up of infinite variables of the general public. Law enforcement officials have been expected to sustain discipline and remain neutral during the attempt of solving disputes safely. Physical and mental stress takes toll when professionals are observed by public and constantly stay under surveillance. Physical danger linked with work performance is the highest stress triggered (Bennett and Hess, 2007).

There are many forms of stress which vary according to the sources and the personal responses linked with it. Stress is usually categorized as acute and chronic stress and further…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Use of Force

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92339262

Albert and Smith delve into the controversial and complex topic of the use of excessive force in policing. The authors note two important points about the complex topic. First, use of excessive police force is poorly researched and understood. The term "excessive force" is not well defined within law enforcement, and a cohesive explanation of situations that use excessive force is lacking in the training of police officers. Further compounding this lack of definition is a lack of comprehensive statistics on the use of force in the policing environment. As such, police officers have been given enormous powers and responsibility in a hazardous and highly-scrutinized environment, but lack a real understanding of the degree of force that they are allowed to use in carrying out their duties. This lack of understanding of the use of force has resulted in the inability of the police force to provide comprehensive statistical information…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Training in Criminal Corrections Much

Words: 989 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 95217118

17). Therefore, the proper training of corrections personnel is left unfinished and unrealized which can result in leaving "members of the corrections community handicapped in their ability to address their functions" as corrections officers "in an efficient and effective manner" (1991, p. 18).

Not surprisingly, Carter reinforces the importance of training by pointing out that it is essential for the correctional population to receive adequate preparation in the form of on-the-job experience, correctional classes and through specially-designed criminal corrections academies. Basically, Carter insists that in order for the staff to perform their job functions, they "must receive "appropriate training and orientation to their job assignments," in tandem with "on-going in-service training" which hopefully will enable staff members to "assume increasing responsibility" (1991, p. 22).

In addition, all training must go beyond the possible scenarios of a particular job assignment by providing "an opportunity for the organization to impart its mission,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Policing and Prisons

Words: 2238 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96180315

Introduction
As Ruth Wilson Gilmore points out in Golden Gulag, prisons have become “catchall solutions to social problems.”[footnoteRef:2] Those problems can be rooted in drug issues stemming from the abuse of opioids that have proliferated on the black market thanks to the pharmaceutical industry’s expertise in developing highly addictive substances that filtered through physicians on to patients and then on to the streets. They can be rooted in familial situations where socioeconomic factors, education, and cultural variables impact the stability of families, bringing tension, stress and strife to an environment that should otherwise be calm, stable and welcoming. They can be rooted in society’s cultural history, and the racist and classist problems that have long been encountered therein. The prison industrial complex arose out of the whirlwind of these seeds being scattered across the earth of the U.S. It came about in response to the “moral panics” surrounding issues of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Protection at Schools in Light of

Words: 2061 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16615578

police protection at schools in light of the sniper attacks as well as the school shootings that have occurred over the years. The paper presents a study proposal and a critique of literature about the public's desire and willingness to support police protection being placed in elementary and middle schools on a daily basis. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

One of the things that Americans pride themselves on is the freedom that is afforded by living here. That freedom includes the refusal to become a police state or anything that represents a police state. Currently the nation is at a crossroads however, when it comes to the students in schools. For the last several years students have been shooting students, strangers have been shooting students and most recently the DC sniper has targeted students. Parents are becoming less and less sure of the school's abilities to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police & Firefighting Policies Since

Words: 3190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96818096

If the worst case scenarios should ever unfold and terrorists have released materials into the air that are radioactive, the SOD works with the New York City's Department of Health so that officers have proper training in the use of air-monitoring "meters" (Holden, p. 5).

