Psychotherapy Essays (Examples)

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Personal Counseling Theory Traditional Counseling

Words: 5141 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42126625

Similar to Gestalt therapy, I also did not incorporate existentialist thinking into my theory.

However, similar to Jungian analytical psychology and Gestalt therapy, I view this type of therapy as very philosophical in its' nature and application. Therapy methods that are very philosophical in their application do not appeal to me because they do not seem to adequately address the "real-life" problems, and instead seek vague answers that can be subject to many different kinds of interpretation. Existential therapists seek to find whether the major questions of our existence can be answered. As a result of my disagreeance with this type of therapy, I have not modeled by theory after existential therapy.

Another reason why I have not modeled my theory on existentialism is because most often such theorists will claim a spiritual or religious basis for their optimism.

Hoffman (2004) states that the spiritual existential approach is not necessarily…… [Read More]

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Mindfulness and Martial Arts

Words: 14405 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 16817372

Mindful vs. traditional martial arts toward improved academic grades in children diagnosed with ADHD

While medication and psychotherapy are the current best practice in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their benefits and aim are too peripheral and topical -- neither resolving the neurological origin of deficits.

Moreover, many are opposed to these treatments and there are few substantiated and readily accepted alternatives. The consequences of ADHD have a ripple effect -- as does the lack of more palatable, efficacious, and proactive interventions for children with the disorder. Research has reported wide-ranging benefits for mindfulness and martial arts, independent of one another, yet research addressing the potential academic benefits of integrating these disciplines for ADHD children has not been found. Based on Siegel's neurological theory of mindfulness, the executive dysfunction model of ADHD, and research on mindfulness and traditional martial arts, it is proposed that a clinical application of mindfulness-based…… [Read More]

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Ethical Issues in Group Counseling

Words: 4046 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73182995

The more experience a facilitator has with a minority group, the greater the likelihood the facilitator will be able to help those members feel included, rather than excluded from the group process. This is critical, because inclusion is an important social phenomenon. "Communities who are strong and inclusive lead to better quality of life, stronger sense of identity and belonging, sharing mutual respect and equality. It is further recognised that a cohesive and inclusive community is one where there is a common vision and sense of belonging for all communities; the diversity of people's different backgrounds and circumstances are appreciated and positively valued; those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities and strong and positive relationships are being developed between people from different backgrounds in the workplace, in schools and within neighbourhoods" (Holland & Ousey, 2011). Inclusiveness would seem particularly critical in a therapeutic environment, because group members who feel…… [Read More]

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Cognitive and Affective Psychology According

Words: 2587 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25257859

The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.

Question 2


Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.

Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]

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Psychological Therapy in Nigeria Person

Words: 1800 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57494755

It focuses on relationships as the basis for solving problems. As such, it can lead to the decrease in depressive symptoms according to local cultural practice. Interpersonal therapy has also proved to be effective in treating depressive symptoms of patients who are HIV-positive. This is considered quite important, considering the high prevalence of HIV incidence in Africa (Bass).

With the findings of trials on the efficacy of psychotherapy as an approach to depression in Nigeria, researchers believe that membership of an interpersonal psychotherapy group proved more effective in controlling the disorder than not becoming a member. Interpersonal psychotherapy perceives depression as developing out of disturbed human relationships or triggered by stressful life events (Bass). Considering the overall environment and situations in Nigeria, depression is not unlikely to occur and prevail. Interventions, such as psychotherapy, can reduce symptoms in disturbed personal relationships, although the political, cultural and economic aspects require other…… [Read More]

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Training and Supervision of Students and New

Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65850364

training and supervision of students and new practitioners is a process that involves mental health counselors who play an integral role ranging from teaching clinical skills in educational settings to offering on-site supervision. Therefore, supervision is an important aspect of mental health practice that involves various techniques like psychotherapy-driven supervision. Psychotherapy-driven supervision is a process that is demonstrated in three theoretical approaches i.e. cognitive-behavioral, humanistic-relationship, and solution-focused models. This process promotes the combination of best-practices in psychotherapy-based approaches and social role-based techniques of supervision. Therefore, this approach integrates two components i.e. counseling theory and practice with role-oriented supervision models. According to Pearson (2006), the combination of these two elements enables supervisors to model and provide training on psychotherapeutic practices in a manner that meets the unique learning requirements of new counselors (p.250).

Reaction to the Article:

Generally, the use of clinical supervision in the mental health field is a concept…… [Read More]

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Depression Not Just a Bad Mood Mdd

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90318784

Depression: Not just a Bad Mood

MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood

The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.

Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…… [Read More]

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Human Beings Make Sense of Things in

Words: 3786 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29364579

Human Beings Make Sense of Things

In the early-1900s, Edmund Husserl sought to provide psychology with a truly scientific basis, not by copying the physical sciences but through the description of conscious experiences. This would be a truly humanistic psychology, grounded in human life and experience rather than materialistic and mechanistic theories like functionalism and behaviorism. Karl Jaspers called for a psychology that would describe phenomena such as "hallucinations, delusions, dreams, expressions, motor activity, and gestures" for the "person as a whole" (Churchill and Wertz, 2001, p. 247). This holistic or Gestalt psychology is dedicated to the search for the authentic self, and to heal the "hollow' men and women of our time who have lost touch with themselves" (Churchill and Wertz, p. 248). Intentionality is one of the key assumptions of phenomenological psychology in which "experience must be grasped holistically and a relationship in which the subject relates to…… [Read More]

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Approaches to Family Counseling

Words: 2951 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54637451


Psychoanalytic Family Counseling

Psychoanalytic theory was the dominant psychological paradigm that influenced counseling and psychotherapy in the first part of the twentieth century (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998); however, it was replaced first by behaviorism and later by cognitively-oriented paradigms. Nonetheless, psychoanalytic thought has persisted into the twenty-first century and is enjoying a bit of a comeback beginning in the last part of the 1990's (Hall et al., 1998).

Of course Sigmund Freud originated the psychodynamic approach, but his work centered mostly on the individual (Hall et al., 1998). An early basis for the psychoanalytic family approach was the Psycho-Analytic Study of the Family by Flugel (1921). These early propositions by Flugel adhered closely to classical psychoanalytic theory, but attempted to understand family influences on desires of the child. Later Henry Dicks published results of his work with married couples in the 1940s examining the parallel representation of internal…… [Read More]

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Treatment of Women Diagnosed With

Words: 13264 Length: 48 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75114747

At one point or another in our lives, we are all beginners. We begin college, a first job, a first love affair, and perhaps a first dissertation project. We bring a great deal to these new situations, including our temperament, previous education, and family situations. Yet, as adults, we also learn. In romantic relationships, couples report having to learn how to interact successfully with their partners. College students routinely report being better at reading, studying, paper writing, and test taking as seniors than as freshmen. They have learned how to be students while they were students. Now close to graduating, some view they have finally mastered the role.

Ideally, of course, we would have the necessary information in hand before we needed it. We would already know, without being told, what makes a loved one angry or frustrated. All students would be spared the frustration of working hard on a…… [Read More]

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Carl Rogers Core Conditions for Therapy

Words: 3534 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98461918

Person-Centered Therapy Today

A sign on the restaurant wall where I lunched today reads, "What you call psychotic behavior ... we call company policy." A joke, obviously, but it set me thinking about differences in the world today compared to the 1950s when Carl Rogers was developing person-centered therapy. Take a small thing like "multi-tasking," for example. In the 1950s a person who drove down an expressway at 70+ miles per hour while listening to a recorded book and talking on the telephone at the same time might well be judged in need of psychological evaluation. Today we think it's "normal." Even therapists are expected to "multi-task" (Erskine, 2003). The point is, we live in a different, more complex world from the one Carl Rogers inhabited. Can a therapeutic system he designed to meet the needs of his time (before the Age of Information) be adequate to meet the needs…… [Read More]

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Show the Similarities

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40552019

Thomas Szasz's the Myth of Psychotherapy and Bilingual Education in Richard Rodriguez's Hunger for Memory

How can psychotherapy be a myth? How can the internal speculation in regards to the soul be wrong? However, both Richard Rodriguez's Hunger for Memory and Thomas Szasz's The Myth of Psychotherapy say that the current cultural obsession with self-reflection and the idea that reconstituting, reliving, and recapturing memory, at least in an idealized and primal 'perfect' form is impossible, a lie, and would be dangerous to the psyche and soul's self-development and sense of efficacy in the world, if this were possible. Szasz critiques modern psychotherapy as an attempt to make morality a mental and medical issue. Rodriguez critiques modern moral educators within the educational establishment whom would excuse poor performance by minority students, and students from non-English speaking homes. Both suggest objective, external standards to live up to, rather than internal reflection is…… [Read More]

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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Words: 4280 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14227618

Avoidant Personality Disorder

As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.

Exploration of disorder

Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Yalom's if Rape Were Legal

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37312645

Yalom Analysis

The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…… [Read More]

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Group Therapy Dynamics by the

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57406059

Goals -- For Bion, groups have specific goals that are differentiated by the manner of dissonance individuals bring: drug dependency, sexual abuse, a fatal disease, etc. This coming together out of homogeneity with a clear and stated aim -- dealing with the issue. Each group may or may not be identical in make up; for instance, there can be commonalities within the group, but the goal is the same. Uncovering the barriers to good health in the individual. It is clear rehabilitation from the issue that harbors negativity or an inability to be complete that allows for group therapy to use the interplay of the individual for a synergistic goal (Bion, 2004, 26).

Yalom, as noted, came to realize that there was really no such thing as a cure for the issues that surround dissonance. There is no such thing as permant conflict removal because humans continue to evolve and…… [Read More]

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Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31023695

Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…… [Read More]

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Counseling Groups Give Members the

Words: 9035 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57245828

" This involves coming up with a list of the consequences of reacting to an event (Budman, 1992). This means that they describe what emotions the activating event made them feel.

