More importantly, they were not guaranteed the right to terminate the experiment at their will. When Prisoner 8621 asked to get out of the experiment he was summarily ridiculed and sent back. It was only when he screamed that Zimbardo was forced to let him quit. Guards were also given far too much leeway in their ability to mentally abuse and thoroughly humiliate the prisoners. There were no checks on their behavior.
Interestingly, Zimbardo and the other directors seemed to be aware of their ethical transgressions. On visiting day, they purposefully cleaned up the prison to sterilize its appearance and make the parents feel appeased. Their actions clearly show they were aware of the sadism inherent in the prison experiment and were covering it up. Oddly, Zimbardo seems less than remorseful even in retrospect. The Stanford prison experiment left as much of a legacy on creating ethical standards in psychology…… [Read More]
Stanford Prison Experiment
The roles we take on in our everyday lives are dictated by several factors. Whether it's the role of mother, son, student, cashier, accountant, boyfriend, wife, or teacher, the roles that make up our identities are varied and we slip into and out of them without any conscious thought. These roles are adopted by us based on expectations and assumptions prescribed to us by ourselves and others. The extent to which we take on a role indicates how thoroughly this component of our experience has been integrated into out identities.
The Stanford Experiment sought to explore exactly how social roles are assumed and executed among groups of people. The context for this study was a simulated prison environment set-up in the basement of the psychology department at Stanford. Male student volunteers were randomly assigned to be either a "prisoner" or a "guard." The researchers then observed how…… [Read More]
U.S. with prison data collection?
The major problems encountered by United States in managing and collecting the data of its prisoners encompass the historical importance of the police department and the extent to which there activities contribute to well being of the society cannot be denied in the modern settings of the society. But yet when the term police come to the mind of an individual the most primitive adjective that comes to the mind is the law enforcement and protection of the civil violence in the society along with the safeguard of the rights and properties of the citizens.
As a matter of fact the importance of the police department cannot be denied due to the fact that these specialized individuals are responsible for the commencement f the most core activity of the society- the activities associated with the safeguarding the rights and responsibilities of the citizens. But yet…… [Read More]
Dimly lit prison kitchen. It is after hours, and only a skeleton crew is on hand: RAY and ANGELA. They are inside the kitchen, but the spotlight is on TOM and GARY, who sit across from each other in the dining room just outside.
TOM: Inmate at Phoenix Prison Complex, serving a life sentence for murder.
GARY: Inmate at Phoenix Prison Complex, serving 15 years for assault and battery.
ANGELA: Kitchen worker, 30-year-old female
RAY: Corrections officer, 28-year-old male
Scene 1: Pizza Night
TOM: Tonight's the night.
TOM: Tonight. You remember what we talked about, right?
TOM: What do you mean, "right"? Well? What did I tell you?
GARY: We wait until 2AM.
TOM: Well what time is it, genius?
GARY (looking at a watch that doesn't exist, as his wrists are bare): I don't know.
TOM (exasperated): What time do you get off…… [Read More]
Gender Roles and Marriage
The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"
James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…… [Read More]
MLK Letter From Birmingham
A Rhetorical Appeal for Justice
Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama as a direct consequence of his participation in demonstrations against segregation. It was during this time that King wrote "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." This letter was a response to the open letter "A Call for Unity" which aimed to promote non-violent protests in the area. In King's response to "A Call for Unity," he details his reasoning behind his actions and also details the imminent social threat that was looming over the South. Through his use of commiseration, analogy and allegory, and paradox, King is able to argue the pitfalls of segregation and the consequences of inaction.
In order to be the most effective, King compares himself metaphorically and similarly to religious figures to explain his purpose in Birmingham and within the civil rights movement. King does not intend…… [Read More]
Letter from the Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King, Jr., and "A Letter from the Clergy" by some leading spiritual clergy in Birmingham, Alabama. Specifically, it will summarize the two letters. Both of these letters provide compelling reasons for what the authors believe in, and they are both very persuasive and convincing in their own way.
The clergymen believe that King's actions, in creating a march that led to many arrests (including King's own arrest), is the wrong way to attempt to gain civil right for black Americans. They believe that these measures are "extreme" and not necessary for the circumstances. They write, "We also point out that such actions to incite such hatred and violence, however technically peaceful these actions might be, have not contributed to the resolution of our local problems" (Miller 486). This is persuasive for a number of reasons. First, the clergy note that even peaceful…… [Read More]
"In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty."