New York City's Department of Health has in place a program called "Biowatch" that is designed to alert the SOD when any calls come in reporting the presence of a biological substance. As mentioned previously in this paper, during the crisis of September 11, 2001, one of the major obstacles to effective first responder action was the breakdown in communication technologies and in lines of authority. However the NYPD's Operations Division (OD) is now trained to be the communications link between the executive command and the police officer on the street. The OD coordinates all personnel specifics and directions; in fact the OD is referred…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Planning and Community Relations

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2191032

Criminal Justice Leadership Strategies and Practices

The Role of Planning in Criminal Justice Organizations

In general, planning is one of the five essential functions of organizational management, along with organizing, staffing, coordinating and controlling (Safir, 2003). In some respects, planning is the most important of the five functions of management because it involves aspects of all of the other management functions. That is also the case within criminal justice organizations. More specifically, planning in criminal justice relates to strategic, operational and tactical-level leadership decision making (Safir, 2003).

At the strategic level, planning allows organizational management to shape the long-term mission and objectives of the organization and ensure that the short-term goals of the agency support those long-term missions and objectives. Typically, strategic planning involves analyzing the needs of the community being served by the organization in conjunction with applicable local and state requirements and consideration of federal issues. While state…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Training Adult Vocational Specifically as it Relates to the Pawnbroker Industry

Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52595168

improve or hinder the effectiveness of non-workplace-Based training programs for the American pawnbroker industry?

Overview of the Industry:

In the United States, there are two main functions of a pawnbroker. The first is making small loans, secured by personal property. The second function is the sale of merchandise.

According to the Florida Pawnbrokers Association, loans are the high profit center for pawnshops. "The retail side also generates an average of 27% of the shops revenue. The Association stated, "In 1996, the nation's 9,100 pawnshops generated $4 billion in revenue."

Pawnbrokers are regulated in the United States mostly at either the state or local area. While there is no uniformity among the regulations, laws, or ordinances, it seems most are issued licenses, required to make reports to law enforcement, and obviously prohibited from trafficking in stolen merchandise.

The amount the pawnbroker is permitted to charge as fees and interest vary, but…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police and Forensic Science

Words: 2398 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30941653

Picture a place where criminals could roam freely, detectives, and police officers went about gathering evidence the same way that they do now, except the one main difference is that they do not use science. Without the use of scientific analysis, you would not have a lot of useful evidence that you could use to convict someone of a crime. Criminals could get away with everything from common theft to a homicidal rampage unless you had a witness who was present at the time of the crime who could testify against them. These criminals would continue stealing, murderers would continue murdering people and drug dealers would still be out in the streets selling drugs and ruining society. With forensic science, the clue that these criminals leave behind can be traced back through scientific evidence and today we are able to use science as a method in solving crimes.

These clues…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police Forces and Diversity

Words: 5218 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: 'Literature Review' chapter Paper #: 6192769

That is very important for the people who are trying to get these kinds of jobs, because they have the chance to find a company that believes in them and that is actually looking for people who are not the same as everyone else. That can make a huge difference not only in whether the person gets hired, but also whether he or she is successful in the position and whether there are realistic opportunities for promotion (Tatli & Ozbilgin, 2009).

The third company type, the multicultural organization, has a number of different kinds of people and groups within it (Harvey, 2012). These companies want people who are diverse, and will deliberately seek them out, hire them, and encourage them. One of the reasons behind this is because people who own and manage these types of companies know that a more culturally diverse workforce can mean a number of new…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Police and Criminal Justice Motivation

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 97944222

Motivation

The assertion makes little sense that "criminal justice employees are unmotivated," for a number of reasons. The first is that there are thousands of different organizations and millions of people working in criminal justice. It would be near impossible to discern any particular trends about their motivation levels, and those trends would not hold outside of a given position or organization. The reality is that motivation is a fairly complex issue. Everybody has some sort of motivation for going to work, even if that motivation is to maintain their security with respect to food and housing. But most people have other motivations as well. Understanding what motivation in the workplace actually is, and how it can be used to explain or enhance performance, begins with avoiding such careless and blanket statements.