The principles facilitate being rational because they shift focus from emotions to logic. The group gets an opportunity to look at the problems they face from a rational perspective, which creates room for possibilities. Thinking rationally helps in creating many alternative solutions, and helps clients make decisions consciously and willingly. It also ensures that individuals in the group are responsible for their actions and this solves the problems that arise from shifting blame. This technique aims at challenging the logic behind the clients' responses.

Another technique is imagination disputation. Each client creates a scenario that would lead to a reaction and emotional consequences. The group members express how they would react in that situation and later discuss the appropriate…… [Read More]

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Populations Span From the Egregiously

Words: 2801 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30553752

, 2006). Soliciting client's self-report may be another helpful practice (Landry et al., 2009).

To deal with both attrition and ethnicity factors in conjunction with an adolescent or school-aged client, the counselor may be well advised to consider the fact that the client may better benefit from a school counselor's intervention rather than from her own. Studies (for instance Cummings, 2009) have shown that "schools may be the best setting in which to provide mental health services if the objective is to reduce the unmet need for mental health care among adolescents living in disadvantaged and/or ethnically diverse communities." (Cummings, 2009, 1).

At times, the counselor may have to deal with trauma-related matters. Since trauma may traverse several generations and is comprised of complex issues, Goodman and West-Olatuni (2008) recommend a transgenerational trauma recognition and assessment approach as well as historical and contextual knowledge of the trauma.

Of particular interest…… [Read More]

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Psychological Disorder ADHD ADHD Is

Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61198795

My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.


While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.

On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…… [Read More]

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Big Five Trait Stability Differences

Words: 903 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12530739

dominant trait of the Big Five made a difference with respect to the personality of people changing in response to stressful life events (Sutin, et al., 2010). The mechanism for personality change is apparently the way that an individual views a stressful life event (Sutin, et al., 2010). A study of stressful events and personality development in middle age found that people could consider the event a turning point or a lesson learned depending on their dominant traits (Sutin, et al., 2010). People high in Neuroticism perceived the stressful event negatively and as a turning point rather than a lesson learned (Sutin, et al., 2010). And people high in Extraversion and Conscientiousness viewed the stressful event as a lesson learned (Sutin, et al., 2010). It is important to note that the characteristics of the stressful events were not related to trait change (Sutin, et al., 2010). Rather, personality trait change…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Orientation My Personal Orientation Lies in

Words: 2905 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84104702

Theoretical Orientation

My personal orientation lies in Gestalt (Fritz Perls), Person Centered (Carl Rogers) and Reality Therapy (William Glasser) psychotherapy.

What do you see as the time frame of counseling? Are you more oriented to the past, present, or future?

I am oriented to present; however, I believe that many problems can come from the past. Therefore, the past must be discussed at some point.

To take this a step further, do you believe counseling is intended to work on current issues and feelings or to help people with issues and feelings from the past? Or, do you believe that people need to focus on their future feelings, thoughts and behaviors.

I believe people should focus on their current issues first. However, every individual are different. Therefore, therapy should be aim at individuals' need.


What is your view of people? Do you believe people are essentially good, bad, or…… [Read More]

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Social Construction Relate Critical Incident Stress 2

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67679796

social construction relate critical incident stress? 2. Is CISM applicable emergency -emergency persons? Why ? 3. Why important distinguish CISM psychotherapy? Sources: Mitchell, J.

CISM: Questions

How does social construction relate to critical incident stress?

Stresses from critical incidents do not occur in a 'bubble.' Social pressures are critical components of interpersonal and environmental stress, spanning from the problems that arise from drug and alcohol abuse; emotional, physical, and sexual workplace violence; domestic violence and child abuse; post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide. Tensions between different groups can lead to divisiveness and violence if not appropriately managed. Different cultural standards regarding sexual or other interpersonal behaviors can create miscommunication and escalating tensions in the workplace. Gender assumptions can result in female and child victimization, if a man feels he has a 'right' to 'treat' his family according to standards of patriarchal dominance. The trauma of war, living in high-crime areas, deprivation,…… [Read More]

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Leadership in Stress Management and Debriefings Why

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94489765

Leadership in Stress Management and Debriefings

Why is it important to distinguish between CISM and psychotherapy?

