counselors practice and learn how to properly handle each client's situation. Clients have a variety of issues that they are dealing with at any given time and sometimes need help. Clients may seek help from a counselor, allowing the counselor to help that person manage their particular areas of concern. Case studies are valuable to any counselor and require much thought and careful consideration.
In the case of Tony Cepin, who is a 45-year-old Hispanic male, we are able to evaluate a unique case study, in which Tony, a nontraditional student, has various issues going on in his life in which he needs help. His presenting problems are that he feels as if he is too old, he has little of a support system, has difficulties finishing tasks, suspects ADD diagnosis, has conflicts with his spouse and immediate family, and often overspends money. We can look at Tony's case in…… [Read More]
Psychoanalytic theory started off with the work of Sigmund Freud. Throughout his clinical work with people suffering from mental illness, Freud came to believe that childhood experiences and unaware desires contributed to a person's behavior. Based on his observations, he developed a theory that described development in terms of a series of psychosexual stages. According to Freud, disagreements that take place during each of these stages can have a lasting influence on one's character and actions (Cherry, 2011).
Psychoanalytic theory was an extremely influential force throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Those enthused and influenced by Freud have gone on to expand upon Freud's ideas and develop theories of their own. Of these neo-Freudians, Erik Erikson's ideas have become possibly the best known. Erikson's eight-stage theory of psychosocial development describes growth and change all through the lifetime, centering on social dealings and disagreements that take place…… [Read More]
Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.
The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns…… [Read More]
..in an optimum range, between excessive denial and excessive intrusiveness of symptoms" (366); b) "normalizing the abnormal" (let the survivor know that it is perfectly normal to react emotionally to triggers that bring the trauma to mind; there is nothing wrong with the person, and indeed, the recurring symptoms are normal and just part of the healing process); c) "decreasing avoidance" (the person should be allowed to and encouraged to be open
PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments about the trauma, not to try to tuck it away or be in denial); d) "altering the attribution of meaning" (change the mindset of the victim from "passive victim" to "active survivor"); and e) "facilitating integration of the self" (371) (this is used primarily in coordination with hypnosis and "dissociation" in a strategy for "reintegrating" parts of the personality into the "self" - the theory being that PTSD tends to split apart components…… [Read More]
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational Psychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…… [Read More]
The attitude of parents which came across as more authoritative, uncompromising, uncooperative and unaffectionate does result in higher levels of depression in the subject. Even though parental authority was required for disciplining the adolescents, it was the accentuated sort of antagonistic authority that resulted in higher levels of depression as well as increased the possibility of clashes and irritation. The fact of the matter is that in most occasions when the adolescent did not respond simultaneously to the overt and hesitant disapprovals and authority of the parents, it decreased with the passage of time.
Apart from these confined parenting approaches there were some peripheral, indirect and distant parenting approaches that brought about depressive inclinations in the adolescent as well. One of these indirect factors was the personal happiness and contentment of the parents within their own relationship or familial or financial situation. While positive growth of this child was also…… [Read More]
' A cognitive behavioral therapist might ask, what will harming yourself do to improve your grades on the test? Cognitive therapies in general have been shown to be more effective than traditional supportive talk therapies when treating anxiety conditions because they offer concrete steps for self-improvement on a continuing basis (Reeves 2003, p1.). Patients are also asked to identify things they would like to do in which current behavior patterns prevent them from engaging, such as wearing short-sleeved shirts.
Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy shows a higher success rate in anxiety disorders and OCD than traditional psychotherapy, likely because of its behavioral component. The fact that many DSH patients are diagnosed with BPD may complicate treatment, but BPT responds well in some instances to these therapies, too. BPT patients manifest disordered patterns of relationships, thinking, behavior, and coping mechanisms that contribute to unstable life patterns as well as contribute to the…… [Read More]
The researchers were also careful to note established differences in response to psychodynamic therapy based on the personality of the patient and other factors, and took steps to control this during their analysis of the results, as well. Nurses with an extensive background and proven ability in dealing with patients suffering from major depression were used to treat all the patients, especially in the support sessions, and the nurses treating the patients that were receiving both clomipramine and psychodynamic therapy met once a week with a psychoanalyst to go over protocol and develop techniques. The main goal of the researchers in having the nurses acquire these techniques was an attempt to surmount any barriers to the psychodynamic treatment that might arise, as such blocks are well documented during psychodynamic therapy and could produce unusable results from an otherwise carefully controlled study.