In that argument, the author also draws a comparison with those most committed to maintaining segregation; presumably, he was referring to those who physically attacked and sometimes killed both African-Americans and white anti-segregation civil rights workers, secretly and under the cloak of darkness. According to Dr. King, one of the hallmarks of justified civil disobedience is that those whose defiance of laws is genuinely a function of their principled objection to laws that are unjust do so openly and unashamedly rather than secretly. The author further explains the basic logic of this conclusion:
"I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust and who…… [Read More]
Reducing Prison Overcrowding
Prison overcrowding is an unsettling national problem to the United States and Canada. The United States has the biggest prison population in the world and Canada's is the fourth. The race for limited resources has been consistently outpaced by the continuous increase in the prison population. This study explores the causes and factors of prison overcrowding and inexpensive ways of addressing or solving it. It uses the combined qualitative and quantitative methods of research in collecting the needed data. Tools in the research are monthly statistical report of prison system surveys with inmates, staff, and the stakeholders. California, Nebraska, Connecticut and the Carbon County presented their respective but inexpensive ways of reducing continuously increasing prison populations. California and Nebraska's approaches have demonstrated successes. California now implements its 5-yar plan, involving non-prison felonies, their automatic transfer to facilities other than in prison. The plan has realized a $459…… [Read More]
Terrorism and Correctional Administrations
As if correctional administrators and other connected with prisons don't have enough problems on hand, when prisoners are also terrorists, or prisoners get radicalized in prison and attempt to conduct terrorist activities, prisons have a huge problem. This paper reviews the issues surrounding terrorism and prisons.
Ann Coppola, News Reporter for Corrections.com
This interview between counterterrorism planning expert, Bill Sturgeon, and reporter Ann Coppola, took place on the 12th of November, 2007, long before the more recent terrorism issues in the news (ISIS, and "lone wolves" doing terrible violent deeds). Sturgeon flatly said, "While currently there is not a large number of terrorists in American prisons and jails, that could change quickly in corrections" (Coppola, p. 2).
Sturgeon said that throughout history prisons have been places where "disgruntled groups" such as terrorists, revolutionaries, and others have seen as "targets" for disruption and violence (Coppola, 2007). Coppola…… [Read More]
judicial reform is based on the idea that a total or partial political reformation of the judiciary can be performed as a stage in a much grander reform concept that includes both the legal and the executive branches of government. When judicial reform is effected, the aim is to end corruption in the judicial system -- whether the issue is bribery or cronyism or any other form of corruption. Prison control, such as the concept of the Panopticon is about instilling social values in the prisoners by giving them the sense that they are always being observed and therefore should act accordingly. While this concept does not necessarily gel with the concept of reform, as in the idea to reform prison conditions so that prisoners are more comfortable and so that the penal system (like the judicial system) is cleansed of corruption, it does offer a kind of reformation strategy…… [Read More]
Role and Evolution of the American Prison System
Explain the Primary Role and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration Reduces Crime
The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…… [Read More]
A major concern regarding crime today that exists within prisons as well as on the streets is the formation of gangs. "Prison gangs are flourishing across the country. Organized, stealthy and deadly, they are reaching out from their cells to organize and control crime in America's streets.... prison disturbances soared by about 400% in the early nineties, which authorities say indicated that gangs were becoming more active... As much as 60% of the prison population belong to gangs." (Danitz 1998) Authorities say that many of the prison gang members were used to being gang members on the outside, but in other cases even authorities admit that many inmates are joining gangs for "survival" and "protection." Which returns to the previously mentioned dilemma. What are inmates needing protection from? Is time behind bars not supposed to be one that allows for contemplation about past mistakes in an atmosphere that allows for…… [Read More]
The Changing Social Structure of Prisons
In one sense, prison is a microcosm of the society outside its walls: an extremely concentrated reflection of the social forces at work in the civilization that has erected it. In another sense, prison is its own world—a unique environment in which social structure is determined by the interplay of forces that outside prison would never find themselves confined together in such close quarters. Their confinement, however, in prison creates the context for a new social structure to emerge—one which today is predominantly organized by gangs. This formation is evidence of the changing social structure of prisons. In 1940, Clemmer described the prison community of the average American penitentiary in these words: “The prisoner’s world is an atomized world. Its people are atoms acting in confusion. It is dominated and it submits. Its own community is without a well-established social structure. Recognized values…… [Read More]
5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)
The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)
The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…… [Read More]
For this reason, "(p) end up leaving prison with the same (or worse) addictions, educational deficiencies, and tendencies toward violence that they had when they were first incarcerated. Thus the cycle of crime is perpetuated and the community as a whole is damaged" ("Addressing Prison").
Long-Term Solutions to Prison Overcrowding:
There are typically two governmental responses to solving the overcrowded prisons dilemma: building more prisons or enacting reforms, the later being the more effective choice. The most traditional approach prison overcrowding is to build more prisons. More prisons equates to more space for prisoners, which should lead to a reduction in overcrowding. However, this usually does not solve the problem, but only offers a temporary solution.