There are a number of ways to improve the motivation of criminal justice workers. The text highlights a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Building a Police Department

Words: 2712 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99391112

police dept.

Proposal for City Police Department (State of Florida)

The objective of this proposal is to establish a Police Department, Macomb Police Department and employ the number of personnel needed to deliver professional and competent police services to the citizens of this city. A determination has been made that there will be 175 sworn officers and 50 civilian or non-sworn officers. Standards of hiring will be established in this proposal with identification of the choice of state police standards meeting or exceeding those already established. Job descriptions in addition to salaries will be included in the proposal.

Mission Statement

The proposed Macomb Police Department states its mission as being 'to serve the public through community-based law enforcement practices while reducing crime, promoting safety and improving quality of life through our core values.

Core Values

Core values stated by the Macomb Police Department include the following

(1) A commitment to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Changes in Police Force Operations

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91449419

Police Officers

Crime handling by Police officer

In the given case scenario, there are several triggers that would dictate the way the police officer would handle the involved men in the fight. First, if one or both of the men involved would display a continues aggressive behavior even in the presence of the law enforcement officer, this would be a reason for the officer to respond with reasonable force to end the duel. The disregard for the instructions that the officer may give, for instance to put their hands up or freeze would as well call for use of assistive tools like the Taser gun to incapacitate the suspects for arrest. Worse still, if one or both suspects would turn violent towards the officer, he may have to use any means possible in self-defense. The suspects may also opt for the use of human shield to avoid arrest and in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ethical Dilemmas in Police Work

Words: 741 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16031888

Policing Dilemmas

Ethical Dilemmas in Police Work

For ethical training to be effective in a police profession then there must be continuous education and practice. Officers work in a rapidly evolving field that is in a dynamic environment and therefore will most likely encounter new challenges frequently. These challenges can be further complicated by the fact that officers must often make quick decisions in situations in which their physical safety is on the line. Without proper training there is an increased likelihood that an officer will chose their own self-interest or preservation without regard for the ethical dilemmas that are present in their choices. This analysis will provide some ethical dilemmas that officers might encounter. Such dilemmas can also be used for learning or training purposes so that officers can practice beforehand some of the situations they may face on the job so that they are better prepared.

Ethical Dilemmas…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Psychological Support for Police Operations

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33846034

Police Ops

For police officers, undercover work provides a priceless opportunity to help the force achieve its goals and to infiltrate large criminal organizations. However, undercover work can be tremendously stressful. The stress of undercover work often reaches a boiling point, leading the officer to have mental health issues and even suicide attempts. In New York, Detective Margaret Sasso served as an undercover officer successfully, but a failed suicide attempt using doctor-prescribed muscle relaxants served as a wake-up call.

In an interview, Detective Sasso claimed that she needed a "rest," which is itself a symptom of the stress experienced as an undercover officer. Undercover officers are new to the force, largely because of the need to ensure their not being recognized. However, their relative inexperience, coupled with the nature of their socially isolating work, causes a large number of undercover officers to experience stress. Dozens request transfers, according to research…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Formation of a New Police Department

Words: 3111 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 41220153

Police Department

The mission statement

The XYZ police department is willing to work with the local community to secure and safeguard common populace, avert crime and help people alike.

Services and their description

Community services division

This unit consists of one captain, three lieutenant watch commanders, one watch operations supervisor, eight watch operations specialists, three telephone response specialists, forty security contract employees, one security specialist and two roster employees (Miller, 2011).

Patrol Bureau is headed by the assistant chief of police who works for the chief of police. This Bureau entails four divisions who cover the entire area under the Bureau's jurisdiction (Miller, 2011).

The Patrol Operations Division has one assistant chief of police, five division commanders, eight executive officers, three watch commanders, two police service assistants and one administrative assistant (Miller, 2011).

