Psychotherapy Essays (Examples)

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Psychodrama the Ways in Which

Words: 4654 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 24754508

Bannister readily acknowledges that the creative group noticed that some children did not respond to the therapy in a way that showed it was a productive approach for those particular kids. The team's initial response was to reassess how they were interacting with those particular children. The final assessment the team made was that they, as an outside source, could not provide the complete or total stimuli for the children to react in the way that would help the team to identity the therapeutic direction for those particular kids, and that it required the participation of family members to do that.

It is interesting to note, too, that even with psychodrama, the therapists recognized it as a tool, one of many in the repertoire of psychoanalysis and psychotherapies. Their work with children was challenging, and there was really no quick fix to the problems the children they were working with…… [Read More]

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Somatic Psychology the Somatic Relationship

Words: 4540 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 41758563

This was a clear gap in the research that was examined. The proposed research study will attempt to fill this gap by examining the importance of the adult child and parent relationship and its affect on the physical body.

Methodologies found

A number of different study methods were found amongst the studies in the literature review. Many of the studies that examined the use of psychotherapy with the treatment of a condition used a comparative study method. Clinical trials used a comparative study method in most cases. However, studies that were found to be theoretical in nature tended to use either a qualitative interview method or quantitative study methods.

No single method of study was found to be more prevalent in the group studied during the literature review. The method selected was highly dependant on the subject matter and the research question being asked in the study. no single method…… [Read More]

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Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Client Centered Therapy

Words: 2861 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88201580

personality and psychotherapy theories, namely, client-centered therapy (CCT) and cognitive therapy. The first section of the paper takes up CCT (or Rogerian therapy), giving a brief overview of the theory's key points, including its founder and the views of the founder. Sub-sections under this section explore, in brief, the areas of personality structure under the theory, theory architecture, and an approach to intervention using the theory (or in other words, how the client is dealt with using the CCT model).

The second section of the paper follows a similar exploration of the theory of cognitive therapy (CT), developed by A.T. Beck. Sub-sections follow similar lines, concisely dealing withpersonality structure under CT, architecture of the theory, as well as interventions for helping out clients under this model, supported by literature in the field.

Finally, the paper takes up a comparative discussion, in the last section, highlighting the key elements that are…… [Read More]

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annotated bibliography on neo freudianism

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42076715

Annotated Bibliography

Axelrod, S. D. (2012). "Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340–357.

In “Executive Development and Psychoanalytic Therapy,” Axelrod (2012) focuses on the singular concept of self-awareness, from a psychoanalytic point of view. Self-awareness, or self-knowledge, is a traditional and established goal of the psychoanalytic therapeutic process. Through psychoanalysis, the client gains insight into his or her own psyche, thereby initiating a self-driven change that has the potential to transform lives. Related concepts include self-monitoring, which can be used outside of the therapeutic relationship, as well as in therapy. Self-monitoring requires the invocation of an executive self, an aspect of the ego. Self-reflection is presented as a process that promotes self-awareness, but which is ideally promoted, guided, and enhanced by the therapist.

Axelrod (2012) focuses on emotional awareness, which can be connected to emotional intelligence. The author takes the research a step…… [Read More]

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Gary R Collins Christian Counseling

Words: 8475 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22721258

Christian counseling has become an important treatment modality for a growing number of health care practitioners and patients across the country in recent years. Introduced during the early 1980s, Christian counseling advocates integrating religious practices and beliefs founded on religious traditions with psychotherapeutic techniques to provide an optimal approach to helping people cope with a wide range of personal problems and family issues. The purpose of this study is to provide a critical and systematic review of the relevant literature in general and Gary R. Collins's book, Christian Counseling: A Comprehensive Guide (2007) in particular, concerning the origins and trends in Christian counseling and how this approach can be used to provide the timely and essential interventions that can help people better cope with personal and family problems. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the study's conclusion.

Table of Contents

1.0 Chapter…… [Read More]

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Ethics of Group Therapy Ethical Concepts Guiding

Words: 5650 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99322727

Ethics of Group Therapy

Ethical Concepts Guiding Group Psychiatric Therapy Practice

Ethically inclined group psychotherapists use moral codes produced from their professions and from associations dedicated to the furtherance of group psychiatric therapy like a modality. Good examples from the former would be the Ethical Concepts of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association [APA], 2002) and also the NASW Code of Ethics (National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 1999). The second kind of codes are inclusive of the American Group Psychotherapy Association [AGPA] and also the National Registry of Certified Group Psychotherapists [NRCGP] Guidelines for Ethics (2002) and also the Association for Specialists in Group Perform Best Practice Recommendations (Association for Specialists in Group Work [ASGA] (as cited in AGPA, 2002).

These codes provide recommendations on which attitudes and actions are desirable and just what considerations ought to be adopted or prevented. For instance, within the AGPA document,…… [Read More]

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Group Counseling This Work Explores

Words: 4344 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11183732

) may typically be used in the conduction of the activity; and 3) Activities can be standardized and adapted with a minimum of alteration for use across groups and members so that a common framework can be replicated. (Trotzer, 2004)

The main feature of activities are:

1) Technical; and 2) Mechanical and have "...parameters and directions that make them merely tools." (Trotzer, 2004)

Categorization of the activities of a group are on the basis of:

1) focus; and 2) types of communication involved and may be intrapersonal or interpersonal with communication that is verbal or nonverbal in nature. Intrapersonal activities are for the purpose of enhancing communications between individuals in the group and are 'nonverbal' activities. All activities of the group are within one of the following categories:

Verbal Interpersonal Activities;

Non-Verbal Intrapersonal Activities; and Non-Verbal Interpersonal Activities. (Trotzer, 2004)

