Separation Of Church And State Essays (Examples)

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Role of Religion What Is

Words: 2595 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 20493195

The ruling stated that, since the moment of silence was for the purpose of advancing religion, it was unconstitutional. This was evidently a case-specific ruling however, and the fact is that the Court has not ruled that this moment of silence may always be unconstitutional. There are multiple court rulings in other jurisdictions that have ruled the moment of silence allowable if it passes the test of not advancing religion.

Can a student say a prayer at a school graduation ceremony? The Supreme Court has not ruled that student-led non-sectarian prayer is not allowed at public school graduation ceremonies.

The question remains open and has been decided on a case-by-case basis. It cannot be encouraged by school officials, and prayers delivered by clergy have been ruled unconstitutional.

However, prayers at public school baccalaureate services are constitutional as long as the ceremony is distinct and separated from the graduation ceremony and…… [Read More]

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American Revolution Had Far Ranging

Words: 2607 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51840234

Although the original U.S. Constitution did not initially grant women the right to vote and otherwise participate in the government, women were afforded, on a limited basis, to participate in the increased emphasis on public education following the end of the Revolution. The theory behind allowing this greater participation by women in the educational process was that in order for the republic to succeed, women must be able to teach the democratic principles upon which the nation was founded to the children (Cohen, 2000). This idea of allowing women to become educated became known as "Republican Motherhood."

The American Revolution was also a major inspiration for future revolutions in other countries and the American governmental form also served as a model for the organization of other governments. The colonies' victory over what was then the world's greatest power, Great Britain, created a strong sense of patriotism throughout the new nation…… [Read More]

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God and Creation

Words: 4562 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32663125

God and Creation

Has the concept of God well and truly woven itself into the very psyche of the average American citizen? What exactly does the average American think about God? As a matter of fact, each and every American must take some time to sit back and think deeply about these issues, and also pay close attention to the power and influence of God in the history of America. Perhaps a visitor to the national Capital would not be complete without a visit to certain of the most important historic and monumental exhibits present therein, which would undoubtedly prove that God does exists in the psyche of the American citizen. For example, when one visits the National Archives, which hosts the original document of the Declaration of Independence, one would note that it is there that one would find the 'immortal phrase' which states that we are "endowed by…… [Read More]

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Stem Cells the Ethical Controversy

Words: 2407 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87608673

Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.

On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…… [Read More]

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Gay Marriage Arguments for and

Words: 1731 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9045085

Conclusion: Homosexual marriage is a controversial topic because it conflicts with our traditional cultural definition of the institution of marriage. It is easy to understand the reasons that many are opposed to legalizing gay marriage, but somewhat harder to understand the justification offered for imposing those reasons on other individuals who may not necessarily share their beliefs.

In many respects, once one examines the specific objections, it becomes hard to distinguish the current status of same sex marriage from the status of interracial marriage fifty years ago. One of the most fundamental features of American life in general, and of American jurisprudence in particular, is that laws must apply equally to all of us.

Certainly, there are valid justifications for limiting marriage to human beings, and for criminalizing marriage between siblings and between adults and children. The crucial difference is that the criteria for those prohibitions are objective. After comparing…… [Read More]

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Enlightenment on Christianity and on

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81198423

Muslim reaction to the Enlightenment was less harsh than that of the Catholic Church, yet less adoptive than that of Protestantism. One such reaction, posited by S.H. Nasr, holds that the Enlightenment was not as widely embraced in traditional Muslim countries because there is no inherent separation of reason and religion within this faith, and that Islamic science has always included divine revelation. Another Islamic viewpoint of the Enlightenment, most convincingly stated by Ziauddin Sardar, contends that many principles of philosophy, math, and science, including the very University concept known in Arabic as the adab system, actually come from Islamic countries and indicates their significant contribution to the movement.

But if the Muslim world contributed a majority of the intellectual concepts which gained popularity during the Enlightenment, the Christian world can be thought to have taken some necessary logistical measures to implement them by downplaying the Church's value and further…… [Read More]

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Trial One of the Most

Words: 2171 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63620857

In 2005, a Federal Judge in Georgia ruled that any sticker or notice violated the separation of Church and state, "Due to the manner in which the sticker refers to evolution as a theory, the sticker also has the effect of undermining evolution eduction. . . The distinction of evolution as a theory rather than a fact is the distinction that religiously motivated individuals have specifically asked school boards to make…. And in doing so improperly entagles religion and education" (Larson, 318).