Clomipramine protocol was somewhat more simple, with the dosage…… [Read More]
In the long-term, empirical evidence suggests that as many as 80% of young adults abused in childhood meet the formal diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder by the age of 21, including some of the most serious such as clinical depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicidal inclinations (Silverman, Reinherz, & Giaconia, 1996). The full spectrum of psychological disorders to which adult victims of childhood abuse are typically prone includes panic disorder, dissociative disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder (Teicher, 2000).
The main character in Good Will Hunting provides a vivid glimpse into the short- and long-term effects of traumatic abuse and neglect in childhood. As a result of a long history of abandonment, neglect, and horrific physical abuse throughout his childhood, Will failed to develop a healthy self-image or self-esteem and he lost his ability to trust others or to become…… [Read More]
The job of therapy is in no small part to help individuals push back about over-simplification. Behind the comedy in this movie -- and it is a very funny movie -- is the recognition that much of what makes us miserable in our lives is the fact that we find ourselves limited in our sense of Self by the categories that other people bring to bear on us. And the more distant that we are from what our society considers to be "normal," the more our lives are likely to be constrained by other people's concept of the "Other."
The gay characters in this movie have far less latitude to define themselves in ways that serve themselves (rather than the straight individuals in the movie or a broader straight society in general) than is true of the straight characters. And the more closely the gay characters align themselves with what…… [Read More]
To look at another's life as a symbol or as an inspiration for how one ought or wishes to live can be a very motivating factor in finding one's own personal myth.
A fascinating element about Edinger's (1992) work is how he compares the teachings of Jesus from a subjective perspective of interpretation to depth psychology and how similar they are. For example, one that is particularly insightful is: 'Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth' (1992). Edinger (1992) states that 'subjectively understood, meekness will refer to an attitude of the ego towards the unconscious.' To come to inherit the earth seems to suggest 'an awareness of being individually related to or having a personal stake in the whole (the wholeness of life, the total human experience)' (1992). Nearly all of Jesus' teachings can be interpreted in a psychological way, which makes one believe (even if they…… [Read More]
Dawn's presenting problems, such as a sleep-related disorder and anxiety symptoms, it is possible that she may be diagnosed with a mild depression, or to use the DSM-V code, F32.0 Major depressive disorder, single episode, mild. Measured on the Ham-D scale of depression, Dawn's score will likely fall between 9-12 (Weissman, Markovitz & Klerman, 2007). However, monitoring Dawn over time will be necessary to see if the depression is recurrent.
It is unclear when her "feeling stressed" about her grades began, exactly, or when her sleep patterns started to be disrupted. Therefore, if a DSM-V diagnosis is necessary, the F32.0 diagnosis is the most sensible for now. As Hayes, Pistorello & Levin (2012) also point out, the DSM diagnoses are limited in applicability and accuracy. They have "failed to give rise to functional diagnostic entities, which is a major goal of syndromal diagnosis," (p. 976). The process of diagnosis also…… [Read More]
People experience trauma, addiction, mental breakdowns every day. Whether it is obsessive behavior, trying to make one's self fit into a model mystique so worshipped by the masses, or even just breaking the cycle of abuse, people time and time again have needed assistance in facing their demons. Hypnotherapy, before commercials and the movies that hyped it turned it into what is perceived as a "faux science," was actually once thought of as a useful form of treatment. "Hypnosis was once a viable treatment approach for addictions. Then, due to hypnosis being used for entertainment purposes many professionals lost confidence in it" (Potter, 2004, pp. 21). It is, to some extent. In fact doctors have found hypnotherapy useful in conjunction with traditional therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy. New research suggests that although hypnotherapy may not be a viable singular treatment option, it can help in a host of mental disorders…… [Read More]
Rahman's session with Daniel was fascinating for me to read. Because my own goal in pursuing this degree is to work as a life coach, the fact that Daniel is approaching therapy not because of serious behavioral disturbances but because he is interested in exploring and thinking about the direction his life is taking made him seem precisely relevant to the sort of work I hope to do. His presenting symptom admittedly appears to be anxiety, but it seems like a sort of anxiety we have all experienced, and Daniel's problems sound like ordinary problems. In some sense, the mystery is why someone in Daniel's position wants to seek therapy in the first place. Rahman lists his goals as "to be more altruistic, to be open to inspiration, and to be more organized and peaceful." These are all admirable goals in therapy, but I do think it's worth…… [Read More]
The Case of Scott Starson
In 1999, Scott Starson was involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital in Ontario after he had been found not criminally responsible for two counts of uttering death threats. Starson had a history of psychiatric disorders, and had recently been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Starson recognized his disorder and voluntarily underwent psychotherapy, but he refused any medication for the condition. Starson, a gifted theoretical physicist, believed the medications would destroy his ability to pursue his research, which in his opinion was the only thing that gave his life meaning. Physicians and officials believed Mr. Starson was unable to genuinely appreciate the value of treatment, so they petitioned to have his treatment decisions transferred to a surrogate. The petition was granted, but Mr. Starson appealed in a case that made its way up to the Supreme Court of Canada, which overturned the decision and asserted…… [Read More]
I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or Rogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of Rogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).
