Schizophrenia Essays (Examples)

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Establishing an NP-Led Day Treatment Facility in Bessemer Alabama

Words: 12948 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Multiple chapters Paper #: 85464574

Establishing an NP Led Wellness and Recovery Center for Deinstitutionalized Individuals

Historically, nursing, and medicine professions have been loath to utilize tools commonly linked with mercenary aspects of business, such as market research and decision analysis. In the contemporary health care setting, however, consumers hold numerous options for care providers. The division of the market or market segmentation into different subgroups allows the determination of target markets and the buildup of marketing policies specific to the needs and interests of the selected subgroups. Market analysis allows the identification of policies for nurse practitioners to enhance their practice in a way that centers on the interests and needs of the selected market. While scores of the nurse practitioner's dream of operating their own businesses, those that have set up their own practice understand that it requires a compelling passion for owning a business, and for the profession.

A nurse practitioner is…… [Read More]

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder Puberty in

Words: 3841 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28570848

Lonely and distressed adolescents are easy prey to alcohol abuse and drug use causing crime, as well. Substance abuse causes a number of problems for the users as well as the attached parties. It distorts the adolescent's decision making processes and makes them more rigid in what they believe other than what should be done (Turkum, 2011, pg 130).

There are a number of reasons behind substance abuse, including; to gain self-confidence, heightened power, and more energy as many believe to be the case. Peer pressure also accounts for the better part of victims of substance abuse. Teenagers will go to the extent of abusing drugs just to impress their audience.

Issues involving substance abuse are hard to resolve within families at times due to parent involvement in using the drugs. There is the need to notify Human Service professional of such cases. There are specific treatment settings set for…… [Read More]

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Diagnosis of Client Diagnosis of

Words: 325 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64152414

Since there seems to be a mixture of symptoms and causes this combination technique has produced the best results so far.

Though psychotherapy and counseling alone are not very effective in treatment of schizophrenia, they can be much more effective than medications alone because those that suffer from schizophrenia often do not stay on their medications. Paired with counseling of not only the individual but also the family and caretakers of the person suffering from schizophrenia, the medications have a much higher chance of providing relief from the symptoms. It is also important to note that, as with any mental illness that is being treated with medications, counseling is necessary to ensure the individual is getting the proper medication and appropriate dosage. Without the opportunity to explore their individual situation the sufferer may simply stop taking a medication that seems to be of no help, or is causing side effects…… [Read More]

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Nature vs Nurture Essay

Words: 3597 Length: Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array

In this Nature vs. Nurture essay example, we will offer topics, titles, an outline, and what it takes to make a great paper. We begin with a strong introduction and thesis statement, followed by body paragraphs that offer in depth analysis of the topics as well as current evidence. We end the essay with a succinct recap of everything under the conclusion section. In critical essays, the main thing to focus on is development of a strong perspective to offer readers a unique and interpretive analysis of a text or topic(s).


What came first, the chicken or the egg? Is Nurture more influential than Nature?

To be or not to be: Nature versus Nurture

The Eternal Debate: Nature versus Nurture

Selected Title: Understanding Origins: Nature versus Nurture


Background on the Debate of Nature vs. Nurture

Heritability Estimates

Interaction of Genes and Environment

Personality Traits and Genetics


I.…… [Read More]

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Examining the Tools of Epidemiologists

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78346617

Epidemiology in Healthcare

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Immunization Program (NIP) track the number of deaths that occur due to measles within the United States (Gindler et al., 2004). Both programs are run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); however, the data reporting systems for the two organizations are distinct. The NCHS reports deaths as either underlying-cause or multiple-cause mortality, but in the absence of measles confirmation by physical examination or laboratory results. By comparison, NIP reports de-identified information, but only confirmed cases. Gindler and colleagues (2004) compared the two reporting systems and the NIP system was found cable of reporting 71% of deaths due to measles, compared to 64% by NCHS. The death-to-case ratio (DCR) varied from 2.05 to 2.83 per 1,000 reported cases among the three databases during the 1989 outbreak. During this period, the prior annual average of 3,000…… [Read More]

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Don Quixote by Cervantes Is a Novel

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98183575

Don Quixote by Cervantes is a novel that delves deeply into the themes of mental illness and the expectations of society. Ultimately, the protagonist's delusional life as Don Quixote is fueled by Spanish society's expectations that a man should be chivalrous, brave and macho. It is these expectations of society that lead the bookish, middle-aged Alonso Quixano to embark on a life as the great, noble adventurer Don Quixote.

This flight into a delusional life, and Quixote's myriad of delusional adventures clearly resembles the actions of schizophrenic. Nonetheless, it is important examine Quixote's behavior in the context of societies' malleable understanding of the norms of acceptable behavior. In other words, it is important to consider carefully whether Don Quixote was simply an eccentric and unusual man, rather than mentally ill with schizophrenia. However, a close examination of Quixote's behavior, even in light of a flexible understanding of the norms of…… [Read More]

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Beautiful Mind the Movie Brought the Reality

Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81337883

Beautiful Mind

The movie brought the reality of schizophrenia closer to personal experience, not only because the film is adapted from the true story of John Forbes Nash, Jr., a Mathematics genius. It is also because the sight-and-sound properties of the cinema have that distinct capability of connecting the audience to the innermost chamber of the characters' personalities and vicariously revealing their frank thoughts and feelings. One could almost feel and think what John Jr. did as he struggled against the disorder.