Patrol Operations Division is spearheaded by a captain who works under the Patrol Bureau Commander. This captain…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Analyzing Methods of Policing in a Diverse Community

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75607225

Policing in Diverse Community

The following will be a response to an article written by Mark. A Prosser called "Policing in a Diverse Community."

Back in the 1999s, Storm Lake Community leaders realized the change in the community and that it would keep changing. The immediate challenges they had to confront were language unfamiliarity, absorption of new cultures, and requirements of the community services from the whole development. Considering these challenges and keeping in mind the successive community studies, service providers started changing the service providing strategies in order to effectively adjust with multiethnic and multilingual customers. In transforming the community, the Storm Lake Police Department played a pivotal role, which is still going on even today (Prosser, 2007). To share the experience of arranging and applying effective programming feedback to fulfill the various community requirements, the department has approached different cities in Iowa and the Upper Midwest. Same demographical…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Building Trust Between Police and Communities Police

Words: 1148 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58441676

Police: Building Trust Between Police and Communities

Building Trust between Police and Communities: Police

Police Trust, Integrity and Ethics in Bridging the Gap in Community Relations

The death of Eric Garner in the hands of New York police, and the shootings of 12-year-old Rice Tamir and Michael Brown in Ohio and Missouri respectively, have and continue to brew a wave of public mistrust in the police service. Such incidences often spur massive public protests that eventually destroy relations between police and the communities they serve. A study conducted by Reuters on 3,600 citizens between December 2014 and January 2015 found that a significant 27.6% of adult Americans do not trust the police to be fair and just (Reuters, 2015). In December, 2015, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order creating the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, whose primary aim is to build confidence and trust in the local police.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Silver Spring Police Department Senior

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 20645177

This is as long as such as move would not in any way compromises the safety as well as promptness of a thorough investigation.The verbal as well as written document shall in this case be restricted to the persons responsible for the receiving, responding and investigating the complaint. All complaints that relate to criminal behavior shall be appropriately referred to the relevant law enforcement agency.

The complaint procedure

1. Protest as well as objection to the Harassment

2. Seeking of advice/consultation as well as assistance froma supervisor, department Head, manager, HR Director as well as Employee Assistant Program representative

3. Filing of a written complaint

4. Receiving as well as investigating the complaints

5. Resolution of the complaint-if a complaint is substantiated, then necessary disciplianary or legal actions to be taken is not sustained then the Human resource director should conduct a review as well as assessment with the complaint…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Northern York County Police Consolidation

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36675543



Identify examples of problems dealing with educational levels, pay scale, and seniority.

Problems with educational levels, pay scale, and seniority are also issues with merged departments. Smaller departments may not have had the training opportunities that larger departments had, and their officers may not be as prepared or well versed in some areas, such as detective work or gang activities. This can affect pay scale, and different departments may have different scales that do not mesh into one overall scale. Benefits may be cut to save costs during a merger, too.

Which hiring standards related to the different departments in the merged cell are affected?

Hiring standards such as recruits from the police academy, educational requirements, and seniority are all effected by a merger. Each department may have different standards, and some officers may not meet requirements of more stringent agencies.

Polygraph and psychological exams are not required for some…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Virtual County Police Department the

Words: 3266 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 22026606

Part II crimes that the Uniform Crime Reporting Program identifies include an additional of 16 types of crime that range from minimal assault to disorderly conduct to vandalism. Part III crimes, on the other hand, include all the criminal activities that are beyond the scope of part I and part II criminal offences. These statistics show that there is a consistent pattern with the most and the least common offences maintaining the statuses throughout the period. From the statistics, it is apparent that from 2005 to 2008, part I offences are the most common as compared to part II and part III offences. Similarly, part II crimes are more common than part III offences in the years given. Among the part I offences, theft rates highest, throughout the four-year period while homicide has the least number of cases reported throughout the same period. For part II offences, vandalism is the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Learning Police Ethics

Words: 760 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22973515

Philosophy Police Ethics

Learning Police Ethics

Learning police ethics and responsible behavior on the job are important functions of a police professional's duty. By definition, police officers have sworn to protect and serve the community. However, if they act unethically at any time then they could do harm to the community as opposed to help support it. Deviant behaviors among the police force can do significant harm to the reputation of the force as well as make the job of the police to serve the public more complicated as well as more difficult to accomplish. This analysis will look at some of the ethical standards that are expected of this profession as well as the importance of learning the correct ways of behaving in this role.