New prisons tend to quickly become overpopulated simply because the root cause of the prison overcrowding was never addressed in the first place. "The underlying causes of overcrowding are not usually a lack of…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse Inside the Prison Walls: Controlling Illegal Drugs in Prison
It is most often within the prison milieu that dependence and an addiction to drugs and other substances takes place. This is attributed to the various stress factors that an individual within the four walls of the prison is generally subjected to, and studies have shown that the risk of a person developing substance dependence, and an over representation of the number of people with a drug problem increases significantly within the prison. (Drug Prevention Outside and Inside Prison Walls)
In a report complied by CBC New Online Staff, on April 8, 2004, entitled 'Disease rates higher in Canadian inmates' stated that prison inmates are more likely than other citizens to suffer form a variety of physical as well as mental problems, contract any type of infectious diseases, and also die more prematurely than others. Furthermore, the Report stated…… [Read More]
Human Aggression and the Stanford Prison Experiments
Studies of human aggression tend toward myriad and often competing conclusions about that which drives us to behave ethically or unethically, about the forces that incline us toward altruism as opposed to those which incline us toward aggression, about the impulses to behave according to internal values and the pressures to bend to contextual authority. Perhaps few studies on the subject have penetrated the question with more troubling results than the Stanford Prison Experiment. Overseen by human psychology professor Phillip Zimbardo in 1971, the experiment would see Zimbardo assuming the role of Prison Warden, converting a basement space in an academic hall into a prison and casting young college students as prisoners and guards. The resulting events are nothing short of revelatory, illustrating a tendency for both prisoners and guards, and even Zimbardo himself, to be consumed with the appointed experimental roles. It…… [Read More]
Women in prison were often exposed to sexual abuse by their male supervisors. There were rapes, beatings and sexual favors for the return of food or clothing in many of the nation's female penitentiaries.
One prison chaplain who was visiting women in the New York prison system recorded in his diary the hardships of women in prisons during that period of American history (Dodge, 1999).
To be a male convict in this prison would be quite tolerable; but to be a female convict, for any protracted period, would be worse than death (Dodge, 1999)."
Prison officials routinely ignored any need of female prisoners and instead complained about the experiences they had supervising a female population.
As the female population of prisoners grew however, families and loved ones of those in prison began to demand change.
For the last century there have been many changes implemented in the female prison system.…… [Read More]
Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism (and crime rates in general) conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration.
Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U.S. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services. Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests. Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies.
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections:…… [Read More]
"Amongst the gangs were the Black Disciples, Spanish Cobras, Imperial Gangsters, Simon City Royals, Latin Eagles, Satan Disciples, and the Latin Disciples" (Folks Nation, n.d.). The term Folks was thought to be chosen as a name because of the word being an acronym. It stands for Follow the Orders and Laws the King Sets. The King at this time was Larry Hoover. He was the one who had the idea to unite and control all of the gangs in Chicago. Nations in the Folks alliance demonstrate their affiliation by identifying everything to the right side. They wear hats with the brim broke to the right, they keep their right pants leg rolled up, they have bandanas that hang out of their right pockets and they wear earrings in their right ear (Folks Nation, n.d.).
It was during the 19th century that the Ku Klux Klan began their work of violence…… [Read More]
As Ruth Wilson Gilmore points out in Golden Gulag, prisons have become “catchall solutions to social problems.”[footnoteRef:2] Those problems can be rooted in drug issues stemming from the abuse of opioids that have proliferated on the black market thanks to the pharmaceutical industry’s expertise in developing highly addictive substances that filtered through physicians on to patients and then on to the streets. They can be rooted in familial situations where socioeconomic factors, education, and cultural variables impact the stability of families, bringing tension, stress and strife to an environment that should otherwise be calm, stable and welcoming. They can be rooted in society’s cultural history, and the racist and classist problems that have long been encountered therein. The prison industrial complex arose out of the whirlwind of these seeds being scattered across the earth of the U.S. It came about in response to the “moral panics” surrounding issues of…… [Read More]
Aleinikoff, T. (2014). Between National and Postnational: Membership in the United States. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 110-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230554795
This paper focuses on the 'postnational viewpoint' to the American notion of sovereignty and membership. The author defines what postnational viewpoint is and explains it means the view that a universal model of membership is replacing national citizenship and is doing so because it is anchored within deterritorialized concepts of persons' rights. Essentially this means there is a respect for global human rights norms leading to a "deterritorialized membership." This is important to consider when comparing the states of prisons in Russia and the United States because the rights of prisoners may reach a form of universal expression in that everyone gets treated in a way that people deem appropriate regardless of location.
Kennedy, S., Sharapova, S., Beasley, D., & Hsia, J. (2016). Cigarette Smoking Among Inmates by Race/Ethnicity: Impact of Excluding African-American…… [Read More]
Prisons have been used as institutions for punishing and rehabilitating offenders for a long period of time. These institutions have been used as facilities for detaining men against their will because of the illegal actions. The use of prisons as incarceration facilities to help in the fight against crime emerged in the most remote antiquity. While these institutions have played a major role over the years in fighting crime, the continued use of these facilities have attracted considerable concerns in the recent past. These concerns are not only attributable to the nature of the facilities but also fueled by their overall impact on prisoners and fighting crime. The case for discontinuing prisons has been supported by the negative effects of prison overcrowding, flaws in the American prison system, and the existence of alternative evidence-based practices or alternatives to prison for criminal supervision.