The movie also tells us that being exemplary or being on top can take its toll. The rest of us who belong to "normal" levels may admire geniuses, but have no idea how excruciating it actually is to be different. Being different is not necessarily being better or happier, just because the world needs hard and accurate thinkers like John Jr. In order to continue developing and coping…… [Read More]

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Theories of Crime

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76724496

Routine Activity & Trait Theories

The Routine Activity Theory is based on the idea that in the absence of effective controls, offenders will prey on attractive targets (A Theory of Crime Problems, n.d.). In the case of a shopping mall with an underground garage having an increase in auto theft, auto burglary, and robberies, the handlers in the situation could be parents, relatives, friends, siblings, or spouses of the offenders. The targets are the victims of the crime. The guardians are the police and security guards. The place manager controls the behavior of offenders and targets. With crime present, it is obvious the handlers, guardians, and the place manager are either absent, weak, or corrupt.

Effective measures could include adequate lighting in the garage to increase surveillance. Lighting would make it harder for the offenders to hide and sneak up on victims. Another effective measure would be surveillance cameras that…… [Read More]

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Schizoaffective Disorder Is a Mental

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56285561

The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)

Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)

Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…… [Read More]

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Correction of Seven Myths About

Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 29725971

Myth 5 is that patients will never be able to stop taking medication even though studies have found that patients were able to function without medication later on in their illnesses. The challenge to Myth 5, schizophrenics are either unable to work or can only achieve at a low level of function, is poorly disputed. The authors present evidence that work is good for mental health patients, but lack empirical evidence of schizophrenics functioning at a high level. Myth 7 is that families cause schizophrenia. However, studies have failed to show that family factors are necessary and sufficient causes of schizophrenia.

In challenging myths about schizophrenia, Harding and Zahniser do a better job at showings some myths to be false than they do for others. Still, their work is valuable across evaluating the merits of all myths because it encourages mental health professionals to challenge commonly held assumptions and to…… [Read More]

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Mental Health Status Assessment

Words: 1997 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 81251551

Mental Status
Part A: Case Study, Mental Status Checklist, Narrative, Sample of MSE, BDI, BAI
Case Study
Barbara Allen (BA), 39, a female professor at a local university, is brought by the partner who fears that the BA is schizophrenic. BA demonstrates paranoia about what the nurses and doctors and doing and keeps saying that she is being sabotaged by her enemies at her workplace. BA appears to refuse to answer questions initially, but when she does speak, she exhibits disordered thinking and confused speech. Her train of thought rambles briefly and incoherently between ideas. She shows an inability to concentrate; her face expresses a great deal of pain and anguish over her awareness of this inability. She says she does not know what is wrong with her intermittently while also saying that “they” are out to get her, while rising out her seat. Her partner tries to comfort her…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Phobias

Words: 1112 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 64746880

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Phobias

The video provides statistics that state that the lifetime prevalence rate of OCD is three percent with 30 to 50% in children of ages 7 to 11 having the disorder. The treatment includes Prozac and Zoloft, which improves the disorder, if taken regularly for several weeks. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also one of the treatments that can be used for children. Parents have an important role to play on their part in order to not make their children anxious regarding everyday lives, but make them confident enough so the children find no excuse to skip school. The video is very relevant to treating mental disorders as it clearly explains the medication and the time required to take it in order to be better. I would like to learn more about Augmentation and the different strategies that can be used to prevent phobias in children (Nickel,…… [Read More]

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Working Definition of Abnormality Abnormality Is Defined

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 48211950

working definition of abnormality.

Abnormality is defined as 'atypicality' or a deviation from the norm (McLeod 2008). Deviation may be viewed in a positive or negative light. In our culture, someone who has a high IQ is viewed as deviant in a positive manner, while someone who is deviant because he or she is bipolar is viewed as deviant in a negative manner. But some modes of deviancy, such as depression, are so common a large percentage of the population suffers from the condition (McLeod 2008). Other forms of abnormality, like seeing visions, are considered highly deviant today in a negative fashion, but were viewed in a positive light as a form of divine insight in ages past, and still are in some cultures.

Defining abnormality merely as violation of social norms can be a poor way to judge a patient, given that homosexuality was once classified as a mental…… [Read More]

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Nature Nurture and Mental Illness the

Words: 1720 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 60650767

Providing more effective and less painful treatments would indeed be a very large step in the right direction. The study results indicated by the above authors provide significant hope in this direction.


