In suburban areas, on the other hand, the economic opportunities are diverse and the population is less dense. Here parents are motivated to educate their child and the child gets higher individual attention from the teachers than those in the urban areas where population density is very high (Broomhall and Johnson, 1994; and Hanson and Ginsburg, 1988). Since educational aspirations of parents, students and teachers differ by population density and location; therefore, achievement gap differs by population density and location.
It is clear to some scholars that educational aspirations of parents, students and teachers remain the most important determinant of whether and how much a student achieves (Alexander, Eckland, & Griffin, 1975; Astin & Karabel, 1975; Chapman, 1981; Conklin & Dailey, 1981; Geoffrey, 1998; Litten, 1982). For instance, Astin and Karabel (1975) have conducted a research and the regression analyses indicate that measured academic ability is a more powerful predictor…… [Read More]
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Because of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, the above-cited paragraph on computer science does not achieve these standards. First and foremost, although directed to a general audience, it blatantly assumes that the reader agrees with the author when it states that computers have changed the world in a self-evident fashion. Even if the reader is an enthusiastic consumer of technology, the question arises of what evidence there is of a real change in terms of society, versus superficial and cosmetic shifts. Even the selection of 'fifty years' taken to manifest this change seems arbitrary rather than justified by any evidence. "What, if any, scientific research supports such claims? It appears that there are no scientific studies published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature that establish the validity of these statements. It is not just conclusions, such as those above, but also evaluative instruments that may lack a basis in research providing scientific evidence of their validity or…… [Read More]
" (2003) in other words this is a trust based on possible rewards or possible punishment, or gains vs. losses. Over a period of time when the relationship is further tested trust evolves to 'identification-based trust which is stated to be the "highest level" of trust in that "the parties have internalized each other's desires and intentions. They understand what the other party cares about so completely that each party is able to act as an agent for the other." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) at this stage of trust Lewicki and Tomlinson state that "a strong emotional bond between the parties" (2003) has been formed.
Violations of trust occur when the individual holding "confident positive expectations of the trustee are disconfirmed." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) the result is lower trust because research has shown that violation of trust result in a stifling of "mutual support and information sharing" (Lewicki and…… [Read More]
I was stricken at the site of gender representation at the management level in this country, for example.
Jane Eyre and characters like her made me develop a sense of reality when it came to gender roles that was partly distorted. I was of course inclined to think that I had every right to get the same opportunities as my male counterparts and generally I did in my country. but, the trust I had developed in my male coworkers and those I came in contact with was a little far stretched because of characters like Jane. The physical part of a relationship between a man and a woman was not treated in detail because the era did not allow such extravagancy, but the sexual aspects that were left unsaid or that were just alluded to were impossible to understand for a child and hard to explain later for a young…… [Read More]
253). When asking questions the teacher begins the cognitive process of understanding how the parents think and this is an important step for the educator to gather pertinent information to further analyze the learner's needs with the parents or guardians.
Step three in the LAFF process is for the teachers to focus on the issues throughout the communication process with the parents. The cognitive perspective encourages focusing and problem-solving when focusing on the mental process of how individuals think, perceive, remember, and learn (Sternberg & Mio, 2006). McNaughton and Vostal describe this as the time when a teacher begins the process of "checking for understanding" and once the understanding of the issues has been explored the teacher and parent can move forward on problem-solving solutions (2010, p.254).
The final step of the LAFF process is for the teacher to identify the first step. This part of the cognitive process displays…… [Read More]
Psychology of Gender
In psychological circles there is a case made famous by a psychologist by the name of John Money, who dedicated his life to the study of sexuality. This case is so well-known, that undergraduate psychology students are as familiar with it as they are with the Stanford Prison experiment. Before the year 2000, it was simply known as the "twin's case" or the "John/Joan case." Nowadays, the psychological community uses the name of the little boy who was anonymously famous, written about, and studied extensively for almost 20 years: David Reimer. In a deeply heartbreaking and shocking work of nonfiction, John Colapinto retraces the steps that David Reimer took as a baby boy, to a sex-assigned girl, and back to manhood.
Although David Reimer was born a healthy and anatomically correct boy, an accident during babyhood put him in a special category with other numerous cases that…… [Read More]
It may be necessary to start with continuous conditioning and gradually increase the fixed number of responses necessary for a reinforcer to be delivered. The nature of this schedule "produces a high rate of responding, with a pause after the reinforcer is delivered" (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219), and then another burst of responses.