Ethics Standards in Policing

When policing came to the United States, there was little concern among police officers about adhering to legal norms, despite…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Discretion Police Chiefs and Discretionary

Words: 2323 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39417179

This alternative essentially redistributes some of the power within the department in order to facilitate more successful service in individual communities. This clearly makes discretion appropriate based on the individual needs of the community. Police Chiefs need to develop "new concepts to better satisfy the demands and needs of the citizens they serve," and as such, may have to use discretion in how the approach and interact with unique communities as they encounter them (Meese, 1993, p 1). Discretion on behalf of a police chief allows for greater success in implementing community policing methods.

Police chiefs also find themselves using various types of administrative discretion as well in regards to how they operate their police department and the officers in the field under them. A police chief's administrative discretion could even influence the discretionary actions of other officers in the field. For example, in 2010, a police chief in the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Terrorism Impact on Police Mission

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2291969

terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties?

Terrorism and the events connected to September 11, 2001 have impacted the world in ways we could never imagine, affecting the way we view our safety and the way that we view ourselves. State and local police forces have been impacted as well, being confronted with new tasks and new dangers. Just as the Federal government created an entire new department of Homeland Security, police departments were faced with massive changes as well. For instance, these changes were: "coordinating homeland security at the state level; collecting, analyzing and sharing critical information and intelligence; protecting critical infrastructure and key assets; securing the nation's borders, air and sea ports; collaborating with federal and local law enforcement on task…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Public Private Police Relationship Between Private and

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85750625

Public Private Police

Relationship between private and public police

Before discussing the relationship between private and public police it is important to understand what the terms policing, private space, and public space mean. Policing can be defined as the "preservation of peace, that is, to the maintenance of a way of doing things where persons and property are free from unwarranted interference so that people may go about doing their businesses normally" (Clifford, 1992). A public space can be defined as a space that is generally open and accessible to all whereas a private space has restrictions of access.

For quite a long time it has been the duty of public police to protect the society and the property that fall under the defined areas of operation. However, in present day it is common to find private and public police working together regularly at both private and public functions. Although…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Community Policing

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99344357

authorities argue that community policing is a successful and innovative law enforcement concept, while others maintain that the approach has become outdated in the 21st century and actually places officers' lives in unnecessary danger. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the success of community policing to date, including an analysis concerning what can be done to increase the chances that an innovation will succeed and a discussion concerning what factors increase the chances of failure. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the success or failure of the community policing model are provided in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

There has been growing interest in community policing programs since the 1980s, including neighborhood-oriented policing, community-oriented policing, and problem-oriented policing (Pfeifer, 2006). According to Pfeifer, "Although these programs vary in terms of their approach, they tend to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Role of Education in Policing

Words: 1365 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54690182

Role of Education in Police Management

The police force in any country has a vital role to play in terms of achieving its intended mission of crime prevention, protection of life and property and apprehending violators of peace. The police force, therefore, are the upholders of justice and peace, and to that extent, it is they, more than anyone else who need to practice an underlying code of ethics that is true to the spirit of democracy: "...the mission 'to protect and serve' is not so simple...require distinct and separate skills artistry of police work lies in the ability to handle explosive situations without resorting to force." (Delattre, 1989, p. 25-26) The practice of justice in police work does not only involve overt criminal acts but various types of community service including assisting the sick and injured or defusing domestic tension and violence. Now, the fact is, even if the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Community Policing Instructions Review Literature Locate Article

Words: 1241 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78894001

Community Policing

Instructions: Review literature locate article study addressing a Criminal Justice Organization deals: Community Policing Changes operations a result terrorist attacks 9/11 if a corrections facility, operations a result technology, regulations, demographics.

