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On the contrary societies treatment of certain racial and ethnic groups based on the color of skin or the language spoken also contributes greatly to the formation and proliferation of gang violence.
The purpose of this discussion was to explore race and ethnicity as it pertains to gangs. The research found that from a historical perspective, immigrant communities formed gangs as a reaction to living in a new world and having to confront difficulties with schooling and police brutality. The investigation indicates that in today's society certain races and ethnic groups are often to prone to engaging in gang activity because they fell disenfranchised. In addition, many of the individuals who are gang members are products of one parent homes in which the father is not present. In such cases there is very little direction and young men and women join gangs so that they can have a sense…
The foods they could obtain were imported and prices of the products shot up because of the War. The government had to resort to food rationing and distributed coupons. As the War proceeded, meat, fats and milk became scarce. Soon, there were 10 rationing programs. The shortages made preparing a meal a difficult task. Homemakers had to innovate or improvise on sugar substitutes, such as molasses, maple syrup, honey, corn syrup, sweetened condensed milk and soda pop. Leftovers were used as stuffing for peppers for another day. Victory Gardens were grown to respond to the need of the time in every family. The produce of the Gardens supplied the family needs at home and sent to feed America's European allies.
The times tested the spirit. But those women coped with hardship with courage until it did not seem like hardship. They recalled having babies and got extra ration coupons. Surprisingly,…
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in Rouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
bullying in their lives. It can lead to instances of suicide or just a difficult time all around. Bullying can be complex topic to understand because people who bully are often bullied themselves or get abused and mistreated at home. Bullying is not just as simple as some kid picking on another kid. In fact bullying can occur at work, at home, and even in the street. It's not just a school only occurrence.
Bullying maybe difficult to understand because of the nature of human emotion (Rosenthal 11). Bullying after all is perceived as a reaction to something. What that something is, is unique for every, single person. Some bullies have confessed they bully to gain power and respect from their peers. They see weaker people and by picking on them, they gain the respect and attention from people they want as allies.
Others bully because they want power. They…
Epoch of Resentment
Throughout history, society has felt compelled to devise labels for nearly every category or trait. People may be given a specific label based on their age, economic status, education level, ethnic background, geographic location, occupation, political beliefs, religious beliefs, and various other factors. Although the use of labels based on one category may dominate at certain time periods (i.e., ethnicity-based labels dominated in the early 1950s), labels based on age seem to be common regardless of the time period.
Individuals ages 20-29 are commonly referred to as "Generation X" Other names for Generation X include "Gen X," the "Generation Without a Conscience," the "Lost Generation," the "Me Generation," the "Slacker Generation," the "Twenty something Generation," or the "Yuppies With a Conscience But Without Fat Paychecks." While labels may be useful in distinguishing members of various categories based strictly on age, labels are most often used in a…
Conflict Resolution -- Non-Violent Approaches
Today Dr. Joby Taylor was the guest speaker at a well-publicized seminar for human relations professionals; the topic for today was how to help solve conflicts in the workplace. Taylor was raised in Oklahoma in a town with eight Native American Nations, where conflict interfered with the normal workings of the community on many occasions. As a young man he set his sights on better ways to solve conflicts. Taylor has Peace Corps experience in Africa and he has worked for many years with the Shriver Center's "Shriver Peaceworker Program." Taylor's topic in today's seminar: "Peace is not just an absence of war."
Reaction to Taylor's Speech
In my life the topic of peace has always related to the conclusion of a war in some faraway place. There was the end of World War II that I studied in high school -- which ended in…
N.C.I.S. reflects this particular aspect of contemporary American society as well. That is why the particular job of Gibbs and his co-workers is so important -- as federal agents, they deal with issues of terrorism on a national, and in some cases even international, level. Early on in the show's history during its second season, a Federal Bureau Investigations agent by the name of Vivian Blackadder was involved in counteracting the effects of a terrorist operation in Spain. This particular episode demonstrated the fact that in many ways, N.C.I.S. is chronicling the most important societal issues in America today. Also, it is worth noting that the particular episode referenced in this paragraph took place not long after the destruction of the World Trade Center. Thus, the show actually portrays the important sociological issues that people are concerned about. Moreover, by doing so it allows people to visualize and contextualize some…
Consider this short excerpt: "On the day after his 23rd birthday, Mr. Hammond, a high school dropout, found himself on the other side of a barrel. He had gotten into an argument with a rival on 132nd Street near a Chinese restaurant. A friend of the rival took offense, pulled a gun from his waistband, and pumped two shots into Mr. Hammond's stomach, and another into his back" (Gregory, 2013). One could argue that this short excerpt demonstrates a clear manifestation of Merton's social strain theory in that there's a clear disconnect between the goals that Hammond has in life and a way to attain them. Instead Hammond has elected to simply become another part of gang-life and the kill or be killed mentality. In fact, one could argue that this violent activity rife with frequent shootings is actually a form of retreatism -- but instead of indulging in drugs…
The Prohibition made these mobsters however more daring and they begun to become involved in criminal operations that affected the American communities as well. Aside the Prohibition, it has to be stated that at that time, the United States was also facing severe economic problems. This was as such the moment organized crime was born. There were numerous nations conducting illicit operations during Prohibition, including the Irish, the Jews, the Poles, the Germans or even native-born Americans, but due to their superiority and the large portion owned in the underworld, the Italians are the most notable ones.