CISM and psychotherapy have completely different aims. While it is true that persons who survive critical incidents may have personal issues that would benefit from psychotherapy, the ultimate aim of CISM is to prevent, rather than treat psychological issues related to trauma. Rather than an individualized program of indefinite duration like psychotherapy, CISM provides specific, targeted therapy to improve the ability of all persons (regardless of their original state of psychological health) to cope with s crisis. CISM focuses on the 'here and now,' is active and directive, and is of a relatively short duration while psychotherapy has no specific end date (and not necessarily a specific goal) and is less directive in nature. CISM is designed to occur relatively soon after the event, in contrast to psychotherapy which may occur years after the…… [Read More]

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Clinical Psychology Bulimia Nervosa

Words: 5371 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57415749

Clinical Psychology / Bulimia Nervosa

The beginnings of clinical psychology date back to the year 1492, and it has changed from the mere treatment of mental illness to an entire field of research and experimentation, which has helped those individuals who have been affected by any form of mental disorders, like for example, the eating disorders like bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa prevalent among adolescent and twenty-year-old women all over the world, to overcome their habits so that they may lead better and more productive lives. Some of the more important names in the history of clinical psychology, who can be referred to as the founding fathers of the field, are Lightner Witmer and Wilhelm Wundt. It was their theories and methods that has paved the way for the clinical psychologists of today, who are today being trained to encompass more issues like the entire range of health care, for…… [Read More]

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School-Based Mental Health Program on

Words: 8166 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 67429057

This is discussed at length by Fusick and Bordeau (2004) " counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and Bordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)

An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-Based Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…… [Read More]

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Depression the Nature of Depression Depression Exists

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7455366


The nature of depression

Depression exists as a regular mental disorder presented in the form of loss of interest, depressed moods, and feelings of low self-worth, guilt, poor concentration and disturbed sleep. The most common symptoms of depression are manifested in the form of anxiety. The problems could become recurrent or chronic, leading to notable impairments in a person to become responsible. When it reaches its worst stage, depression might lead to suicide. Over one million succumb to depression annually. This translates to at least three hundred suicidal deaths per day (Stark, 2010). A single individual who commits suicide motivates twenty more to attempt suicide.

People can suffer from multiple variations of depression. The most significant difference is depression among individuals who do not have or who have a history of maniac episodes. Depressive episodes draw symptoms like loss of interest, increased fatigability and depressed mood. Depending on the…… [Read More]

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Depressive Disorder According to the DSM --

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69443539

Depressive Disorder

According to the DSM -- IV -- TR (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-TR specifies…… [Read More]

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Bipolar Outline Effects of Social

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16801599

Knowing the difference between normal emotions and emotional disorders is key to therapists' understanding bipolar behaviors

Excess emphasis is placed on pathological emotions rather than healthy ones

SEVEN: Recent developments in emotion and cognition & therapies (Lacewing, 2004).

Lacewing references 5 authors that discuss the development of emotional theories

It is clear there is nothing close to consensus when it comes to comparing emotion with cognition or defining exactly when an emotion results from cognition

EIGHT: Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder (BD) using ICS model (Lomax, et al., 2009).

30 bipolar persons and 30 healthy persons were tested (in a euthymic mood state and also in induced positive mood state) to see if they detected discrepancies in the sentences; the results show BD people operate at a "more abstract level"

NINE: Deficits in social cognition & response flexibility in pediatric BD (McClure, et al., 2005)

40 outpatients with pediatric BD…… [Read More]

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Freud vs Rogers Sigmund Freud

Words: 1022 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37605637

Prevos (2005) further states,

"…A person's identity is formed through a series of personal experiences, which reflect how the individual is perceived by both him or herself and the outside world -- the phenomeno-logical field. Individuals also have experiences of which they are unaware and the phenomenological field contains both conscious and unconscious perceptions. The concept of the self is, according to Rogers, however, primarily conscious. The most important determinants of behavior are the one's that are conscious or are capable of becoming conscious. Roger argues that a definition of the self that includes a reference to the unconscious (as with Freud) can not be studied objectively as it can not be directly known."

This perfect description given by Prevos (2005) is precisely what Rogers would have envisioned of his theory. His aims, unlike Freud, were to allow humanity to return, instead of alienating individuals by placing them in categories…… [Read More]

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Legal Issues in Counseling Hedges

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57766518

He gears his book to the perspective of a therapist who may feel confident that he or she has been practicing ethically, but may be uncertain of the best way to deal with the law. He stresses that, merely being ethical as a therapist does not mean that the therapist can be sure that he or she can avoid litigation. The law and patient's troubled psyches can be fickle, Hedges notes from his own and colleague's personal experience. He contrasts the perspective of the current state of the law and most judges with how therapists view their practice. Above all, Hedges attitude can best be summarized with the title of one of his chapters -- practice defensively.

Hedges takes a strong stand on what he sees as intrusion by the state into the personal relationship between client and therapist, and interference of professional organizations. He believes that only if patients…… [Read More]

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Autobiographical Statement My Path to

Words: 1368 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2998915

By "story" I do not mean that the ways in which they understand (and enact) their lives are somehow false, fiction rather than fact. Rather, I am using the word in what might be seen as an essentially Jungian way: Each person's biography can be seen as a narrative, a story that the self tells about the self and to the self. It is the most fundamental story in each life. Too often the story that people tell themselves about their own lives is one filled with shaming and negative elements; far too often such negative stories lead an individual to become to depend on alcohol or drugs to help them overcome their shame, depression, and other negative feelings about themselves.