In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the Rogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…… [Read More]
Post-Crisis Stress Debriefings
Psychological debriefing is a structured crisis intervention meeting that is commonly used as a post-trauma support intervention strategy in a wide range of settings, including the emergency services, the military and mental health services and the technique consists of a discussion and review of the traumatic event or critical incident through a series of phases (Regel, 2010). The methodology uses a period of about ninety minutes to talk to the victims about what they experienced and what they might expect as a result of what happened. One of these debriefings will generally have seven stages and should be conducted between seventy-two hours and fourteen days after the event.
It is argued that this program should not act as a standalone program for trauma victims. That is, the value of the debriefing is largely a result of the beginning of the development of a support network. The…… [Read More]
Counseling Models REVISED
CHART OF TYPES OF THERAPY
TYPE / / GOAL / / THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP / / TECHNIQUES
Psychoanalytic. / / "To Turn Neurosis into Ordinary Unhappiness" / / Silent, occasionally venturing an interpretation, therapist as "one who knows" / / Dream analysis, attention paid to early childhood development and relations with parents
Adlerian. / / Encourage client's premises and goals / / Collaborative relationship / / Focuses on feelings of self that arise from relationships and conflicts
Existential Therapy / / Self-mastery, self-examination, creativity, client accepting responsibility for self / / Therapist as person, emphasis on quality of therapist-client relationship / / Not a technique-oriented therapy but instead a philosophical approach
Person-Centered Therapy / / Increased self-esteem and greater openness to experience / / Neutral and non-hierarchical and empathetic / / Restatement of client's statements in neutral language, unconditional positive regard, empathy
Gestalt Therapy / / Client awareness…… [Read More]
It is evident that, individuals who are exposed to life-threatening events are at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as a result, critical incident stress debriefing does not necessarily reduce incidence of PTSD (Lewis, 2002). Due to societal costs of chronic PSTD, the mental health care professional manages to develop an early method for interventions (Regel, 2010). Psychological stress debriefing was mainly designed to prevent and mitigate emotional distress among individuals (Regel, 2010). In summary, the paper will discuss on how critical incident stress debriefing does not reduce the incidenceof post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as, discussing whether preventing an officer from developing PTSD should be the measure of success for a critical incident stress debriefing.
According to Regel (2010), Psychological briefing refers to a brief crisis intervention, which is administered to a person during the days of traumatic event. Psychological stress debriefing is significant because…… [Read More]
Conjoint Family Therapy
What is Conjoint Family Therapy?
Family therapy, also known as conjoint family therapy is a technique or a subfield of psychotherapy which basically focuses its attention towards helping couples and families cope up with the various kinds of problems they are facing in their relationships. They aim to get to the root of the situation and the reason why problems arise and then systematically resolve these by encouraging the interaction between the family members (Kissane, 2002, p. 26). As part of what such psychologists study, they focus on the importance of family, discussions and keeping in mind what the others feel about the same situation. In their opinion, everyone has different views on a particular subject and it is a great deal of help to have views from all sides of the family so that each one knows what the other has in mind. Their therapy sessions…… [Read More]
State Laws And The Rules Of State Psychology Board
Professional qualifications: Questions
State rules and laws
The education and training of psychologists
In the state of Washington, according to Chapter 18.83 RCW, 246-924 WAC, all psychologists must obtain a doctorate from an accredited institution. They must spend one year in a residency program, submit a dissertation, and complete a practicum and internship.
Qualification for licensure
The internship must be verified to consist of 1500 hours of supervised experience and must be completed within 24 months.
Certificate of professional qualification
Candidates must list the credentials they have held previously, answer personal questions about mental fitness and take the Professional Exam Services (PES).