In 1920, just at the legislation for forbidding manufacturing, commercialization and consumption of alcohol was enforced, Johnny Torrio commenced rum-running and bootlegging operations (both concepts refer to illegal traffic of alcohol, with the difference that rum-running involves transportation by water and bootlegging involves transportation by land). Torrio was recognized for his entrepreneurial skills…
The depth of the problem can be seen in the results of a survey reported by Booth, Koester, Brewster, and Weibel (1991) which show that over fifty percent of the subjects injected drugs on a daily basis, while 70% shared needles with other addicts. Only 22% used a disinfectant with their needles every time they injected. It was further found that 86% shared a "cooker" with other users, and nearly fifty percent reported injecting in a shooting gallery. These subjects were not merely dangerous to themselves, either, since 90% reported having sexual relations in the six months prior to the interview, with one-half having had multiple partners. The subjects rarely used condoms (Booth, Koester, Brewster, and Weibel, 1991).
This was the situation after a long effort at public education on the dangers of HIV infection and ways to avoid it. Leukefeld, Battjes, and Amsel (1990) suggest, along with many other…
Indeterminate sentencing laws allow judges to give convicted felons a window of time rather a specific sentence length. With indeterminate sentencing, the judge provides a minimum and a maximum but defers authority regarding when a prisoner is released (or when probation ends) to other members of the criminal justice system such as parole board members and probation officers. Determinate sentencing is just the opposite: a procedure in which the trial judge does sentence an offender to a specific length of time. Both determinate and indeterminate sentencing have been commonly practiced in the United States, and each of these policies has strengths and drawbacks. While indeterminate sentencing can be helpful in cases where an inmate shows certain signs of rehabilitation, determinate sentencing can be deemed more fair overall.
Pros of Indeterminate Sentencing
Indeterminate sentencing has been hailed for its potential usefulness in promoting rehabilitative models in criminal justice. With an…
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) arose from the ashes of the Twin Towers on 9/11 as the federal government’s response to the threat of terror. That threat has been represented in a number of incarnations: the Saudi hijackers, Al-Qaeda, Saddam Hussein, Gaddafi, Assad, ISIS, and so on. Today, with ISIS being acknowledged as largely defeated in the Middle East, the new security threat that the U.S. faces is unclear (Cronin, 2015) and the old security threats—the specter of terrorism that continues to rear its head both abroad and domestically—appear to have shifted into new forms. In an ironic twist, Americans themselves appear to be more like homegrown terrorists in their attacks on fellow citizens, whether these attacks are conducted at schools or at social venues where crowds gather for enjoyment. Terrorism and mass killing appears to be the new chosen method of expressing one’s own personal jihad on…
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil Rights movement; and…
In the United States, there are laws which determine the proper punishment for individuals who choose to commit crimes. If someone is under a certain age, then that individual is held less responsible for their choices than an adult who makes that same choice. However, if the crime is severe enough or if there is no appropriate remorse from the perpetrator, District Attorneys and prosecution may decide to try that person as an adult, even though they are under the age of eighteen. Theoreticians have argued about teenagers since the first stirrings of the psychoanalytic movement at the time of Freud. Can someone who is not yet a physical adult still make adult decisions and thus should their punishment fit their age or their action? Deviant behavior can manifest itself in three ways: power, money, and crime. Deviance in teenagers can be seen in all three categories.
Heart Is a Lonely Hunter by Carson McCullers is a tale involving five main characters that struggle against the isolation and despair brought on by circumstances in their lives. The story takes place during the late 1930's in an unnamed deep Southern town. McCullers begins the story by introducing the deaf-mute John Singer; he used to live with his friend Spiros Antonapoulos who was also a deaf-mute. Singer doted on his friend a great deal even though it was apparent that Antonapoulos never showed any appreciation towards it. Later Antonapoulos became mentally ill and was taken away to an insane asylum despite Singer's protestations. Due to this, Singer had to move out of the home he once shared with his friend and become a boarder at the house of the Kelly's.