The subjects of the research that I am currently proposing are skilled in disparaging their own lives, their own selves. The subjects of my research are three Armenian women…… [Read More]

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Analyzation of Texts

Words: 1358 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65929144

Guilt and its limits as a positive force upon the human condition -- two texts grappling with this central issue, from Nietzsche the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo and the Myth of Psychotherapy: Mental Healing As Religion, Rhetoric, and Repression by Thomas Szasz

From the hectoring Jewish mother to the penitent pilgrim standing in the Christian confessional, to patient upon the psychiatrist's couch, guilt has proved to be a powerful motivating force in modern society as well as the ancient world of morality. Or thus "sprach" conventional wisdom, to coin a phrase of Frederick Nietzsche, in regards to his famous construction of Zarathustra. In other words, this commonly expressed human sense of guilt has often, across a wide variety of cultures and historical times, been viewed as a positive influence upon human life and human moral society. Nietzsche, in his The Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo sees guilt…… [Read More]

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Diagnostic Assessment

Words: 5224 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64538441

real problems faced by real people in the world, it might seem foolish to analyze a fictitious character. But sometimes it is easier to understand human nature when we look to art or fiction, in part because art provides us with some needed distance at times and in part because fictitious characters are often relatively pure distillations of character types. This is the case with the character of Grace from the television show "Grace Under Pressure." This paper provides an analysis of this character using first the Adlerian therapy model, then analyzing her through a behavior model and then finally suggesting a treatment plan for a person with the profile of Grace.

Grace's character - to begin with a thumbnail of her - is presented in the series as a no-nonsense, take-no-guff survivor of a bad marriage that was often abusive (at least in psychological terms). After eight years of…… [Read More]

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Counseling Approaches

Words: 1753 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 90488234


Abramson, R. (2010). Psychotherapy of psychoses: some principles for practice in the real world. The Journal Of The American Academy Of Psychoanalysis And Dynamic Psychiatry, 38(3), 483-502. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Abramson, R. (2010) explains that treatment of psychoses must include psychological treatments for the mind joined with the commonly employed biological treatments for the brain. There are various schools of psychotherapy, but psychoanalytic treatment is the only Western discipline devoted to comprehensive understanding of the subjective mind. Psychoanalytic authorities have written extensively on the psychodynamics involved in treatment of psychoses, but such approaches are limited by the realities of limited resources and number of therapists who have advanced training. Also, the techniques and understandings developed by prominent authors cannot always be implemented by many therapists who do not enjoy as robust a theoretic background. Presented here are five principles that are useful to keep in mind during the treatment…… [Read More]

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Jane Appears to Be Suffering From Dissociative

Words: 969 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16627477

Jane appears to be suffering from dissociative identity disorder based on the first three diagnostic criteria for this condition (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). A person with dissociative identity disorder maintains multiple mutually-exclusive personalities in order to distance themselves from past traumatic events. Her behavior when interacting with the therapist suggests that she experienced at least two distinct personalities (criterion A) that recurrently appeared (criterion B) and had mutually-exclusive psychological experiences (criterion C). Jane's self-reported history of sexual assault and exposure to violence is consistent with this diagnosis, and could be contributing to her depressive symptoms. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis could in fact be a sign that Jane also suffers from borderline personality disorder, since impulsivity is included as a relevant symptom. ADHD is commonly diagnosed in children and involves severe focusing problems, impulsivity, and an inability to be calm. Borderline personality disorder represents a condition of…… [Read More]

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Counseling Theory and the Christian Worldview

Words: 2711 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32282354

New Counseling Paradigm Focusing on Scripture and Family

New Directions for Christian Counseling:

A Focus on Scripture and Family

This paper will focus on presenting a new counseling paradigm which synthesizes the power of the Bible by combining a variety of elements from assorted counseling theories with the inherent goal of maximizing client outcomes. This framework is useful as it mixes the intrinsic nature and needs of man along with the defining psychological elements which contribute to forming his mental health function or dysfunction. Once this model has been discussed, the work then discusses the details of effective counseling intervention. In short, this paper puts forward a counseling paradigm which focuses on the vital role of the client and their motivations in producing their own mental health. The Christian counselor can help clients arrive at the best psychological outcome through utilizing various established counseling models with Scripture, allowing a desire…… [Read More]

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Clinical Focused the Humanistic Psychology Was Established

Words: 1584 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61793100

Clinical Focused

The humanistic psychology was established in early 1940s and 1950s as an option to conservative behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques. A novel method of dealing with client referred to as humanistic therapy followed the development of the humanistic psychology. This type of therapy is client-based and it focuses on how a person distinguishes the environment and the world. Several variations have since the setting up of humanistic psychology been established. Humanistic psychology puts its attention on the conscious person and appraises an individual's self-actualization concept besides putting into consideration the personal examination and mastery of self. Humanistic therapy offers therapy partly via a client's own innovative process, and it emphasizes on self-determination and free will. One of the client-centered approaches to humanistic psychology is the Rogerian Therapy developed by Carl Rogers, an American psychotherapists and a counselor. In this regard, this brief overview focuses on the history and establishment…… [Read More]

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Feminist Therapy and Postmodern Approaches

Words: 1662 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21054697

A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…… [Read More]

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Jones Stanton L And Richard

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48558492

" (1) Fearing its potential competition with Biblical modalities of understanding, some Christian patients may initially fear, even consciously avoid the modern practice of psychotherapy, seeing it as a mere scientific reductionism of the uniqueness of the human animal. Or, conversely, some may uncritically embrace counseling it as a better way of understanding the mind than the biology of the natural sciences, especially approaches as person-centered theory and transactional analysis.

