Psychotherapy Essays (Examples)



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Existential depression and the way it leads to melancholy

Words: 2056 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79683985

When the term depression is used it may refer to the various existing types of depression depending on the factors that lead to that depression. Existential causes of depression occur when people question their life, its meaning, death. By questioning these things they end up sinking into depression (John & Grohol., 2018). The philosophy of existentialism states that human beings find meaning in life internally through their pursuits, desires and choices and not by specific type of god, authority or deity. A person is a free being who is entirely in charge of their own misery or happiness. It is the responsibility of each person to cultivate a meaning to their life in order to have the drive. These meaning can be cultivated through working, relationships, family, offspring, religion, charity, hobbies or other things. Existential depression could happen when a person contends with issues of freedom, death, finding meaning to…… [Read More]

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Psychoanalytic Model Object Relations

Words: 3548 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18922496

Psychoanalytic Model (Object Relations)

In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie.

The chosen model

The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by acts of aggression and that of sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory proposes the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them to improve interpersonal performance.

Basic Concepts in Object Relations

The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not…… [Read More]

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Application of Adlerian Theory and Its Perspectives

Words: 3061 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12257060

Adlerian Theory in depth and apply it to a specific counseling case with a diversity theme. This paper utilizes five (5) scholarly articles related to the Adlerian Theory and creates a fictitious client case with an inferiority complex and proposes specific treatment concerns after applying the Adlerian Theory to this specific case.

A Rhode Island university exchange student aged 20, Sarah hails from a black South African family. Currently, she resides in a predominantly white, prosperous suburban locality. Sarah's native community is a small one; her mother earned a decent living marketing skin bleaching creams. At the age of five, Sarah was taught to use the cream by her mother after she was told by a neighbor that Sarah would never get a husband owing to her 'too dark' complexion. Sarah complains of being ashamed of the color of her skin, and does not wish to continue residing in her…… [Read More]

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Comparison of Theories

Words: 1984 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66317121


It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered…… [Read More]

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Setting the Stage for the Group Psychological

Words: 4820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96691655

Setting the stage for the group

Psychological intervention might be most efficient when females start modification by leaving the abuser and get in a shelter. Shelters are an essential resource for victims because they offer females and kids security and link them with social, legal, and financial resources (Dutton, 1992). Furthermore, battered females in shelters have a greater threat for PTSD than those who do not look for shelter (Jones et al., 2001). Provided the problems connected with PTSD, these signs might disrupt victims' capability to successfully utilize resources made to enhance their security once they leave the shelter (Foa, Cascardi, Zollner, & Feeny, 2000).

Unlike various other PTSD victims, damaged ladies in shelters deal with continuous security issues. Numerous of their viewed dangers are genuine (Foa et al., 2000). For that reason, conventional PTSD therapies that include exposure are contraindicated, as habituation to feared stimulations might enhance their danger…… [Read More]

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Solution Focused Group Therapy Depressed Individuals Solution

Words: 1374 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9878143

Solution Focused Group Therapy Depressed Individuals

Solution Focused Group Therapy on Depressed Individuals

People encounter various challenges in life ranging from diseases, lack of basic essential needs and psychiatric problems among others. This has given rise to various forms of therapies being adopted by specialists whilst offering solutions to depressed individuals. Group therapy has taken a center-stage in the management of depression. Butler et al. (2008) in their article titled "Meditation with yoga, group therapy with hypnosis, and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood: a randomized pilot trial" show that depression and anxiety form part of the well-known conditions named by individuals seeking treatment using therapies and complementary alternatives. Alternative therapies include yoga, qigong, tai chi, mediation, and exercise. They argue that people are increasingly using these therapies. Butler provides information claiming that yoga and exercise are effective therapies with high rates than uncontrolled activities (Butler, et al. 2008). The authors…… [Read More]

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Mental Health Counseling Discuss the Role in

Words: 1923 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96482523

Mental Health Counseling

Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.

Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).

The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. Researchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…… [Read More]

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History of Art Therapy Art

Words: 1913 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82790342

Hope the readers found pleasure in reading the history i.e. The experiences of the former innovators.


Betensky, M.G. (1973). Self-discovery through self-expression. IL Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

Case, C., & Dalley, T. (1992). The Handbook of Art Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Detre, K.C., Frank, T., Kniazzeh, C.R., Robinson, M., Rubin, J.A., & Ulman, E. (1983). Roots of art therapy: Margerat Naumberg (1890-1983) and Florence Cane (1882-1952): A family portrait. American Journal of Art Therapy, 22, 111-123.

E.Scholt, C. (2008, August 21). Family therapy approaches. Retrieved from

Handbook of Art therapy. (2003). New York: The Guilford Press.

Hogan, S. (2001). Healing Arts: The History of Art Therapy. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Junge, M.B., & Asawa, P. (1994). A history of art therapy in the United States. Mundelein IL: American Art Therapy Asscociation.

Kwiatkowska, H.Y. (1978). Family therapy and evaluation through art. IL Springfield: Charles C.