With a variable-ratio schedule, responses follow a steady pattern, with few pauses after the reinforcer is delivered. Here, reinforcement follows an average number of responses that is varied between trials (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219). A participant may need to respond 25 times in one trial to receive reinforcement, whereas the second trial will require 20 responses for the delivered reinforcer. While each trial is unpredictable, more trials bring the ratio of response to reinforcement to a predetermined average (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219).
Interval schedules use time to determine the delivery of the reinforcer. With a fixed-interval schedule,…… [Read More]
Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (Robert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.
Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]
Since they were conducted, the American Psychological Association (APA) has established rules and strict guidelines for ethical experimentation that would not allow the kind of deception used at that time. In both experiments, the subjects experienced numerous after-effects including depression, anxiety, and tremendous guilt and they received psychological counselling afterwards.
In the case of the Zimbardo experiment, it is understandable why the prisoners would have suffered from the experience, but it is less obvious why the prison guards and the subjects in the Milgram experiment would. The Milgram subjects in particular did not actually cause any harm to anybody because the setup and the shocks were completely faked. Still, the realization of what they were capable of doing shocked them and caused them tremendous shame, guilt, and anxiety. The members of the Zimbardo experiment have held periodic reunions with Dr. Zimbardo over the years and he filmed a documentary detailing…… [Read More]
Psychology Developmental Stages Using Freud, Erikson, Or Maslow's Theories
Development Stages of Life
Prenatal and Infancy
Liberace was born in West Allis, Wisconsin on May 16th, 1919. Liberace's mother was of Polish descent Frances Zuchowaska and his father Salvatore Liberace, was an immigrant from Formia, Italy. Liberace was born with a twin who died at birth and also had a caul on his head. Many cultures believe caulbearers bring good omens and luck with their births and cannot drown. How and why people are born and developing into adults going through all the growing pains have been argued for many centuries. This paper will discuss the life and times of one well know, publically troubled individual, Liberace.
According to Ellis and Hartley (2004)and Berk (2004)the theories of life development are explored by various researches and it is observed that…… [Read More]
Graham was consistent with a general trend exhibited by the court to create a more clear differentiation between appropriate juvenile vs. adult sentencing. For example, in Roper v. Simmons (2005) the court declared the death penalty unconstitutional for persons under 18 (Guggenheim 2012: 3). However, the Graham decision was considered more surprising because the Court tends to give more consideration to death penalty cases. There is often great variation between juvenile laws between the states, but rather than defer to a growing trend to emphasize states' rights, the Graham decision emphasized evolving national and international standards of decency. According to Justice Kennedy, regardless of the state in which the juvenile is tried, there must be a general acknowledgement that juveniles have a "lack of maturity and an underdeveloped sense of responsibility...are more vulnerable or susceptible to negative influences and outside pressures, including peer pressure; and their characters are not as…… [Read More]
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Over the last several years, the issue of compulsive buying has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of individuals are making decisions that are not considered to be financially prudent. Instead, they are based the person feeling good about their purchase in the short-term. This is giving them a sense of emotional satisfaction. However, in the longer periods of time, is when these kinds of decisions can lead to varying financial consequences. As a result, marketers are more likely to target specific segments that are considered to be impulsive.
Two specific groups that were often perused include women and younger adults. This is because a number of studies were indicating, how these two segments are more than likely to engage in compulsive shopping. The main reason why is because women and young adults were often the focus of their surveys. This…… [Read More]
The cause of Palestinian violence against Israel is the illegal occupation by that nation of Palestinian territory, leaving Palestinians with no choice but to defend themselves against their hostile occupiers. During World War II, the Allies praised the efforts of the European partisans and the armed resistance against the Nazis, but today, the world condemns the same efforts of Palestinian civilians fighting against their illegal occupiers and oppressors.
The Palestinian people deserve their rightful territories and violence against Israel will continue until Israel returns all the land taken from Arab countries since 1967 and also allows all Palestinian refugees the right of return to Israel. Just like the Nazis,
Israel conducts military operations against their neighbors and does so without any regard for civilian casualties" (Evans, 2008).