Some activities may be characterized by nonverbal and verbal activities…… [Read More]

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Experimental Family Therapy Experiential Family

Words: 3827 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 1676998

Focusing-oriented experiential therapy, historically grounded in humanistic and experiential psychology traditions, were cultivated from E. Gendlin's collaboration with Carl Rogers, the founder of client-centered psychotherapy (Bohart, 2003; Rogers, 1957, 1961, as cited in Wagner, 2006). During the 1950s, Rogers presented the concept of "unconditional positive regard, empathy, and congruence as therapeutic attitudes central to the process of change" (Wagner, 2006, Background and Development section, ¶ 1). Gendlin expanded the Rogerian approach of person-centered therapy by further exploring and analyzing client involvement qualities, which indicative movement and change evolving from therapy. (Wagner) the following Experiencing Scale depicts a number of states, Wagner notes, in Focusing that positively contribute to counseling and holistic health.

Stage 1: The content is not about the speaker. The speaker tells a story, describes other people or events in which he or she is not involved or presents a generalized or detached account of ideas.

Stage 2:…… [Read More]

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Counseling Theories & 8230 THERE Is No

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41114157

& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.

Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…… [Read More]

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IQ Discrimination the Concept of General Ability

Words: 3541 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22745648

IQ Discrimination

The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.

IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…… [Read More]

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Marketing Mix Gerontology and Psychology

Words: 3341 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43355702

For example, one-75-year-old may be running a corporation, whereas another may need nursing home care" (Morgan, 2003, p. 1592).

Additionally, the long duration of psychoanalytic therapy may demand that even for very vibrant older individuals, a more directive approach is necessary for the therapist to speed things up and meet therapeutic goals within a realistic time frame. This can be challenging to the analyst, as the patient's unconscious beliefs and associations, given the person's age may be more complex, personal, deeply-rooted and therefore harder to eradicate. Additionally, "unfocused reminiscing may not be suitable for persons who have trauma histories, such as Holocaust survivors, or for persons who have early dementia" (Morgan, 2003, p. 1592). However, it was the psychoanalytic theorist Erik Erikson who first developed a stage-based theory about the needs of the aged and Erikson's theory can inform the process of psychoanalysis in an effective manner and provide a…… [Read More]

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Postpartum Depression or Postnatal Depression Is a

Words: 2319 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88347291

Postpartum depression or postnatal depression is a term that describes the occurrence of moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth (although sometimes men are given this diagnosis when severe depression occurs after the birth of a child). This depression may occur soon after delivery and may linger up to a year or longer. In the majority of recognized cases the depression occurs within the first three months following the delivery of the child. The DSM-IV does not recognize postpartum depression as a distinct disorder. People who receive a diagnosis of postpartum depression must first meet the standard diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and then they must satisfy the additional specifier criteria for the postpartum onset (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). This criterion states that the onset of the major depressive episode must occur within four weeks after delivery.

Postpartum depression then should be…… [Read More]

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Albert Ellis Contributions to the

Words: 2842 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52909936

Patients must learn that the quality of their lives is contingent on their ability to love their own self without condition, so they may then learn to love others without condition and treat them accordingly (AEI, 2007; Ellis, 2000b). In a world where competitive and aggressive personalities are hailed as necessary to achieve greatness, it is not hard to see why so many people would need help learning how to appreciate their own being and their achievements without becoming ego-gratifying and hurting others (AEI, 2007; Ellis, 2000b). If one were to follow the paradigm established by Ellis exactly, they are more likely to worry about helping out others than "proving" themselves; they are also more likely to seek out joyful and happy events rather than dwell on dysfunctional pastimes (AEI, 2007; Ellis, 2000b).

Ellis provided the psychology community with many tools they can use in therapy to help patients achieve…… [Read More]

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Group Therapy Upload Instructions Group Therapy and

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15512711

Group Therapy

Upload Instructions

Group therapy and intervention

Define Group Therapy

Group therapy can take many different forms. Simply stated, group therapy is therapy given to more than one individual, usually more than two. It can be family-directed, as in the case of family therapy, or it can consist of a group of strangers. In the case of some groups, such as self-help groups like Alcoholics Anonymous, there may be no therapist-facilitator. In other instances, there may be a counselor to provide guidance and structure to the therapeutic experience. In supportive group therapy, the process often unites individuals with a common, shared experience, such as the experience of bereavement. In the case of family therapy, it may center upon family conflicts and how families relate to one another.

Define and explain the purpose of different types of groups, (ex. Self-help groups…etc.).

In the case of family therapy, the family is…… [Read More]

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Three Themes in Neo Freudian Theory and Therapy

Words: 2038 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63339607

Few 20th century thinkers were as controversial, or as influential, as Sigmund Freud. Freud’s writings, his contributions to the field of psychology, and his therapeutic techniques have been influential not just in psychology, but in all the social sciences. At the same time, many of Freud’s theories and practices proved problematic or in need of revision. Thus, a cadre of important social science researchers the likes of Adler, Fromm, Jung, and even Skinner borrowed the best of Freud’s theories while advancing the field and study of psychology. Known as the neo-Freudians because of their revisionist approach to updating Freud’s substantive contributions, this informal group of theorists helped to refine Freudian psychoanalytic theory and methods. Some of the main themes in Neo-Freudian discourse include self-awareness, the drivers of behavior, and the application of therapeutic techniques. Self-awareness had been one of the goals of Freudian psychoanalysis. The Neo-Freudians helped show why…… [Read More]

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Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice True Psychology

Words: 19429 Length: 71 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 78576075

Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"

Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Therapy

Words: 1481 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84556170

Aaron Beck & Cognitive Therapies

Cognitive therapies are therapies that relate to how a person thinks, and attempt to solve problems based on changing how people think. The founder of cognitive therapies was Aaron Beck.