Lachman-Chapin, 2., Jones,…… [Read More]

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Post-Partum Depression

Words: 2980 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39916164

birth of a child is often a time of anxiety for both parents and a source of physical, emotional, and mental strain for the soon to be mother. Within a short amount of time however, family members usually become accustomed to new sleeping schedules, different routines, and even occasional moments of mild depression or mood swings. Their lives quickly return to normal, and their emotions become stable, which allows them to experience the joy of having a newborn child.

For nearly ten percent of new mothers and over thirty percent of all mothers, however, the feelings of mild depression and periods of mood swings do not disappear (Verkerk, 2005). This lingering sense of depression and anguish is known as postpartum depression, and is an extremely misunderstood, misdiagnosed mental illness that plagues thousands of women each year. Untreated, postpartum depression can become a nightmare for the women who experience it, and…… [Read More]

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Buddhist Psychology Compared to Western

Words: 3167 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88236416

In this field attachment is seen, as it is in Buddhism, as a continual pattern of never-ending desire for further attainment and objects. "Social psychological research on subjective well-being supports the assertion that people's desires consistently outpace their ability to satisfy their desires."

McIntosh 39) further issue that relates to Western psychology and the Buddhist view of attachment is the nature of existence as impermanent.

The nature of existence is that nothing is permanent. Therefore, even when people attain the object of their attachment, it is only a temporary situation, and people's attempts to maintain the object of their attachment are ultimately doomed to fail. As people struggle to maintain possession of things to which they are attached, those things inevitably continue to slip through their fingers, so people with attachments suffer.

McIntosh 40)

There have been many psychological studies on the effects of attachment structures as a form of…… [Read More]

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32678472

The EMDR technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in Returning Combat Veterans with MDMA

A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.

It is not necessarily never appropriate to…… [Read More]

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Object Relations Theory Development of

Words: 2409 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50489347

Interpretation itself has several phases, corresponding to the beginning phase of therapy. During interpretation, patient and therapist work to understand the nature of the patient's disturbed object relationships by the "unconscious meanings of their behavior in their transferential relationship with the therapist" (McGinn, 1998, p. 192) the first phase of interpretation is a time for exploration and free association; at this point, the patient is expressing and the therapist is formulating the meanings of those expressions in terms of object relations. This is followed by an "empathic confrontation," in which the therapist gently guides the patient's maladaptive unconscious object relations into consciousness. Once the patient is conscious of his behaviors, the final phase of interpretation can take place, which is sometimes called a "genetic interpretation" (McGinn, 1998, p. 192). This is when the therapist "uses his interpretations of the current relationship between himself and the patient and links it to…… [Read More]

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Panic Disorder Counseling Panic Disorder

Words: 4240 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27767876

Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).


Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]

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Person-Centered Therapy Origins of Person-Centered

Words: 3062 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51405120

Rather, Rogers argued that the therapist was there fundamentally in a support role, with the client in his or her own journey toward self-actualization. How then, does the client experience this kind of therapy? For many clients who are experiencing anxiety or self doubt, person-to-person therapy can lead them to discover their own ability to heal themselves. Assuming responsibility for one's own mental health by recognizing the range of life choices that are available is one positive outcome for clients who experience Roger's approach.

Traditional therapy often places the therapist in a professional, diagnostic, medical role. The patient, in this scenario, becomes increasingly convinced that s/he is not able to "get better" without the intervention of an expert. As a result, s/he may become even more despondent and feel less empowered to take control of his life. By contrast, Rogers approach re-situates the therapist and simultaneously empowers the client. This…… [Read More]

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Classical Psychoanalysis vs Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42711251

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.

Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.

The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.

My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…… [Read More]

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dreams the unconscious mind and defense mechanisms

Words: 2116 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54763749

Psychodynamic and Psychoanalytic theory suggest that early stages of human development have a significant impact on our relationships and our ego throughout the life span. According to Freudian theories, manifested behavior is based on latent problems of the past. The therapeutic process of psychoanalysis is designed to help the client become aware of past problems or latent desires that have been suppressed during the process of psychological development. Key themes that emerge in the literature on psychoanalytic theory include the role of the unconscious mind in shaping self-concept and behavior, dreams as the language of the unconscious mind, and the development of ego defense mechanisms as psychological coping mechanisms.

Dream analysis is one of the hallmarks of Freudian theory and central to psychoanalysis. In this article, Hebbrecht (2013) presents several case studies from clinical practice to illustrate some of the ways dream recollection can be stimulated during therapy, and how…… [Read More]

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Intervention Plan for Carlos

Words: 3420 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98342039

The following multimodal evaluation procedure is recommended for Carlos:
Semi-Structured Clinical Interview

The foremost component of an informal evaluation of traumatized individuals entails semi-structured interviewing, in which the following details of the patient ought to be garnered:

• Demographic facts

• Employment history

• Medical history

• Educational history

• Social history and • Several specific facts.