Administrative process for misconduct
State boards are governed according to the laws of the state, "disciplinary actions start with an initial complaint or multiple complaints, and proceed through a series of investigative and adjudicative stages" (Bricklin 2003:…… [Read More]
Professional Associations and State Government Agencies
Addressing Potential conflicts in jurisdictional authority of APA, State Bodies & Other Authorities
Identification of Potential conflicts in jurisdictional authority of APA, State Bodies & Other Authorities
Management of Complaints by State Bodies & Other Agencies
Relationship between APA, ASPPB & NRHSPP
Practicing psychology in United States is governed by the various authorities. The eminent authorities providing code of conduct for the psychology professionals are State laws, American Psychological Association, State boards of psychology, Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) and National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (NRHSPP). Where these bodies have a general purpose of facilitating the psychology professionals and enhancing the standards of their service, there are instances where their respective codes of conducts are at conflict. It is up to the professionals to ensure that these conflicts are identified a resolved in the most suitable manner and…… [Read More]
Counseling and Personal Values
Integrating Learned Theories about Counseling with Your Personal Values
As the world has modernized, people have started experiencing more psychological problems and other problems than ever. Despite the normal behavior that most of the people depict, they are a victim of psychological disturbances which ultimately makes them sick. Therefore counseling was introduces as a means to address various kinds of problem that people find difficult to tackle. There are many theories of counseling that help us deal with the problems but it is important to know how these theories integrate with our personal values. The impact that these theories have on the personal values of each person will be different due to the fact that personal values are different for each person.
Definition of Counseling
Ever since counseling has emerged has a professional field, the need for a definition has been increasing. However, it is…… [Read More]
9/11 survivors search for normalcy" by Anemona Hartocollis, survivors of the terrorist attacks of 9/11 still fight psychological and physical demons, long after the rest of the world has attained a state of 'normalcy' and the attacks are no longer a foreground concern in the media. Lauren Manning, a former employee of Cantor Fitzgerald, can no longer lead a normal life and counts herself lucky to be alive after surviving having nearly 80% of her body severely burned. Although the symbolic language of mourning in our society tends to focus upon the fallen, or those who lost love ones, Hartocollis implies that this tends to ignore people whose lives were irrevocably changed through injury.
The focus of the article is to understand the perspective of these injured victims, according to the sociological principle of verstehen (putting one's self in another's shoes in a spirit of understanding and community) and understanding…… [Read More]
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…… [Read More]
The good news for those keeping an eye on the health of students in secondary school is that there has been a "…significant decline in the 30-day prevalence of powder cocaine use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from its peak use in the late 1990s" (nida).
Author Paul Earley writes in the Cocaine Recovery Book that cocaine stimulates the part of the brain that stirs a sexual feeling along while decreasing a person's inhibitions. So, given the heightened sexual arousal, and a decrease in inhibition, the cocaine addict can become addicted to sexual behaviors that can be "…compulsive and bizarre… [and hence the person may] progress from compulsive and ritualistic sex to shame and remorse" (Earley, 1991). In fact Earley asserts that some male cocaine addicts try to get females addicted to the drug, engendering "…a dual addiction to sex and cocaine" (147).
Treatments for Cocaine Addiction…… [Read More]
Psychoanalytic Theory and Behavioral Theory
There are numerous types of psychological theories and with them approaches for modifying human happiness and behavior. Psychoanalytic theory and behavioral theory are two of the most overwhelming and notable theories in this field. Exploring them adequately not only illuminates the field of mental health, but the truly endless possibilities for treatment approaches for a professional in this field.
"This is one of the oldest theories of psychology in which patients are viewed within a model of illness or 'what is lacking'" (Grohol, 2004). Each person is viewed as being composed of a particular dynamic that starts when they are extremely young and then proceeds throughout life; this theory focuses on the idea that all problems or issues which adults face can find their origins in one's childhood (Grohol, 2004). This type of therapy is so traditional and widely considered extremely "old school,"…… [Read More]
Psychoanalysis offered main traditions exploring human development. Freud introduced psychosexual stages development Erikson introduced psychosocial stages development. Based information gathered weeks reading researching Brandman library formulate a 2 3-page APA style paper addressing: a.
Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development and Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development promotes the concept that each person possesses a form of sexual energy from the moment when he or she is born and that the respective energy develops in five stages as the individual becomes older. From Freud's point-of-view, all stages present in his theory of psychosexual development need to be completed in the order he devised in order for the individual to develop healthily. If they are not completed in a predetermined order, the individual is likely to experience problems integrating the social order, taking into account that he or she failed to develop correctly.
The Oral…… [Read More]
Freud vs. Rogers:
Theories and Impact
Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are two of the 20th century's most renowned figures. Both psychologists developed countless advancements in their field, and both are greatly revered by psychologists and society as a whole today, for their efforts and their genius. Another similarity between the two men is that both proposed theories of personality and psychotherapy, and both men's theories are still viewed as controversial by some segments of the field. This paper will thus discuss the contributions of the two men in the respective issues, and their impact upon society.