Beck believed that problems resulted from cognitive distortions, that is, were based in a person's thinking. Beck believed that a person's thought, beliefs, attitudes and perceptions were the basis for what emotions they would experience and how intense those emotions would be and that by changing the thinking a person could change their experience.

Beck explains this concept saying "cognitive therapy is based on the premise that emotions come out of unexamined, habituated thought reactions. These thoughts and the emotions they foster can be deconstructed and, hence, defused of their power to poison all human interactions" (Beck, A.T. (1989). Love Is Never Enough. New York: Harper Collins).

Beck's therapies are made accessible to medical practitioners…… [Read More]

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Group Therapy and Treatment of Compulsive and Addictive Behaviors

Words: 5755 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66402581

Group Addiction TX

Theory Selection

The Psychodynamic Model

The Behaviorists

The Cognitive Model

The Humanistic Model

Theory Analysis

Ethical and Cultural Considerations

Group Development

Personal Model

Psychology has a long tradition of interpreting human behavior across different paradigms. The current paper investigates a method of incorporating four main psychological paradigms: psychoanalytic, behaviorist, cognitive, and humanist, into group counseling treatment for addictions and compulsive behaviors. Each paradigm is briefly discussed then the integration of aspects from theoretical models that spring from the paradigms is examined. This integration is based on previous empirically-based findings that support the use of a specific facet or an approach to treatment and counseling. The integration of these paradigms is discussed in terms of the ethical and cultural considerations, the development of groups, and a model developed specifically to avoid recidivism in addictive or compulsive behaviors.

Psychology has a long tradition of interpreting human behavior across different…… [Read More]

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Margarita Adlerian the Margarita Case Study An

Words: 1581 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 14399756

Margarita Adlerian

The Margarita Case Study: An Application of Adlerian Theory and Therapeutic Techniques

Margarita is a twenty-six-year-old Puerto Rican woman who has lived in the United States since she was a teenager and is married to a thirty-six-year-old African-American male. The couple has two children, a three-year-old boy and a one-year-old girl, and Margarita has also recently been accepted into law school following earning her MBA. Both members of the couple hold prominent positions in their community. Recently, Margarita has been prone to bouts of depression and fits of inexplicable rage against her husband, including one incident in which she threatened her husband with a knife. No actual violence has occurred, according to Margarita, and she herself cannot explain why she has these outbursts against her husband -- she only knows that she feels a sense of relief after they occur.

The relationship between Margarita and her husband is…… [Read More]

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summarizing an article about gender issues

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 30259222

Elder's (2016) "Experiences of Older Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults in Psychotherapy" is a qualitative study of gender identity in an elder population. The research focuses exclusively on elder transgender and also gender nonconforming elders in their experiences of psychotherapy. The goal of the study is to trace any differences between psychotherapeutic experiences across the life span, to see if there have been changes in the field of psychology and also changes in the perceptions of transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Elder (2016) argues that relatively few studies have examined the experiences of transgender individuals in psychotherapy at all, and this research seeks to fill that gap in the literature too.

The author approaches the subject from a transaffirmative model, which validate and support the individual's self-determined gender identity without leading to pathologies like gender dysmorphia. There are several established theoretical viewpoints mentioned in the research including Lev's transgender emergence…… [Read More]

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Cardsmax Humanistic Theory Humanistic Learning Theory as

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 80110921


Humanistic Theory

Humanistic learning theory as explained by Lipscomb, & Ishmael (2009 p. 174) emphasizes feeling, experience, self-awareness, personal growth, and individual / psychic optimization. Learning, from this perspective, is positioned as both social process and psychological/intellectual endeavor. Humanism aspires to place lecturers alongside students in mutually constituted, cooperative enquiry, variously described, this form of 'peer learning community 'situates the lecturer as an authority rather than in authority. It is a form of education that, by traditional or historical standards, places novel demands upon students who are now expected to act intentionally in pursuit of learning and understanding. Humanist principles require students to join with lecturers in this endeavor, and they are implicitly expected to develop and share values concerning the importance of scholarship.

Humanistic and experiential psychotherapies coalesced around the humanistic movement that emerged in the United States and Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of…… [Read More]

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Psychoanalytic Theory

Words: 3827 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23266098


Classical psychoanalysis is the most challenging of all the psychotherapies in terms of time, cost and effort. It is usually conducted with the patient lying on a couch and with the analyst seated out of his/her sight, to hear what the patient has to say. The treatment sessions last about 50 minutes and are normally held four or five times a week for at least three years. The primary technique used in psychoanalysis, as well as in other dynamic psychotherapies, which consists in permitting the unconscious material to enter the consciousness of the patient, is called "free association."

According to Freud, the patient "is to tell us not only what he can say intentionally and willingly, what will give him relief like a confession, but everything else as well that his self observation yields him, everything that comes into his head, even if it is disagreeable for him to…… [Read More]

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Bpd Is Related to Secure

Words: 10546 Length: 38 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3194760

Attachment was believed by Bowlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:

1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;

2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.

3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.

Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…… [Read More]

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Self Is Empty Toward a

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87967478

An empty self wishes for nothing more than to e guided and taken care of, easy prey for an abuse therapist, or even one who is not intentionally abusive but is not trained to recognize and understand the underlying issues. Wide and varied research supports Cushman's theory on this point, proving that decontextualization of the individual, the devaluation of the patience, a belief in the universality of a therapeutic technology and the encouragement of idealization can all lead to therapeutic abuse (608). Cushman compares patients who are exploited by life-style therapy to people who are victimized by cults. Their empty selves make them susceptible to feeling "transformed" because they cannot see themselves within a larger communal matrix. Cushman argues that a main component of preventing this kind of abuse is part of what he is after in writing this article -- straightforward talk about life-style solutions and their possible dangers.…… [Read More]

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Depression Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity

Words: 3926 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67730751

Depression, Diabetes and Obesity

This is a case study on a 58-year-old male, Mr. H.Y. who worked at a supermarket and is now retired. He has a supportive wife who works full time and children who are all independent .He has a history of smoking, but quit 10 years ago and drinks alcohol twice a week. He is obese and a known case of diabetes for one year. He has gained 8 kg over the past four months, his blood glucose levels are uncontrolled. He denies feeling sad but doesn't like to take part in activities he once enjoyed, he feels tired and lethargic after doing any work, his sleep pattern is also disturbed. His drug history reveals that he is taking glyburide and multi-vitamins. He has scored 14 on his PHQ-9 score which indicates moderate depression. The patient has been diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DSM IV…… [Read More]

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Depression Treatment Modalities Among the

Words: 2167 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42871249


Depression can have profound and devastating effects on individuals, including the elderly. Since the elderly population is continually aging, it is important that factors involved in treatment interventions for depression among the elderly be investigated to its fullest extent. The purpose of this study is to illuminate the effectiveness of different treatment modalities among the elderly and the influence that personality traits have on outcomes. This proposal aimed to ask two major questions: a) what kind of treatment intervention works best to reduce depressive symptoms among the elderly - antidepressants, psychotherapy, or a combination of the two? And b) what effects do personality traits have on the effectiveness of treatments for depression in the elderly? It is hypothesized that combination therapy will prove to be the most effective treatment intervention, and that autonomous personality traits will be associated with more positive treatment outcomes than dependent personality traits.

A limitation…… [Read More]

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Children Grief and Attachment Theory

Words: 22384 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77393541

Figure 1 portrays three of the scenes 20/20 presented March 15, 2010.

Figure 1: Heather, Rachel, and Unnamed Girl in 20/20 Program (adapted from Stossel, 2010).

Statement of the Problem

For any individual, the death of a family member, friend, parent or sibling may often be overwhelming. For adolescents, the death of person close to them may prove much more traumatic as it can disrupt adolescent development. Diana Mahoney (2008), with the New England Bureau, reports in the journal article, "Navigating adolescent grief," that Erik H. Erikson created a seminal model of psychosocial development that classified adolescent years as a time period when teens form their personality. These trying teen times typically may be defined by the opposing extremes of integration and separation. Mahoney (2008) asserts that as adolescents struggle to belong and strive to be accepted by others, particularly their peers; they simultaneously struggle to become individuals. For the…… [Read More]

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Lincoln on Leadership Donald T

Words: 4584 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 84971303

164). "Worry, believe it or not," Ellis continues, "has no magical quality of staving off bad luck. On the contrary, it increases your chances of disease or accident by unnerving you" (Ellis, 1997, p. 164). Thus, worrying about and subsequently avoiding fearful situations really accomplishes nothing but perpetuating the fearful situation and the worry; the situation will continue to exist if it isn't addressed. If the situation causes one distress, it follows that one will continue to feel distress unless the situation somehow, magically, disappears. Indeed, Elko & Ostrow (1991) point out that those with anxiety are prone to 'worry about worry,' worry about the outcome itself, and even perform worse than those that do not worry. Moreover, in situations where one is the leader, such as in Lincoln's case, fearful situations almost never disappear, because leaders are precisely the individuals that are expected to spearhead fearful situations.

Lincoln further…… [Read More]

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Social Work Approach to Bipolar

Words: 2552 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21677907

Client is an African-American male, age 19, diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder 1 (296.89), with mixed and psychotic features. Lability and mood cycles have become more rapid recently. Currently, the client is experiencing an acute but mild manic episode.

Risk Influences

The client has no significant biological issues. As the first in his family known to have Bipolar Disorder, no genetic component to the disorder has been determined, but further work in a family therapy context might help determine if there are any biological risk factors. The client is physically healthy. He does not use drugs or alcohol, but tends towards a pattern of excessive denial.

Psychologically, the client struggles with low self-esteem, denial, and mood swings. Although the client reports strong and amicable relationships with family and friends, there may be little empathy from his closest relatives due to perceived stigma about bipolar disorder and lack of knowledge of the…… [Read More]

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Beck and Cognitive Therapy

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48327615

cognitive therapy is a widely accepted, empirically validated treatment for a number of conditions, including most especially depression. The theorist who responsible for developing cognitive therapy is Aaron T. Beck, a nonagenarian who is currently the University of Philadelphia Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and a member of The Institute of Medicine. To date, Dr. Beck has been the recipient of countless awards and honors in recognition of his contributions to the field of psychotherapy and he continues to research and write despite his advanced age. This paper provides a biographical description of Dr. Beck, followed by an analysis of an application of his cognitive therapy to depression. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning Dr. Beck and cognitive therapy are presented in the paper's conclusion.

Aaron T. Beck and Cognitive Therapy


One of the early pioneers of research into psychoanalytic theories of depression is Aaron Temkin…… [Read More]

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Clinical Supervision

Words: 3503 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79384338

Likewise, engaging in too much control over a Stage III supervisee could lead to quite a bit of tension in the supervisor/supervisee relationship and result in negative transference to clients in counseling sessions. Nonetheless, this notion that counseling supervisees develop in relatively predictable stages and that an effective supervisor can best help them progress by approaching them at the level of supervision that corresponds to their own development is very helpful in performing efficient and rewarding supervision for counseling trainees.