Biff Brannon and Jake Blount are next introduced in the story. Biff runs a popular local restaurant named the…
On October 6, 1973, Israel was attacked by the combined forces of Egypt and Syria. It was Yom Kipper, the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar. Egypt began as Israel had, with an air attack. On the ground, Israel was outnumbered six to one, fielding only about 200,000 soldiers against a combined force of over 1,150,000 Arab troops. Once again, the Soviet Union was involved, sending over 1,000 tons of weapons and ammunition to Egypt and Syria during the early days of the war. The United States was forced to intervene. On October 13, President Richard Nixon ordered an airlift of military supplies, enabling Israel to sustain its forces. After initial success, the war had gone against the Arabs and eventually Egyptian President Anwar Sadat appealed to the Soviet Union to save them. Following negotiations in Moscow on October 21, U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger flew to Tel…
Furthermore, the author has also eluded to the negative consequences in which there is a complete lack of ability to define what truth is. In this context, O'Brien ends his essay by stating that a true war story is actually "…about love and memory. it's about sorrow" (O'Brien, 278). The memory referred to in this quotation is decidedly skewed, since the author has already proven that war stories, which are told by people who have endured trauma, are not necessarily true. Therefore, the memory of the events of a war story must be poor, since such events were subjectively -- or rather deceptively -- remembered. Finally, the fact that the author describes a true war story as being about "sorrow," not only alludes to the facts of the story, but also the condition of the teller of the tale -- who has a warped since of memory and is decidedly…
, Skolnick and Fyfe, and Walker, that conclude racial discrimination has been found in several policing duties, facilitated by police discretion, including shootings, use of force, arrests, street stops, offense charging, search and seizure, and equality of coverage. Police discretion allows for this discrimination to occur.
Skogan and Frydl (2004) concur that police discretion is an increased concern, in relation to racial profiling and discrimination. The authors surmise that pro-active special units often make street stops and searches, in location oriented patrols of high crime areas. This results in the civil liberties of innocent citizens often being impinged upon, due to the officer's misuse of their discretion in this strategy. This further gives rise to the mistrust of officers, among the greater community.
Authors' Positions - Which Agree and Which Disagree:
Bayley and Nixon (2010) discuss police discretion in regards to it's effects on racial discrimination and continuing concerns regarding…
A reflection on the events of June 16, 2015, presents Donald J. Trump in Trump headquarters eagerly awaited by passionate fans. Analogous to the looks on The Apprentice reality show, every bit of his appearance resembled a culturally-obsessed and modern personality. Fans had high expectations of him, and as the escalator propelled him, it was evident that extraordinary events about his campaigns were about to unfold. It was a time to launch a political phase geared towards making America great again. Trump was keen to explain the challenges linked to illegal migration and the negative consequences of shipping jobs to places like China. In a big way, Trump indicated that "When Mexico sends its people, they're not sending their best [...] They're sending people that have lots of problems, and they're bringing those problems. They're bringing drugs, they're bringing crime, they're rapists, and some, I assume are good…
Racial Equality and Justice
This essay discusses racial equality and justice in the United States within the context of the events in the spring and summer of 2020. On May 25, 2020 George Floyd was killed while in police custody. The killing was videotaped and showed a non-resisting Floyd suffocated by an officer kneeling on his neck. Neither the officer who killed Floyd nor any of his fellow officers was arrested following Floyd’s death. This kicked off a series of protests in the United States, which brought the lingering racial inequality that plagues the country into the spotlight. In this essay, we investigate racial equality and justice. We discuss George Floyd, the protests surrounding his death, riots in Minneapolis, the role that Antifa played in the protests, the role of Black Lives Matter, the death of Breonna Taylor, the concept of defunding the police, the celebration of Juneteenth, and…
Rational Choice Theory and an Example of How It Applies
When it comes to explaining disorder in neighborhoods and communities, there are many theories that can be applied. Broken Windows Theory, for example, posited that crime comes to communities when community members allow their neighborhood to get rundown and fail to clean up graffiti, litter or abandoned buildings. Another theory, which this paper will examine, is the theory of rational choice, which can be used to explain how and why people make decisions in their lives and in their communities that have an impact on the order in the neighborhood. This paper will discuss how rational theory can be applied to the neighborhood of Over-the-Rhine in downtown Cincinnati, which has attracted a great deal of attention from city planners and community organizers over the past century due to its historic landmarks and character and the need for the area…
Organized Crime and Its Impact
What are some of the ways that organized crime impacts you and a community or city (of your choice) directly?