Such an interview must be closely founded on minor and major trauma disorder facets (James, 2008). Particular questions to be posed to Carlos are linked to:

• Trauma nature and level of exposure

• Definite trauma integral to PTS (post-traumatic stress) symptoms

• Intrusive thoughts, recollections, emotions, imagery, responsiveness/awareness freezing, avoidance response and other similar symptoms

• Related elements of anxiety, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, anger or violent behavior

• Pre-morbid family and social life, and adjustment

• Familial history of psychological ailments. Essentially, therapists must seek comprehensive information on individual PTS symptomatology elements,…… [Read More]

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Assessing the Family Goals Strengths and Needs

Words: 2896 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 24816141

Statement of purpose/intent
This piece is dedicated to examining the different challenges Jimmy and his family are going through. The objective is to identify the family and mental disorders present in each of the members and a suggestion at the appropriate treatment methods. As a Case manager the objective would be to recommend the best process aimed at achieving this goal. The greatest challenge is to identify what is ailing each family member and to fashion a pathway towards helping each member and the family as a whole endure their situation. This research recommends ways of handling the different situations with the hope that an expected outcome is achieved.
* Assess the goals, strengths and needs of this family
Family Goals: The priority at this moment is to get some professional help, first for Jimmy and then for Linda, his biological mother. There is enough evidence to the effect that…… [Read More]

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95541824

Mental Disorders: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder tends to surface among individuals with experiences of a frightening, life-threatening or shocking event. This severe, possibly incapacitating ailment may become apparent among eye-witnesses or survivors of life-threatening occurrences like natural calamities, fatal accidents, terror attacks, wars, personal assault (e.g., rape, abduction, etc.) or unexpected death in the family (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016; ADAA, n.d).
What are the signs and symptoms of the illness?
People naturally experience feelings of fear in the course of, and subsequent to, traumatic events. Fear causes several instantaneous physical changes that aid the person in evading, coping with, or protecting oneself from, it. Such a “fight-or-flight” reaction is common and aimed at self-protection against harm. Almost everybody experiences myriad reactions following traumatic encounters, though a majority of victims undergo natural recovery from its preliminary symptoms. Individuals whose issues persist might go on to…… [Read More]

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Health Promotion

Words: 3496 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28197192

Health Promotion

The absence of illness does not thoroughly explain "Health", it can as well be described as wellness of the body and mind. More technically, health can be defined from two perspectives -- bodily and psychological health. A state of well-being due to regular exercises, adequate nutrition, sufficient rest, sensitivity to signs of sickness and when to seek help is referred to as Physical health. A person's fitness is showcased by his/her body make-up, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular stability, and adaptability. Mental wellness refers to psychological and emotional welfare.

As defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), mental health is "a state of wellness in which an individual discovers and harnesses his abilities, make headways regardless of stress encountered in life, can complete tasks adequately and profitably with substantial end product, and also contributes immensely to the uplift of his or her locality." (Nordqvist, 2015). A means of enabling people…… [Read More]

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Case Study Analysis Psychopharmacology

Words: 1957 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 77768102


Possible etiologies

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

GAD or as it is known in full generalized anxiety disorder is a widespread anxiety complication that is characterized by worrying chronically, tension and nervousness. This is different from a phobia; which is characterized by fear of something specific or situation. GAD diffuses a feeling of dread and unease spanning all aspects of one's life. The anxiety is not as intensive as a panic attack but lasts much longer and consequently lowers the general quality of life over a longer time span of life. It does not matter whether you are conscious that your worrying is exaggerated or think that such worries protect you in some way, the consequence is the same. It is impossible for you to deliberately turn off your anxiety. They form an endless stream that flows on your mind (Segal, 2016). Our subject, Tom, is a case for GAD…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Psychopharmacology Psychotic Disorders

Words: 1981 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 92189730

Psychopharmacology Case Study

Possible etiologies

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

GAD or as it is known in full generalized anxiety disorder is a widespread anxiety complication that is characterized by worrying chronically, tension and nervousness. This is different from a phobia; which is characterized by fear of something specific or situation. GAD diffuses a feeling of dread and unease spanning all aspects of one's life. The anxiety is not as intensive as a panic attack but lasts much longer and consequently lowers the general quality of life over a longer time span of life. It does not matter whether you are conscious that your worrying is exaggerated or think that such worries protect you in some way, the consequence is the same. It is impossible for you to deliberately turn off your anxiety. They form an endless stream that flows on your mind (Segal, 2016). Our subject, Tom, is a case…… [Read More]

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Psychoanalytic Model Object Relations

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81813431

Psychoanalytic Model (Object Relations)

The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by aggressive and sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory puts forward the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them so as to improve interpersonal performance.