Negative Impacts of Prison Overcrowding
One…… [Read More]
American corrections history
The prisons or the correction units have been for long a part and parcel of the American history. These institutions have existed as far back as the slave trade era. Later on, under the watch of the colonialists, jails became the first public institutions that were built to act as holding places fro the wayward emigrants and later or bondage system. Each state was required to have a prison facility that was built at the expense of the citizens, notably each new facility being made more secure and permanent than the previous one with iron bars, bricks and stone making them more impervious than the previous model. During these times, there were more prisons than schools and hospitals in the U.S.A., they were as many as churches and taverns combined. These institutions were even used by Puritans in several areas including Massachusetts to confine those…… [Read More]
Gender Issues in Prison
Women now represent one of the fastest-rising segments in American prisons. In 2001, for example, the number of prison inmates has risen to 94,336, more than double the female prison population in 1990. Women now comprise 6.7% of the prison population, and the figure is expected to rise (Beck, Kerberg and Harrison 2002).
Corrections facilities, however, have been slow to respond to these changes. Many of these facilities were designed to incarcerate violent male inmates. They therefore remain unresponsive to the needs of female inmates.
This paper looks at prison experience from the point-of-view of the female inmate. First of all, this paper argues that the crimes most female inmates commit are quantitatively different from those committed by men. Because of these different reasons, prisons built around the need to contain violent male offenders are ill-equipped to meet the special needs of a growing female population.…… [Read More]
America's private prison system has led to drastic changes in the criminal justice system. Beginning in the early 1980's profiting from running prisons first started with the Corrections Corporation of America. They pictured inmates like selling real estate, hamburgers, and cars (Aviram, 2015). While corporate-run prisons only account for eight percent of the American inmate population, it has generated a significant change in how criminals are prosecuted and handled in the criminal justice system. It all began with the founder of the world's first private prison company, Corrections Corporation of America.
Founders T. Don Hutto and Thomas Beasley introduce Corrections Corporation of America in 1983. A year later the company operated a Tennessee-based juvenile detention center and county jail. CCA then opens a Houston-based privately owned facility that held immigration detainees. In 1985 CCA tried a $250 million offer to lease Tennessee's entire prison system for 99 years. They were…… [Read More]
State vs. Private Prison
The United States prison system is designed to ensure that the members of society who have chosen to violate the law and commit crimes are suitably punished. Prisoners are sent away for a period of time based on the crime committed and the severity of that crime. Additional factors such as age, mental and emotional state, and motive may have a contribution to the sentencing of the prisoner. The prison system is comprised of both state-funded institutions and those run and controlled by private funding. Both forms of institutions serve the same inherent function, to punish those who have committed crimes and to rehabilitate the offenders so that they can be released back into society without posing a potential threat to other law-abiding citizens. Those who cannot be rehabilitated will either be executed by the state or sent to prison for a life sentence. However, there…… [Read More]
Drug Addiction Treatment Instead of Jail Time
Repeat drug offenders deserve mandatory jail time. However, people who are arrested for the first time for a drug offense may deserve a chance at rehabilitation within a treatment facility. While many judicial systems utilize the use of drug treatment programs within the jail system, there is currently a push for alternative drug programs-based within hospitals and clinics. Close supervision can prevent drug-addicted criminals from becoming repeat offenders. That has created a national system of six hundred drug courts that currently provide treatment and counseling to inmates as an alternative to regular jail time (Yang, 1999).
The Los Angeles Times reports (Greene, 2000) that one answer to the problem of jail overcrowding has a simple and cost-effective solution. The Orange County jail system is currently overcrowded due to sentencing drug offenders to jail time instead of residential rehabilitation. The County Sheriff cites statistics…… [Read More]
.." (Painter, 2006) Painter states: "By more meaningful measures, however, the Drug War has been an extraordinary failure. Drugs are more available at higher purity and lower prices than they were at the start of the decade. By all accounts thus far we have been unable to spend and jail our way out of this problem." (2006) the result of the War on Drugs is that the government programs have in reality created "...a different set of principles for supply and demand." (Painter, 2006) Resulting from privatization of the prison system is that the 'supply' to fill the demand are human beings which answer the call for occupancy in prison cells and the demand can be seen as the powerful growling belly of the prison beast demanding to be filled so the coffers of those who run these prisons will be filled. Painter states: "Instead of the lower the price…… [Read More]
Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association
The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.
Goals and functions of functional areas
Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.