Subject #1 is an American-born Jew whose parents survived the Nazi Holocaust during World War II. Her parents took her to Israel…… [Read More]
Effects of Long-term Daycare Setting on Children
With the increasing number of women in today's workforce, the number of working mothers with children proportionally grows. Statistics show that more than 40% of working mothers are bringing their young children to daycare centers. Hence, daycare becomes a trend for working mothers who need other's provision of care for their young children. This trend, however, is not totally accepted by parents, neither by those who bring their child to other's care. Most parents with a child at daycare are not entirely at ease while at work. Usually, some keep worrying about the situation of their child, how the child are being taken care of, and how their child feels about being in the care of others.
The issue of how daycare settings affect a child's development has been studied by many child experts and psychologists. Diverse factors such as the amount…… [Read More]
School Shootings as a Natural Escalation of Less Lethal, Juvenile Violence
The issue of youth violence is one very much in the news since the Columbine High School shootings and the other incidents of schoolyard violence that have occurred with grisly regularity over the last several years. But while such shooting sprees are perhaps the most striking example of people under the age of 18 intentionally committing violent acts against other people, Columbine and other school shootings are in fact only a very small element of the overall picture of juvenile violence. Indeed, both these school shootings and other, more common acts violence by young people can be seen as merely the natural development of other kinds of less lethal juvenile violence.
Whenever we hear on the news about another crime committed by another juvenile - often a child who seems barely old enough to make their own after-school snacks…… [Read More]
In this experiment the independent variable is whether the children responded in some obvious way to the genitals of the doll; the dependent variable is based on the observed result of the independent variable.
Chapter Five -- Question ONE: Biological clocks are what make the circadian rhythms work, according to an article by the National Institutes of Health. The biological clock in a human is a series of interacting "molecules in cells throughout the body" (www.nigms.nih.org). The nerve cells in the brain are referred to as the "suprachiasmatic nucleus" (SCN).
Question TWO: Flying from New York to Paris the passenger loses eight or so hours, so when he awakens the next day at 7:00 A.M., his body feels like it's 11:00 P.M. (that is what is meant by being "out of sync" -- which is a sensory processing disorder).
Question THREE: In this passage from Ecclesiastes Solomon writes that the…… [Read More]
In this experiment the independent variable would be whether the children responded to the genitals of the doll or not; the dependent variable would be based on the observed result of the independent variable.
Chapter Five -- Question ONE: Biological clocks are the drivers for circadian rhythms, according to the National Institutes of Health. The biological clock in a human is groupings of interacting "molecules in cells throughout the body" (www.nigms.nih.org). The nerve cells in the brain are called the "suprachiasmatic nucleus" (SCN).
Question TWO: Flying from California to New York the passenger loses three hours, so when she wakes up the next day at 7:00 A.M., her body feels like it's 4:00 A.M. (that is being "out of sync" -- a sensory processing disorder).
Question THREE: If a person looks at the passage from Ecclesiastes philosophically, then modern science doesn't even need to weigh in. The truth is that…… [Read More]
The goal is to focus on what makes them feel calm and in control (Stress Management, 2009).
Once a person has identified a stressful situation, they can start thinking about strategies that will make it less problematic. Sometimes, the solution may be very easy but other times it is not. When one can't avoid a stressful situation, they need to try brainstorming ways in order to reduce the thing that is irritating them. A person should not feel like they have to figure it out all on their own. It is alright to seek help and support from ones family and friends if need be. Stress will not disappear from a person's life which is why stress management isn't an overnight cure. It often takes time and practice in order to learn how to reduce stress levels and increase one's ability to cope with life's challenges (Stress Basics, 2010).
Stress…… [Read More]
I would also attribute the use of these services to be more commonly found among students that are not on higher levels of education, such as doctorates, Master's students, or higher ranking Ivy-League students. However, the students within these contexts are, in my opinion, the ones who are more likely to be caught when they do utilize such services simply because of the level of demand that is required of students at this level. This type of cheating may also be more commonly found among athletes who have much lower academic achievement, but must sustain a higher intellect in their academics in order to continue their athletics. A simple reason behind some of this cheating may be due to poor public education or because of too much focus on social activities.
Cheating can be identified in many ways. I have never personally had anyone attempt to conspire cheating…… [Read More]
Relativism: The relativistic analysis would emphasize the extent to which different people have different priorities and perspectives. According to that point-of-view, the decision to become fully sexual might be right for some individuals and less advisable for others in the identical scenario. Whereas some girls might highly value their virginity and even hope to wait until their marriage to become sexual, other girls with different values, goals or priorities might be more comfortable with the decision to become sexual sooner. Uncertainty: The uncertainty analysis would emphasize that one can never accurately predict the consequences of decisions and their outcomes.