Basic Concepts in Object Relations

The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not denote inanimate things but rather, it refers to significant individuals with whom one relates -- often, one's father, mother, or a primary caregiver. This term is also sometimes employed in referring to some part of an individual (e.g., the mental depictions of the important people in life,…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Psychology of Aging Trends

Words: 2428 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 70099420

Psychology of Aging: Vignette Analysis

Vignette one

When we talk of socio-cultural age, we mean those particular roles played by individuals as regards the members of the society and the culture they belong to. The evaluation of socio-cultural age is based on a number of habits and behaviors, like the type of dress, interpersonal style and language. Socio-cultural age is mostly important in our understanding of the different work and family roles we adopt. The right time for one to marry, when to have children, when to make career moves, when to retire, and all other such things are all influenced by what we take our socio-cultural age to be. Our self-esteem and all other aspects of our personality are determined by such decisions. Most stereotypes about aging depend on faulty assumptions surrounding socio-cultural age (Cavanaugh and Blanchard-Field, 2015). Jake and Nora are an African-American couple, who migrated from Nigeria…… [Read More]

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Studies on Adjunctive Treatments for Bipolar I Disorder

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43056474

Nursing -- Group Therapy

Peer-reviewed literature regarding effective treatments of bipolar I disorder reveals that patients are significantly helped by family-focused or "family skills" therapy, particularly when dealing with depressive symptoms. However, studies also reveal that family therapy is less effective when dealing with manic episodes than are some other adjunctive treatments. Furthermore, quite a bit is as yet unknown about the relationship between family therapy and effective treatment of bipolar I disorder. Researchers lack evidence linking mania or hypomania factors to specific burdens on caregivers. In addition, families of bipolar patients undergo considerable stress and must struggle with limited and too often inaccessible avenues for their effective involvement. Finally, considerable additional study and focus is required so the health care industry can effectively incorporate relatives' thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, cultural identities and worldviews in operational structures and policy plans for the effective treatment of bipolar I disorder.

2. Body: Scholarly…… [Read More]

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Diagnostic Analysis for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Words: 1829 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20639071

Diagnostic Analysis of Human Behavior in the Social Environment

Stephen Brown is an African-American aged 55 years of age, divorced with the custody of 2 children every weekend. Stephen was a Director of supportive housing program however, he was incarcerated because of an embezzlement. After serving a jail term and released, Stephen faces challenges in securing another employment despite that he has a CASAC license. However, he is a very capable individual despite a history of his disorder.

I am an employment specialist, and Stephen approaches me that he needs employment to sustain himself and his family. As an employment specialist, I have given a counsel to avoid a dishonest behavior because his dishonesty has taught him a lesson. When we were discussing on how he got himself into the dishonest behavior, he was unable to face the fact and digressed into another topics when we reached the discussion about…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Articles in One Page Response

Words: 2799 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71577995

Alter-Muri, S. (2002). Viktor Lowenfeld Revisited: A Review of Lowenfeld's Pre-schematic, Schematic, and Gang Age Stages. American Journal of Art Therapy. 40:172-190 and Burton, J. (2009). Creative Intelligence, Creative Practice: Lowenfeld Redux. Studies in Art Education. 50(4), 323-337

Both of these articles analyze works undertaken by Viktor Lowenfeld. On one hand, Alter-Muri (2002) reviews Lowenfeld's Pre-schematic, Schematic, and Gang Age Stages, and on the other, Burton (2009) reviews Creative Intelligence, Creative Practice: Lowenfeld Redux. In both articles, the authors offer an extensive critique on the theory of creative intelligence that was introduced by Lowenfeld. This encompasses the notions of developmental phases, growth elements, and eventual outcomes. I am in agreement that creative activities and practices do offer ways of knowing and constructing the world that liven up understanding and awareness through acts of personal generativity. I do consider that the aspect of creativity is particularly necessary when it comes to…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Qualitative Research Paper

Words: 4338 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27733643

Successful Are Clinicians in the Treatment of Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Adult Patients, With DBT Skills Application?

Depression and anxiety are two of the most common mental health problems in the United States. These two conditions affect a significant percentage of the United States population, meaning that billions of dollars are spent every year to care for the conditions and related problems. Additionally, depression and anxiety are behind the significant declines in patient social functioning and well-being. The two disorders have also been found to cause great suffering and pain to both patients and their close friends and family. In spite of the fact that proven treatments exist, both conditions remain undertreated (Rizvi, 2011 -- ). The diagnosis and subsequent treatment of the disorders are made even more difficult by the fact that the two disorders share many signs and symptoms. For instance, data from the National Comorbidity Survey…… [Read More]

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Andrea M Is a 21-Year-Old Female in

Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 99310236

Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…… [Read More]

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Mental Illness Treatment

Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22913827

Health and Well-Being of a Chosen Group:

Diagnosed mental disorders


Barriers to assistance for diagnosed mental disorders exist on the individual, community, and social level. On an individual level, people are often reluctant to admit to themselves that they are mentally ill, or a refusal to recognize that they are ill is actually part of the pathology of their illness. On a social level, discomfort in dealing with people who are mentally ill, a lack of financial resources for treatment (particularly for the poor but even for members of the middle class that lack enough insurance for extensive mental health coverage) can also create barriers to care. A lack of financial resources in general can prevent a full, expansive treatment option being offered combining necessary psychopharmacology and therapy even for patients who are able to afford some types of care.

Regulatory, legal, ethical, and accreditation requirements/issues

On a personal…… [Read More]

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Major Depression

Words: 4777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90936662

Clinical Depression

Major depressions or unipolar depressions are some of the names by which the term Clinical depression is known, which is a type of depressive disorder. To explain, it is a condition that is to be diametrically observed, in the sense that the expert does not count on a patient's self-report but checks for indications of depression that can be noticed and recognized. (Schatzberg, 2002) Clinical depression is a term that explains a situation serious enough to require medical, that is expert help and may even require pharmacological involvement. Clinical depression, as stated by various medical sources, survives for a period of two weeks and is usually not impetuous because of any external being or thing.