Organized crime details a conspiracy among criminal elements who wish to enter into an enterprise engaged in illegal activities as a way of generating dirty money (Dirks & Snyman, 2010). An organized crime is organized as a group with a structure that is similar to some pyramid hierarchy. The groups employ bribery and violence to ensure their operations continue. They also use retribution threats to ensure they maintain external and internal control in the community, and mobilization and thievery to acquire political power during campaigns in order to get immunity from prosecution and exposure (Dirks & Snyman, 2010). The activities of organized crime groups include gun running, kidnapping to get ransom, vehicle theft, smuggling, racketeering, prostitution, pornography, fraud related to credit cards, illegal gambling, narcotics…
Analyzing Police Behavior in Retrospect
There are numerous examples of the need to effectively police, or perhaps monitor diligently, the activities and actions of the police. Perhaps the most eminent example of this emerging trend is evinced in the so-called Black Lives Matter movement, which is predicated on issuing social justice to African Americans who are routinely abused and even wantonly murdered by police officers allegedly doing their duties. In numerous instances, unarmed African American men were murdered by police. In fact, the names Michael Brown, who was killed by members of the police in Ferguson, Missouri, and Freddie Gray, who was murdered by the police near Baltimore, Maryland, have become synonymous with the need to cease these senseless and inexplicable murders conducted by authors in the pretext of doing their duty. A thorough examination of the each of these respective cases reveals that in both instances, the police were…
Social Survey (GSS) is a data analysis technique that is utilized to examine issues in the society. This technique has been utilized since 1972 to examine societal change and evaluate the increasing complexity of the American society (NORC, n.d.). The General Social Survey explains trends and constants based on attributes, behaviors and attitudes, which help in effective assessment of the structure and functioning of the society. Consequently, this technique is considered suitable for sociology research because of its focus on examining the structure and functioning of the society. This paper provides quantitative data analysis using the General Social Survey technique. In this case, the researcher has identified at least two research questions, their related variables, and the results of the data analysis.
Research Questions and Results of Data Analysis
Research Question 1: Does race impact attitudes towards gun control laws?
This research question has been selected for study on the…
Wake Up; Take a Shower; Take Breakfast With Other Family Members
Arrive at the bank; pick a waiting ticket; interaction with service staff; a member of staff in the next counter is having a difficult time with a customer
9:00 am: Arrive at my girlfriend's house; help her with laundry and other household chores; watch a movie together
12:30 pm: Having lunch with my girlfriend in a restaurant; in an adjacent table three women are talking about their dating experiences with men in different cultures
2:00 pm: At the parking lot a beggar stops me; he tells me he has no home or family
7:00 pm: Watching evening news -- robbery at a local store and unnecessary shooting of an innocent Black man by a White police officer
Sociology demonstrates that people's daily lives are shaped and constrained by the society (Dillon, 2010). By interacting with and/or watching other…
Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville
The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…
Stand Your Ground vs. Duty to Retreat: Why the Former Should be Repealed
Florida, Georgia, Texas, Louisiana, North Carolina and Nevada all have passed Stand Your Ground laws, whereas Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Delaware all have Duty to Retreat or Castle Doctrine laws. Just by simply acknowledging the geographical location of these states and their respective laws, one can see a common theme: the Northeastern states adopt a more pro-active approach to avoid conflicting (if one can retreat to a place of security, one must do so rather than impose violence on another); yet in the Southern states, there is a more defiant position in terms of if one is somewhere he/she has a right to be, then he/she has a right to fend off any attack and to use physical violence if physical violence is used against him/her. The difference between these two perspectives…
The United States of America is a democracy, a form of government which is supposed to be controlled by the people of this country. It is not a true democracy where the people vote on every issue, but a representational democracy the citizens vote for other people who will be responsible for the running of the nation as well as for the creation and passing of most laws. On the federal level, the functions of the government are broken into parts, each responsible for different functions. America's government is composed of three separate branches: the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial (Greenberg & Page 2010). The separation of powers as written in the Constitution is designed so that each branch can give their attention to the functions of their branch and also prevents any of the branches from becoming too powerful which would then lead to the destruction of the democracy…
Ernest Gaines - a Lesson Before Dying
Ernest J. Gaines is considered by many critics to be a giant in his genre, and although he is not as "militant" or "intense" in his writing as Richard Wright, or James Baldwin, he makes his points about racism, about poverty, and about cultural bias, with a very strong sense of narrative and character development. This paper will address the characters in Gaines' novels, and it will also look into the background in which Gaines grew up into manhood. Though the civil rights movement is now just a point in the history of the United States, and today's news tends to focus on America's war in Iraq and on terrorism, for many African-Americans and others struggling to become part of the "American Dream," Gaines is a writer who hits home with honesty.