According to this perspective, the decision to become sexual right now could prove to be a good decision or a very bad decision but that would be determined by what happens afterwards; conversely, it is not possible to analyze that decision in advance. This point-of-view might suggest simply going with whatever…… [Read More]
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…… [Read More]
Article 2 - Teens Who Watched Wrestling More Violent:
The research method used in the referenced study was primarily survey/interview and correlation. The researchers collected their data by surveying and interviewing teenagers. The researchers then correlated the data to the research question and formed conclusions based on the apparent correlation between exposure to a specific form of televised violence and the incidence of actual violence among those teenagers
The following passage provides this information:
team led by Robert H. DuRant, a professor of pediatrics, social science and health policy at Wake Forest's Baptist Medical Center, surveyed about 2,000 students in Winston-Salem and Forsyth County public high schools in the fall of 1999 and again in April 2000."
The article strongly suggests that exposure to violence on television (in the form of professional wrestling) is a contributing factor to violence among teens, which may be true. However, the research cited is…… [Read More]
He also is the richest man in the world, and came from a high-achieving family. (His mother was a college regent and the head of United Way.)
Gates was known for years as an autonomous loner. He did not marry until he was nearly 40, and he keeps a very low public profile, unlike the more charismatic and outgoing Branson.
Gates is legendary for his need for dominance. Neither he nor Branson "need" to work anymore, they could live comfortably off their income for the rest of their lives. However, Gates continues to run Microsoft, and be involved in all the decision making. He is "transitioning" out of the leadership role to lead his charitable foundation, but it will take two years and he will still be involved in high-level decisions. It seems it is very difficult for him to give up the reins and he must dominate the company…… [Read More]
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…… [Read More]
All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.
I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…… [Read More]
Clinical psychology is a professional and scientific field in which specialists of this area of practice seek to augment understanding of human behavior in order to promote effective functioning of persons within society. Clinical psychologists encompass both the application and search for psychological principles and techniques that better the individual. In order to search for and apply the data they collect, clinicians must engage in teaching, research, assessment or diagnosis, psychotherapy, and programs meant to augment psychological well-being and performance. Due to its rich history, clinical psychology has become the biggest and one of the most dynamic fields of psychology with the latest specialist focusing on positive clinical psychology.
Many events helped shape development and practice of clinical psychology. "…the publication of William James's Principles of Psychology, Sigmund Freud's pioneer investigations into the causes and treatments of neuroses, the founding of the American Psychological Association, the opening of the first…… [Read More]
Educational Psychology: An Overview
The topic of educational psychology, or psychology as it is practiced within a school system, has become increasingly important in recent years as the number of special education demands on school systems and especially public school systems has increased. While educational psychologists tend to work in universities and other research settings rather than in the school system per se, they are continually affected by what is happening in schools as they seek to respond to the changing needs of student bodies. Thus the needs of school psychologists tend to be reflected at least in some measure in the research of educational psychologists, who in turn affect the practice of school psychologists. Thus one area of research that is becoming increasingly important to educational psychologists is one that is among the most pressing demands made on the school psychologist today. This topic is how to help autistic…… [Read More]
Clinical Psychology / Bulimia Nervosa
The beginnings of clinical psychology date back to the year 1492, and it has changed from the mere treatment of mental illness to an entire field of research and experimentation, which has helped those individuals who have been affected by any form of mental disorders, like for example, the eating disorders like bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa prevalent among adolescent and twenty-year-old women all over the world, to overcome their habits so that they may lead better and more productive lives. Some of the more important names in the history of clinical psychology, who can be referred to as the founding fathers of the field, are Lightner Witmer and Wilhelm Wundt. It was their theories and methods that has paved the way for the clinical psychologists of today, who are today being trained to encompass more issues like the entire range of health care, for…… [Read More]
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…… [Read More]
Crisis Intervention in Schools
In the United States setting up of secured educational institutions is presently considered to be a matter of great concern. The issue of security has become so crucial that it has been strived to be achieved even at the cost of gaining knowledge. The knowledge is attainable only when the educational institutions are considered as secured. Varied tragedies are anticipated everyday in the educational institutions that influence the students adversely. The interference against such tragedies is considered as the first treatment of the psychological development of children. Natural calamities, hostility, bereavement, abuse of armaments, mishaps, threats for committing suicides are considered to be disasters that interfere in schooling process. Attending school by a student or teacher having grief over the sad demise of one's own relation or even of one's pet is common in the school working days. It is found to be great…… [Read More]
Courses in quantitative experimental techniques and research design, which comprise the utilization of computer-based study, are an essential part of graduate study and are essential to finish the dissertation. The Psy.D. degree may be founded on sensible work and assessments rather than a dissertation. In clinical, therapy, and school psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree typically include an extra year of post-doctoral managed knowledge (Psychologists, 2009).