In a year, clinical depression affects at least 19 million American individuals. Not considering whether the individual is young or old, man or woman, regardless of race or income any body can be…… [Read More]

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Hypnosis in the Medical Field

Words: 4577 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91354561

Hypnosis in Medicine

Proven and Effective: The Continued use of Hypnosis in Modern Western Medicine

Alternative medical therapy has become an increasingly discussed topic in the medical profession as more and more clinicians and agencies study and build collective works on the issues surrounding preventative and holistic medical care. It has begun to be acknowledged across the field that traditional Western medicine may have been entirely to focused on the technology and mechanisms that govern disease and not as focused as need be on the human needs of the patient.

Through this new emphasis on holistic care doctors, nurses, hospitals and their governing boards have begun to readdress issues of old, issues like the melding of eastern and western traditional therapies, sound therapy, aroma therapy, spiritual therapy and many others. At this what some would call the crossroads of this holistic focus one of the first things that has occurred…… [Read More]

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Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research

Words: 4305 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 85640226

Counseling Master Questionnaire

Counseling Questionnaire

Define research

A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.

In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. Results of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Foundation Explored Within This Article Is

Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 67265379

Theoretical foundation explored within this article is that there is a real relationship that exists between psychotherapists and clients, and that this relationship profoundly affects the outcome of the sessions (Gelso et al., 2012, p. 495). This relationship is couched with other working relationships between the therapist and the client. Moreover, the real relationship can be analyzed from the perspective of both the client and the therapist, so that it exists within a "dyad" (Gelso et al., 20102, p. 496.

One of the weaknesses of the literature review in the study completed by Gelso et al., "The unfolding of the real relationship and the outcome of brief psychotherapy" is that it is not distinguished within its own section. It is intertwined with the introduction of this document, and even extends into the hypothesis section. Additionally, the vast majority of the literature cited was conducted by the principal researcher in this…… [Read More]

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Adolescence and How They Have the Potential

Words: 2840 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40533177

Adolescence, and How They Have the Potential to Impact Your Work as an Adolescent and Family Counsellor

Issue Usually Adolescents Face

Adolescence is a somewhat universal period of transition where females experience physical, emotional, psychological, and social changes. Cultures vary as to how they define and deal with the "growing up" period. Only the biological changes of puberty are consistent across cultures. Secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, may begin as early as 8 or 9 and continue to develop until about age 14. Menarche begins around this same time with the average age in the U.S. being 12.5 years. Behaviorally, these rapid changes often lead to comparison with peers, self-consciousness, and significant concern over one's physical appearance (Greene, 2005).

Orvaschel, Beeferman, and Kabacoff (1997) found that self-esteem tends to decrease with advancing age, at least through late adolescence. Most likely this is related to changing appearances, increased self-consciousness, and…… [Read More]

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Brief Therapies

Words: 3406 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: LPC Model Answer Paper #: 66683955


Constructivist Perspective of Brief Therapy

Understanding the basis of theories and therapy is a necessary element of the therapist's trade. Without some knowledge of why certain therapies are practiced, or where they came from, it is difficult to develop a personal theory and a personal view of how to conduct therapy. Since one of the basic concepts presently is that of brief therapy, it is necessary to see how that concept was formulated by other concepts. Thus, this paper examines how constructivist perspectives underlie brief therapy. This paper also gives the author the opportunity to voice a personal statement about how these findings coincide with personal constructions of therapy.


It is first necessary to understand the terms that are to be discussed. The two primary phrases to be discussed are constructivism and brief therapy. However, it is also necessary to grasp what brief therapies exist.


The definition…… [Read More]

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Compare and Contrast Between Albert Ellis' Cognitive Therapy and Behavior Therapy

Words: 3990 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79010722

Tom Shulich ("Coltish Hum")

A Critical Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Rational-Emotive Therapy

In this paper, I consider the benefits and drawbacks of behavior therapy and the cognitive therapy. These are talking therapies that now have over a half-century of application in clinical settings and are still used today in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, drug treatments of psychological disorders. I conclude that these therapies are still useful, though each has its limitations.

Behavior therapy (BT) and rational-emotive therapy (RET) were developed in the mid 20th century as alternative psychotherapies to Freudian psychoanalysis. A key foundational text for BT is Joseph Wolpe's (1958) Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Rational-emotive therapy (originally called simply "rational therapy") was founded in 1955 by Albert Ellis (Ellis & Dryden 1987, p. 1). Ellis' RET incorporates aspects of learning theory, which is central to BT, but goes beyond BT to utilize the central concept…… [Read More]

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Schizophrenia in Young Women and Men

Words: 3736 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64440634

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder and can be characterized by any of the following symptoms: intellectual deterioration, emotional blunting, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, social isolation, delusions, and/or hallucinations (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). In the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia has now been divided into five subcategories (APA, 2000). These subtypes are defined based on the presence of positive symptoms (excesses, such as hallucinations and delusions) or negative symptoms (deficits, such as social isolation and poverty of speech) of behavior in the presentation of the disorder.