Changes within a criminal justice organization:

Community policing article review

Lord, V.B., Kuhns, J.B., & Friday, P.C. (2009). Small city community policing and citizen satisfaction. Policing, 32(4), 574-594. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13639510911000713

Community policing has become a popular approach to improve neighborhood-police relations in many cities, but according to the article "Small city community policing and citizen satisfaction," few studies have been conducted to examine its efficacy in more intimate contexts. The article's profiled a small, Southern city which had implemented a community-oriented policing approach and surveyed citizen perceptions before and after the implementation (Lord, Kuhns, & Friday 2009). The research study was quantitative and used a comparative, longitudinal approach to analyzing the data.

The authors noted that measuring changes…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Community Policing and Psychology

Words: 2590 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57356611

Community policing is a strategy that requires both new attitudes and commitments from citizens and new attitudes and commitments from police officers. It builds on the basic practices of policing by emphasizing cooperation between the police department and the citizenry, by emphasizing the prevention of crimes as opposed to just catching perpetrators, and by developing long-term solutions to existing and potential problems in the community (U.S. Department of Justice [DOJ], nd). The goals of community policy include reducing crime; reducing the fear of crime; restoring and maintaining a sense of order to the community; and building and strengthening bonds between the citizens, police, and state and local governments (DOJ, nd).

The history of community policing goes as far back as the beginnings of governmental policing and the beginnings of law enforcement agencies. Sir Robert Peel is generally acknowledged as the originator of modern law enforcement agencies as he spearheaded the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Community Policing

Words: 4655 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78398959

Community Policing Efficacy

The Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act of 1994 heralded the beginning of a massive effort to reform policing strategies in the United States, in part through implementation of community-policing programs at the local level. Congress has allocated billions of federal dollars over the years since to support such efforts and by the end of the 20th century, close to 90% of all police departments serving communities larger than 25,000 reported implementing community policing strategies. However, empirical studies examining the effectiveness of this style of policing are limited and most reveal a modest improvement. This report examines studies that have revealed some of the factors that contributed to the failure of community policing programs to meet the expectations of policy makers. A lack of police organizational commitment and citizen leadership are major factors that have undermined attempts to implement community policing more fully.

Community Policing Efficacy…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Predictive Policing Is a Trend That Uses

Words: 1381 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45992088

Predictive policing is a trend that uses technology to predict hot crime spots and send police to the area before a crime is committed. By using data mining and crime mapping, police are deployed to areas based on statistical probability and geospatial predictions. This technology is based on the same technology used by businesses to predict sales trends and customer behavior patterns. Now, police departments can use the same technology to predict crime patterns and work to reduce crime in their area.

Predictive policing is putting officers where crimes are more likely to occur. "…it generates projections about which areas and windows of time are at highest risk for future crimes by analyzing and detecting patterns in years of past crime data." (Goode) The data mining generates projections using past crime data to analyze which areas and the time of the day, week, or month, etc. that crime is likely…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Decentralization of U S Police and the Affects

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47392513

Decentralization of U.S. Police and the Affects upon Society

Law Enforcement

The American police force is one of the strongest and most effective in the world. What makes it so? There have been recent changes to the hierarchy and structure of the police force, particularly since the terrorist attack in New York City on September 11, 2001. One such change has been increased decentralization of law enforcement. How is this shift characterized? What are the implications for law enforcement, the citizens it serves, and American society in general? The paper will address the affects of decentralization upon how investigations are conducted and affects upon society in general.

The Decentralization of U.S. Police and the Affects upon Society

Typically, when citizens consider the subject of decentralization, it is in regards to governance. The governance may be on a national level, such as a decentralized government, or the decentralization can be highly…… [Read More]