Racial Discrimination Essays (Examples)

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Autobiographical Account of Racial Relations in the

Words: 2041 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94338457

Autobiographical Account of Racial Relations in the Community

My Autobiographical Account of Racial Relations in My Community

"Despite my time studying race and ethnicity, I have been in the racial minority very seldom;" such has often been my own life as well (McKinney 2004 p 19). The community I reside in is typically a white majority, but has been developing to come into closer proximity to other minority groups. While these groups are not directly targeted for discriminatory purposes by the white majority in the community, there is clearly a line drawn between minority groups and the more established white residents of the community. Essentially, I have seen within my own community a growing sense of color-blind racism, where the racial structures are not so overtly stated, but rather implicit and hiding just underneath the surface.

The community I have lived in for years is a relatively smaller one, which…… [Read More]

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Eliminating Racial Categories the Concept

Words: 802 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69462075



There are also arguments that can be made for the use of racial categories including situations where the use of these categories will assist in minimizing racial disparities. For example, in the educational field there have historically been racial inequalities. In this case racial categories can be utilized to ensure that equal opportunities are presented to all individuals regardless of racial category. Racial categories can also be useful in research situations to find ways to identify the causes of racial disparities, as well as how race structures human interactions. Since many state programs target areas that have underprivileged

Educational professionals can unintentionally continue racial disparities in the school system by allowing their assumptions about racial groups to guide their expectations, as well as interactions with students of that racial designation. If the example of persons of Asian descent is utilized again, these expectations that a student will excel in science…… [Read More]

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Gender Discrimination in Sports

Words: 3548 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10216331

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This video released by IBN Live reveals the gender discrimination suffered by an Indian Athlete, named Santhi Soundarajan, who lost her silver medal in the female 800m race of Asian games in Doha because of her failure in a gender test. The host of the show very calmly ridiculed the athlete and bluntly joked about athlete's gender by laughing and saying that may be the management and staff members slipped out of her shorts. He also did candid questioning about Soundarajan's feminineness by making statements like "Does she have a uterus? I don't know." He also expressed his doubts about Soundarajan being a woman actually and he found it fascinating that she does not possess sexual attributes of a woman.

Lady reporter Jill Pike, questioned the fundamentals of the testing and also criticized news article for not revealing the full facts related to the test failure, disregarding the athlete's…… [Read More]

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Weight Discrimination the Damaging Potential

Words: 303 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84921358



Many overweight people refrain from normal daily activities. Thousands are afraid to eat and wear what they want in public, "(Coleman 203). Many people find it near impossible to loose significant weight. Heredity is a major cause of obesity, which makes loosing weight extremely hard. Another deterrent for physical exercise is the ridicule many overweight people receive when they are out in public exercising.

Many who suffer from weight issues play off their pain like the ridicule does not bother them, "Fat people aren't really jolly. Sometimes we act that way so that you will leave us alone," (Coleman 203). Weight discrimination is a learned process like all other forms of discrimination, showing that there is some hope if society realizes what it is doing to its own.

Works Cited

Coleman, Jennifer. "Discrimination at Large." Between Perception. You need to include your textbook's publication info and…… [Read More]

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Post-Racial Society Since Barack Obama's

Words: 499 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 38297769

9, compared to 8.4 for whites" (Statistics and Office of Minority Health and Health Disparities, 2005). Moreover, the paper will examine other harbingers of economic robustness in addition to income, including net worth, income ranges, and unemployment rates. If America is post-racial, then blacks should be proportionately represented in the top 5% of wealthiest people and have median economic assets equal to those of whites, not simply have equal salaries. In the past, there has been a tremendous disparity, not only in income, but in asset ownership between the races. Moreover, in 2001, the median household income for White non-Hispanic households was $46,305, but only $29,470 for black households. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). Obviously, in 2001, America was not a post-racial society when it came to income. Comparing official census results from the census immediately prior to Obama's election and the census immediately following Obama's election will give a good…… [Read More]

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Profiling America S Racist Ideology

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41630580

Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America

Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then expanded and intensified rapidly during the eighteenth century, reaching its peak during the start of the nineteenth. During most of this time, for all intents and purposes, simply to be black was enough to identify one as a slave. That is to say, racial distinctions between whites and people of color were not merely noted, but comprised the economic and legal foundation of American society. Once slavery was abolished, black Americans did not suddenly occupy a station equal to that of their white contemporaries. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws were in effect, usually in the South, and other forms of segregation were commonplace throughout the nation. In the poem "Outcast," Claude McKay clearly identifies the prejudice and the alienation he faces…… [Read More]

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Divine Wind Garry Disher Must Racism Broome

Words: 2086 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76461050

Discrimination is defined as the behavior towards a certain group of people that involves restricting or excluding members of the group from certain openings that other groups can avail. There can be several reasons for discrimination and some of them are:

Discrimination on the basis of racism

Discrimination on the basis of ethnic background

Discrimination on the basis of religion

Discrimination has been one of the major problems of the world and among these reasons; discrimination on the basis of racism has been most common.