A bachelor's degree will permit me to then go on and further my education and get a doctoral degree. It will also qualify me to aid psychologists and other professionals in neighborhood mental health centers, occupational rehabilitation offices, and correctional curriculums. Those who hold a Bachelor's degree may also work as administrative assistants for psychologists. Many also find work in other areas, such as sales, service, or business management (Psychologists, 2009).
What work values are important for this job?
Industrial psychologists often plan…… [Read More]
This contribution towards the evolution of this field gives more credence and attention to these practices, making this award important for everyone involved.
The education system is the starting point for many important subjects such as forensic psychology. The importance of making this particular discipline accepted and official allows the followers and subsidiaries of these streams of information a guide path to elaborate on their own studies on the matter. Some sciences that remain of the fringes often have a difficult time garnering any attention to their work if it has not been accepted by mainstream sources such as the APA. The science itself is very new and is continually being added to by new research and experiments. It is important to realize that it is in change and may experience some growing pains as it continues on its path.
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2012). Introduction to Forensic…… [Read More]
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]
Music in High Schools
Psychology Research Project
Examining the Effects of Music Education in Various Students
Children are often encouraged to undertake creative activities in order to improve their imagination and achieve a balance between studying and relaxing. One creative activity is to partake in music education. Music is one field in which a student can be as creative as he or she desires, for there is no limit placed on how much or how loudly one can play his or her instrument. Music classes, though structure, encourage these facets, and keep students on their creative toes, and therefore are vitally important for the development of children.
There have been many studies on this topic, especially in light of many schools cutting their music education programs. Most of these studies have proven, beyond a doubt, that music education helps students in many ways, including with development of certain parts of…… [Read More]
Such limitations seem necessary because of the limited resources that schools have and the need for students to learn English as soon as possible so that they can receive all the benefits of a public school education.
It is evident that this issue will be present for years to come. The increase in the number of children for whom English is not their first language is an indication of the importance of this subject. It is also evident that the issue must be resolved so that all of the children in this nation are able to receive the education needed to become viable members of society.
Brisk, Maria, Maria Estela Brisk. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. 2005 Routledge
Calhoon, Mary Beth, et al. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-Way Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169+. Questia. 9…… [Read More]
Overall parental involvement has an effect on the child from the early stage to the secondary stage. Students need the parents for guidance, integrity and confidence to become successful in life because it is not the teachers job to make sure the students have these qualities. "In reality, parent involvement is a more diverse and complex concept than is generally acknowledged" (Dom & Verhoeven, 2006, p.570).
The study will help to determine the reason for the different challenges students may face due to the lack of parental involvement.
Research Design and Methodology
The proposed study will use a quantitative research design that uses both secondary resources as well as primary data collected specifically for the purposes of this research. The research procedure will proceed in a step-wise fashion, beginning with an exploratory review of the literature to identify common themes and trends in the research concerning current patterns of parental…… [Read More]
Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools
The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).
The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This…… [Read More]
Seventy-five percent of the school shootings over the past decade have been related to bullying (Vessey).
Because bullying is a social problem of the collective, it might be more successful in changing the peer group norms that reinforce bullying, which is the basic operating principle of school-wide anti-bullying programs (Juvonen). The worst thing anyone can do is to do nothing or assume that bullying behaviors are harmless (Vessey). The best intervention is communication. Parents should talk to their children and schools should incorporate discussions of bullying behaviors in classes (Vessey).