Jaffee, S.R. And Price, T.S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 12. Retrieved from:

Lahey, B.B., D'Onofrio, B.M. And Waldman, I.D. (2010, Feb. 10). Using Epidemiological Methods to Test Hypotheses Regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Retrieved from:

Roth, T.L., Lubin, F.D., Sodhi, M. And Kleinman, J.E. (2009, Jun. 25). Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Biochim Biophys Acta. Retrieved from:

Rutter, M. (2010). The Cutting Edge: Gene-Environment Internplay. Depression and Anxiety. Vol. 27. Retrieved from:

Wermter, A-K., Lauch, M., Schimmelmann, B.G., Banaschweski, T., and Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2010). From nature vs. nurture, via nature…… [Read More]

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Black Swan

Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72710878

Black Swan: A Study in Hollywood Psychology
The film Black Swan was noteworthy in the way it explored the dark side of ballet, including eating disorders, psychological manipulation, and how the pressures of achieving perfection can wreak havoc with the developing psyche of a young woman. The central protagonist Nina is a rising star in a prestigious city ballet company. She is given the task of dancing the lead role of Swan Lake. This is one of the most technically and emotionally demanding of all roles in ballet. The White Swan Odette, is supposed to embody purity, while the Black Swan Odile, embodies all that Odette is not and thus temporarily seduces the prince and the audience with her sexuality and bravado. Nina is told early on in the film by the ballet company director that while she is technically proficient she lacks the qualities needed to embody the Black…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Depression in Adolescent

Words: 3055 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45960897

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Odyssey Dante Frankenstein

Words: 3056 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95647040

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]

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Epigenetics Video the PBS Video Uses Identical

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28886259



The PBS video uses identical twins to illustrate how people with the identical DNA may still have differences. Those differences result from epigenetics, according to the narrator. To illustrate how epigenetics work, the video visits a scientist at Duke University. One mouse is hugely obese and yellowish, and the other mouse with identical DNA is brown and thin. The reason why is because while both mice have the same gene that controls weight gain, in the yellow fat mouse that gene (agouti gene) "stays on all the time," the narrator explains.

Both mice have that gene (the "agouti gene") but for the thin mouse, a "tiny chemical tag of carbon and hydrogen" called the "methyl group" has attached itself to the agouti gene basically shutting it down. So the brown thin mouse is normal size but the yellow fat mouse, much larger than normal, has had its agouti…… [Read More]

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Book Is There No Place on Earth for Me

Words: 785 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15808648

Earth for Me

Sheehan, Susan. (1983) Is There No Place On Earth for Me? New York: Vintage Books.

When Benjamin Wilder reminisced recently about Sylvia's summer in Chicago, he said he could have tolerated Sylvia's presence in his house for a few more weeks if he had had to, but she was taking such a toll on him that he had asked himself whether it was his mission in life to make her behave acceptably. His answer to that question was no. He felt that if she had stayed with him much longer, he would have lost his mind." (Sheehan, 1983, 223)

The book Is there no Place on Earth for me? is an account of Sylvia Frumkin, a pseudonym used to identify the true identity of a young woman who began suffering from schizophrenia in her teens. Sylvia was institutionalized early in her illness, and spent much of her…… [Read More]

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Movie a Beautiful Mind

Words: 1256 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17627692

Beautiful Mind

Ron Howard's 2001 film A Beautiful Mind caused as much controversy over its treatment of mental illness as it did over its winning the Academy Award for best picture. Based on Sylvia Nassar's book of the same name, A Beautiful Mind chronicles the life of a Nobel Prize-winning mathematician who suffered from schizophrenia, one of the most little-understood mental diseases. While the film may not have deserved the overwhelming cinematic accolades it received, it is nevertheless a touching and sensitive, as well as poignantly realistic portrayal of mental illness. A well-respected Princeton-educated mathematician at the head of his field, John Nash (played by Russell Crowe) is no ordinary man to begin with. His theories arise in his "beautiful mind" like a musician's composition would, and like many brilliant individuals, Nash would have been eccentric with or without the accompaniment of schizophrenic delusions and paranoia. However, when he begins…… [Read More]

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Hanna Segal's Psychoanalytic Approach to Aesthetics

Words: 5573 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27573062

psychoanalytic as portrayed by H. Segal. It has sources.

Psychoanalytic approach to aesthetics can best be understood by understanding the theory/ies that guide us on the study of this particularly complex discipline. The theory and guidelines of psychoanalytic approach enable us to offer some insight into the worlds of literature, art and music, and on the other hand, it also allows us to better understand artists' perception and inner approaches as he applies them to portray his feelings. Psychoanalytic approach also enables us to understand the artists' aesthetic experiences as he or she conjures up his perception and response thereof, interpretation and meaning, and his or her thoughts and feelings. Primarily divided into applied psychoanalysis and clinical psychoanalysis, the discipline of psychoanalytic aesthetics has been studied and commented upon by famous names including Melaine Klein, Hanna Segal, Wilfred Brion, Donald Meltzer, Donald Winnicott and Marion Milner on the clinical aspects.…… [Read More]

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Joanne Greenberg's I Never Promised You a

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89497464

Joanne Greenberg's I Never Promised You A Rose Garden is a semi-autobiographical novel depicting the pain and suffering of schizophrenia. Greenberg goes beyond self-indulgence and instead tackles the bigger issues that accompany mental illness, including the prejudices and sentiments of family members and peer groups.