Because of differences in human races there are inherent differences in traits and abilities of the people and therefore certain groups of people belonging from a specific race are not given equal rights or equal opportunities. In today's world everyone thinks that their own race is superior to the others and therefore they do not see others as equal. Racism is also defined as the…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Discrimination Against Minorities and Corporate Issues

Words: 5615 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82554464

healthcare services, many people could encounter some form of discrimination on the basis of their race, gender, or even sexual orientation. Discrimination in healthcare may seem like it is not something that is a major issue. However, it absolutely does come up in many situations, states and environments. Whether based on gender, religion, race or sexuality, discrimination happens at overt or implied levels all of the time. In other situations, there are huge disparities in healthcare outcomes from one group to another and many experts say that this can only come from systemic or sporadic instance of racism from the healthcare sphere, from society in general or a combination of the two. While most people get very good care, there are situations where the healthcare and/or government sectors fall short. It is important to note that although people are not always aware of this; there are various laws that seek…… [Read More]

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Profiling Used as a Legitimate Law Enforcement Tool

Words: 2488 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93892508

Racial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. Racial profiling has been monitored in a…… [Read More]

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Equal Pay and Compensation Discrimination

Words: 3715 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35628513

These figures dwarfed what other big businesses paid for discriminatory practices. These businesses included Texaco, Inc.; Shoney's, Inc., Winn-Dixie, Stores, Inc.; and CSX Transportation, Inc. Critics saw Coca-Cola's settlement as signaling a major breakthrough among big businesses as coming to terms with diversity in the workplace (King). Because the company has been a leader in many areas, these critics regarded it as setting an example of greater openness to promotions across races of employees (King).

Settlement terms included $23.7 million as back pay; $58.7 million as compensatory damages; and $10 million as promotional achievement award fund distributed to the complainants. A remaining $20 million went to attorney's fees and $36 million to the implementation of internal program reforms. Coca-Cola would also create an external, seven-member task force to insure that the terms were complied with and to oversee the company's diversity efforts (King).

According to Social Networks. - Connections in…… [Read More]

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African-American Discrimination

Words: 3977 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84650386

African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…… [Read More]

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Policing and Discrimination in the Developed Nations

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83486513

Prejudice and policing have now become a very contentious issue within the developed world. Many individuals, particularly in minority populations, believe that prejudice is embedded within the policing environment. Stereotypes and racial profiling are perceived to be rampant. Examples exist of individuals unarmed being shot to death be police officers. Police officers themselves are now much more fearful of doing their duty in society as they fear retaliation. This creates an interesting dynamic between prejudice and the overall policing environment.

Both prejudice and policing intersect each through constant interaction and communication. Law enforcement involves communication. Body language, tone, and speech all impact the manner in which law enforcement interacts with the population at large. In many instances officers vary their tone depending on race or perception. Studies have shown that police officers tend to be more aggressive in their tone and behavior when interacting with African America constituents. Likewise, officers…… [Read More]

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Changing Workforce Discrimination in the

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67035445

Among race and ethnic groups, the Asian and other labor force is projected to increase the most rapidly. The Hispanic labor force is projected to be larger than the black labor force due to faster population growth. Overall, the U.S. Department of Labor predicts that by 2008, seventy percent of the new entrants into the workforce will be women and people of color (Companies focus on recruiting diverse workforce, but retention and promotion lag behind).

Researchers predict that employers will soon be working hard to recruit or keep older workers who are now experiencing age bias (The changing workforce). To do so, businesses will have to offer incentives that are attractive to older workers. Examples include health benefits that incorporate long-term care insurance and short- and long-term disability insurance, pension plans, and alternative work arrangements such as part-time and intermittent work, telecommuniting, phased retirement to gradually reduce work hours and…… [Read More]

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Employment Discrimination Based on Religion

Words: 1988 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 6363558

This can also lead to feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem.

It is also noted that religious discrimination can be both overt and covert. Overt discrimination is a more obvious form of discrimination, such as name -- calling and physical intimidation ( Perceived Religious Discrimination and its Relationship to Anxiety and Paranoia among Muslim Americans). Covert discrimination is often more insidious and psychologically harmful in that it is suggested by innuendo and veiled remarks that are often less able to be attacked or defended against.

It is also claimed that continued stress as a result of discrimination can lead to mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. However, there is a paucity of research in this area; for instance, "Although the effects of discrimination and hate crimes among various minority member's mental health is documented, no research to date examines the correlates of perceived discrimination among Muslim Americans" (Perceived…… [Read More]

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Unequal Treatment Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8102880

Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities

in Health Care

The recent report of the Institute of Medicine, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (2002 Smedley et. al.), indicates that bias, stereotyping, and prejudice may often contribute to the quality of health care that is provided to non-white patients. For anyone entering into the field of health care, this information is beneficial because it uncovers many of the reasons why some patients receive inadequate health care that can lead to future prevention of this problem.

The vast majority of studies reviewed concluded that minorities are less likely to get the same treatment as whites, including necessary procedures. The studies also suggested that patient attitudes cannot explain completely why disparities exist in health care. Clearly, race has become as issue in the health care industry. The report brings to light the depth of the problem when it…… [Read More]

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Workplace Discrimination in Recent Years

Words: 2392 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62160954

I have been discriminated against, which has caused my self-esteem to fall, and now I am stuck, with few role models to follow. Bill's success has probably been thwarted by more sources than the today's average black or female, but there is no provision in preferential hiring for him. Just like no one can control his or her race or skin color, Bill's obesity is caused by a medical problem beyond treatment. Selective preferential hiring won't work. Even if one doesn't accept the fact that preferential hiring discriminates against the white male, one must accept the fact that preferential hiring discriminates against Bill (Cordes, 1994).