The first psychologist's theories to be examined here are those of Sigmund Freud, which center around three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. Freud believed that the key to a healthy personality is true balance between these three elements, all of which work together to create complex individuals,…… [Read More]
Behavior therapy may be referred to as the approach in psychotherapy, in the behavior tradition that focuses on a set of methods designed for reinforcing desired behaviors, and eliminating undesired without concerning the psychoanalytic state of the subject. These methods mainly focus on the behavior, and not the thoughts and the feelings that could be causing them. The behavior therapy is divided into two sections, a narrowly defined sense of behavior therapy and the behavior modification (Barraca 2012). Due to the need of solving this global problem, it was important to conduct group therapies and see how effective they would be. The clinics have not been very effective in handling the large numbers of patients who require behavior Therapy. Their methods have not been working perfectly hence the need for perfection. The society has changed due to different reasons hence the need for behavior therapy.
There…… [Read More]
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…… [Read More]
Mental health is an essential part of overall health. The Surgeon General's report on mental health in 1999 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999) and the 2001 supplement Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) both highlighted mental health as a critical health aspect affecting a broad range of individuals today. Current paper is focused at exploring the concept of clinical psychology and how it is different from social psychology, counseling psychology and forensic psychology.
Clinical Psychology is the field of psychology in which theory, science and clinical knowledge are combined for the objective of comprehension, prevention and relieve distress and dysfunction based on psychology and for the promotion prejudiced comfort and personal development. The main features of clinical psychology are psychological assessment and psychotherapy. Though clinical psychologist participate in psychological research, teaching, counseling and forensic assessment. Clinical Psychology…… [Read More]
The evidences presented in this regard explain how different studies and research support that obesity can have profound deteriorating psychological effects as well as health effects on children. The changing eating lifestyles leading to increased consumption of fast foods and sodas have contributed greatly in doing so however; children and parents cannot control obesity if it is genetically engineered. Genetics play a role in the bodily structure. If children are obese due to their genetic constitution, reduced consumption of food cannot help however, physical activities such as exercises have greatly shown results in maintaining their weight. Preventive measures can be taken on a broad level to reduce the spread of obesity among children. In this regard, schools can be helpful to plan a balanced diet for children. At lunch, sodas must be banned and replaced with fruit juices or clean water so that children get accustomed to drinking healthy beverages.…… [Read More]
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…… [Read More]
Psychology and Literature
Both psychology and literature explore how people interact with each other. Both psychology and literature explore how prior events affect what follows. Both psychology and literature look at how a person grows, develops and changes over time. However, psychology looks at how events affect what people do and how they act in very precise ways, while literature fictionalizes and supposes what an imaginary person might do. Psychology looks at growth and development based on real cases studied scientifically while literature uses imagination go suppose what people might do as they develop. Psychology looks at how people react in given situations in a scientific way, while literature looks at it in terms of how the events drive a story forward.
Examples of how social-psychological issues are portrayed in literature can be seen, for instance, in the stories of Edgar Allen Poe, such as in "The Cask of Amontillado,"…… [Read More]
Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work
It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…… [Read More]
This means that other aspects which could be affecting the mood of the individual (such as: a chemical imbalance) are overlooked. This is when the chances rise of some kind of misdiagnosis taking place. As a result, the strengths of this theory will provide everyone with a basic background. However, it cannot be applied to every situation involving patients. Instead, only select elements will offer a better understanding of human behavior. (Rider, 2012, pp. 39 -- 40) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)
The biggest strength of Roger's theory is that it is providing specific aspects of human behavior that will influence everyone's thoughts (i.e. The desire to move away from pain and into pleasure). This is occurring by feeling positive emotions such as love and companionship. During a clinical setting, this can help to explain human emotion and behavior from a certain basic point-of-view. This is when therapists can…… [Read More]
Carl Rogers Theory of Personality
Introduction to the Personality Theory of Carl Rogers
Twentieth Century psychologists Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a founder of the Humanistic approach to human psychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). His theories were derivative of earlier phenomenological theorists and were predicated largely on the proposition that the natural state of every individual is to seek continual, life-long psychological development. However, whereas other schools of psychology defined the process of psychological growth in terms of chronological stages of development, Rogers suggested principles of self-actualization that were not linked directly to chronological age in the manner of some of his contemporaries in other schools of psychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; McWilliams, 2004).