Deborah Blau, the protagonist in I Never Promised You A Rose Garden, creates a world called Yr as one of the symptoms of her disease. Yr is a tranquil haven from the real world until Deborah undergoes treatment for her illness. While she tackles her issues in the hospital under the kind and skilled guidance of her therapist Dr. Clara Fried, Deborah is forced to confront the painful emotions that have haunted her throughout her life. These issues and her family background are offered by Greenberg not as an excuse or cause for Deborah's illness, but to provide context and garner empathy. Throughout the novel,…… [Read More]

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Diversity Sometimes the Worst Disabilities Are Those

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15823536


Sometimes the worst disabilities are those which are invisible to the naked eye; people who have a mental illness or disability are overwhelmingly stigmatized by society and discrimination against them is both widespread and fully condoned in our culture. (Johnstone, 2005). The disadvantages of mental disabilities are compounded by the fact that the abilities which are disabled, so to speak, tend to be those which are most useful in navigating the social provisions for the disabled, and by the lack of physical manifestations which may discourage outsiders from recognizing the need for intervention. Thus there are many particular challenges facing the mentally disabled, including a lack of social sensitivity to, acceptance of, and knowledge about these disabilities, and widespread institutional discrimination affecting employment, medical care, travel, residency, and many other aspects of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore the portrayal in film and literature of the…… [Read More]

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Stress and Effects on Brain

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47630399

55). In other words, stress can create a life-long physiological change in and impairment of brain and body functioning. Such recent findings suggest that victims of stress may in fact suffer from a neurological disorder rather than just from a character flaw, mental weakness, or bad luck.

Chronic stress can impact individual perception and thinking in significant ways. Research in cognitive neuropsychology has been particularly helpful in identifying some of these patterns. Psychiatrists at the Dartmouth Medical School have identified certain common styles of thinking present in those who as a result of traumatic stress suffer from chronic life stress (Mueser, Rosenberg, & Rosenberg, 2009, pp. 99-120). These thought patterns, or schemas, shape the individual's perception of the world and have a degree of negative control over their emotions (Mueser, Rosenberg, & Rosenberg, 2009). The problem is that they are inaccurate and destructive thoughts and beliefs. They exacerbate distress rather…… [Read More]

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Phenomenological and Grounded Theory A Comparison

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99070503


Review and selection of counseling-related research article using a qualitative methodology

A review of peer-reviewed counseling-related research articles using a qualitative methodology that were published within the last 10 years identified the most relevant results as including a phenomenological study by Parker and Change (2014) and a grounded theory study by Wiens and Daniluk (2009). The phenomenological study by Wiens and Daniluk (2009) provided an overview of various qualitative methodologies that have been in the past to evaluate the experience of father's with children diagnosed with schizophrenia, but noted that most of the research to date in this area has taken place a decade or more following diagnosis and there have only been three studies to date concerning the role of fathers in the disease process. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to provide fresh insights concerning the lived experiences of fathers whose young adult children were…… [Read More]

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Questions About Pts Disorder

Words: 1559 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28425807

DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies

Case Studies

Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the World Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the World Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. Whenever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…… [Read More]

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Treating Mental Illness With a Family Oriented Approach

Words: 1782 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91979540

Family Therapy Treatment of Mental Illness

There has been a growing movement towards the use of family therapy methods for the treatment of mental illness in recent years. To determine the facts about this trend, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning family therapy treatment of mental illness in three sections. In Section 1, a discussion concerning the views of O'Hanlon and Rowan's (2003) and Zeig and Munion (1999) for working with clients with chronic or severe mental illness is followed by an analysis of the extent to which they succeed in making a strong case for "brief therapy" with intensive clients. An assessment concerning the contribution of Milton Erickson to the assessment and treatment of different mental health diagnoses is followed by an analysis of their respective approaches and the corresponding benefits and limitations of each of these models. Section II provides a discussion concerning the…… [Read More]

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Psychological Disorders Diagnosis and Treatment

Words: 1417 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86020414

Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Has Been Increasingly Used In the Treatment of Psychosis over the Last 10 To 15 Years. Describe CBT for Psychosis and Evaluate the Evidence for the Effectiveness for This Intervention in Treating Psychosis

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy's (CBT's) application to psychosis has, of late, been intensely debated. A number of independent psychologists and health organizations are proposing diverse interpretations with regard to what CBT in psychosis treatment really refers to. For example, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence proposes CBT with a small amount of evidence, whereas Maddox (2014), a psychologist, maintains that psychosis denotes a broad or umbrella term applied to a group of symptoms, which are divided into negative or positive. This classification does not imply that some symptoms are bad while others are good; rather, the intention is expressing that some symptoms add a new element, while others…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Psychology Dual Diagnosis

Words: 1957 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 50753810

Dual Diagnosis for Andrea

Considering a differential diagnosis, what is your initial assessment and diagnostic impressions of Andrea and why? Consider the psychotic spectrum disorders and bi-polar disorders concurrent with substance related disorders in your response. Please present other ideas that you have for Andrea.

In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), polysubstance or polydrug abuse is considered a substance disorder. This manual is the guide book that is used by the experts in mental health to classify disorders. The depression and the personality problems that the patient Andrea is exhibiting can be attributed to the problem of polydrug abuse. Andrea clearly has a mental disorder and the addition of drugs to this can only aggravate the situation. The polydrug use may have escalated from the use of alcohol or marijuana and then later involved the addition of other substances. This is what is typical with adult…… [Read More]

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Bipolar Also Known as Manic-Depressive Disorder Bipolar

Words: 2333 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58661457


Also known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that can be treated with a combination of medication and regular therapy. Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder, and is qualified by abnormal intensity of moods and mood swings, leading to dysfunctional, erratic, or self-destructive behaviors. When left untreated or unrecognized, bipolar disorder can disrupt daily functioning and human relationships. Therefore, chemical and non-chemical treatment interventions are critical for maintaining healthy functioning.