The civil rights movement came about because there was so much…
Gangs in the Military
In the present era the gang problem is all encompassing and intimidating in a greater measure compared to any other period in history. In the bygone 20 years, gang associations have transcended all socioeconomic, ethnic and racial limits and currently pervade American society. Gangs by way of increased dreadfulness, felony and economic costs influence society. Now we are confronted with the outcome of the gang subculture's startling intensification over the past two decades: diminishing public safety, community image and quality of life. Gangs have the capability of upsetting military discipline and organization.
The attraction of a gang in military is being an element of some entity, security, social status, and an individual enjoying nice things in life, inclusive of wealth, authority and respect. Several gang members are very isolated being the nastiest ones. They are known as lieutenants, keeping themselves in the background always. These lieutenants…
ownership of guns by the public has been a topic of much needed debates for quite some time now. Various organizations and support groups have been in action for the pro-or anti-views on whether a citizen should be allowed to own and keep a gun at his person or his property. Many of the people who own guns do so for hunting, self-defense or for their collecting pleasure. But there have been innumerous cases in which the use the gun has resulted in death of another person. The issue of gun control pertains to those laws and regulations that would result in a limited number of people buying the guns and thus control the distribution of guns so that they do not fall into the wrong hands.
Violence no matter where it occurs is usually a traumatic, tragic event, but when it happens in our schools to our children, it…
Military Leadership Merits of General George S. Patton, Jr.
One aspect of cultural development which seems to be universal throughout the course of humanity's history is the innate desire of society to lionize the accomplishments of triumphant military leaders. Perhaps owing to a subconscious desire for the implicit protection provided by effectual wartime figures, nearly every civilization from the ancient Greeks to contemporary suburban Americans has placed its generals, admirals, and other military authorities on a proverbial pedestal, lauding their preternatural ability to motivate men during the heat of battle while achieving strategic victories. Among this nation's long lineage of military leaders -- which begins with George Washington's revolutionary heroics and includes famed generals like Andrew Jackson and William Tecumseh Sherman -- one of the most competent and accomplished figures to ever lead American troops on the field of battle was also considered to be among the most controversial. General…
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…
United States, in accordance with crime and violence, has been having highest rates of crime and violence in the world, and largely most of them violence are related to gun. U.S. Department of Justice has indicated that in the United States, violence related to guns consists of the largest violence rate. For example, back in year 1995.
Homicides who were involved in gun violence were about 68% out of which 60% were the cases related to handguns. Another example is that more than 34 thousand peopled died due to the gunfire in 1996 out of which 41% were outcomes of homicide in the United States (Shay et al., 1999).
The first law on gun control came about in 1911 in the State of New York. However, the most significant law on gun control was the Brady bill which was passed in 1994. According to this law there is a restriction…
Applying Negotiation Skills to Bill Clinton Approach to Freeing the Two Journalist for North Korea
For any solution to be reached, it is important that the two involved parties are ready to talk and come to a point of solution, which would be best for all concerned. It also means that a certain spirit of sacrifice and patience if required to better understand the point-of-view of the other party.
There seems to be a growing emphasis on the power of dialogue to resolve issues between various parties, so much so that today, dialoguing and negotiation is fast becoming an art form, which requires thorough research about the other party as well as a knowledge of every aspect that may play a part in securing the deal in the manner in which you want it to play out.
But things do tend to get a bit distorted when the political arena…
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second World War, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Police Corruption and Citizen Complaints Relative to Ethnicity
Police has a rather crucial role to play in the society. However, at more than one occasions, people have lodged complaints against police officers. Rather than maintaining justice and equality, police offers are discriminating against people. This problem should be addressed as priority since the role of the police can be tainted if such events keep on taking place.