Greif, Jennifer L. "Reaching an American consensus: reactions to the special issue on school bullying." School Psychology Review. June 22, 2003. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Juvonen, Jaana. "Myths and facts about bullying in schools: effective interventions depend upon debunking long-held misconceptions." Behavioral Health
Management. March 1, 2005. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research…… [Read More]
Leadership Skills Impact International Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Practical Circumstances of International schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadership for Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intercultural Communication
Challenges of Differing Cultural Values
Importance of the Team
Current Leadership Research
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagner's "Buy-in" vs. Ownership
Understanding the Urgent Need for Change
Research confirms what teachers, students, parents and superintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit for educational improvement, and within the school the principal has a strong influence upon the nature of the school, the conditions under which students learn, and upon what and how much they learn. Despite this agreement about the central role of the principal, there is little research concerning the characteristics of principals associated with effective leadership and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…… [Read More]
Student codes of conduct reflect the values, mission, and ethics of the school. This high school comprises only four grades (9 to 12), but it is a large, suburban school with more than 1500 students. The school has magnet programs, as well as a highly developed Advanced Placement (AP) course program, boasting over 50% enrollment. There are almost 100 full-time teachers. A large percentage, more than 85%, of the school is non-white, and significant number are from an economically disadvantaged household or community. Yet this school has consistently placed well in national rankings due to a dedication to academics, civic engagement, ethical values, and community service.
The mission of the school is to provide a supportive and safe learning environment that promotes the cultivation of individual talents, personal responsibility, collaboration, and civic engagement. The school’s vision statement is: All learners reach their highest potential and contribute to their communities.…… [Read More]
Threat Assessments and Crisis Interventions in the Public Schools
Allen, M. & Burt, K. (2002). School counselors' preparation for and participation in crisis intervention. Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 96-101.
Authors cite the increasing number of crisis situations being experienced in the nation's public schools and describe the trauma, cognitive dissonance and loss of a sense of security that can adversely affect all students and teachers who experience these types of events, even when they are resolved safely. While the list of crisis situation types is virtually infinite in public school settings, some of the more common types of crises that have been experienced in the public schools in the past include natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and earthquakes) as well as anthropogenic sources including school shootings, suicide, student or teacher deaths, sexual and physical abuse, and gang-related activities. Fires in the schools may be either natural or manmade.…… [Read More]
This would help a victim open up to the teacher and thus seek help. School is an important period in a child's life and should be free of stress. It is the responsibility of school authorities to ensure child' safety. In the schools, where bullying incidents are non-existent have some active form of intervention in place. Bullying is a more serious problem in public schools compared to private school mainly due to the quality of education, teacher training and level of accountability. Higher level of accountability can result in fewer cases of bullying in public schools too. Concerted effort is required to reduce prevalence of bullying in schools across the country.
Atlas, R.S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. Journal of Educational Research, 92(2), 86-99.
Espelage, D.L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T.R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of…… [Read More]
Peters suggests that a no-nonsense and zero-tolerance approach to implicit tolerance and emphasizes the need to pursue complaints as far up the school administration chain of command as necessary to achieve results. Similarly, Peters confirms the conclusions of other researchers and experts in the field of school psychology that bullying affects victims profoundly and presents specific problems with regard to maintaining high academic performance and also with respect to positive self-image formation that often persist far beyond the school years.
Peters acknowledges that bullying behavior cuts across all ages and grades and affects both male and female students, but recommends different approaches to addressing bullying based in the specific forms that it tends to take between the genders.
Whereas boys tend to bully through physical intimidation and violence, girls are much more likely to perpetuate bullying through indirect social exclusion and ridicule. Peters offers suggestions that include modeling non-violence at…… [Read More]
Activity Description and Summary
The community involvement activity I participated in was supervising a my middle school's fall dance. This activity required me, along with several other peers, to monitor and regulate the dance activities. The dance lasted 3 hours and was held in the school gymnasium where I teach.
Program Outcome Rationale
The Program Outcome that most reflects this activity is School and Community Leadership. The outcome objectives are as follows for this selection:
Build strong community relations by modeling and promoting equity, fairness, and respect among faculty, staff, students, parents and community leaders.
Provide opportunities for stakeholders to develop and use skills in collaboration, shared decision making and responsibility for the purpose of maintaining a comprehensive program of positive home/school relationships.
Acknowledge and respect the goals, values, and aspirations of diverse family and community groups by engaging the support of business, philanthropic, political, social, and civic…… [Read More]
Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. Relatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.
In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]
Implicit in Rogers' belief system was that clients must be in control of the therapy, and the therapist merely functioned as the guide.