Bipolar disorder is referred to as having a cyclic pattern, because the symptoms are episodic. In other words, the person may be severely depressed, then normal, then fully manic, and then back to being depressed. Mania and depression are the two poles from which the person swings back and forth. Prevalence is equally common in men and women ("Bipolar Disorder," n.d.). First signs of onset are usually in the teens or early twenties;…… [Read More]

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Family Systems and Marriage Psychology

Words: 3816 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87974286

Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems

The literal meaning of the word "psychopathology" is a mind disorder or disease. Psychological diagnosticians, while assuming that the illness is located inside a person, always use the medical model in treating or studying patients with 'mental illnesses'. In comparison with the approach they take, I present two converging and related psychopathology perspectives. The two perspectives give an analysis based on context from the family's viewpoint. The first approach, the "family systems" approach, is a conception that came up in the 1950s as a substitute to the traditional focus of psychopathology on individuals (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 1996).

The second approach, "family risk factors" has been in existence in psychopathology but not in the foreground. It tries to identify a couple family aspects of the functioning of the family that are significant in the treatment as well as etiology of patients that have tested positive…… [Read More]

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Aapt Level IV Cert Written Test

Words: 4244 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14350480

AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test


Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & Benazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…… [Read More]

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Enforcement of Psychology Treatment for the Mentally Ill

Words: 8451 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 95839705

Psychology Treatment

For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…… [Read More]

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Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest

Words: 2096 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98294131

Ken Kesey

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey was written after its author worked as an orderly in a psychiatric ward. Yet the novel also demonstrates significant research that manages to elevate it to the level of a serious critique. Published in 1962, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is thus an artistic contribution to that decade's emerging critique of societal handling of mental illness, a loose affiliation of scholarly critics that would include the British psychiatrist R.D. Laing and Canadian sociologist Erving Goffmann and would in 1967 be collectively nicknamed the "anti-psychiatry movement." I think we can understand Kesey's role in this movement by focusing on the narrator of his novel, Chief Bromden. By examining Kesey's handling of Bromden's mental state, both as medical fact and as metaphorical device, the novel's criticism of psychiatry in its year of publication may be seen as part of a…… [Read More]

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Correlations Three Correlations Correlations From Marijuana Use

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46313914


Three correlations

Correlations: From marijuana use to meat eating to fast food

One of the most commonly-cited statistics in the popular media is the strong correlation between marijuana use and later 'hard' drug use, although it is uncertain if marijuana is causally related, or merely correlated with this phenomenon. Another surprising correlation in the use of marijuana also perplexes researchers. There also appears to be a strong correlation between schizophrenia and heavy use of marijuana in adolescence. "Scientists in Australia followed nearly 4,000 young adults born between 1981 and 1984 at the 21-year mark, and found that the longer study participants had used marijuana, the higher the risk of psychosis-related outcomes. Those who had experienced hallucinations early were more likely to have smoked or used marijuana longer and more frequently" (Meier 2010).

The study's authors state that the causal relationship between the use of the drug and later schizophrenia…… [Read More]

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Psychology Statement of Purpose and Personal Statement

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Admission Essay Paper #: 35982588

Psychology Statement of Purpose and Personal Statement

When I was 12 years old, a cousin (let us call her Jenny) who was living with us at the time as her parents sorted out their marital problems started exhibiting strange behavior. At the time, she was only 14. At first, her strange behavior was barely noticeable but with time, it became clear that something was amiss. We became alarmed when she started refusing to eat meals claiming that her dad could have sneaked in the house (or sent someone) to poison the food as it was being prepared so as to get rid of her. Apparently, for one reason or another, Jenny had quite a low opinion of her dad. To cut the long story short, Jenny was later-on diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. All along, I had been particularly close to Jenny and her change of behavior left me totally confused.…… [Read More]

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Mental Health and Primary Care

Words: 3532 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27043682

It promised to be a very important resource to the primary care setting, but at present, the performance has not been considerable and there have been lack of funds and local consensus, which thwart its implementation (Pidd).

Shared Care Between GP Practices and Community Health Teams

This initiative aimed at developing cooperative partnership between these teams as well as establishing systems for proactive, structured care at the practice level (Pidd 2004). Implementation has similarly been problematic. When effected, it would insure the engagement and involvement of the key staff in GP practice and local community mental health teams; a participative, facilitated process for the shared care conceptual framework; joint working groups to develop shared care agreements; and a shared understanding of priorities for improvement. Meanwhile, pilot studies conducted on personal medical services identified five factors, which could enhance successful quality improvement. These were effective collaboration with community and secondary care,…… [Read More]

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Sex vs Gender and Nature vs Nature

Words: 3220 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4959495

sex vs. gender and nature vs. nature on a multi-disciplinary approach. We base our discussion on a variety of papers which we present as annotated bibliography. The papers are then used in the development of rest of the paper. We present our paper on the following views: religion, culture, norms, society etc.