However, the authors advocate a more critical, theologically informed appropriation of psychotherapy in relation to faith, suggesting therapy's compatibility with orthodox Christianity through the conscious and flexible integration of psychology and theology, and present the author's justification of what they call responsible eclecticism, endeavoring as they do to understand psychology on its original terms, and then to examine how such precepts relate to Biblical narratives and moral behavior.

One of the most important challenges or concepts offered by this book's…… [Read More]

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Developmental Psychology Body Image Body Health and

Words: 5850 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70011168

Developmental Psychology

Body Image, Body Health, and Pathology

Eating disorders and anorexia are becoming more commonplace today, and this is true particularly of young women, although older people and men sometimes also suffer from them. It is important to look at this issue as it relates to body image and how one feels about one's body, but also important to see it in the light of the way that one trust's oneself and others, and the hope for the future that is sometimes absent from the lives of these individuals. Such problems as depression can often play a large role in whether someone has problems with body image and eating disorders.

The National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA, 2002) states that eating disorders' incidences have doubled within the past 20 years, and the average age range for an eating disorder is from 10-25 years old, with two peaks around 13-14 and…… [Read More]

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Bi-Polar Bipolar Disorder Is a

Words: 2854 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82804387

The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.

Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…… [Read More]

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Multicultural Theories

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 26631217

Multicultural therapies like ethnic family therapy recognize the multiple worldviews and diversity of values among clientele. Moreover, multicultural therapies avoid problems associated with decontextualization and the ignorance of politics and power structures in people's lives (Comas-Diaz, 2014). Therapists working in a diverse environment do need to develop cultural competence to serve their communities. Cultural competence requires self-awareness and recognition of one's own worldview, biases, and attitudes. Likewise, cultural competence leads to effective means of helping people whose worldviews and backgrounds are different from the therapist. Without branching too much into related social sciences like sociology, anthropology, and social work, multicultural psychological therapies do draw from other disciplines in order to form a more cohesive vision of cultural competence. No person develops in isolation of his or her culture or background. Therefore, it is critical to include dynamics of oppression, experiences of racism or stigma, issues related to the immigrant experience,…… [Read More]

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Family Therapy

Words: 903 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55663208

Family Therapy Thoughts and Feelings

Prior to my working on this particular assignment, I actually knew very little about family therapy. Although the name of this branch of psychotherapy certainly describes itself, I have always adhered to a belief in individuality and that the interrelationships between people do not matter so much as the individuals themselves do. However, after learning about family therapy, I believe that my former belief was incorrect. Familial relations play an important role in the health and well being of the individual. In fact, they may actually account for a fair amount of problems even if there is physical and emotional distance between family members. Thus, the insight that I gained through family therapy has helped to revise my personal worldview and to inform it a great deal.

Whereas I previously believed that the individual was the basic unit of human relations, I now tend to…… [Read More]

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Psychology and Sigmund Freud

Words: 1110 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40045195

Freud and Psychology

In the field of psychology, Freud's work is a popular topic. Much of what he created is very controversial, and some of it has been discredited and changed (Leahey, et al., 2014). However, there is also a lot of it that is still used today, and that provides information for psychologists and psychotherapists who want to help people live better lives. There are two main areas of Freud's work that are still important today. These are his theory of personality development and his theory of psychotherapy. It is also important to consider why they are valid or not valid in current practice, so one can determine what direction one wants to take with proper techniques. Freud's theory of personality has three components, which are the Id, the Ego, and the Superego (Sulloway, 1991). According to Freud, all of these work together to make up a person's specific…… [Read More]

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Solution-Focused and Narrative Therapy Techniques

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18735580

Postmodern Therapy

What Corey describes as "postmodern" therapy is, in reality, largely a series of evolutionary changes. Recalling how evolution works -- in which organisms change form ultimately as an adaptive mechanism -- might be useful here, insofar as many of these "postmodern" approaches seem adaptive in terms of the actual climate of opinion concerning psychotherapy and its medical utility. The chief example that I am thinking of here is "solution-focused brief therapy."