Empirical research has validated the approach of the integrated developmental models to some extent. In order to determine the supervisee's developmental McNeill, Stoltenberg, and Romans (1992) developed the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire -- Revised (SLQ -- R). Lovell (1999) found that the SLQ -- R results from trainees indicated that the level of education and prior supervised experience was related to the level of the supervisee opposed to such concepts as…… [Read More]

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Transference and Love

Words: 4117 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50265210

transference and transference love, as it is manifest in the psychoanalytic environment. Different therapists have recommended different methods of dealing with this love, which range from simple, knowing transference to idealized transference, and erotic transference. These range from exploring such issues verbally, to the use of surrogates for sex therapy, to sexual involvement with patients. Certain factions within the therapeutic community advocate some or none of these methodologies.

Answering his own question, "What are transferences?" he wrote: "A whole series of psychological experiences are revived, not as belonging to the past, but as belonging to the person of the physician at the present moment.... Psychoanalytic treatment does not create transferences, it merely brings them to light.... Transference, which seems ordained to be the greatest obstacle to psychoanalysis, becomes its most powerful ally if its presence can be detected each time and explained to the person" (1895:116-120). Freud went on to…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Psychoanalytical

Words: 2924 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38678874

The therapist encourages openness and honesty on the part of the patient. This parent-like role gives the therapist the power to influence the patient positively, and to interpret his self-defeating behavior and distorted beliefs about reality. The patient must be able and willing to profit from it. Since offenders are assumed to suffer from denial, lack of motivation to change, and unwillingness to cooperate with voluntary treatment, individual psychotherapy is generally thought to be ineffective. Suspicion and lack of rapport in the criminal justice context also interfere with effective use of the method. There are few reports on individual psychotherapy with sex offenders against children.

Group psychotherapy gives members the opportunity to share experiences, gain insight, learn to control unacceptable impulses, and find acceptance. Although used more commonly than individual psychotherapy, the effectiveness is unknown. There have been no replicable, controlled studies. One review found that studies were based on…… [Read More]

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Behavioral vs Freud's Psychoanalysis

Words: 1907 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57399492


Behavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis

Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.

Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well

Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…… [Read More]

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Borderline Personality Disorder

Words: 1660 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5055270

Borderline Personality Disorder

Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder are afflicted with a continual state of emotional conflict and chaos, often swinging from one extreme of emotion to another. Patients with BPD are traditionally known to exhibit symptoms of depression, anger and anxiety at varying times, and traditionally demonstrate self-injurious behavior. The road to treatment and recovery is often a different one, as traditional psychotherapeutic approaches often fail treating patients with DSM-IV. There is recent evidence that suggests that an integrative approach for treating BPD is best. This type of approach would combine cognitive behavioral therapy, pharmacological intervention and traditional psychotherapy techniques to find the best possible outcome for BPD patients.

DSM-IV for Borderline Personality Disorder

The DSM-IV identifies symptom and behavior-based criteria for diagnosing this disorder. The diagnostic criteria for identifying borderline personality disorder according to the DSM-IV include: "a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects…… [Read More]

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Counseling Degree My Reasons for Seeking a

Words: 3074 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3063819

counseling degree.

My reasons for seeking a counseling degree are that I grew up with a desire to help others. I have myself been counseled, as a child, by therapists whom, I noted, attempted to streamline me according to particularistic beliefs. Wondering whether it were possible for psychotherapy to be objective, I read a lot on the subject and observed people who were therapists. At the time I naively thought counselors to be wonderful, and considered them almost as though they were God's second-in-command. I was later to read that psychotherapists do project that image, which is partially what renders the profession of psychotherapy to be somewhat controversial (e.g., Dawes,1994).

Gradually it dawned on me that these people were playing with people's lives: That I and presumably many other individuals are either compelled to 'visit' these deities of fate, or they 'visit' them out of their own volition. It was…… [Read More]

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Carl Rogers Is a Prominent

Words: 1156 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78091948

However, after several internal conflicts with the Wisconsin psychology department, Rogers became disillusioned with academia and left the field.

In 1964, after being selected "Humanist of the Year" by the American Humanist Association, Rogers moved to La Jolla, California where he joined the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute as a researcher. In 1968 Rogers went on to found the Center for Studies of the Person. Rogers devoted the later part of his life to applying his theories in the areas of international and national social conflict, focusing on the Northern Ireland and South African conflicts. Along with his daughter, Rogers also conducted a series of residential programs on the Person-Centered Approach throughout the United States, Europe, and Japan. These workshops focused on such things as cross-cultural communications, personal growth, self-empowerment and social change.

Carl Rogers' primary contribution to society was his development of the person-centered approach to psychotherapy. Rogers and his…… [Read More]

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Adolescent Suicide Integration of CBT

Words: 15095 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81004581

All too often, these adolescents end up taking their own lives when their depression gets too painful for them and they have not received the help that they need. Even the medications that are designed to help them get through the depression can sometimes make things worse, as various medications for depression and anxiety carry a risk of suicide when people are just starting or just getting off of the medication.

Reviewing the literature about how to deal with depression in adolescents is very important, as treatment is needed in many cases. The first important concern for treatment is the psychodynamic approaches that are used. Psychodynamic approaches, or psychosocial approaches, generally translate in lay terms to counseling or therapy of some kind. This can be in a group or individually, depending on which way the therapist feels will be more effective, and the recent evidence into this issue shows that…… [Read More]

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Therapeutic Relationship Utilizing the HAQ-2

Words: 6249 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79951995

Often the client is unable to take steps to avoid the undesirable emotional attachment. The therapist must take the initiative in maintaining proper distance and personal space. However, it is important to be aware that a positive therapeutic relationship could become too much of a good thing. When it does, a positive relationship can become toxic to the therapeutic outcome.