There is no defined cause for schizophrenia although many have been proposed. First, it is generally acknowledged that schizophrenia is at least in part caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters. The classical "dopamine hypothesis" of schizophrenia has asserted that there is a hyperactivity in dopaminergic transmission at the dopamine D2 receptor in the projections to the…… [Read More]

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Psychology in Management

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13846028

Bipolar Disorder

Case Story Bipolar Disorder

A girl suffering from Bipolar Disorder: Sarah

I was working in the community health center as an intern, when I received a call from a woman desperately looking for assistance for her 17-years-old daughter. The woman sounded tearful and anxious, as she spoke, and I immediately concluded that she was fearful and at the edge of giving up. I asked her to cool down and explain to me her problem calmly. She stated that the her daughter named Sarah, had been expelled from her school, the reason being that she was found having oral se with two boys in the school toilet. Mary, the woman's name and mother to Sarah, was a marketing executive, had not gone to work because she feared that if she left Sarah alone, the girl might flee.

Upon more information about Sarah, I leant that this was just one…… [Read More]

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Counseling Orientation Integrated Counseling Orientation Key Concepts

Words: 1561 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82672828

Counseling Orientation

Integrated Counseling Orientation

Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach

My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.

In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…… [Read More]

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Treatments for PTSD Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress

Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 21309840

Treatments for PTSD

Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients has varied from one context to the other depending on the nature of the disorder. However, over the years, an increased number of research studies have been conducted to establish the best treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder patients. A number of findings have been made public as further research takes place. This study will critically evaluate three articles whilst comparing group treatment and CBT in the tackling of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This evaluation is valuable considering the increased number of victims of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the society today.

Sloan, Bovin, and Schnurr (2012) support the idea of using group treatment for PTSD as the best option given to patients. In the article, they advance the value of treating patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder as a group. The article gives an overview picture of the benefits accompanied…… [Read More]

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Multi-Modal Treatment of the Client's

Words: 4593 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 602220

Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).

The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."

Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.

Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or…… [Read More]

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Clinicians Have Always Been Reminded

Words: 4252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33632219

He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest and raise his level of energy along with it. By developing a genuine human relationship with the patient, the therapist or doctor can re-establish the basic form of social interest, which the patient can use in transferring it to others. Both therapist and patient must realize that the latter's ultimate cure can come only from him.

Adler's approach has similarities with that of Socrates (Stein 1991). Socrates exhorted others to "know thyself," while Adler urged that people should think for themselves (Meyer 1980 as qtd in Stein 1991). Like Socrates, he would lead the person or patient through a series of questions to a contradiction within himself as revealed by his own answers. Both philosophers were committed to the search for…… [Read More]

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21st Century the Term Marriage

Words: 3923 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79721412

Further, "Just as the models of family therapy are, unsurprisingly, isomorphically represented in their corresponding training models and methods, so the development of the clinical reality of family therapy can serve as a methaphor for the training and supervision area."

However, in 1988 MFT was truly in its earliest states and not much time had gone by since supervision and training was mostly something that was done and not giving forethought on the "how's." Training and supervision were taken for granted; supervisors and clinicians were placed in positions without much prior preparation; and assessment for clinicians, let alone their supervisors, was almost nil.

Yet why was there a need for such training? Liddle compared the beginning of therapy with that of training. Each had to start off on the right foot. Although supervision can easily be defined in a narrow sense -- as the process of teaching a clinician how…… [Read More]

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Reality Therapy it Was During

Words: 3568 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60708715

Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of Reality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…… [Read More]

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Adlerian Theory Based on the Adlerian Theory

Words: 2671 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52029160

Adlerian Theory

Based on the Adlerian theory (Alfred Adler), please write a critical analysis.

In the case study, Susan is suffering from mild depression and she is being treated with a prescription anti-depressant called Zoloft. This is associated with a series of negative events in her life. As, she is struggling with: a recent divorce and dealing with the possibility of being single. This has led to feelings of inferiority and resentment about the past. Over the course of time, this has caused Susan's mental state to continually decline. During the process of seeking out treatment, is when a referral came from her psychiatrist. The objectives in working with her, is to help Susan to be able to overcome these negative feelings about what is happening. To achieve these goals requires examining the different ways Adlerian therapy could be applied to this situation. This will be accomplished by looking at:…… [Read More]

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Depressive Disorder Mdd Is a Condition Distinguished

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79049209

depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition distinguished by the presence of at least one major depressive episode (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). MDD occurs in adolescents with an estimated annual prevalence of four to eight percent and with a lifetime prevalence of 20% by age 18 (APA, 2000). In addition, the data indicates that the prevalence of depression rates among adolescents is increasing with the greatest surge in rates of depression occurring in adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years-old (Costello, Erkanli, & Angold, 2006).