Now let's assume that this argumentation is invalid for one reason or another. Let's assume the lack of self-confidence and self-respect that today's blacks and women are suffering from may deserve some compensation. But before continuing, it seems necessary to narrow the range of who…… [Read More]

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English Poems the Problem Regarding Racial Equality

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 59751059

English Poems

The problem regarding racial equality can be traced as far back as the African-American slave trade of the 1400s. But even after the Civil War and the Reconstruction of the United States, there is no denying the fact that a racial tension still exists between "whites" and "blacks." Many authors, artists, and poets have portrayed this tension, sometimes even going as far back as inspiring their audience through language akin to the spirituals found during the time of slavery. Maya Angelou, renowned American poetess and author, is but one of many who voices the plight of racial inequality. In her works "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and "Still I Rise," she portrays the struggle of African-Americans throughout the centuries of racial oppression and segregation.

To be able to understand the historical contexts derived from the two works of poetry, one should delve into the origin and…… [Read More]

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History of Discrimination in the United States

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77758358

History of Discrimination in the United States

Discrimination

The Europeanization of North America

Greater than 99% of the population of the United States originated from another country, having immigrated here between the time of Christopher Columbus' arrival and the present day (Spickard, 2007, p. 4). Despite estimates that suggest close to five million Native Americans were living on land that would eventually become the United States in 1492, diseases such as smallpox, typhoid, and cholera wiped out an estimated 95% of this demographic at a relatively rapid pace, thus helping to pave the way for European immigration into North America (Spickard, 2007, pp. 36-37).

The earliest permanent (successful) white settlements included the Spanish in the southwestern territories that would become Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, and on the east coast in Florida (Spickard, 2007, pp. 37-40). The primary goal of the Spanish settlements was economic, but this was not…… [Read More]

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Obesity and Discrimination Bias Against Overweight and

Words: 5196 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6980919

Obesity and Discrimination

Bias against overweight and obese individuals is perhaps the last form of acceptable discrimination. Overweight people are subject to both subtle and blatant forms of discrimination, from childhood to adulthood. Discrimination occurs in family, social and professional situations as well.

This paper takes an interdisciplinary approach to the issue of weight-based discrimination and harassment, drawing on diverse literature from fields including psychology, law, pediatrics and economics. The extent of discrimination is explored through a critical survey and integration of current research on the social and professional effects of obesity.

The first part of this paper looks at the varying definitions of the terms "overweight," "obesity" and "discrimination."

It highlights the limitations of these definitions and how these terms can be misapplied.

The next part looks at statistics regarding the growing number of overweight and obese people in the United States. Recent studies show an alarming rise in…… [Read More]

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Racism in Restaurants Discrimination Has Long Been

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5455610

Racism in Restaurants

Discrimination has long been an issue when it comes to people and immigration. Whether immigrants came of their own free will or were brought in through slave ships, intermingling of races and ethnicities have led to hard struggles. Although some may say racism is not as troubling or as severe as it was in earlier times, it is still manifests in subtle ways throughout society. For instance, the service industry has shown through several studies that racism exists and can influence the behavior and comments of wait staff and servers. This may come as a consequence of expectation, as servers anticipate non-white people, especially blacks, tip poorly, or it could be the negative stereotypes often attributed to non-white races like anger, rudeness, and frugality. Needless to say, most of what servers anticipate of their non-white customers is baseless (and especially as it pertains to race and ethnicity,…… [Read More]

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Screen Gender Racial Stereotypes

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80350929

Their problem with the U.S. As a whole is more complex and it deals with fighting a concept of a dominant white culture. While they find it perfectly normal to be interested in "owning land, one of more homes, several cars, expensive jewelry and clothing" (Benshoff & Griffin p. 158) (they consider themselves no different from an ordinary American in this situation), their main focus lies in having everyone around them accept them as equals, as from their perspective, "the American Dream can simply be freedom of want" (Benshoff & Griffin p. 158).

Alongside of Harold and Kumar, viewers realize that society is no longer a place where people are judged on account of their wealth, intelligence, and background. Individuals in this film are mainly interested in race and social status is apparently determined by one's ethnicity. It is almost as if the central characters need to negotiate in order…… [Read More]

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KKK Role in 1920s Discrimination

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20256621

S. Those who had lived for generations in the U.S. were unsettled and wary as these changes occurred. Immigration soon became a social and political issue among the public, groups began to form based on beliefs held which were similar from group to group, and the prevalence of organizations experienced growth with the KKK being no exception to the rule. The KKK used phrases such as "America for Americans" (Ludwig, nd) Ludwig additionally states: "Anti-Catholic prejudice was alive and even rejuvenated in some quarters in the twentieth century. Protestant "fundamentalists" and other new Christian denominations revived anti-Catholicism as part of an insistence on "original," pre-Rome Christianity. Americans, goaded on by hate groups, feared that Catholics would pay allegiance to their "foreign King" (the Pope) rather than their new country (Pencak, 110). Although there was a strong argument for this, as much of the Italian immigrant population consisted of devout Catholics,…… [Read More]

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Racism Higgins the Price of Racial Harmony

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86799536

Racism Higgins

The Price of Racial Harmony

Almost thirty years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, race relations in the United States continue to be strained and the dream of racial harmony appears to be as far from reality as it ever was. Many commentators, including Shelby Steele, consider that the cause of these continued difficulties lies in society's determined emphasis upon race and color, rather than upon equality and individualism. The convenient packaging and classification of people into the camps of either black or white perpetuates the divisive conflict of oppressors vs. victims, and innocence vs. power. Although integration and multiculturalism are among the catchwords of the time, the present situation is merely a case of blacks and whites adopting the path of least resistance. To truly achieve equality and cooperation within racial relations, society must make radical changes in the way that it acts and thinks. This…… [Read More]