Two of the most important elements of Rogers' contribution to the field of client-centered psychology are his nineteen fundamental propositions through which he defined the progressive psychological development of the individuals and his list of seven behavioral…… [Read More]
Critical thinking, a higher order of thinking about and dealing with issues, is quite relevant in many contemporary disciplines, particularly social work. It is a way of looking at information, of processing that information in an analytical manner, and having the ability to bring both life experience and other information to bear on the regular processes of one's discipline. Certainly, it can be used as an approach to daily lie, reading, public speaking, even watching movies or attending a concert. Within the social work discipline, it is a way to take a careful appraisal of beliefs and actions and then arrive at well-reasoned and thoughtful interventions that increase the likelihood of helping clients and avoiding harm -- reasonable and reflecting attitudes that help decide what to do and when (Papell and Skolnik, 1992).
Social work, and other medical and sociological and medical disciplines often turn toward theory as…… [Read More]
Ideally, dramatherapy is a regular process of interacting with a group of supportive people in creative and symbolic ways. Drama is used to empower individuals and offer people a chance to have more control over their behavior and their relationships. One of Jennings' central claims is that dramatherapy can transform society. As women become less willing to play into misogynistic social roles, males will react and interact with females differently. Stereotypes about people of various ethnic or religious backgrounds can be released through dramatherapy and encounters with the "other." Similarly, we release outmoded prejudices and biased modes of thinking when we allow dramatherapy to change us.
Dramatherapy relies heavily on symbols, imagery, metaphors, and myths, according to Jennings. Drama is itself a symbol of human life: reminiscent of Shakespeare's celebration of the world as a stage in which all men and women are actors. Seeing the world as a giant…… [Read More]
Existentialists look at life differently, and so does Morrie. Where others would become depressed about their growing dependency on others, Morrie sees it as a chance to "experience" being a baby again, something that was important in his life but he no longer remembers. He has a different way of looking at things, and this seems like a better way to manage the stresses of life. Not eternal optimism, but instead, looking to see if there is something interesting or even challenging in the stress that can become a catalyst for change or growth, rather than stagnation and depression.
Personally, most people are afraid of aging and dying, and yet, it is the only thing in life that is absolutely certain, and so it is futile to fear it. Instead of facing his death with fear, like many people do, Morrie faces it with strength and humor. That does not…… [Read More]
Linguistic analyses of conversational patterns indicate that most pauses can be predicted by linguistic structures, such as clause or sentence breaks" (Levitt, 334) by eliminating some of the non-verbal factors that may tend to undermine these silences, I would find that the interviewee was far more comfortable with the nature of the interview and its opportunity for a free and informal discussion relating to treatment experience, personal history and current disposition.
The helping model, according the research which was conducted in preparation for and in light of Mr. Smith's situation, would be further illuminated by the interview. Here, firsthand interaction illustrated that individuals who have undergone such institutional experiences are sometimes eager to share details and feelings directly related thereto. The way that Mr. Smith opted to open up would be especially revealing in verifying the value of allowing one's self to fully accept and understanding the nature…… [Read More]
. . cognitions," further research is needed to find out how an individual may utilize various parts of cognitive therapy in order to reach the goal of openness and flexibility (Sobel, 2009, 1). The paper will conclude with a suggestion that a valuable follow-up research project might be done, comparing repressed feelings which may lead to possible massive anger problems preceding self-destructive and negative behaviors.
Foa, Edna B. And Rothbaum, Olasov (2001) Treating the Trauma of Rape: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for PTSC. Guilford Press. 2001.
Frazier, Patricia A., Heather Mortensen, & Jason Steward. (2005). Coping strategies as mediators of the relations among perceived control and distress in sexual assault survivors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 267-278. Retrieved July 3, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global.
Jaycox, Lisa H., Lori Zoellner, & Edna B. Foa. (2002). Cognitive-behavior therapy for PTSD in rape survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(8), 891-906.
Koss, Mary P.…… [Read More]
Changes in the brain such as decreased adaptive capacity, neurotransmitter and receptor changes, cognitive impairment, and dementia increase the risk of depression, as more factors enter the equation and the patient becomes more depressed, the likelihood of a suicide attempts increases (McFarland, 2005).As previously mentioned, diagnosing depression in the elderly can be a challenging task due to all of the factors involved. When considering if an individual is depressed, one must examine the individual's background, cognition, medical history, etc. In order to diagnose depression, there are written and oral inventories of a person's mind that need to be performed. Symptoms of severe depression include: diminished interest in usual activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, diminished ability to concentrate, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. Depression does not always have to be severe.…… [Read More]
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…… [Read More]
Factors that affect an organization's capacity and willingness to change need to be examined and exploited. Organizational culture, which is a set of shared values and assumptions that are followed by the members of an organization, plays an important role in affecting the attitude of an organization to change. If an organizational history has been unwelcome to change in the past, it is highly unlikely that an organization will be willing to accept change in the future. Sometimes, core competency can assist in the process of change (Porter, 1980).