Security; this functional are…… [Read More]
Purpose of a Prison Sentence
Crimes are committed daily in our modern day society and can be loosely defined as any action, that by society's standard, equals the breaking or disobeying of some accepted rule, standard, statute or cultural opinion. Crimes can be committed by either or both adults and juveniles. There is no age requirement to committing a crime but age often does affect other aspects of how and when a perpetrator gets caught and/or treated by law information. Many things can get people incarcerated such as selling drugs, jaywalking and premeditated murder to name a few. That brings to light the topic of the system of jurisprudence and the criminal justice system. Even though crime continues to rise, our criminal justice system is underfunded, understaffed and most likely overwhelmed. So, if this is the case, what is the purpose of a prison sentence? There are many…… [Read More]
Writing a Letter from Birmingham Jail analysis essay offers the student the gift of going back in time to the courage and ferocity of the Civil Rights Movement to examine one of the most eloquent documents of that era. The Civil Rights Era was one of the uglier periods in American history—and one of the most triumphant and inspiring. No document embodies this dichotomy as fully as King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail. In it, King details many of the horrors that black Americans have suffered at the hands of white hatred and complacency. Yet, the letter is without a doubt, a document of hope and conviction, inspiration and profundity. This paper details the background circumstances that provoked King in writing the letter and examines closely the brilliance contained in the words, ultimately discussing why it remains such a lauded document even today.
Letter from Birmingham Jail is often…… [Read More]
Stafford Prison Experiment is a study and film based on the study detailing the psychological effects people undergo when becoming a prison guard or prisoner. Stanford University held the conduction of the experiment from August 14-20 in 1971. Psychology professor Philip Zimbardo led a team of researchers for the study and funding came from the U.S. Office of Naval Research. The Marin Corps and the U.S. Navy had interest in investigating the causes of conflict among prisoners and military guards. The study offers class examination on the psychology of imprisonment allowing students taking introductory psychology to learn.
The value of the study in relation to social psychology
In 1971 America, college students began protesting against the government. They had enough of the way the government acted on behalf of the country and decided to take action. The protest seemed anti-authority and pro-peace. It marked a significant period in the United…… [Read More]
Solitary Confinement for Prison Infractions
In this article, the subject of solitary confinement as a punishment for breaking prison laws and its moral effect is discussed and a decision taken whether it should be continued or not.
Background of Solitary Confinement
The country with the highest number of prisoners in the world is the United States of America with 's over 2 million people in various federal, state and locally owned incarceration facilities, a number which represents an almost 400% rise compared to the population in the 70's. numbers. The 2014 U.S. National Research Council report showed that in the year 2012, America was home to over 25% of the world's prisoners and 1% of Americans were in jail. A common prison tradition that has received a lot of attention and criticism lately is the segregation of specific inmates into separate cells in order to protect the other prisoners or…… [Read More]
Mental Health, Prisons and Hospitals
The two videos -- the news piece on Connecticut's "purple pods" used in Hartford hospital and the Frontline special on prisons and mental health -- both indicate a problem in how society copes with and treats individuals with mental health. They also portray the two extremes of society's response to mental health issues. The Hartford hospital is on the one extreme -- in which the patient's comfort and security are top priorities (to the extent that mental health patients are given their own specially constructed rooms where safety mechanisms and soothing features have been built into the room). The prison system in Ohio described in Frontline is on the other extreme -- where prisons essentially act as mental health hospitals because the mental health facilities in Columbus are no longer able to tend to the needs of mental health patients: the patients end up being…… [Read More]
US PRIVATE PRISONS & PRISONER LABOR
First Theory: Karl Marx
Analysis of the Evidence
Second Theorist: Max Weber
Analysis of Evidence
The event being investigated in this study was published in the New York Times on May 24. 2014. The article is about the very low pay for working prisoners in the U.S. private jails and about allegations about them being exploited. The article is written by Ian Urbina and is titled "Using Jailed Migrants as a Pool of Cheap Labor." The article is available at the following link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/us/using-jailed-migrants-as-a-pool-of-cheap-labor.html.
The article describes the plight of illegal immigrants into the U.S. and how the government policy has prevented them from being employed in the U.S. However, when these very illegal immigrants land up in the prisons, especially in the private prisons of the country, they are forced to contribute labor at very low rates or even without pay.…… [Read More]
Perils of Obedience" and the "Stanford Prison Experiment"
Both "The Perils of Obedience" and the "Stanford Prison Experiment" essentially demonstrate the potential for 'evil' in ordinary citizens when placed in situations where stark authority is pitted against the individual's own moral imperatives (Milgram) or when deindividuated potential perpetrators are given total power over powerless victims (Zimbardo). Though the experiments differed vastly in design and methodology, the point of both experiments was to observe how far an individual would go in inflicting increasing pain on a victim.