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Minorities in America 1917-1929 Discrimination Ran Rampant

Words: 786 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59672801

Minorities in America 1917-1929

Discrimination ran rampant throughout the era of World War I and the 1920s, having an enormous impact on the lives of minorities living in America and fighting abroad. Black servicemen in the military, though respected by some for their participation in the war effort, often served only in segregated units. They held no positions of command, rather served as mealtime aids, laborers and cargo holders (Azimuth, 2003). Also of significance during this time, a great migration of African-Americans occurred from southern farms to northern cities within the states, sometimes referred to as the "Great Migration" (Azimuth, 2003). Many were looking for bigger and better opportunities. Women, also considered minorities during the 1920s, revolted against their status in "servitude." The era of World War I can only be described as one of radical changes in the racial make up and cultural significance of America.

During the period…… [Read More]

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Black White Other Racial Categories

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 66287203

However, this is not the case for three reasons: people traditionally clustered in a certain race are not at all homogeneous (read: variation in hair color among Europeans). Indeed, genetics have confirmed that there is far more genetic diversity within groups than between groups. The second reason there isn't considerable homogeneity between groups of people and conspicuous differences between groups is that, since our ancestors spread out of Africa, different human populations have always been in genetic contact with each other, constantly 'mixing' genes and making conspicuous difference between groups impossible. Third, there are a number of 'unclassifiable' peoples (darkly pigmented Indians with European-like faces), which, by their very nature, dispel the idea that there are a specific number of races in the world.

By the end of the article, Marks concludes, as he says in the beginning, that race is not a biological factor, but a cultural one. While…… [Read More]

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Islamophobia Politics Gender and Discrimination

Words: 2356 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95488216

Misconceptions About Sharia Law

Much Islamophobia is grounded in misguided assumptions about Islam and particularly about Sharia law. According to Ali (2014), "nearly two dozen state legislatures" have proposed laws banning Sharia without developing even a modicum of understanding of what Sharia law is, and what it entails (Ali, 2014, p. 1027). Sharia law is central to Islam and to Muslim identity and practice, but only small fraction -- five percent -- of Sharia law addresses criminal law; the majority of Sharia law impacts personal matters including religious rituals and obligations (Ali, 2014). Sharia law is really just a "moral code," derived from Quran, Hadith, Ijma (scholarly consensus), and Qiyas (analysis) (Ali, 2014, p. 1063-4). About 25% of Sharia law concerns matters related to family, dietary custom, and economic practices, which are personal or private issues and not relevant to public policy (Ali, 2014). While some Muslim nations have embraced…… [Read More]

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Avoiding Reverse Discrimination While Making a Difference

Words: 3532 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: 'Literature Review' chapter Paper #: 20880755

Affirmative Action Planning

Affirmative Action

Through its reference to affirmative action, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ushered in a remedy for disadvantage and discrimination that was intended to reach into the hallowed halls of higher education, union halls, and corporate meeting rooms. President Johnson extended The Act to federal contractors through an Executive Order, and again the charge was to take affirmative action to ensure discrimination was not occurring. The Act was intended to guide and coerce social change, and it empowered the federal courts to penalize violators. The law was based on the construct that people who have been historically excluded from substantive social institutionalized benefits -- culture, education, employment -- needed a boost in the form of preferential selection. This means that the same factors that trigger or support exclusion, by law (ethnicity, gender, and race), become the same factors that drive the affirmative actions that serve…… [Read More]

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African Studies Racial Policy The

Words: 2852 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34202767

Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for Whites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]

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Homelessness & Discrimination

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15933907

Forrest-Bank, S., & Jenson, J. (2015). Differences in experiences of racial & ethnic micro-Aggression among Asian, Latino/Hispanic, Black & White young adults.

Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 42(1), 141-161.

The author of this annotated bibliography has decided to focus on homelessness and discrimination. As such, the four annotated sources that will follow in these pages will focus on those two topics, if not both at the same time. The Forrest-Bank and Jenson source was just authored a few months ago. The initial point of the article is that "racial and ethnic discrimination is a significant risk factor for health and mental health problems among non-White children, adolescents and adults." The report defines micro-aggression based on the main who coined the term, apparently. The term means minor acts of discrimination that are inflicted and/or endured frequently. The authors did an ANOVA-based study focusing on the experiences of people of all…… [Read More]

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Impact of Brown vs Board of Education

Words: 2367 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95608416

Racial Equality

Like other forms of discrimination and bigotry in the United States, racism has thankfully started to tail off and reduce over the years and generations. However, this is happening at a pace that is frustratingly slow and plodding. Court decisions and new laws passed throughout the 20th and 21st centuries have led to more inclusion and less institutional racism and other bigotry. However, de facto racism and other forms of bigotry still remain present and problematic. This report shall cover a lot of the facets of all of this including how Brown vs. Board of Education changed things, what President Kennedy perhaps should have done at the time of his Presidency to address racism head-on and more adeptly, examples of how things have gotten better, stayed the same or gotten worse, detailed reasons why it is important to keep a keen eye on society and what is going…… [Read More]

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Racism in Amerca court'system

Words: 1704 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84099853

Racial Discrimination Against African-Americans in the Legal System

The major corruption in the United States legal system is that it is a prejudiced establishment. It is a place where African-Americans are completely directed and penalized in a much more hostile way than whites. Those believing that the legal system is bigoted could be politically debated in some places. But then again, the evidence is awe-inspiring. There does not seem to be much discussion about the proof. With that said, this essay will argue that racial discrimination does exist with law enforcement and judicial system that whites do not get to experience.