Previous research has suggested that when MDD occurs in adolescents and children an untreated episode can last from seven to nine months (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Adolescent depression shares many clinical features similar to depression in adults. Depressed adolescents are sad, they can lose interest in activities that used to be of importance to them, and they are very critical of themselves and believe that…… [Read More]

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Personality Disorders Approaches to the

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10477118

" Psychotherapy, for instance, would include treatment through talking. Furthermore, this would be divided by type of psychotherapy employed. Types include cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and psycho-education.

The second type of treatment approaches, medications would also include several medications varying in intensity and purpose. For instance, antidepressant medication would be prescribed for those suffering from depression associated with personality disorders. Mood-stabilizing medications would even out an individual's moods. Anti-anxiety medications would help with insomnia and antipsychotic medications would help with "losing touch" symptoms. Again, just as the type of psychotherapy varies, so do the medications needed, which vary by individual and by symptom.

The last resort in the case of treating personality disorders would be hospitalization or residential treatment, which would include a 24-hour inpatient care facility, which would help an individual dealing with a severe case of personality disorder, as well as which would come…… [Read More]

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Client Presentation Year-Old Beth Presented

Words: 2146 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 67363771

Has there been any parent contact at the school, prior to, during or after the bullying incident?

3. What are the school guidance counselor's clinical impressions as to the present problem? Underlying issue?

4. What are some of Beth's strengths?

5. Has she been willing to talk in the past about things that may be bothering her? Does she have suicidal ideations? Her response to friend leaving? Lack of friends at the school?

Process Issues for Consideration

The process issues that need to be considered if the child counselor has determined it is beneficial to engage Beth in services include presenting behaviors, attitude and affect. Beth may be much more willing to discuss these issues vs. beginning with something possibly more difficult such as addressing her parent's divorce. The child counselor will also need to address the comments Beth has made regarding herself to determine if there is a risk…… [Read More]

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Spirituality and Depression What Is

Words: 6620 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57098827

Similarly the Ayurvedic tradition of India emphasized rest and relaxation and nutritional well-being, along with various mentally stimulating exercises. Ayurvedic resorts are still popular in the East. Buddhism is also viewed as an avenue out of depression -- a mode to enlightenment. Nonetheless, as James C.-Y. Chou (2005) states, "The concept of psychological depression in Eastern cultures is not as well accepted as it is in Western cultures. In fact, the whole idea of illness in Eastern cultures is based on physical illness…if they have a psychological illness, then they are perceived as being a persistently mentally ill patient as you would see in a state hospital…it's stigmatized."

Perhaps more than any ancient civilization, the Greeks "took a great interest in the human psyche and especially in madness. Plato who lived in the 5th and 4th centuries BC speaks about two kinds of madness, one with a divine origin and…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Behavioral Theories of Counseling

Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96370221

Psychology -- Cognitive theories

Use of the Session Bridging Worksheet in Cognitive Therapy

The purpose of the Session Bridging Worksheet is to assess the client's insight and comprehension of the prior therapy session (Beck, 1995). Being aware of the fact that they will be questioned concerning the previous session encourages the client to prepare for the present session by reflecting on the session throughout the week. If the client cannot remember their responses or the significant concepts from the prior therapeutic session, the counselor and client come together to figure out a way so that they can more effectively recall the elements of the present session. The Session Bridging Worksheet offers a way of getting this done. This is important because several studies have shown that increased memory and understanding of therapeutic sessions has a direct impact on treatment outcome (Shepherd, Salkovskis, & Morris, 2009). Also this technique requires that…… [Read More]

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Integrated Counseling There Are Many

Words: 3907 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 79621522

CBT integrates theory, i.e. The tenets of psychotherapy, with practical, behavior modification exercises. This, in turn, creates real tangible results. As Cooper writes, "If, on the one hand, you look at the particular therapies that have been shown to be effective for particular psychological problems -- as advocates of empirically supported treatments have done -- there is no question that the evidence base is strongest for CBT. While, for instance, there are scores of high quality controlled trials demonstrating the effectiveness of CBT for depression17, there are just a handful of studies demonstrating the same thing for person-centred therapy. And while CBT has been shown to be effective for numerous psychological difficulties -- such as phobias, panic, PTSD, bulimia, sexual problems and deliberate self-harm -- there is little equivalent evidence for the vast array of non-CBT practices18 (2008).

CBT is an approach that has been empirically proven to be successful…… [Read More]

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Depression Preventing Major Depression What

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56959471

Even in persons with full-blown depression, such alterations of negative life patterns can be helpful. Although "depression can be treated in a variety of ways," either with antidepressant medications or counseling, "most people benefit from a combination of the two. Some studies have shown that antidepressant drug therapy combined with psychotherapy appears to have better results than either therapy alone. ("Major Depression," 2006, Medline Plus Encyclopedia)

The most common medications include older tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and some newer antidepressant drugs. Tricyclics and MOIS have severe side effects, which tend to cause most therapists to prescribe SSRIs, but even these newer remedies have risks, particularly increasing the danger of suicidal tendencies in children. Therapy can take a variety of forms, including cognitive behavior therapy to minimize negative thinking in the patient, therapy specifically designed to cope with stressful life circumstances, or other forms of…… [Read More]

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Conflicts in Marital Counseling Although