One of the major issues that has attracted a lot of debate in this century in the field of psychiatry revolves around nature and nurture (Keltner et al., 2001).Nurture is used to refer to upbringing and nature refers to biological aspects of life.There is a raging controversy that revolves around hereditary environment with several historical evidences used in order to explain the connection between the two. The history locates the genesis of this debate to John Locke.It'd worth noting that this controversy has never stopped. This is because it still remains a major question as to how much…… [Read More]

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Johnson & Johnson's Marketing Mix

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79906587

Specifically focused on products for each phase of a persons' life, this business segment is the most mainstream in terms of promotional strategies. Skin Care, OTC and Nutritionals have successfully given JNJ a permanent marketing strategy for selling to women in the 25-34 and 25-45 segments, two of the fastest growing demographic markets for these products.

Product Strategy

The biggest challenge for JNJ is the ability to quickly develop and launch products across all of their business units. This is the most challenging task internally for the entire company to coordinate on, specifically in the area of pharmaceuticals where Federal Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and the need for compliance are very high.

The costs of producing a new drug can be well over $800M according to AMR Research (2004). An analysis of each phase of the development of a new drug is shown in the following graphic from PhRMA (2005).…… [Read More]

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Personality Theories Personality Is a

Words: 798 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45883313

R Harris "believes that parent do not shape their child's personality or character" (Lee, 2003) rather, it is the child's peers who hold more influence on the child. According to Harris, children do not use all the information they have learned from their parents. In general, children behave in the manner which they have learned from people in their social group.

According to Haimowitz, family environment does not contribute much to a child personality and his or her risk for a disorder such as schizophrenia. In a study conducted among adopted-away children whose biological mothers suffered from schizophrenia, results show that "several of the adopted away children of schizophrenic mothers suffered from schizophrenia themselves, while the adoptees whose parents didn't have schizophrenia also did not have schizophrenia themselves" (Haimowitz, 2005). This study espouses the theory that environment does not play a big role in an individual's personality rather biological influences…… [Read More]

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Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and

Words: 3626 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 49707748

This leaves many veterans prone to the condition known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may be characterized as "an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat." (NIMH, 1) in the particular case of this discussion, military combat is a cause of PTSD that can have devastating long-term outcomes. Indeed, "studies estimate that as many as 500,000 troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will suffer from some form of psychological injury, with PTSD being the most common." (Eliscu, 58) the outcomes of this condition will run a wide range of symptoms that impact the ability of individuals to cope with the pressures of everyday life, to relate to those who have not experienced the traumas of war,…… [Read More]

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Human Personality Development Is One

Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97431379


Emotional regulation -- the ability to control one's emotions so that they are within the "average" for the population surrounding them

In-utero- while the child is developing in the woman's uterus

Schizophrenia -- a serious mental illness affecting the person's perceptions of the world around them

Stimuli -- an input from a person's environment, something that the person experiences


Braungart-Rieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger Reactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The Roles of Temperament, Regulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.

Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from

DiGirolamo, a. & Ramirez-Zea, M. (2009). Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.

Lozoff, B.,…… [Read More]

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cognition and learning

Words: 5998 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64756393

Increasing of skills and knowledge and even knowledge of the society cannot be possible without social interactions. That is the basis of the social cognitive theory as it brings together attitudinal and cognitive effects. The major forms of continuous learning are via the environment, the web, media houses and social communications. The intensity of the effect this new knowledge would have on people is dependent on their individual mindsets. Social communication (as earlier stated) is a major way of increasing knowledge and deriving meaning from these. In this handbook, we have given a thorough breakdown of social cognition and the workings of social communication in its various forms. This topic is very useful for schools, service establishments, research institutes, the government, professional training schools, industries and firms among others. Even the military could benefit from this as it has employees who daily apply their cognitive abilities for various uses such…… [Read More]

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Drug Abuse in Mental Health Patients

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92057309

Drug abuse among patients with mental problems is a serious issue that has gained some popularity in America today because it affects people from all lifestyles and age groups. The associated health problems are common, serious, and recurrent although the prospects of recovery on both issues cannot be ruled out. Therefore, knowledge on common drug abuse and mental health problems is important. It helps the society and other stakeholders in recognizing their signs and guiding victims to seek medical help. Studies of drug abuse in mental health patients confirm their high comorbidity hence the classification as ‘co-occurring’ or ‘dual’ disorders.
Mental disorders normally involve the change in and people’s thinking, behavior, and mood that later affects how they make certain choices and their relationship to other people in society. They occur in different forms such as schizophrenia, which makes an individual have extremely bad temperament (Newman, 2016). Moreover, some people…… [Read More]

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The Pros and Cons of Legalizing Marijuana

Words: 922 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27081367

Marijuana From the Psychosocial Perspective

Perceived Risk

We know that the concept of perceived risk is demonstrated most clearly by use trends related to marijuana use by adolescents. Use has fallen and risen over the course of modern history based on how dangerous the drug is perceived to be. What impact will the current attitude of accepting medical and recreational marijuana have on your generation - today's youth and tomorrow's parents, leaders, and change-makers?