A contemporary event
The case of George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin is a classic example of police corruption regarding ethnicity. Even though George Zimmerman was charged as "not guilty," many people are against this decision. This shooting took place on the night of February 26, 2012 in Sanford, Florida. Trayvon Martin was a seventeen-year-old high school student who was heading back from a local store to his house. George Zimmerman, who is 28 and was of mixed race, was the coordinating officer of…
More sport and physiological testing has become increasingly common as the interaction between scientists and coaches (tanner & Gore, 2013). When it comes to popular sports that are watched al over the world, team games like basketball generally have a heightened game tempo, a tougher body game and a more acute variability in the techniques and methods used (Singh & Deol, 2012). "An increased performance level can only be achieved by working and training of all major components i.e. technique, coordination, tactics, physical fitness, physiological qualities and psychological qualities. Basketball is one of the most popular team-based sports played and watched throughout the world" (Singh & Deol, 2012). This puts the aspect of physiological testing as an extreme priority for a variety of reasons. "Physiological exercise testing is important in basketball to help identify potential talent but also to provide the players, trainers and coaching staff with some…
Taking this into consideration, formalist films always try to come up with the idea that are merely personal imaginations, and events in the film are practically impossible in real life situations. Due to this, the style used in formalist films is usually very high. Its editing is sharp for the purpose of reminding the audience that it is merely a work of an artist. Formalist films always have a deeper and symbolic meaning which only the film elite can understand it. These are audiences who have adequate knowledge of evaluating a film in order to get its meaning.
Andrew, Dudley. The Major Film Theories: An Introduction. London: Oxford University Press, 1976. Print.
Braudy, L & Cohen, M. " Eisenstein, Sergei" The Dramaturgy of Film Form (The Dialectical Approach to Film Form). Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. By. New York: Oxford UP, 2009. 24-40. Print.
Braudy, L & Cohen,…
However, this is a common, recurrent theme that has been injected into the public sphere by private interests. As a result, it dominates a substantial amount of discourse in the public sphere, and even people like Griffin and Rostron, who believe that it is demoralizing and misleading and state those beliefs publicly, have had little success in challenging this misconception. Therefore, to have a real gun control debate in the public sphere, it is necessary to investigate whether proposed gun control laws would have had an impact on some of these crimes. In the instances of these massacre-shootings, over and over again it appears that the gunmen purchased their weapons and ammunition legally, rather than going to illegal sources for their weapons. They were not prevented from doing so by current gun-laws, but many of them had behavioral flags that may have led to gun-restrictions under more exacting laws. For…
Virginia Woolf to the Light House
Biography of the author
Virginia Woolf, the British author who made efforts towards making an original contribution to the structure of the novel, was an eminent writer of feminist essays, a critic writer in The Times Lierary Supplement and the prominent person in the Bloomsbury group. Virginia Woolf was born as the daughter of Sir Leslie Stephen and Julia Jackson Duckworth in London. Her father, Sir Leslie Stephen was an eminent literary critic and her mother Julia Jackson Duckworth, belonged to the family of Duckworth Publishing. (Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) - in full Adeline Virginia Woolf, original surname Stephen) It was the second marriage for both of her parents as they were married earlier to other partners. Her father had earlier married to Thackeray, a daughter of a novelist and her mother had earlier married to Herbert Duckowrth, who was a barrister. Julia and Leslie…
movie industry in America has been controlled by some of the monolithic companies which not only provided a place for making the movies, but also made the movies themselves and then distributed it throughout the entire country. These are movie companies and their entire image revolved around the number of participants of their films. People who wanted to see the movies being made had to go to the "studios" in order to see them. They made movies in a profitable manner for the sake of the studios, but placed the entire industry under their control and dominated over it. The discussion here is about some of those famous studios inclusive of that of names like Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Culver, RKO, Paramount Studios, Warner Bros, 20th Century Fox, Walt Disney Studios, Universal Studios, Raleigh Studio, Hollywood Center Studio, Sunset Gower Studio, Ren-Mar Studios, Charlie Chaplin Studios and now, Manhattan Beach Studio.…
"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."
This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.
Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.
There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…
The story investigates justice from different standpoints. Gerardo and Paulina have similar perceptions on how the military rule in the past had treated their society wrongly. However their perspectives vary in terms of how justice should be served. According to Gerardo, the efficiency of the commission he led was the best way to proceed. This would involve assessing all related human rights and letting the courts decide on a solution. Paulina was unsure of judges and their decisions considering their lack of support in the past seventeen years under a dictator. According to her, the pre-existing foundations of justice are not trustworthy enough. Making the final decision herself made more sense to her. The severity of what happened to her, guided her opinions. At one point when Gerardo tries to act reasonably rather than violently, she emphasizes how someone who did not experience any abuse himself does not have the…
David was classified by the defense psychiatrists as a paranoid schizophrenic (The Letter (http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/letter_1.html)."
When he was on his killing spree the NYC police department put together a special unit called the Omega Group for the express purpose of locating the killer and bringing him to justice.