There were several common ethical issues thrown up by both experiments. As Zimbardo says, "The line between Good and Evil lies in the center of every human heart...not in some abstract moral, celestial space..." (Sonoma State University Web site) Similarly, Milgram observes, "Conservative philosophers argue that the very fabric of society is threatened by disobedience, while humanists stress the primacy of the individual conscience."…… [Read More]
The Stanford Prison Experiment
The concept of a human's dual nature and the presence of a darker side of morality has always been a fascinating study throughout history. While Robert Louis Stevenson attributes this Jekyll-Hyde phenomenon to a more repressed desire within the minds of the people, Philip G. Zimbardo takes it to a further step. Both talk about the evils within a person that comes out via prompting (for Stevenson, this is through the use of a mere potion, for Zimbardo, it is because of environmental constraints). Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment is a prime example of such experimentation on duality, a human experiment that -- akin to Jekyll's testing upon himself -- went dreadfully wrong.
The Stanford Prison Experiment sought to explore two types of problems: one was the creation and development of a psychological state within the constructs of a provided physical environment; the other was…… [Read More]
Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check out the publications from Deputy Director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn -- especially, "Drugs in Prison, Another Quick Fix (2005)." Also, consider the 2002 Corrections Today article by Jeff Goodale. I trust that both of these writers will present my point quite will.
In short, I urge you to consider my opinion regarding an alternative sentencing option for offenders like Mr. Smith. In my opinion one of the states in-patient, minimum security rehabilitation centers may be more appropriate. Please let me know what you think.
Thank you very much for your time.
Officer Betty Rumble
Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August.…… [Read More]
Selling in public obviously can result in an arrest far easier than selling in a dorm, or a bar, or a workplace, as whites tend to do. Police can stop a black man on the street and frisk him without a warrant. And so if African-Americans are far more likely to be selling crack in the open air, and crack sales result in far longer jail sentences than powder cocaine sales, there is at least part of the answer as to why African-Americans serve longer sentences in some cases.
A Washington Post analysis of 79,000 federal sentences between the years 1993 and 1995 (referenced in Jet Magazine) reflects that "Blacks received 2% longer jail terms than whites" nationally, and in the District of Columbia Blacks received sentences that were 12% longer than whites (Jet Magazine).
Meantime, in the publication Sentencing Law and Policy (a participant in the law Professor Blogs…… [Read More]
Participants in the study did receive a psychological testing battery but in the study it is reported that scores were not known until the close of the experiment. This may mean that the aggressive behavior seen in the experiment was not due to the effect of the situation on the person, but rather the interaction of the person in the situation. Members of the study staff (minus Dr. Zimbardo, who has made a closet enterprise of his study) have attempted either to distance themselves from the experiment. The chief consultant on the project, Carlo Prescott, recently wrote to the Stanford Daily describing the shame he felt over his participation in the project, describing it as a "theatrical exercise." Other elements of concern in the study include the method of experimentation on human subjects. As we have previously noted, informed consent was inadequate for the degree of abuse and harassment the…… [Read More]
weightlifting program in correctional institutes. It has 4 sources in APA format.
When a person is serving term in a correctional institution he ceases to exist for the society and he cannot carry out activities which otherwise would have been considered to be normal. However, the reality is that the American correctional system provides almost all aspects of life as much as possible to its inmates and recreation is one of them. Recreation in the form of sporting activities, in-house cable TV, arrangement for competitive events, championships etc. are some attempts.
Among the sporting activities, weightlifting in the recent years have become quite popular for the reason being that recreation correctional officials believe in the value of sports for the inmates while the inmates considers it to be satisfactory activity to channel their frustrations (Telander 1988). Apart from that, the National Correctional Recreation Association (NCRA) which upholds and promotes this…… [Read More]
The death penalty is a vestige of the past, a time when vengeance and retribution were the standard means of dealing with transgressions or deviance. While there are significant drawbacks with the American penal system and corrections institutions, a life term in prison is a far more reasonable sentence for the most heinous of crimes than capital punishment is. There are several reasons why the death penalty plays no role at all in a civilized democracy, and why it also threatens to undermine the very foundations of Constitutional law. The worst criminals—those who prove themselves incapable of rehabilitation or reform due to their psychological constitutions—can be effectively dealt with in prison, promoting public safety without putting at risk the integrity of the criminal justice system.