Some believe that the system has been set up to go against those that are of color. Other believe that there is enough evidence to show that the bigoted legal system is functioning exactly per plan. Is the legal system performed to relegate and rule masses of Black-Americans? Evidence…… [Read More]

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Role of Education in Society Discrimination Exists

Words: 1430 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31064460

Role of Education in Society

Discrimination exists on many different levels and is both conscious and unconscious. It has also existed from the time the first colonists arrived in America and decided to make it their 'own'. They did so through conquering and oppression. The European culture of the colonists became the mainstream culture almost immediately. This included the 'Protestant ethic', which emphasizes hard work and the accumulation of property. It also includes the use of discipline and authority in child rearing (chapter one, page 9). This was in total disagreement to the Native American practices and became a focal point for change when the education system began to be concerned with the Natives. The need to 'force' the non-mainstream culture to conform to the established mainstream is the primary means by which education contributes to the development and preservation of bigotry and prejudice.

The education system in the United…… [Read More]

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Racism Discrimination

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93280654

New Campus Racism, Noel Kent describes two very different points-of-view about race a society on American college campuses and, more generally, of American society that he argues provides the model for the microcosm of the collegiate environment. Kent argues that the three decades after the Civil Rights era, the United States represents an "odd mixture of striking movement and surface change." By that he means that on one level, racism has been formally eliminated through post-Civil Rights-era legislation and official government and institutional policies; meanwhile, on an entirely different level, racism still permeates American society, particularly from the perspective of minorities, black Americans, in particular. Whereas overt discrimination and persecution in connection with race are largely vestiges of the past in the U.S., racism is still alive and well on a more subtle level throughout American society, including on college campuses.

The author explains that perceptions about racism differ tremendously…… [Read More]

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Psychology of Racism Racial Prejudice

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15872372

Though prejudice seems to be a natural, hard-wired part of the human brain, racism is a learned trait, but the research discussed in Moskowitz's article suggests that there are predispositions in people's brains away from racism (and therefore probably towards racism as well). That is, when it comes to racism some people are simply faster learners than others. But though individual brain function explains some racism, it is far from the whole answer.

The research Moskowtitz explains only shows a predisposition towards the leanrned trait of racism; it ultimately fails to explain the source of racism. This is where institutional racism really connects to individual racism. In a society that as a whole is even slightly racist -- as many scholars suggest our is -- there are subconscious cues all around about the "good" and "bad" race or races. People who do not form negative associations do not pick up…… [Read More]

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challenges of discrimination in health care'system

Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 32082092

Hanin from New Haven

This is an individual with earning disability and takes good care of herself. She has dental problem where her teeth are rotting. She is an individual who needs some serious work but she is unfortunate that she has no dental insurance. In effect, she is not able to get dental treatment due to lack of this insurance. She has been keen to find help and the last was a dental clinic that she heard about on TV but on follow-up she was informed that they no longer took new cases. From her appearance, this patient is a young African American woman of the age range of between 20-28 years old.

Hanin’s case is a typical example of where poverty and environment plays a big role in increasing the health care disparity within the US. This is a lady who has no employment, in effect she is…… [Read More]

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Has Houston Forgotten the Latino Community

Words: 2665 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 2376642

Latino Community

Racial discrimination is a term that signifies treating people with different skin tone and cultural heritage and not only different but also as inferior. This feeling or societal approach is not limited to just one area of the world, it is a habit being carried from generation to generation in all the countries of the world. Each skin color whether white, black, pin k or brown all view themselves as someone important while considering the other as subordinate or lower in rank to them. Discrimination has been the curse of the nineteenth and twentieth century's. This is the reason that this era is full to the brim with violent protests, wars, conflicts and civil rights movement, some of which have been quiet successful. The paper will look at the place of Hispanics in the U.S. And more specifically Houston society. It will examine their condition in the city…… [Read More]

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Ethics and Professional Responsibility in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22912972

However, this form of racism rejects racial rights and instead calls for active racial competition among races towards achieving mastery and territorial dominance. This is a form of racial survival for the fittest in which there is no belief of the existence of racial rights (McCulloch 2010, p. 1).

Despite the negative connotation of racism, there is a need to have some form of racism, but in a positive manner. Arguably some form of racism is necessary. For example, there is a need to socially map and define the racial landscape and this cannot be done without the use of some form of racism. This has indeed been a historically compelled action because throughout history, racial lines have naturally existed between men and thus could not be ignored (Pataki & Levine 2004, p. 87-90). Therefore, it can be conclusively stated that the society cannot cast a blind eye to racism;…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty and Race Arguments

Words: 4823 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45563116

Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty in the Constitutional Law

Words: 4228 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75375160

public to scholars, the death penalty has come under severe criticism in contemporary epoch. The debate between the supporters and criticizers of capital punishment has been going on for decades. Is death penalty constitutional? What are the factors that may render it unconstitutional? Is racial discrimination one of such factors?