Lastly, at the individual level, the process of change is completed when it is implemented within a company. The task of the general manager then becomes of envisioning the future of the change and of facilitating cooperation among the workforce. He is also responsible for implementing change at various levels of production, development and distribution. In particular, what needs to be…… [Read More]
This image has lasted for nearly three thousand years but may now be in need of renewal. "God" may be longing for release from His immolation in the structure of our beliefs. To use a gardening metaphor, God has become pot-bound, fixed and constricted by the anthropomorphic, gender-biased, paternalistic image that we have projected onto Him. As Teilhard de Chardin suggested, we need to formulate a new image of God that is related to the phenomenal discoveries science has made about the new dimensions of the universe.
What have we done to God? The old image we have inherited from the Iron Age portrays God creating the Earth from a distance; God as something transcendent to, different from, creation and ourselves; God as male; God as fearful Judge, God as both punishing and loving Father. We have divided life into two - spirit and nature - and have lost the…… [Read More]
Our senses during the conscious are rarely honed, but our subconscious states, from millenia of evolutionary change, are able to detect subtleties that have freed up our conscious minds for more analytical growth. Many people view this as subtrefuge -- our subconscious secrets living in a world that lacks expression. Instead, Jung believes that all things may be viewed as paired opposites (yin and yang). So love/hate, good/evil, male/female, etc. results in an ego system in which there is a counterego, or the shadow of oneself. This shadow reprents the parts of ourself that, for whatever reason, we tend to ignore. There are numerous reasons for this; it may be cultural, it may be practical, or we may not even realize we are ignoring a portion of ourselves. But for the self-actualized human, though, dreams are the guide for the waking self to meet with the subconscious to offer solutions…… [Read More]
While no one knows what the future will bring, based upon what the background / significance uncovered, it is clear that a large portion of the population sample will more than likely suffer from some type of eating disorder. This will help to achieve the various aims / objectives of project, which are to assist these people, in realizing that they do have a problem and to seek out effective treatment options. This could be a real challenge, in identifying the problem as one issue, while encouraging someone to seek out help is another matter. As these people, must be able to realize that they have a medical condition and want to be able rectify the situation. The only way that this can occur, is for someone to admit that they are suffering from an eating disorder.
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html…… [Read More]
One example of this is Lyle's conception of family life. His father punished him. This punishment was based upon a decontextualized biblical passage, and claimed to be the result of fatherly love. Hence Lloyd's conception of fatherly love was skewed from a very early age. For Lyle, the "truth" behind punishment is love. His anger and pain, as suppressed elements, fuel this conception, and Lyle is unable to break the cycle of his own violence.
Problem solving is another part of reasoning with which Lyle has considerable difficulty. He is faced with several problems. The first problem is his broken window. An effective way to solve this problem would have been to accept the Bravertons' offer to pay for it. However, this would not solve the problem in Lyle's mind. Instead, he requires punishment for the child responsible. When he is unable to obtain this, his inability to solve the…… [Read More]
Human beings are manifest as male and female. The long absence of a female deity has resulted in the repression of the female energy as subordinate and less important than that of the male. However, Woodman's suggestion of the Goddess Kali and Shearer's suggestion of Themis could serve as bases for reconciliation within the self and between the genders on a collective level.
Ann Shearer (in Huskinson, 2008, p. 49) notes that Themis provides a point of reconciliation between the male and the female. Her name means "right order," and she represents the relationship of the human with the divine. As a Titan, she predates the split between the male and female and represents the healthy psychological being. Indeed, the author compares her with Jung's concept of the "Self," where an instinctual psychological being is present, where the male and female aspect are in harmony with each other. As archetype,…… [Read More]
Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Treatment
The effectiveness of psychiatry and psychotherapy has made the word treatment become a buzz word among those in the health care industry. Clinical researchers study outcome to determine treatment effectiveness. Health care payers and Behavioral Managed Care Organizations (BMCOs) are interested in outcome research in order to establish an accountable basis for making decisions about resource allocation. (Wiens, 1994, p. 46) And not only that, the general public has become more educated about treatment options and they want to see evidence that treatment is working and is appropriate for their individual circumstances. In addition, large companies want to see evidence that treatments for psychiatric and substance abuse problems work. In short, there are a lot of people interested in knowing which therapy works and why.