One of the main reasons to avoid using the death penalty is the possibility of false confessions and wrongful convictions. DNA evidence overturns convictions often…… [Read More]
Letter from Birmingham Jail by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
My name is Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. I am currently imprisoned in a Birmingham Jail as a result of accusations of inciting a riot. On the eve of October 14th of this year, 1958 I lead a peaceful demonstration protesting unfair wages and poor working conditions of the poor people in the city of Birmingham. I would like to preface by saying that I have and will always participate and incite only peaceful protest against unfair conditions and prejudicial views and legislative systems. The disruption that occurred following our peaceful walk was not the result of our actions, but rather the fault of close minded individuals not open to helping others. Justice has not been carried out tonight, and I plead with you to help me pass along the true meaning of truth and freedom through just…… [Read More]
Martin Luther King's "Letter to a Birmingham Jail"
In rhetoric, antithesis is defined as a "figure of speech in which sharply contrasting ideas are juxtaposed in a balanced or parallel phrase or grammatical structure. In his 1963 "Letter to a Birmingham Jail," the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. addresses white ministers of the Birmingham community who had criticized the stridency of King's leadership of nonviolent actions of civil disobedience, actions aimed at seeking civil rights for all African-American peoples. He wrote from jail, after being imprisoned for his actions: "You may well ask: 'Why direct action? Why sit-ins, marches and so forth? Isn't negotiation a better path?' You are quite right in calling, for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community that has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to…… [Read More]
Ben Franklin's writing expresses many ideas and techniques of the Enlightenment that can also be found in Pope's writings, yet is also uniquely American. And the second part analyzes Tintern Abbey by Wordsworth and This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison.
Ben Franklin and Alexander Pope were two great literary writers whose technique comparatively reflected the themes and concepts popular during the age of Enlightenment including individuality and human freedom.
Benjamin Franklin was one of the leading thinkers of the Enlightenment in America. He explored themes of human individuality and natural effect, freedom of will, the rights of man, social structures and progressive ideologies for the new nation. The genius of the man is reflected in his writings, analyzed in this essay, in comparison with another great writer of the era, Alexander Pope.
Franklin's work revealed that the man was unique among his contemporaries, in his approach to philosophy and human nature.…… [Read More]
Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
Martin Luther King Jr.'s letter from Birmingham Jail, which was written in April 16, 1963, is a passionate letter that addresses and responds to the issue and criticism that a group of white clergymen had thrown at him and his pro- black American organization about his and his organization's non- violent demonstrative actions against racial prejudice and injustice among black Americans in Birmingham. King writes the letter to defend his organization's actions and the letter is also an appeal to the people, both the white and black American society, the social, political, and religious community, and the whole of American society to encourage desegregation and encourage solidarity and equality among all Americans, with no stratifications according to racial differences.
King's letter from Birmingham Jail addresses the American society, particularly the political and religious community of the American society. Specifically, King's letter addresses…… [Read More]
Guantanamo: A Complicated Issue
Naval prison camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, has been a controversial topic among American citizens and politicians ever since information surfaced about detainees being held indefinitely without charge and possibly tortured while incarcerated there. President Obama made it a key issue in his 2008 campaign, vowing to close it when he became president. He seemed to be making good on his promise in December of 2009, when he signed an Executive Order demanding the transfer of remaining prisoners to other facilities or to foreign countries and the permanent closure of the prison camp. But as of 2012, the prison camp at Guantanamo Bay remains open.
There are several difficult issues that complicate Obama's ability to close "Gitmo," as it is sometimes called. Guantanamo does not have a good reputation among Americans, and it has an even worse reputation in other countries. One of the primary…… [Read More]
Susan P. Sturm titled: "The Legacy and Future of Corrections Litigation" details the importance of litigation to correctional reform, the correctional and legal landscape within the Prelitigation era, and the impact of litigation on the management and organization of correctional institutions. Litigation within federal courts comes as a routine and integral part of corrections management. Because of its importance in corrections management, it has been made obligatory upon corrections officials to recognize more the legal issues that were often in the past left to corrections counsel.
One good example is the "mootness" doctrine, that while seems highly legalistic, is not so much the case. Mootness is not simply and solely an apprehension for the department of corrections council. Rather, certain decisions with direct association to mootness are commonly made by said corrections administrators not having consulted with corrections council. Making such decisions can have a major impact on results of…… [Read More]
Juvenile Total Institutions
Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.
Bortner and Williams (1997)
define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.
argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]
He knew that racial divides could be conquered as long as men remained rational.
King's appeal to authority, or ethos, emerges when he states it was "was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake . . . To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience" (King). Here King illustrates how civil disobedience has good consequences and, in the end, one must follow one's on inclination. When he refers to the Boston Tea Party, he is appealing to ethos because they were disobeying, too. His appeal is logical and more difficult to dispute. The last thing King wanted to do was seem illogical and irrational.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 1963. University of Pennsylvania online.