The paper uses a set of law review articles and highlights racial discrimination in death penalty in United States, discusses different theories with regard to the racial bias question and explores the debate of racial bias pervading the American judicial system to question the constitutional basis of death penalty.

A lot of research has been conducted on racial discrimination in courts. All this research can be classified in terms of a societal or an individual perspective. Gibson discusses these two approaches on racial discrimination. The first approach can be attributed to sociologists who believe that courts can not remain neutral.…… [Read More]

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Women and Gender Bias the

Words: 13238 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41373850

Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?

If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).

But what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Disparities Race Related

Words: 6959 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60916476

Health Care Disparities Race Related

Healthcare disparities

Serial number

Socioeconomic status and health

Correlation between socioeconomic status and race

Health insurance and health

Who are the uninsured people?

Causes of health care disparities

Suggestions for better health care system

The latest studies have shown that in spite of the steady developments in the overall health of the United States, racial and ethnic minorities still experience an inferior quality of health services and are less likely to receive routine medical testing which contributes to disease and even death. This research paper will seek to answer the question as to why there is race related disparity in health care and what we can do to improve the health care for those affected due to their race.

Health Care Disparities Race Related

Research Methodology:

A comprehensive survey was conducted in both public and private sector of the United States health care system in…… [Read More]

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Sociological Theory

Words: 1781 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4703206

Immigrants and Discrimination

DuBois, in his "The Conservation of the Races" described racial prejudice as "the friction between different groups of people." (Dubois, 12) If one accepts this definition, then the United States contains a great deal of racial prejudice, as this nation is filled with different groups of people who are constantly experiencing friction. Considering that the United States of America is a country founded by immigrants, populated by immigrants, and built by immigrants, from a variety of nations, it is no wonder that the history of America is filled with incidents of racial prejudice and intolerance. Not only is there the friction between different groups of immigrants coming to America, but also between immigrants in general and those considered "natural-born" Americans. Natural-born Americans are those persons who ancestors were immigrants, but now enjoy the privileges of calling themselves "natural-born" Americans. Dubois wrote his book in the late 1890's,…… [Read More]

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American Civil Rights Movement Which Garnered Large

Words: 2673 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54043486

American Civil Rights Movement, which garnered large support and public attention in 1960 and continued for the next decade is largely considered one of the most powerful and driving force behind significant changes that took place on both a social and legislative level within the United States. The movement itself took place in order to stop racial discrimination and racism against African-Americans that for years had run rampant throughout the country. Despite the Movement's categorization of being dominant in American culture from around 1960 to around 1970, the truth exists that the American Civil Rights Movement and its core values can be traced as far back as the 1783, which was the year that Massachusetts legally outlawed slavery within its borders (ThinkQuest 2010, pp.1). From then on, African-Americans, and their respective supporters rallied for change within the country, facing significant obstacles and set-backs along the way.

In viewing the history…… [Read More]

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Color of Water Racism and

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91481779



Opposite to Ruth, James' experience with racial and religious discrimination is somewhat different because the era changed. When James was in his early adulthood, the perspectives started to change and racial discrimination was viewed as an issue that must be changed. The difference in approaches can be related to the nature of the individuals, Ruth and James, but as well to the changing times. The nature of the two characters is different as a result of age and background. While Ruth experienced many of the possible evils to be experienced by a child, James was taken care of, even though the money shortage was obvious. Thus, the nature of the persons differs. Ruth is more submissive and more reluctant to address openly the issue of racial discrimination. At the same time however, her dedication for her children to learn and become good men may be interpreted as a hidden desire…… [Read More]

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Courts in World Cultures -- a Report

Words: 1538 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45552924

Courts in World Cultures -- a Report on China

China

Discrimination is one of the most critical issues of the present times. It refers to the societal practices and behaviors which deprive a certain group of people or minorities from enjoying equal rights in a society (Yang & Li, 2009). Discrimination separates people on the basis of racial and ethnical differences, religious beliefs, gender, class and power, etc. To encounter this issue and eliminate it from their societies and workplaces, nations from all over the world have been devising their own anti-discrimination laws and practices (Wilson, 2012).

The following sections are dedicated to discuss this most serious issue from the context of Laws and Courts in the People's Republic of China (PRC). That is, what are the role of Chinese Laws and Courts and the overall progress of Chinese nation in reducing different inequality practices and behaviors from its society?…… [Read More]

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Buggin' Out Tells Mookie to

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11817284

Mookie's frustrated acts show that violence is sometimes justified as a means of "self-defense," in Malcolm X's words. Bigger did not have access to the words of wisdom of either Malcolm X or Martin Luther King Jr. More importantly, Bigger did not have access to a community of like-minded African-Americans who could sympathize with if not totally condone the use of violence to preserve cultural integrity and pride.

Mookie and Bigger are remarkably similar, proving that little has actually changed for African-Americans in terms of gaining social and political power even after the Civil Rights movement. Richard Wright's novel Native Son illustrates the extent of racial discrimination during the early half of the twentieth century; Spike Lee's movie "Do the Right Thing" reveals the extent of racial discrimination during the latter half of the century. The protagonists in Native Son and "Do the Right Thing" live in different times and…… [Read More]

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Civil Rights Movement in America

Words: 2291 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54501194



The milestone that the Civil Rights Movement made as concerns the property ownership is encapsulated in the Civil Rights Act of 1968 which is also more commonly referred to as the Fair Housing Act, or as CRA '68. This was as a follow-up or reaffirmation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, discussed above.