Research over the past forty years has established that psychotherapy works; indeed "it seems that psychotherapy is one of the best…… [Read More]
This literature review upon human memory will cover a fairly wide spectrum of ideas regarding the subject. While there will be a number of connections among the divisions or categories of this literature review, there will certainly be several distinctions or differences among them. The psychological research a part of the review will span, roughly, the duration of the 21st century thus far, with a few sources of research having taken place in 1999, just before the turn of the century. The review will approach the selected body of psychological research on human memory by dividing the research loosely into the following sections: memory distortion, repressed memories, body memory, and the changes in perspective on memory with respect to appropriate psychological/psychotherapeutic treatment.
The section of the review that focuses upon memory distortion will identify that memory distortion does, in fact, occur. The research presented in that section…… [Read More]
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's Relational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…… [Read More]
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have been proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stable trait that exhibits substantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-behavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, belief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]
, 2010). This point is also made by Yehuda, Flory, Pratchett, Buxbaum, Ising and Holsboer (2010), who report that early life stress can also increase the risk of developing PTSD and there may even be a genetic component involved that predisposes some people to developing PTSD.
Studies of Vietnam combat veterans have shown that the type of exposure variables that were encountered (i.e., severe personal injury, perceived life threat, longer duration, intensity, complexity and exposure to the suffering of others), can adversely affect the symptomological course of the condition, meaning that the type of trauma that is experienced is also a risk factor in the development of PTSD (Cockram et al., 2010). Studies have also shown, though, that post-trauma factors such as stress management skills and social support systems can help to mitigate the development of PTSD as well as help facilitate recovery from the condition (Cockram et al., 2010).…… [Read More]
An important point emphasized by many theorists was that it was essential for the therapeutic alliance to be flexible in order to accommodate the patient or client's perceptions. Another cardinal aspect that was emphasizes by clinicians and theorists was that the therapeutic alliance had the ability to create and promote change in the client. In other words, the therapeutic alliance should be varied enough to deal with the various levels of functioning of the patient. At the same time, it should be flexible enough to accommodate the interventions of the therapist. (Gaston, 1990)
These theories were reinforced by further studies and statistical measurement. Researchers found that there was a significant statistical correlation between therapeutic alliance and positive outcomes in therapy. In this regard, a study by Horvath and Symonds, (1991) established that alliance accounted for almost fifty percent of the variance in the measurable outcome of therapy. In the words,…… [Read More]
Knowing this, Strenger points out that therapists need to consider "who can work with whom," because the therapeutic outcome may be greatly affected by the "chemistry" between therapist and client. The egalitarian principle in the therapeutic relationship gets played out further in qualitative studies (such as Gallegos, 2005 and Cohen, 2005) in which client experiences in the mental health system and subjective accounts of symptom relief from psychotherapy are treated as credible data, from which therapists can learn.
Humanistic psychology developed in protest against the reductionism of psychoanalysis and behaviorism which saw the human being as a bunch of unconscious impulses or reactors to stimuli. The new paradigm sought to treat the "whole person" and found phenomenological / qualitative approaches better suited to this richer purpose. Maslow, for example, wanted to gain information based on personal, subjective experiences and not on abstract systems. But as Giorgi (2005) points out, the…… [Read More]
forgiveness on human health. In its simplest form, the purpose of the study is to evaluate human psychological stress that might constitute a risk factor for heart disease. Further, the study will also evaluate the impact of forgiveness on heart disease. However, such a simple dissertation clearly demands further definition. What, exactly, do we signify when we speak of heart disease? What is properly considered as forgiveness? What impact does forgiveness has on human psychology? What is psychological and psychosocial aspects of the heart disease, as well as, is there a dependable relationship amid forgiveness and heart disease? Finally, a myriad of questions may be asked about the pathophysiological mechanisms that mediate the relationship between acts of forgiveness and its presumed endpoint, whether it slows down the progression of heart disease or recuperates from the heart attack.
The following thesis has taken assistance from leading scholarly sources in the field,…… [Read More]
Clinical Psychology Dissertation - Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings
An Abstract of a Dissertation
Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings
This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the content of a dreamer's dreams, and if therapists actually "guide" their clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the therapist "suggesting" to their clients that they had suffered some type of early childhood trauma, when in fact, there were no traumas in their early childhoods. The origin of psychiatry is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, therapy or any…… [Read More]