The notion of "solution-focused brief therapy" would have caused Sigmund Freud to spin in his grave, considering Freud devoted an entire book, entitled Analysis Terminable and Interminable, to the question of whether psychotherapy should ideally last forever. However the widespread cultural rejection of the Freudian paradigm is, perhaps, one reason why the notion of long-term Freudian analysis has come to be replaced with the fast food approach. But the chief reason appears to be adaptive: increasingly health…… [Read More]

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Ethics Vignette Several Ethical Issues

Words: 1260 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82111791

Her condition was not beyond my ability, but just because the client needed more attention and supervision, which I was not able to provide at my facility. However, the ethical code requires that the correct procedure be followed. For instance, I have to identify myself and give proof of my claim. In other words, I was required to fax the release form to verify my claim. In addition, I should also state my intentions clearly for seeking the information.

It will also be logical and legitimate if I gave the client a referral letter to the client to be used by the other facility. This would act as evidence that I am the one who referred her to the respective facility. Having the release form alone does not make much sense and gives no evidence that the patient was released on the referral terms. As such, the other facility is…… [Read More]

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Ethical Issues in Family and Marital Therapy

Words: 3218 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54130558

Ethical Issues in Family and Marital Therapy

It has been mentioned that insufficiencies of the APA ethical standards for marriage and family therapy have not been appreciated fully. Guidelines that are in regards to the therapist accountability, confidentiality, and informed consent can really just sometimes turn out to be unclear with individual clients, nevertheless they are even more complex when multiple family associates are observed together when they are in therapy. Question come up such as who are the clients? How is confidential material being used? Do all the family members have an equivalent right to not want the treatment? What is the function of the therapist's standards vies-a-vis inconsistent morals of family members? Deliberation of these questions in relations of their ethical insinuations is multifaceted and contentious. Nevertheless the answers to these queries must also take into consideration legal and clinical considerations, which can sometimes run an impact course…… [Read More]

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Treatment Plan Treatment of Hypothetical

Words: 3369 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89413663

A counselor like any other physician, or medical practitioner must help. That is their first and only objective.

The relationship between a counselor and their client must first and foremost be a beneficial and safe one. If at any point either party begins to feel as though the relationship is no longer helpful, or either party feels threatened in any way then the relationship must be terminated. Treatment should never be denied based on race, creed, religious belief, sexual orientation, or previous criminal history. The letter and spirit of the laws regarding confidentiality and the use of patient's records should also be adhered to. A client must be able to trust that the information disclosed in therapy sessions will not ever be leveraged against them unless they have specific knowledge of a criminal act which results in duly appointed authorities being awarded a subpoena for the records, or they express…… [Read More]

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Treating Depression with ACT

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65207672

Acceptance and Commitment Theory

It largely appears as though Jacob is experiencing signs of depression. There are a number of telltale signs which point to this assessment. One of these signs is he has recently experienced a life-altering event with the loss of his business. Such a loss is especially devastating for this individual because it was his sole source of income, which lends a degree of pragmatism to the sort of anxiety which can rapidly lead to depression (Cadigan and Skinner, 2015, p.293). This notion is compounded by the reality that he seems somewhat unilateral in his interests, claiming his former business was his sole hobby. As such, it appears he feels he has nothing else to turn to in such a time, which might heighten any feelings of depression. It is important to realize such perceptions on his part are likely aggravated by the frustration of being in…… [Read More]

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Reaction to Family Therapy

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 32026558

Family therapy is described as a theory and treatment technique that provides a means for examining clinical problems based on the context of the transactional patterns in a family. Therefore, this theory and treatment measure represents an intervention through which family members receive help in detecting and transforming difficult, maladaptive, and ongoing patterns of relationship as well as self-restricting and self-defeating belief systems (Goldenberg, Goldenberg & Pelavin, 2014, p.373). There are several family therapeutic approaches that have been used to help in examining clinical problems in the context of transactional patterns in a family. One of these approaches is behavior therapy which is based on the premise that cognitive factors like attitudes, expectations, thoughts, and beliefs impact behavior. This approach has contributed to the emergence of cognitive-behavior therapy as part of ordinary psychotherapy processes.

Behavior therapy is based on the belief that normal and abnormal behavior is learned based on…… [Read More]

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Counseling and Therapy

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94984912

Adlerian Therapy

An Adlerian approach to the case of B.A., the 14-year-old Guatemalan-American boy whose case was described by Layla, should primarily focus on B.A.'s feelings of inferiority and his sense of community and social being. Adlerian therapy generally concentrates on these two areas, and it is worth examining each specifically for B.A.

We can probably act from the assumption that B.A.'s feelings of inferiority are largely related to his family environment. Alfred Adler held that early childhood contains a lot of clues for how to interpret subsequent behavior -- in Corey's words, the Adlerian view is that "at around 6 years of age our fictional vision of ourselves as perfect or complete begins to form into a life goal." (Corey 99). In the case of B.A., he has had no physical contact with his mother from the age of five months -- too young to have any memories at…… [Read More]

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Reality Therapy

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8235670

Reality Therapy

William Glasser wrote the book reality therapy in 1965. Since its publication, it has gained increasing prominence in the United States, as well as the world. Dr. Glasser developed his ideology to address the limitations he found in the Freudian model of psychology. The methods and practices intrinsic to reality therapy differ substantially from conventional therapy. Dr. Glasser challenges several widely accepted notions of psychiatry, such as mental illness and the role of therapists. Glasser founded the William Glasser Institute to encourage the spread of his ideas into psychiatric practice.