It consisted of 300 officers and would encompass the questioning of over 3,000 suspects. It handled 215 calls a day, and include an attempt to check each of the 28,000.44 caliber Bulldog revolvers manufactured in the United States (Omega Group (http://www.spartechsoftware.com/dimensions/crime/SonOfSam.htm)."
Once he was caught and sentenced he spent the first 10 years in prison angry and fighting but in 1989 Berkowitz says he was touched by God and since that time has lived his life as a model prisoner for Jesus Christ.
At his recent parole hearing in 2002 he sent a letter to the Governor of the state letting him know…
An individual with the profile of Ted Bundy may be more likely to watch pornography and slasher films, but the films do not cause the criminal behavior. They might shape some of the more lurid details of the crime, such as the ritualistic aspects of his behavior, but eliminating pornography will not eliminate rapes and murders. Laboratory research indicates a slight tendency that pornography can "predispose some males to desire rape or intensify this desire and undermine some males' internal and social inhibitions against acting out rape desires" although it is very difficult to measures such affects in artificial laboratory settings (Jensen 2004, p.4).
Eliminating all restrictions on pornography would not just be controversial, but also problematic, given that some legal oversight of the industry is necessary to prevent the exploitation of children in child pornography. Additionally, pornography is not allowed near schools, to limit children's exposure. However, other than…
17). He is disgusted that news executives that direct what should be covered are less interested in "what's happening in Afghanistan" but more interested in "Michael Jackson and Laci Peterson" (Fenton, p. 20).
What are the excuses TV executives, editors and producers give for focusing on scandal, sexual trysts, and embarrassing situations for celebrities? Fenton claims that those "gatekeepers of the news" will tell anyone listening that "the average [viewer] simply cannot absorb that much hard news, especially about events abroad" (p. 20). The CBS veteran insists that the media power brokers believe that "Americans are too broadly under-informed to digest nuggets of information that seem to contradict what they know of the world" (p. 20). That would seem to be a very condescending, elitist attitude on the part of the TV industry in particular.
Fenton (p. 22) asserts that because of the very real threats of terrorism on the…
Based on the situation at Saint Francis de Sales Schools, the organization is suffering from a lack of vision and confusion with regards to its mission. There is not enough forward-looking perspective in the organization; the school has continuously been resting on its laurels instead of planning for the future (Klag, Giroux & Langley, 2012). Instead of focusing on the changes in the society and how the school should adopt to meet them—such as the rise of technological advancements in the Digital Age, and the demands of demographic shifts—the school has instead dithered away without growing its list of donors or building for tomorrow.
Therefore, vision statement for Saint Francis de Sales Schools should be: To be the number 1 leader in secondary school academic performance and all-around accomplishment in England.
The mission statement for Saint Francis de Sales Schools should be: 1) To form well-rounded students by adopting a…
Texas House Bill (HB304) - Relating civil liability bullying a child
1. Title of the Suggested Bill
Texas State’s ‘anti-bullying’ house bill possesses the following key features. Its title appropriately alludes to the protection of children’s rights (CAIR Texas, 2017). If enacted, the law would:
a. Offer tools to educational institutions: This bill would authorize educational institutions to examine cases of bullying outside of school, develop a tip line that maintains anonymity, and enable greater educational institution latitude in penalizing pupils who engage in major cyber bullying (e.g., urging a child to kill him/herself).
b. Reduce the number of victims: Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates reveal suicide to be the second main cause of adolescent deaths.
c. Offer tools to law enforcers: Law enforcers can, by means of summonses, increasingly expose anonymous users on social media websites who post or convey intimidating messages. The law will render e-bullying and…
Long-Term Impacts of Bullying
Bullying is an undesirable, hostile behavior exhibited by adolescents due to perceived and sometimes real power imbalance. This is a repeated behavior, or one that may be possibly repeated, as time goes on. Both the bullies and those bullied can develop long-term problems. For a child's behavior to be termed 'bullying', it must be a hostile behavior and include the following:
Power imbalance: Children who bully make use of their physical strengths, their access to information that could be considered embarrassing, or their popularity to harm or control the activities of other children. These imbalances in power can alter with time and circumstances, even when they involve the same set of people.
Repetition: These bullying behaviors do not occur just once, or can occur recurrently.