Comparing and Contrasting the Therapeutic Relationship and Client-Therapist Attachment

The therapeutic relationship and client-therapist attachment have many common elements, but the are major differences as well. Both the therapeutic relationship and the client-therapist attachment develop from the relationship between a therapist and their client. Research cited earlier, tells us that the development of a relationship is necessary for the success of the treatment plan. The more intimate the relationship becomes, the more likely it is to result in the type of shared secrets that result in positive therapeutic outcomes. However,…… [Read More]

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Vanden Bos Gary R 1996

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 82926147

For example, VandenBos cites a study from 1957 in support of psychotherapy: "Fifty percent of the adult U.S. population in 1957 could imagine conditions under which they might benefit from psychological services and might avail themselves of such services" (VandenBos 1996, p.1005). Butt simply envisioning a possible scenario is far different from actually praising the practice as personally helpful. Only 14% of adults in 1957 said they had had sought aid from a therapist -- not that such aid had eased any mental suffering. A 1976 replication study of a similar demographic population found "59% of respondents reported that they could imagine life circumstances under which they might benefit from discussing their psychological problems with someone and the percentage of respondents who reported that they had actually utilized such help at some point in their lives had almost doubled -- climbing to 26%" but again did not survey respondent's perceptions…… [Read More]

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Borderline Personality Disorder the Following

Words: 7284 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93030616

People living with mental illness are often marginalized, demeaned, and seen as being outside the normal boundaries of society. For people with BPD, this is doubly painful as it reinforces their sense of worthlessness and victimization, and may even lead to suicide attempts. For those who can recognize they have BPD, yet not know how to deal with it, the social stigma may lead them to attempt to cope with the disorder on their own rather than seek medical treatment. This is a failed situation that has no good outcome (Paris, 2002).

As chronic sufferers of BPD are often victims of abuse themselves, the pain associated with the early trauma may turn into a perpetuating cycle of repeated suffering as they struggle to cope with their disorder. As one doctor notes, there are nine potential symptoms of the disorder, and over 200 potential presentations; the possibility that the disorder may…… [Read More]

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Identifying Best Practices in Offender Rehabilitation

Words: 2856 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98361858

Although penologists disagree about how best to achieve the outcome, there is a general consensus that identifying optimal strategies that facilitate offender rehabilitation represents a valuable and timely enterprise at all levels of the criminal justice system. Various models for this purpose have emerged in recent years, including most especially the good lives model and the risk/need/responsivity model. This paper provides a critical analysis of three primary journal research papers about a offender rehabilitation from the perspective of these two key models, followed by a discussion concerning their relevance in light of the good lives model and the risk/need/responsivity model. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these two key models and offender rehabilitation learned from this exercise are presented in the conclusion.
Summary of Relevant Articles
Summary #1: Looman, J. & Abracen, J. (2013, Fall-Winter). The risk need responsivity model of offender rehabilitation: Is there really…… [Read More]

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Understanding Different Counseling Theories

Words: 484 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71997990

graduate students in counseling programs to learn theories? Graduate students in counseling programs are required to learn counseling theories because of their significance in the profession. It's important for graduate students in such programs to learn counseling theories for a variety of reasons. First, theory is the essential framework and building block for counselors in training (Lofrisco, 2013). Without having a solid foundation and understanding of theory, students in counseling programs cannot succeed as effective counselors. Secondly, theory helps inexperienced counselors get understanding of the concepts they need to put into action by serving as a road map for the career. When a counselor sets goals for a client, he/she needs to have a justification for setting those goals. Third, counseling theories not only help novice counselors to become knowledgeable but also make professional counselors look impressive while carrying out their work.

2) What do you know about counseling and…… [Read More]

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Mental Health Case Study Depression

Words: 2894 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50384493


Patient is a Hispanic male, aged 31. He is the father of one son, aged 10. The patient is Puerto Rican, and was born and spent his childhood in Puerto Rico. He came to live in the U.S. at age 11. He now lives in Brooklyn, New York. The patient is separated from the mother of his son. His son lives with his mother. The patient currently lives alone and is unemployed.

Chief Complaint

The chief complaint of the patient is that he is "feeling down and alone recently," and that he also feels separated from his family: "I also haven't seen my son for a while." Clearly he is depressed about his living situation, his prospects, and his health.

History of Present Illness

The patient's present illness is related to drug abuse, of which the patient has a considerable history. Essentially, the patient reports that over the past…… [Read More]

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Nursing Theory Framework

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33960538

Nursing Theory Framework

Attachment Theory

Recognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory

Affect Regulation and Addiction

Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder

The First Phase of Therapy





Nursing Theory Framework

The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.

An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…… [Read More]

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Anxiety Disorders and Their Effects

Words: 2049 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 435627

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

PTSD is a mental disorder that is mostly associated with traumatic events. When a person faces a life-threatening event to them or their loved one, they are likely to suffer from the disorder. PTSD is not a disorder that affects service members only, but it can affect anyone who experiences a traumatizing event like rape, assault, kidnapping, car accident, or torture. These events might occur directly to the person or to someone close to the person suffering from PTSD. The paper will analyze the disorder and provide some diagnosis and treatment methodologies currently in place. Based on research conducted by other scientists, one can see that there is need for further research in order to determine the effects of the various risks and resilience factors.