Over the last thirty-five years, Glasser's ideology has proven to be an effective form of therapy, with successes in both institutional settings and private practices.

Reality therapy concentrates on the client's needs and getting them to confront the reality of the world. In Reality Therapy, these needs are classified into power, love and belonging, freedom, fun, and survival.…… [Read More]

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Adult Dysthymia

Words: 2719 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 13086710

Adult Dysthymia

Melancholia, a word once used to describe a multitude of symptoms, has since been shoved aside by more clinical-sounding terminology (Taylor and Fink, 2006, p. 1-9). Melancholia is now referred to as depression, major depression, dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder, hypomanic episodes, brief recurrent depression, postpartum depression and several others. Some may even conjure a terrifying image for laypersons, such as double depression. This multitude of terms is intended to help clinicians determine both the possible causes of the condition and the best ways to intervene and for researchers to establish common diagnostic criteria so that empirical data from different studies can be compared, but there can also be considerable functional overlap between these classifications. These diagnostic distinctions may therefore have more to do with the descriptive needs of clinicians and researchers, rather than distinct neurochemical and cognitive mechanisms.

A small library could be filled with information about melancholia,…… [Read More]

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Conversion Disorders for Whom Are

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86298810

Cognitive triad (Beck). Negative views of the self, environment, and the future.

14. Seligman's learned helplessness theory. Failure to respond to a threatening situation even if there is an obvious mode of escape due to past experiences of being unable to escape from situations.

15. Difference between bipolar I and bipolar II. Bipolar I consists of periods of mania and depression; bipolar II consists of periods of hypomania and depression.

16. Adjunctive psychotherapy. Psychotherapy in addition to other forms of treatment (here therapy is considered secondary).

17. Know that the chance of recovery for someone receiving effective therapy for depression is about 60%. OK

18. Suicide

a. Attempts vs. completions. Males more successful than females due to means (e.g., gun vs. pills). Two groups: Adolescents and Elderly adults are more successful. Depression, substance abuse, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders with depression are also prevelant.

b. Do we have a good way…… [Read More]

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Childhood Abuse Effects of Childhood

Words: 2006 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53809514

Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.


The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…… [Read More]

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Theory Counseling Exist Giving a Background Fit

Words: 1063 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24351985

theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.

In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating…… [Read More]

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Counseling Prominent Factors Influencing Group and Individual

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71948087


Prominent factors influencing group and individual counseling

(#3) Which approaches to individual and group counseling are best for new group counselors?

Successful theoretical approaches vary between individual and group therapy. Nevertheless, there is overlap in the efficacy of certain approaches. For example, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has a strong success rate in both group and individual contexts (Beiling, McCabe, Antony, 2009). Although it is true that CBT was originally implemented in an individual setting, there are specific reasons why it is adaptable to a group format. Specifically, CBT endeavors to alter the way in which people distinguish between internal and external reality, changing how one responds to their environment rather than addressing psychological insight (Beiling, McCabe, Antony, 2009). Additionally, many CBT patients have anxiety disorders, and many patients find the group setting less intimidating than a private dynamic.

CBT is also particularly successful to either individual or group contexts…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Therapy Provides a Structured Framework for

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76925730

Cognitive therapy provides a structured framework for change. Describe your understanding of how this form of therapy works.

According to Cherry (2012), cognitive behavior therapy, also known as CBT focuses on helping clients to understand the thoughts and feelings that create their behaviors. If such behaviors are problematic, the client is encouraged to work on the way they think and feel about certain situations, which, it is assumed, would then also create change in the behavior. Commonly, phobias, addiction, depression, and anxiety are treated by means of CBT. This type of therapy is generally used to create short-term solutions to very specific problems, which focus on helping people to change by focusing on destructive or disturbing thought patterns that influence their behavior negatively.

The underlying cause for disturbed behaviors is then regarded as thoughts and feelings, more than repressed subconscious disturbances created by the individual's past. As such, these are…… [Read More]

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Humanistic Psychology Critique of Mainstream

Words: 2210 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14426168

24). Leitner & Phillips (2003, p. 160) also stress the need for a holistic diagnosis of the human mind so that a more effective conclusion can be derived. Bugental (1963, p. 565) also decries the tendency to compartmentalize the field of psychology to make it resemble the natural sciences. More so, this is a great cause for confusion among psychology students because they end up having a fragmented view of the field and are ill-equipped to exchange ideas and insights with those specializing in the other sub-fields of psychology instead of developing a holistic view of human nature.

Narrow vision and the tendency to view psychological conditions as diseases by therapists have direct consequences for the clients. Leitner & Phillips (2003) stated that, "the stigmatization of psychiatric labels may in some cases exacerbate interpersonal problems and increase social isolation for individuals who likely have increased needs for social supports" (p.…… [Read More]

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Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]