It is apparent that the Civil Rights Act of 1866 outlawed discrimination in property and housing there was lacking any provisions for the federal government to enforce it. This Act came in to put more weight on the previous Acts and ban discrimination on the sale, rental, and financing of housing pegged on race, religion, and national origin. This was further expounded upon in 1974 on gender as well as 1988 protecting the disabled under the same Act.

With the passing of these fundamental Acts and several others that augmented it, there was an upsurge in…… [Read More]

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Man's Ability to Treat Humans Like Animals

Words: 4278 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22493133

Man's Ability To Treat Humans Like Animals

It is a vivid fact that the feelings of cruelty, discrimination and racial distribution are embedded well in to human nature since its very inception. This world depicts several cases where humans treat other humans like animals and ignore their right of living peacefully and according to their own will. This article highlights the work of several writers who have depicted the different ways in which humans have been treated brutally by other humans. Majority of the cases deal with racial discrimination and poverty-based cruelty issues encountered by humans. The article presents an in depth analysis of the works of seven different writers and how their works represent the ill treatment encountered by the human race.

Charles Chestnutt's "Po Sandy" and its Linkage to Human Cruelty

"Po' Sandy" written by Charles Chestnutt is basically the story of Sandy, who is made the slave…… [Read More]

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Employment Law Policies Employee Policy

Words: 2554 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41509549

The employer has an established protocol for dealing with allegations of sexual harassment, and a sexual harassment complaint triggers protections for the employee. An employee engaging in sexual harassment of any other employees, clients, or business associates of the employer, will be disciplined. Any employee engaging in sexual harassment who has been notified by the victim, a supervisor, or any other employee of the employer, that such conduct is unwanted and harassing, who continues that activity will be subject to immediate termination.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative action refers to programs aimed at guaranteeing that employers adhere to state and Federal anti-discrimination lawsuits. Some people are concerned that affirmative action programs discriminate against majorities because they impermissibly consider race or gender in the hiring process, a position that is generally rejected by the EEOC. Because this employer has found that it can achieve and maintain a diverse workplace without the use of…… [Read More]

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Affirmative Action Has Been a

Words: 2872 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42148265

Furthermore, it is also believed that the evolution of American society is at a point where all forms of discrimination can be done away with. Dworkin therefore appears to advocate a simple acceptance of all affirmative action programs in terms of their original intention; to redress the collectivist wrongs perpetrated against a collective sector of society, by another collective. In this, those belonging to the historically repressive collective should, in the spirit of future equality and social collectivism, accept these attempts in this light.

One argument that Dworkin mentions is that those, like Hopwood and Bakke, who are disadvantaged tend not to feel overly positive regarding the collectivist future advantage of the country as a result of what they see as reverse discrimination. This creates bitterness and resentment, as mentioned in Yates. Such bitterness and resentment are hardly conducive to future unity in the country. In response to this argument,…… [Read More]

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Racism Can Be Stated as the Attitude

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 52974864

Racism can be stated as the attitude or practice of recognizing authority/supremacy of one group over another. It is either founded on race, color, ethnicity or cultural heritage. It is, if truth be told, a global tradition and is not only limited to a particular area or group of people. One can notice racism at all individual, group or institutional levels. Racism is spread and conserved by the introduction of planned activities and policies in economical, societal, political, educational, religious and cultural aspects of life. It is not a difficult thing to distinguish the narrow-minded, dogmatic and prejudiced people who shape up their way of thinking, philosophy, traditions, attitudes and practices on the basis of racial ideology. This picky set of thought is not only possessed by the general public. Even those hold powerful positions demonstrate the same beliefs and practices of racial discrimination ("Racism" 2012).

Racism has continued to…… [Read More]

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Los Angeles -- a City

Words: 2402 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43888960

"

Moreover, population groups "…pull up roots and seemingly go out of their way to avoid one another…" throughout Southern California, Worster writes (242). An example of the concept of "pulling up roots" is the community of Watts, which in the 1960s, Worster continues, was "an almost entirely black populace" but by the mid-1990s is "predominately Mexican-American" (p. 243). And Little Tokyo, positioned just south of Los Angeles' City Hall, is now home to a "dwindling population of Japanese-Americans" who have scant interaction with the colonies of artists "who began reclaiming and inhabiting factory and loft buildings" in Little Tokyo. Armenians that once dominated the eastern fringes of Hollywood have "relocated to suburban Glendale" and South Koreans have "settled in the Mid-Wilshire district" which has caused the "displacement of a sizable community of Central Americans," Worster explains. This movement of cultures and ethnicities around the sprawling great Los Angeles region…… [Read More]

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Abercrombie & Fitch A& f Case Study

Words: 2139 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89362096

Abercrombie and Fitch: A Case Study

Clothing giant A&F has a not-so-good reputation in the arena of business ethics, and has been sued several times for size discrimination, sexism, and racism. In 2003, the company was taken to court by employees who felt that it had a systematic discrimination policy in place. What exactly did the company miss in its diversity understanding? This text, amongst other things, analyzes the situation and the ethical issues involved.