Words: 5050 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54799142

You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture." Moore argues, "because there are only sciences and theories of psychotherapy that are contradictory and incoherent." The implication that pastoral care and counseling and not and have not been Biblical, Vicki Hollon, executive director of the Wayne Oates Institute in Louisville, insists, was creating a false dichotomy. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man. "And their movement away from science reveals a lack of faith, or at least a fear that somehow science is outside the realm of God's creation and domain." Some secular counselors encourage clients, including those in marital counseling, to refrain from reading the Bible and to stop going to church if that made them feel worse. Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he…… [Read More]

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Borderline Personality - Personal Journey

Words: 3567 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88194752

A jumped from one work to another which did not last for a week. A week was the most that I could stay in a workplace. I had work in the laundry mat, and various restaurants. But I was either fired, or I went AWOL. I would either fight with my bosses, could not get along with people in the workplace, or if I did not feel like it, I would not go work, just stay home and drink alcohol. People with Borderline Personality Disorder often have trouble having or finding a stable work. My behavior is a clear manifestation of a reason why.

This was also the time that I got involved in a relationship. I met my partner in the shop in one of my "normal" days, and we suddenly hit it off. He told me he was smitten by my the "devil may care" and carefree attitude.…… [Read More]

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Epistolary Novels the Narrative Therapy

Words: 3500 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 70901177

" This fire will not only die out, but will turn into the destructive flames of an obsession.

Werther's descriptions of his deductions, feelings, contemplation fruits and observations are accompanied by various dialogues he has with some of the people he happened to meet in the country. Although in love and obviously preoccupied with Lotte a great deal of his time, he is also keen to go on making observations about those around him. Still in the first stages of his unreciprocated love affair, the occasion of seeing a young couple gives him the chance to express his conviction that human beings are wrong to extract the dark sides of life over the bright ones and let them govern their lives. It seems that he is briefly becoming conscious of his own faults, speaking with the voice of the therapist and not that of the patient. Discussing this opinion with…… [Read More]

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DSM-IV Classifications the Diagnostic and

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65050322

Generally, mood disorders are influenced by both biological and environmental factors. In order words, these disorders can be inherited. The bipolar and cyclothmic disorders generally include both euphoric and depressive feelings, while the dysthymic and major depressive disorders only include depressive feelings. The bipolar and major depressive disorders have received most attention in terms of research. These disorders are generally treated by a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Being more severe than the other two mood disorders, they may also at times require hospitalization to ensure the safety of the patient.

The cyclothmic and dysthymic disorders are both less severe than the other two, but can also be disruptive if not appropriately treated. The prognosis for both of these are good in terms of functioning effectively in society. The more severe disorders may hamper functioning effectively in social and workplace situations, although the correct combination of psychotherapy and medication can…… [Read More]

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Family Therapy Approaches

Words: 1745 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12667630

Psychoanalytic therapy happens to be an in-depth conversational therapy whose objective is to accentuate the deep and unconscious feelings and thoughts held inside a person into their conscious mind (Altman, 2012, pp. 39-86). The aim is to ensure that the repressed emotions and experiences that are often associated with childhood are highlighted and evaluated. The client alongside their therapist work together in the attempt to understand how the early repressed memories affect the behavior, relationships, and thinking of the client in their adulthood (Psychology Today, 2019, pp.1).
Psychoanalytic family therapy happens to be a therapy founded on reasoning that any group of people that consider themselves as family in any culture has some level of interdependence existing between the individual units that make up the family. This is based on the generational hierarchy and role distribution within that hierarchy (Gale, 2005, pp.1). The family also has some subjective interdependence within…… [Read More]

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Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years

Words: 5424 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 56923239

Middle Eastern Students: What Is the Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years- Grades 8-9

Benefits of student advisory

Adolescence and its effects on learning

Functions and Expectations of Advisory Program

Middle Eastern Student advisory experiences


Social and economic mobility is a function of educational achievement. It is important to ensure that all children receive education in order to secure their future and that of the nation. The U.S. accommodates many immigrants from the Middle East. Several studies done in the recent past have examined how immigrants fair in the educational system. However, few studies attend to the subject of adolescent students from the Arab world participation in advisory programs for schools and the effects of such participation explicitly. It is not clear whether the results of adolescent participation in school advisory programs would necessarily coincide with the participation by Arab immigrants. Considering the consistent negative portrayal of…… [Read More]

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Evaluation of Cognitive Behavior Theory

Words: 2016 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23174691

Persons in a Military Setting

Today's organizations are increasingly operating in a complex and rapidly changing environment that requires them to retain highly qualified employees as well as promote their well-being. While all organizations require effective human resource management practices, military organizations need these practices more because of their rapidly changing organizational environment. In essence, military organizations or settings are faced with the need to establish effective HR practices because retaining and enhancing the well-being of their members is crucial towards success in the rapidly changing environment (Dupre & Day, 2007, p.186). Given this need, military organizations continue to develop and utilize different approaches towards retaining valuable personnel and ensuring their well-being in the highly complex military setting. Even though these strategies have been relatively effective in achieving desired goals, they have been characterized by some shortcomings.

Based on cognitive behavior theory, persons in a military setting can be helped…… [Read More]