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder a person will develop after been exposed to a traumatizing, horrific,…… [Read More]

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Supervisory Relationship in Psychology

Words: 1509 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53608959

Supervisory Relationship in Psychology

In psychology, supervision is playing an important role in determining how effectively professionals are able to monitor their colleagues and ensure they are following the highest standards. This takes place by meeting with another associate inside the same discipline and field. The basic idea is to review the techniques that are utilized and seek out alternate avenues for enhancing professionalism. This occurs with both people serving as equals to understand how specific techniques and practices could have an impact on quality. During this process, there is an emphasis on engagement, uncertainty and formation. (Watkins, 2011, pg. 58, para. 2)

These models are serving as a foundation in understanding key challenges and the effects they are having on stakeholders. To fully comprehend this role requires examining how supervision is utilized. This will be accomplished by describing the attributes and the process for an optimal relationship. Together, these…… [Read More]

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Sex Therapy

Words: 3678 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20631504

Sex Therapy

The efforts in the form of behavior modification with a view to solve the problems in sexual interactions are known as sex therapy. Sex problems most common in the present environment affect the couples in their sex lives and adversely reflected in their sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is any activity inducing the sexual arousal in solitary or between two persons or in a group. The human sexual behavior is influenced by the inherited sexual response patterns as a means of ensuring reproduction and by the societal restraint and influences exerted on the individual in expression of sexuality. (Clellan; Frank, 1951)

It is realized that social taboos, culture and immaturity of social sciences have brought considerable impediment in research in the field of human sexual behavior and until recently the scientific knowledge base was restricted only to a few of the individual case histories studied by European writers such…… [Read More]

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Anorexia Criteria for Diagnosis Physical and Mental

Words: 2171 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51178246


Criteria for Diagnosis

Physical and Mental Signs and Repercussions

Different Treatments of Anorexia

Personal Reflection

Anorexia Nervosa, a type of eating disorder, continues to plague some of the world's population, particularly white adolescent females obsessed with looking thinner. This paper endeavors to explore what exactly anorexia is, in relation to the category of 'eating disorder' as well as other eating disorders such as bulimia. The criteria for diagnosis will be identified as well as the population in our society most susceptible to falling victim to this mental illness. Physical and mental signs and repercussions will also be highlighted along with 3 case studies advocating different treatments to combat this sickness. Traditional treatment normally consists of hospitalization, followed by psychotherapy. However, family or support therapy is gradually gaining credibility and popularity over traditional treatment routes.


Despite the fact that there is greater understanding amongst the medical profession and general…… [Read More]

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Carl Rogers Was Probably the Most Important

Words: 1843 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54275109

Carl Rogers was probably the most important psychologist and psychotherapist of the 20th Century apart from Sigmund Freud, and his humanistic, person-centered approach has been applied to many fields outside of psychology, such as education, business, nursing, medicine and social work. Many of the basic textbooks in all of these fields reflect his influence, including the concept of learner-centered education and the use of the term 'clients' instead of 'patients'. He wrote over 100 academic books and articles, the most famous one being On Becoming a Person (1961) which clearly describes his main ideas and is summarized below. Originally trained for the ministry and then in Freudian psychoanalysis, Rogers gradually broke with this school of psychology as a result of his work with abused children and his study of phenomenology and existentialist psychology. Central to his theory was the development of a healthy self-concept that was open, expressive and spontaneous…… [Read More]

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Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling Personal Vision

Words: 4494 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24172468

Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling

Personal Vision and Learning

Mission Statement

Ethical Framework

Professional Strengths and Limitations

Identification and fulfillment of Professional Potential

Professional Diversity

Integration of Theory and Practice

Ongoing Professional Developments

Alcohol (and other drugs) abuse is not just a problem of an individual but that of the whole society. This implies that the whole society has a role to play in the rehabilitation of the people who resort to drug abuse when they find it hard to put up with the ups and downs of life. Particularly, the counselors working at the rehabilitation center have a major role to play when it comes to restoring the independence and normalcy in an addict's life.

Personal Vision and Learning

During the course of my degree, I have acquired vast amount of knowledge on how a counselor should go about when he or she is dealing with an alcohol (or…… [Read More]

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Ethics in Group Counseling

Words: 4405 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97839808

Ethics in Group Counselling

Ethics in Group Counseling

Group Therapy Counselling: Ethics

The ethical concerns of therapists have been getting larger in quantity and sophistication. Managed care demands professionals to think about problems with discretion as well as delivery associated with proficient treatment whilst other decisions might include informed consent, a variety of relationships together with customers, and ignoring discretion given clients' harmful conduct. These types of deliberations have been happening inside a transforming culture since the communities which counsellors deal with have been significantly varied bringing up concerns of proficiency as well as accessibility to psychological health solutions. Additionally, therapists have been working inside a culture that has been progressively more litigious; consequently, the requirement for codes associated with ethics from the numerous mental healthcare professional institutions providing guidance has been very clear (NAADAC, 2011). In this paper, we will discuss the different aspects of ethical dilemmas aforementioned; these…… [Read More]

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Issues and Ethics

Words: 1375 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93431782


To efficiently exercise ethical group therapy a therapist should internalize the morals, values, and behavioral make-up of each person within the group. Whereas group therapy has the tendency to attend to interactional and interpersonal, specific therapy generally looks at the intra-psychic. Group therapy has actually been shown to have efficient treatment advantages in the treatment with different mental and individual issues.

Principles in Counseling

Principles in counseling can be specified as: "the concepts of conduct regulating a specific individual or a group." Glosoff & Kocet (2005) highlights the ACA Code of Ethics which deal with the following "5 points: 1) the honest obligations held by its members 2) to support the goal of ACA 3) to develop concepts that specify honest habits and practices 4) offer honest standards to help specialists in building an expert strategy for those using counseling services which advertises the values of the counseling careers…… [Read More]

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School Counseling Ethics Has Been

Words: 7187 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39967424

other values

Moral character, that is, having courage, being persistent, dismissing distractions and so on in pursuit of the goal.