Abercrombie & Fitch (A&F)

Abercrombie & Filch has been accused of being insensitive on many fronts. For instance, the company has in the past been involved in a tussle with angry parents, who found a sexual phrase on the company's newly-launched line of pre-teen innerwear offensive. In 2003, the company was sued for discriminating against minority groups in its human resource practices (Greenhouse, 2003). Aggrieved employees accused the company of favoring whites for its sales…… [Read More]

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History of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24319515

History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act

The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed in 1946. The act was named after its chief proponents, Alabama's Senator Lister Hill (Thomas, 2008) and Ohio's Senator Harold Burton. Although the act was conceived of as a way of providing egalitarian access to improved medical facilities, it was actually created in times that were anything but. 1946 was the year after the end of World War II and racial segregation (as buttressed by Plessey v. Fergusson) (Wormser, 2002) was still rampant across the country. Moreover, the economic politics -- many of which are still in effect today -- in which federal, state and local legislation typically benefits those with the most economic resources of the day also helped to hamper the egalitarian spirit in which the Act was created.…… [Read More]

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Social Institutions

Words: 1778 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31740701

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND African-American

How do major social institutions contribute to the creation and preservation of race, gender and social class status arrangements?

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of women of color for instance, the Native American, African-American, Mexican-American, and Asian-American) within the context of education, labor, or the family. Furthermore, the impact of stereotyping, the implicit bias and social racism influences the behavior aspects and patterns of discrimination with the social institutions. The society has internalized codes and cues that elevate the racism and any endeavors to control such biases remain futile. In essence, major social institutions contribute to the development and preservation of race, gender and social status (Agathangelou & Ling, 2002).

African-American women comprise a critical proportion of the learning environment; yet are extremely unrepresented and underutilized. There are various programs and initiatives designed and implemented to focus on women and other…… [Read More]

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New Deal and African-Americans

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80341048

Roosevelt administration and the New Deal programs treated African-Americans. To what extent did they receive a better treatment? To what extent did the programs reinforce racial discrimination? Please provide two examples to answer each question.

Roosevelt's New Deal programs were designed to alleviate poverty, not to specifically heal racial discrimination. However, because of the historical legacy of slavery and discrimination in America, African-Americans were often disproportionately affected by the Great Depression and thus could benefit from these social service programs to an equal degree as whites. In the era before extensive legal protections such as the Civil Rights Acts, African-Americans were often the first employees let go by employers seeking to reduce their labor costs during economically trying times like the Great Depression ("FDR and the New Deal, 2014). They also were less likely to be unionized and to receive the protections given by union membership.

FDR passed anti-lynching and…… [Read More]

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Is There a Relationship Between Race and Arrest Rates

Words: 1292 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Only the Methodology chapter Paper #: 16962076

Arrest Rates

The possibility of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system warrants attention from researchers, in order to encourage evidence-based policy change. Prior research has shown a clear connection between race and rates of arrest, but it is unclear whether the relationship is due to bias in the criminal justice system or bias in public perception of crime, leading to the belief that blacks are more dangerous than whites. This research shows whether there is indeed a relationship between race and arrest rates, and if so, under which circumstances the effect is most pronounced.. The five research hypotheses examine variables including race, type of crime, arrest rates, post-arrest procedures including prosecution and sentencing, mitigating variables like poverty, and political propaganda. It is expected that non-whites are more likely to be arrested for the groups of crimes known as "street crimes," including murder, rape, and drug trafficking, and it is…… [Read More]

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Feminism How Sports Reproduce or Challenge Gender

Words: 2265 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77853159

Feminism

How sports reproduce or challenge gender, sexuality, and/or racial norms

The world is made up of people with varying races, religious practices, regions, developmental capacities and levels, access to natural resources, gender, and many other facets of disparity: the emergence of sport and sporting activities has led to the creation of avenues where these differences are buried for the sake of promoting human equality globally.

Sports and sporting activities are human interventions that involve exemplification of skill, learnt and intrinsic, in deploying the rule of instructions and delivery of intended results. There are many sporting activities in the world. For instance, sporting activities range from those that involve in-depth levels of martial arts, skill, psychological reactions, and physical interventions. All sporting activities are open to human involvement: nonetheless, not all people all sporting activities because of their gender. Humanity exists with a number of differences. For instance, there are…… [Read More]

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Langston Hughes the Impact of

Words: 1982 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 97034390

In "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain," Hughes speaks greatly about jazz, noting that the blacks in Harlem are not afraid to be the way that they are, unlike the middle-class blacks who Hughes accuses of constantly trying to act like they are white. One of the aspects of this group that Hughes points to is jazz music, along with gospel music. Thus, Hughes points to jazz as the ideal -- where blacks express themselves freely through their own art. Jazz, then, like racism and race, was a major component of Hughes life that greatly impacts his work.

But while Hughes' lyrical work is the most prominent feature of his life, he was not only a poet and an intellectual. Hughes was, like many blacks during his time, a hard working man, a man who worked at many blue-collar jobs. Fishman states that Hughes had his first job during…… [Read More]

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Qustions to Answer on Human

Words: 1648 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37476910



5. The United Nations International Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is essential for the protection of human rights. However, despite the fact that Australia is considered to be one of the most democratic countries in the world, it fails to take full account of the need to offer maximum protection of human rights especially concerning the aboriginal population. This is why the UN has hard criticized the government for its actions.

Critics have been focused on the administrative aspects of the human rights protection system in Australia in particular on the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission which the Australian government has committed itself to reform (United Nations, 2006). Also, the United Nations raised questions concerning the possibility of the Aboriginal people to benefit from the power of representativeness. However, the government is determined to take these matters under consideration and reconsider the situation through the establishment of…… [Read More]