Even before the legalization of marijuana, there was a tacit social acceptance of the drug, particularly within many subcultures such as on college campuses, in the music industry, and amongst artists. Legalizing the drug could theoretically reduce the perception of the drug as a kind of 'forbidden fruit' and actually make it less of a rite of passage of teenage rebellion. It also might make the current use of drug tests for various occupations less accepted…… [Read More]

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British Cannabis Policy Reform

Words: 11793 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41229071

Cannabis in the UK: De-Penalisation, Decriminalisation, or Legalisation?

In October of 2015, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was forced to debate whether the current prohibition on cannabis should end in some way. "Forced" is the correct word here, because Parliament seems otherwise unwilling to address the issue, but in this case it was obliged by its own policy, whereby any petition signed by at least one hundred thousand people must necessarily trigger a parliamentary debate. In the case of the issue of ending the prohibition on cannabis, the petition requesting that Parliament address the issue received well over the required number of signatures; it was, in the words of Smith (2015), "a petition signed by 220,000 people - the third most popular on Parliament's website." Therefore on 12 October 2015, Parliament was obliged to take up the matter for debate. Liberal Democrat MP Norman Lamb ultimately took up the…… [Read More]

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Innovations in Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis

Words: 3269 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57417690


• Questions refer to the paper Mi S, Hu B, Hahm K, Luo Y et al., (2007) LINGO-1 antagonist promotes spinal cord remyelination and axonal integrity in MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Nat Med;13(10):1228-33.

MOG-induced murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an experimentally-induced disease. In what ways does it model the 'outside-in' theory of multiple sclerosis? Your answer must name the correct antigens and cell types involved in the process (3 marks).

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) involves both neurological and immune components (Mi et al., 2007). EAE is formed from the CD4+ T cell -- mediated immune response targeted at specific proteins within the central nervous system (CNS) which provides a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) (Week 10 Lecture Notes). The research to date indicates that loss of the Nogo receptor -- interacting protein LINGO-1 moderates EAE by altering the generation and the infiltration into the CNS of encephalogenic T…… [Read More]

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Philosophy of Mind and Mental Illness

Words: 2455 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32851897

Joan of Arc

Thanks to the many media representations of her, Joan of Arc has become somewhat of a household name. Also known as Jeanne or Jehanne D'Arc, this extraordinary young woman fearlessly led the French Army to victory at a time when it became obvious to all but her that they would lose. In addition to devising military strategies that would ultimately lead them to victory, Joan of Arc also boosted the morale of her soldiers to such an extent that they rapidly came from a deep depression about their possibilities as an army towards a unified front that few could defeat. In the end, however, and perhaps this is the most well-known part of her story, Joan of Arc came to her tragic end by being burned at the stake as a heretic at best or a witch at worst. Today, this story has culminated in many speculations.…… [Read More]

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Records Show That Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM

Words: 3010 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13884942

Records show that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is more than 2,000 years old, although there exist other written records that date back to 3,500 years earlier (Maclean and Shane 1999) and archaeological evidence that suggests it began at least 5,000 years ago. Although called traditional, it actually went through a series of changes and adaptations to various influences, such as politics, economics, science, technology and social and cultural alterations, to a point that Western medicine almost replaced it (Maclean and Shane), particularly with the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. It was restored and regained popularity only by the middle 50s and, henceforth, has continued to serve and benefit the Chinese people, as well as the rest of the world today.

Traditional Chinese Medicine. TCM is founded on the qi, the natural life force or energy that constitutes everything and everyone in the universe.(Xi Yi Tang) - man, animals,…… [Read More]

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Disability Rights Movement and How it Affected Employment

Words: 3063 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88014648

Disability Rights Movement and How it Affected Employment

According to the oxford advanced leaner's dictionary disability is the state of being disabled or lack of something that is considered necessary, disabilities could be of sight, hearing, speech and diseases among others. Baron (2002, 585-599) in his studies gave a broader definition of disability in which he termed it as a complex phenomena that reflects on the interaction between the physical body of a disable person and the features of the society in which he or she habitats' in. Important to note is that disability can be present from the birth of a person or it can occur during one's lifetime. Beiser et al.(1994,857-863) in his studies highlighted the types of disabilities to include of physical disability, intellectual disability, developmental disability, mental health and emotional disabilities, sensory disability which is further categorized into visual impairment, balance disorder, hearing impairment, somato-sensory impairment,…… [Read More]

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Psycho Auditory Imagery in Terms of Auditory

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6191806

Psycho Auditory

Auditory Imagery

In terms of auditory imagery of music and environmental sounds, what area of the brain is involved in the comparisons of pitch in imagery? (b) Research regarding the manipulation of auditory images of melodies has shown that activation of the posterior parietal cortex was correlated with what variable?

The part or area of the brain that is crucial for comparison of pitch in imagery is the Auditory Cortex. Auditory Cortex has two distinct areas: primary auditory cortex and peripheral cortex. These two areas play unique roles in comparison of the pitch in imagery. In the manipulation of auditory images of melodies has shown that activation of the posterior parietal cortex was correlated with vision. Activation of the posterior parietal cortex experiences correlation with the extent or strength of the vision of an individual.

With respect to the content of dreams, what sort of auditory imagery is…… [Read More]

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Psychology and Behavior Discuss Antipsychotic

Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39699085

Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.

Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…… [Read More]

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Bi-Polar Bipolar Disorder Is a

Words: 2854 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82804387

The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.

Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…… [Read More]

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Spirituality and Depression What Is

Words: 6620 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57098827

Similarly the Ayurvedic tradition of India emphasized rest and relaxation and nutritional well-being, along with various mentally stimulating exercises. Ayurvedic resorts are still popular in the East. Buddhism is also viewed as an avenue out of depression -- a mode to enlightenment. Nonetheless, as James C.-Y. Chou (2005) states, "The concept of psychological depression in Eastern cultures is not as well accepted as it is in Western cultures. In fact, the whole idea of illness in Eastern cultures is based on physical illness…if they have a psychological illness, then they are perceived as being a persistently mentally ill patient as you would see in a state hospital…it's stigmatized."

Perhaps more than any ancient civilization, the Greeks "took a great interest in the human psyche and especially in madness. Plato who lived in the 5th and 4th centuries BC speaks about two kinds of madness, one with a divine origin and…… [Read More]

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Role of Spirituality in the

Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46853970

History of the Problem

Rachel Evans (2011) lists a number of nutritional therapies for the treatment of depression, ranging from St. John's Wort to "dan zhi xiao yao, a traditional Chinese medicine." Alternative medicine has often been seen as a supplement to the treatment of depression in the past. Other treatments have included the famous lobotomy technique designed by Portuguese neurologist Antonio Egas Moniz, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his technique. Moniz simply drilled and snipped "nerve fibers running from the frontal lobes to the rest of the brain" (Lerner, 2005). And Kyziridis identifies several ways in which the ancient Greeks would approach mental illness such as depression:

"Cicero…believed that man could help with his own cure through philosophy" (p. 43). Even today there are numerous studies that still show how physicians rely on pharmaceuticals to restore balance in a patient suffering from depression: Prevention of depends upon…… [Read More]

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Personality Assessment Inventory Critique MMPI-2

Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46661874

In fact, it is important to understand that the MMPI-2 must be administered as a whole and that one cannot consider scores on any one area of the test in isolation from a subject's other results.

Moreover, it is important to recognize that while the scales may carry official names, they do not only measure the suggested disease. For example, the schizophrenia scale appears to measure the degree of alienation that a subject feels from society at large, a number that is going to vary depending on one's role in society. For example, one would expect a healthy minority member to have a higher score of on the schizophrenia scale because minorities are generally more disenfranchised from society at large. Therefore, the tool cannot be properly utilized if the testing clinician is lacking basic facts about the subject being tested.

Moreover, these scales test for a variety of different disorders.…… [Read More]

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Treatment of Co-Occurring Disorders the

Words: 2880 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98912640

Clients attend multiple twelve-step meetings and participate in twelve-step work to gain freedom from alcohol and/or drug addiction. In addition, they participate in individual and group counseling in order to alleviate the depression and anxiety underlying the addiction ("Dual diagnosis...," 2006).

Happiness, in their opinion, is the cure for addictions. Giving and receiving love is the key to happiness. This concept is the main reason for Hope and Serenity's success in treating addiction by addressing the underlying cause of the problem. This simple word love that is as old as time itself, is so overused in today's society that it get's equated with sex, control, abuse, and so forth. Hope's dual diagnosis addiction treatment staff was hired first, for their ability to show love for others and secondly, for their qualifications as therapists (also extremely high). Love is the ability to understand and empathize with another human being and their…… [Read More]

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Abnormal Psychology Theories Issues Diagnosis

Words: 2437 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 61912524

The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.

Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]

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How History Has Treated Mental Disorder

Words: 296 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65036710

Mental Health Disorders
Throughout the centuries, mental health disorder has been viewed in a number of different ways by different eras and communities around the world. Some approached it from a spiritual dimension, while others approached it from a naturalistic viewpoint (Kyziridis, 2005; Smith, 2007). Food, music, prayer, and time spent in comfortable surroundings were variously viewed as ways to treat mental disturbance in antiquity. Through the Middle Ages, mental disorder became associated with spiritual influence, either from Heaven or from Hell.

Hospitals were places where persons with severe mental disorders were placed, but there was not much good treatment—as the experiences at Bedlam in London have shown. When the Age of Enlightenment and more focus on naturalistic science prevailed in the 18th century onward, more focus on the brain and how to treat disturbances brought new treatments into existence.

Today, many mental health disorders are still not understood very…… [Read More]

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GAD and Anxiety Disorders

Words: 3244 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84131793

Generalized Anxiety Disorder


Humans have a natural response to survival, stress and fear. Such responses enable an individual to pursue pertinent objectives and respond accordingly to the presence of danger. The 'flight or fight' response in a healthy individual is provoked via a real challenge or threat and is utilized as a means of acting appropriately to the situation. However, when an anxiety disorder manifests in someone, then an inappropriate/excessive state of arousal develops. People then feel symptoms of fear, apprehension, or uncertainty. These feelings or reactions may surface even when no real threat exists.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is a common anxiety disorder that affects roughly 5% of the United States general population. "GAD is commonly associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and is often chronic. GAD is associated with extensive psychiatric and medical utilization and, if left untreated, can cause impairment as severe as major depressive disorder…… [Read More]