These are attempts to define ethics by describing actions, and fairly specific constellations of actions at that. Frederich Paulson, a 19th century philosopher of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moral duty (1899).

Almost 100 years later, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as right and wrong. Other researchers note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionary definitions of ethics, with the American Heritage Dictionary focusing on three elements: " the study of moral philosophy, the rules of a profession (or more broadly the character of a community), and moral self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).

Hill (2004) offers a 'definition' that is mainly practical but also incorporates some theoretical content. They believe that ethical…… [Read More]

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Theology and Psychology in Christian

Words: 2975 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21934053

(Paul, 2005) In fact, the AAPC survey found that African-Americans, devout evangelicals, people without a college degree, the elderly and people age 18 to 29 are most likely to fear that a professional counselor won't take their religious beliefs into serious consideration when treating them. (Paul, 2005)

People come to Christian counselors for two reasons," commented Randolph Sanders, executive director of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, an association of Christians in mental health and behavioral sciences. "One is faith perspective; they want a therapist who resonates with their worldview. The second is moral ethics; they want a counselor who understands what guides their decisions." (Paul, 2005)

Christian counseling, more than secular counseling, has the ability to present a starkly positive viewpoint. In fact, the origins of Christian counseling were planted in the clergy, whom parishioners historically consulted about emotional and spiritual well-being and health.

According to Paul, The progenitors…… [Read More]

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Group Counseling Attitudes and Perspectives

Words: 5248 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78161847

Group counseling helps to advance self understanding and awareness which may combat repressive tendencies. Teaching coping skills in a group setting can help participants to develop needed tools and stimulate psychological growth (Lambie & Sias, 2009).

Participants in group counseling also learn positive interpersonal/social skills that can be generalized beyond the hospital setting and applied in daily living (Shechtman, 2004). Cancer patients learn to adapt to novel social situations and build rapport among peers in this setting (Fineberg, Hohnson, Leiden, & Lynch, 1956; Shechtman). It has also been shown that group counseling has high efficacy in improving coping and adaptation skills (Barakat et al., 2003). This is especially helpful in this population, as individuals who have/have had cancer may have less opportunity to engage in social and peer situations which reinforce adaptive social development, due to medical needs (Barakat). This interference in the social developmental continuum can have lasting effects…… [Read More]

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Psychological Religious Development of a 70 Yr Women

Words: 2567 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46118517

Interview of 70-year-Old Woman

Psychological and Religious Development

This paper represents the results of an interview with a seventy-year-old Caucasian woman named Elma Rose. Research includes her personal background, life experiences and crossroads as well as her beliefs concerning marriage, family and lifestyle.

Elma Rose was born April 13, 1934 in the small Appalachian town of Abingdon in the northwestern corner of Virginia. The youngest of eight children, she now has one surviving sister. Elma Rose has been widowed twice and currently lives alone. She has four children, ten grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren. Her parents were devout Catholics of middle class status who instilled an appreciation of education in their children. However, as Elma Rose explains, this did not mean that she and her siblings all graduated from college or even from high school for that matter. In fact only two brothers graduated from college, while three, two sisters and…… [Read More]

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Person-Centered Counseling Case Study This

Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 23387315

Those discussions eventually allowed the client to realize that, for her part, she would not necessarily have worried very much about marital status had the same situation occurred after she had lost her parents, or in the alternative, if her parents had never expressed such acute concern about it.

During that discussion, the therapist was careful to steer the client away from the conclusion that she caused Carlos to start taking drugs and to deal with the problem in the relationship by withdrawing entirely. On the other hand, the therapist assisted the client to understand that marriage "by ultimatum" is never conducive to happiness and that continual arguments in that regard often result in the breakup of a relationship or in the progression of a relationship to marriage despite the fact that at least one partner does not genuinely desire to be married or to be married yet. The outcome…… [Read More]

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Prozac Non-Drug or Supplement Treatments

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73897579

Relevant Chapters

Textbook chapters most relevant to this particular component on the relevancy of cost utility and cost effectiveness as it relates to non-pharmacological or supplement treatment effectiveness in comparison to Prozac, will highlight in a balanced manner, the cost benefit of both interventions as evidenced by empirical study. Moreover, the side effects of flouxetine such as nausea, anxiety, insomnia, drowsiness, headaches, and loss of appetite should be taken into consideration when discussing the cost benefit to the client. In addition, any balanced discussion on the subject should include discourse with regard to the propensity for antidepressants to cause increased risk of suicidal ideations as compared to intervention via therapy such as rational emotive or cognitive behavioral therapy (Prigatano & Plinskin, 2003).


Flouxetine, or Prozac continues to be one of the most prescribed antidepressants for those clinically diagnosed with depression. Since its introduction some 20 years ago, Prozac has…… [Read More]

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Carl Rogers & Jon Kabat-Zinn

Words: 1630 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80101468

After all, Rogers believed that every individual has within himself "vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes and self-directed behavior" (Moon quoting Rogers). But these resources need to be tapped if a facilitator (like the client-centered therapist) can bring out conditions such as "congruence, empathic understanding, and unconditional positive regard" (Moon).

In order to properly provide therapy for the client, a therapist should be able to experience what that client is experiencing, Moon explains, paraphrasing Rogers. He quotes Rogers as saying that a therapist must "sense the hurt or pleasure of another as he senses it, and to perceive the causes thereof as he perceives them… [and to] lay aside your own values in order to enter another's world without prejudice" (Moon quoting Rogers). Moon sums up the Rogers approach to clients by saying that Rogers first views the conditions vis-a-vis the client and Rogers does…… [Read More]