Major School4: Cognitive-behavioral psychologists
Cognitive behavioral psychology is often a very time-sensitive type of therapy, with a specific goal, such as the elimination of a phobia or behavior. In contrast to humanistic or Rogerian therapy, the cognitive-behaviorist directly challenges the client about his or her irrational belief systems.
The biology of psychology
The discipline of psychology has gradually shifted to a disease-based model, from Freud's psychoanalytic framework, reflecting the knowledge gained about how biological aspects of the brain affect learning, language memory, and behavior (Granek 2010). The more simplistic assumptions of the Freudian era, such as the idea that cold mothers produced autistic or schizophrenic children, or that sexual repression was the root of all diseases has fallen out of fashion. However, understanding how to heal individuals…… [Read More]
Case Story Bipolar Disorder
A girl suffering from Bipolar Disorder: Sarah
I was working in the community health center as an intern, when I received a call from a woman desperately looking for assistance for her 17-years-old daughter. The woman sounded tearful and anxious, as she spoke, and I immediately concluded that she was fearful and at the edge of giving up. I asked her to cool down and explain to me her problem calmly. She stated that the her daughter named Sarah, had been expelled from her school, the reason being that she was found having oral se with two boys in the school toilet. Mary, the woman's name and mother to Sarah, was a marketing executive, had not gone to work because she feared that if she left Sarah alone, the girl might flee.
Upon more information about Sarah, I leant that this was just one…… [Read More]
Participants were allowed to use a calculator and were given a time limit of eighteen minutes to complete the exam. After the exam stimuli, participants completed a short questionnaire consisting of seven questions about basic demographics and confound checks.
To see if participants major was a confounding variable, an one way ANOVA with a LSD test, was performed to see if participants major had an effect on exam performance.
A 2 X 3 factorial ANOVA was performed for the analysis of the main affect of test anxiety and the main affect of question difficulty sequence, as well as the interaction between test anxiety and question difficulty sequence on exam performance. A LSD test was performed for the three-level independent variable, question difficulty sequence, to see if cell means varied for question sequences of easy to hard, random, and hard to easy. Three contrast t-tests were performed to test the…… [Read More]
Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.
Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…… [Read More]
Why might the cognitive-affective processing system provide a more thorough understanding of an individual's personality than older models (e.g., Freud's theory of personality)?
Although complex in its own way, Freud’s theory of personality fails to account for the infinite array of experiences and environmental stimuli—not to mention genetics and biology. Other models of psychology can also focus too much on one dimension of the human experience, such as only behavior. The benefit of the cognitive-affective processing system model is that it takes into account numerous issues including cognitive processing, cognitive schemas, emotional responses, coping mechanisms, and the seemingly infinite number of other variables that make up the human personality and human behavior.
The cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) approach is not just an abstract theory, but one that can also be applied to different psychological issues. For example, Ayduk & Gyrak (2008) apply CAPS to rejection sensitivity. The CAPS model shows…… [Read More]
Unfamiliar vocabularies relating to learning and cognition emerged in the course of Week 4's readings and research. These include "mnemonics," "mental representation," and "domain knowledge." Mnemonics may essentially be defined as the techniques an individual uses to enhance memorization. These techniques are useful for learning as they help retain crucial information in the long-term memory. When information is retained in the long-term memory, it is organized in a certain manner. This is referred to as mental representation. Mental representation plays an important role in learning as learning generally occurs when the learner has a clear picture of a given phenomenon in his/her mind. Domain knowledge simply refers to knowledge relating to a given area or field. For instance, seasoned doctors have extensive knowledge of the domain of medicine. They acquire this knowledge not inherently, but through continuous learning.