Information Retrieved January 27, 2009.… [Read More]
The essay “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” by Dr. Martin Luther King, written in 1963, is a response to a letter that was written by eight white clergymen, who ultimately condemned the strategies that Dr. King used during the American Civil Rights era. It is important to note that the white clergyman who criticized his actions were the most elite members of the clergy in the entire state of Alabama. Their condemnation of Dr. King and his actions were exceedingly damaging, also because they attempted to label him as an extremist, and his tactics a manifestation of extremism. The letter from a Birmingham Jail was Dr. King’s precise rebuttal to their condemnation of him, his strategies and his goals. The letter details King’s correct argument about why nonviolent protest is essential, and why breaking an unjust law is crucial in order to reestablish justice because King shows that justice and…… [Read More]
King also makes another point in this passage that directly refutes something another minister told him. He says that this particular minister told him to be patient and wait for the right time. King points out that time itself never did anything; it is "neutral" as he puts it. It is people's actions that make things happen, King asserts, and though it still takes time and perseverance to accomplish things, they will not happen just by waiting. I think this section really shows King's passion and commitment to his cause, especially when he equates silence and waiting with sin, saying "we will have to repent...for the appalling silence of good people" and claiming that "the time is always ripe to do right." King wants to make it clear that not only were his actions justified, but that they were even necessary, and I think this passage accomplishes that more than…… [Read More]
Malcolm X while in prison decides to start writing to friends he had been with in the thieving and doping world who unfortunately never replied to his letters because they were too uneducated to write a letter. Some of his friends who were slick and sharp-looking and could be mistaken for Wall Street big pots unfortunately hired people to read them letters if they received one. Malcolm X was also caught up in that similar situation and would never reply to letters that were written to them (Blesok, 2012). These experiences made him acquire homemade education. While Malcolm X struggled with lack of education, Richard Rodriguez who was living in a working class neighborhood in Sacramento had a slightly different experience. His parents could afford education for him and his siblings. His elder brother and sister left their books on the table next to the door closed firmly behind them…… [Read More]
Response to the Letter from Birmingham Jail
It is difficult to imagine being in the position Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was in when he wrote this letter. Though it was far from the only time he was arrested during his campaigning for civil rights, the "Birmingham Campaign" that led to this arrest was one of the larger movements of civil disobedience that King helped to lead, and the weight that he must have felt he carried during his imprisonment is not something anyone can truly understand, I suspect. This weight and the impetus it must have given King makes the measured and restrained tone of this letter all the more remarkable -- there really isn't a trace of anger or aggression to be found anywhere in the letter. King manages to sound almost conciliatory in response to the several criticisms levied against him by others, even those…… [Read More]
Well crafted sentence explaining how the two text evidences show your point of analysis: In his use of metaphors, King poetically dramatizes the length of time African-Americans have struggled for full civil equality, in response to the white ministers' demand that he be patient, moderate, and not 'push' Southern whites to change too quickly.
Third Point of Analysis: King, to address the specific allegations of the white ministers uses rhetorical questions throughout his letter.
Text Evidence: Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state's segregation laws was democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered. Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured?
Text Evidence: In your statement you assert…… [Read More]
TREATMENT OF PRISONERS IN THE U.S. AND RUSSIA
How Does the United States Compare to Russia in Following the UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners?
There are nearly 9 million people under certain forms of incarceration or supervision across the globe. The United States has the highest number of prisoners or individuals under some of supervision since approximately 25% of the world's prisoners are held in the country (U.S. Department of State, 2012). Prisoners across the globe are subjected to varying treatment because of differences in circumstances, nature of incarceration facilities, cultures, and available resources. Nonetheless, prisoners are a vulnerable population regardless where they are being held. As the government is mandated with the responsibility of catering for prisoners' needs and welfare, the treatment of prisoners has attracted considerable attention over the years.
Following a special congress in 1955, the United Nations adopted Standard Minimum Rules (SMRs)…… [Read More]
Letter of Transmittal
To the Head,
Department of Jails
There are often heavy psychological pressures on inmates as they are dislocated from the society. The type of interactions that happen in a prison setting also create psychological pressures and the incarceration also results in acute psychological stress. Prison life of inmates is most often associated with reduced physical activity as they are often subjected to a solitary life style without much scope for physic activity. There are also reduced opportunities for mental activities due to lack of resources as is the norm in prisons. Physical problems such as diabetes mellitus, heart diseases and other chronic disabilities have been established to have greater chance of setting on individuals who are sedentary.
This study recommends the ways and means to reduce physical and mental ill health of inmates due to the above mentioned reasons and conditions as recommendations of a training program…… [Read More]
The High Incarceration Rate: A Significant Issue Faced by the Criminal Justice System
This paper examines the problem of the high rate of incarceration in America. This is a major challenge for the criminal justice system, as many people, families and communities suffer as a result of this high rate. It prevents individuals from improving their lives and can lead to the deterioration of families and neighborhoods. The paper discusses some of the policies that have been put in place in recent years to address this issue. It also discusses alternative solutions and how the rate could be brought down by way of decriminalization of drug use and the implementation of diversion programs or restorative justice programs.
The problem of the high incarceration rate is one that affects more than prisoners and the prison population. It affects communities as well as the economics and politics of the nation.…… [Read More]