Bullying behaviors involve certain actions like threatening others, physical and verbal attacks, spreading rumors about someone, or leaving someone out…
Cyber Bullying and Its Impact
Over the past decade, attention has been drawn to cyber-bullying by the media and researchers. Research on cyber-bullying has covered the various behavior aspects; focusing mainly on demographic and personal factors of the involved individuals. Particularly, the research has been targeted at factors among adolescents; who account for a majority of cyber-bullying cases. Nonetheless, it is important that other populations are studied too -- even adults where cyber-bullying may not be as common -- so that evaluations are made on the previous findings. Several personal factors linked to adolescent cyber-bullying, e.g. level of self-esteem, have been noted to change as one gets older (Obins et al., 2002). It is necessary therefore that studies be done whether or not such factors remain linked to cyber-bullying in various groups of different ages. Moreover, while research on cyber-bullying on adults is taking shape, they are limited to identifying…
No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act of 2001 signed by President George Bush, Jr. is supposed to be "a landmark in education reform designed to improve student achievement and change the culture of America's schools." Bush describes this law as the "cornerstone of my administration." The program aims to: support learning in early years, provide parents and teachers with more information about the child's performance through designed measurements, improve teacher performance by setting criteria needed for instructors; and give more resources to schools. Schools that fail to make sufficient progress can be required to offer individual tutoring or to allow students to transfer to other schools. If the failure continues, schools can be subject to further penalties, including total reorganization. Thus far, however, the results are demonstrating more of what the program cannot accomplish than what it can.
First, the NCLB has not been communicated well to those who could…
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
Barriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, Bandura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
Bandura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
The incidents of April 20, 1999 from Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado put bullying into a new perspective. Two students, Dylan Klebold and Ryan Harris, who were, for all intents, intelligent and well adjusted went on a killing spree. They killed and injured several members of the school including a teacher. (Rosenberg, 2000) Then they turned the guns on themselves. Their plans were grandiose. After the massacre, they intended to flee the country. Once the furor had died down, new information showed that the two students were generally reticent, withdrawn and subjected to bullying by their peers, especially the physically stronger students. Klebold and Harris were emotionally and physically abused. Isolated, they developed a hatred for their fellow students. This manifested in initial thoughts of suicide and then murder. Stories abound about bullying turned to tragedy abound. The Columbine incident was the biggest and got the most coverage.…
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Clinical Psychology Dissertation - Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings
An Abstract of a Dissertation
Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings
This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the content of a dreamer's dreams, and if therapists actually "guide" their clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the therapist "suggesting" to their clients that they had suffered some type of early childhood trauma, when in fact, there were no traumas in their early childhoods. The origin of psychiatry is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, therapy or any…
The key years during which experimentation occurs - between 13 and 16.
Kobus discusses influences that launch an adolescent's smoking habit from several perspectives. First, the "social learning theory": relationships that are "more intimate" and that are developed "earlier in the youth's experiences" and thought to be more important; and youths are more likely to "imitate the smoking habits" (or non-smoking habits) of those with whom they have the closes and most frequent contact. Second, the "primary socialization theory" takes into consideration influences of the family, schools, and peer clusters; this theory also gives consideration to an adolescent's "individual personality traits" like self-esteem, anxiety, "sensation seeking and psychopathology" that are "direct influences on drug use and deviance," Kobus writes. When the bonds a youth has with family and school are "weak," the role of peer clusters is "heightened"; and of course if the individual has low self-esteem, the peer cluster…
2). Like students who have trouble acclimating themselves to life in the classroom, emotionally disabled students need the resources that the school can provide in order to make a successful life for themselves. When subject to zero-tolerance policies, they are often kicked out into areas with limited supervision and resources for their special circumstances. Without them, they have trouble continuing on a path to success.
Thus, the current state of zero-tolerance policies does a disservice to emotionally disabled students through its poorly implemented status. Today, zero-tolerance policies are unfairly applied that will be likely to target emotionally disabled students if they are "problem students," and even more likely to victimize them if they are black (Eggert, 2009). Further, teachers and administrators are barred from making decisions on a case-by-case basis, even when they are the ones who know the students best, because of zero-tolerance. In addition, zero-tolerance policies may inadequately…
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime Research Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
Moral Leadership in an International Context
South Africa - Johannesburg and Cape Town December 2018 – January 2019
Wow! What an adventure! This trip/course to South Africa with my Candler School of Theology comrades was a full bounty of knowledge and personal growth. The agenda set forth by our instructors Dr. Robert Franklin, Dr. Gregory Ellison, and Dr. Letitia Campbell was chock full of meetings and interviews with current moral leaders and friends of moral leaders from the past. All that being said, I came with my own agenda. I have been incorporating the 23rd Psalm into my daily life a practice.
It is important for me to give you context “The Lord is My Shephard.”
Lord – You are my shepherd I shall not want– I shall not want for more than God (The Divine) gives me.
You make me lie down in green pastures, You lead…