A major focus of research in the area of learning…… [Read More]
Functions of Emotions
Though the text does go into some detail about the practical functions that emotions serve on page 336 in chapter 10, it is rather brief and perfunctory when addressing these practical functions. Though this issue is not particularly confusing, it is also not very well explained in the textbook, and so a website was found that provides more information on the subject. At the URL http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content= a713751220~frm=titlelink, the abstract of an in-depth research article can be found that details the wide array of literature documenting the evolutionary functions served by emotions, and that also notes the relative lack of information concerning emotions' developmental functions. This could possibly explain why there is not a great deal of depth in the textbook regarding these functions; the text is more concerned with developmental issues than with evolutionary phenomena, and the developmental functions of emotions have not been as thoroughly researched…… [Read More]
1. If I were designing my research study in the field of psychology, I would most likely use a t-test as the method of data analysis. A t-test is best used when the researcher wants to determine deviations from a normal distribution curve. If there are one or more normal distributions (bell curves), t he researcher can compare the two groups using the t-test method. The variances do not need to be known to perform a t-test either, which is another reason why I would select this method of data analysis in my particular research question. Furthermore, the researcher can use the t-test to measure the differences between two populations regardless of how small or large the sample size. The t-test, also known as the student t-test, is one of the best methods applied to studies using a small sample size. If my research were to progress to where I…… [Read More]
psychology and on the subtopic of persuasion. This author has decided to pursue this topic because of the importance of understanding the subject of persuasion. It is used in everything from sales to simply convincing someone of your opinion. While the works of individuals like Robert B. Cialdini have been trailblazers in our historical memories, it is the opinion of this author that in many ways Dale Carnegie's How to Win Friends and Influence People is still one of the best. While not a clinical psychologist, Carnegie was self-taught in many ways in psychology and like Cialdini gathered his observations from years of on the job and on the spot observations that are attested to by the continued reliance upon his book and principles as taught worldwide by the Dale Carnegie Institute.
Robert B. Cialdini and Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
One of the most influential psychology text…… [Read More]
Self-Conception Lit Review
What follows in this brief report is the culmination of prior outlining and research on the subject of self-conception and its place in the broader field of psychology. In total, there are six high-level points that have been covered within the prior assignments relating to this final literature review. For each section, there were questions and blanks to be answered to including how, that is, for example and beyond. What is referenced shall include a number of prominent authors that speak about self-conception and what goes into it. The different conditions and other subsections of the theory will be touched upon. While there are some that suggest that self-conception and psychology in general are going in the wrong direction, the different facets and lessons that are currently coming out of the proverbial woodwork are fascinating.
One thing that needs to be known off the top is…… [Read More]
I became the person I am today because of my past, and all the influences that have shaped me, molded me, and impacted my personality and sense of self. Of course, my genetic history is also tied into who I am, impacting my physiological development, which in turn shapes how others see me and respond to me. In my case, I was adopted and have no knowledge of my birth parents. Occasionally I have considered finding out who they were but have yet to take that step; perhaps one day I will. Without knowing my biological parents, I do not know my genetic history as well as I could. I also do not know the conditions that impacted my mother during my prenatal development. As soon as I was adopted, my parents embraced me and held me as if I was one of their own. They adopted one other child,…… [Read More]
Although it is controversial to say so, it does appear that early childhood exposure to media violence can precipitate aggressive behavior and violence in adulthood. In a longitudinal study that actually was able to determine causality in the same population sample, Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski & Eron (2003) show that there is a connection between media violence exposure and violent behavior. The type of violent behavior differed, largely due to gender. For example, men in the study were more likely to use physical aggression and violence but females were more likely to use other forms of aggression like verbal abuse. Regardless, the study should alert parents about how to monitor their children and how to talk to children about the violence they see. It is not simply the exposure to the violence, but the duration of exposure or frequency of viewing. Other factors that impact violence and aggression include personality…… [Read More]
School Counseling Program
Education has and will always be an important aspect in the development not only of the person but society as well. The building of a great nation has always been dependent on the knowledge, skills, and experiences the citizenries have that contributed to the betterment of the place they belong to. But all of these of course would never have seen fruition without the education provided to those who were responsible for society and nation building. From the primary education years all the way to the graduate and post-graduate levels, ensuring the right kind of education based on the interest and level of the student or learner is important. This is critical in enabling a person to perform at his or her peak because the right education course or career fit has been provided. A school counselor or education guidance personnel has always been instrumental in providing…… [Read More]
Here, the information processing theory applies to the manner in which the board induces a multilayered engagement of the subject matter. The correlation of conceptual and practical application with a visual presentation conforms to the information processing idea that "information is stored in multiple locations throughout the brain in the form of networks of connections. It is consistent with the levels-of-processing approach in that the more connections to a single idea or concept, the more likely it is to be remembered." (Huitt, 1) As we have addressed technology based approaches to instruction, it bears noting that there are evolving opportunities in the fied of education to improve upon this multilevel engagement of material.
As an educator, you want to decrease undesirable behaviors in the educational environment. What is the best strategy to decrease these behaviors for each student? 1)Andrew who likes to utter profanities every now an then. 2) Sandy,…… [Read More]