Creation science now had to change, and now became intelligent design. Numerous districts either required it to be taught, or required statements about it be read at the same time as the teaching of any Darwinian theory. The first case, however, to test an individual district's policy to teach intelligent design. The plaintiffs argued that intelligent design was, in fact, creationism as an alternative to evolution. This, they…… [Read More]

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School Finance Aguilar v Felton

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88037738

School Finance Aguilar v Felton


The Aguilar et al. v Felton et al. Case of 1985

Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 allowed for the reimbursement of the salaries of public employees teaching in parochial schools (LII, 2012). These selected teachers provided instruction to low-income children with special needs. A group of taxpayers filed a case, claiming that the program created an excessive entanglement of church and state. It thus violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the Constitution. In a 5-4 decision in 1985, the Supreme Court, in 473 U.S. 42 or Aguilar et al. v Felton et al., invalidated the New York plan (LII).

Majority Opinion by Justice William Brennan

The supervision used by New York City created excessive entanglement between the government and religion (LII, 2012). Advancing religion may not have been its primary effect, but their…… [Read More]

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Bishop Members of the Diocese of Utopia

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24810834

Bishop, Members of the Diocese of Utopia, Ladies and Gentlemen!

It's an honor and privilege to me having the opportunity to speak before this distinguished audience. It's an extreme privilege to have you, Dear Bishop, as a private person attending this event. I think that all of us in this room extremely appreciate this! I am here to speak to you not only as a female candidate for the office of the President of the United States, but also as a private person, e.g., a Roman Catholic, a wife and a mother of three children. When I prepared this speech, I asked myself, what is it that might get your attention not only during this short meeting but might also support my candidature for the U.S. presidency during the upcoming elections? Is it my broad view of foreign or domestic politics, my plan of how to help this country recover…… [Read More]

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Religion and Sociology Challenges to

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48674123

(40) The foundation of the story demonstrates the social pull of religion as a way of life, that is inclusive, despite its obvious contradictions to the modern world, belief systems and economy. In a sense the social desire to fit in and be seen as different are met by the acceptance of the church as a lifestyle. According to Durkheim, "Deep down, no religion is false.... Each in its own way is true, for each answers given conditions of human life."

Blend et al. 30)

Max Weber also committed a great deal of his life and scholarship to the sociology of religion, affirming repeatedly that religion must exist to transform society into a moral society, rather than one that meets the conditions of the natural instincts of man, being amoral in the sense that they are often simply self serving, yet he also reiterated the importance of studying the ways…… [Read More]

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First Amendment the Founding of

Words: 2187 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27929316

" Although the results then were not complementary to this clause of the First Amendment, the actions made then opened the floodgates for redresses of grievances against the United States government.

The validity and effectiveness of the First Amendment as well as all other amendments of the United States Constitution can be determined through various tests in time. Fortunately, the First Amendment stood steadfast and changed various facets of American lives throughout the centuries. But despite all these, the First Amendment, and even the whole American Constitution and Bill of Rights for that matter, cannot be deemed as perfect because any case brought to test it will have results that are both acceptable to some and unacceptable also. This is what makes for a great democracy like the United States when its laws are not taken at face value but rather there will be challenges to the applicability thereto. In…… [Read More]

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Religion and Abortion When a Hospital's Moral

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 78594476

Religion and Abortion

When a hospital's moral and ethical decision making process comes into conflict with the source that provides funds for the hospital -- or goes against the grain of the values of the funding source -- the results can expected to be controversial at best and harmful to humans at the worst. Indeed, to be specific, when the Roman Catholic Church provides funds for a hospital, the Church expects that its tenets, canons, codes of belief and moral values will be reflected in the policies of that hospital. Is this fair to the doctors and nurses in the hospital who have their own oaths to guide their professional actions? And is it fair to the patients who come to the hospital with urgent healthcare needs that to them, supersede any spiritual values or creeds that hospital funding sources might expect to be followed? The answer to both of…… [Read More]

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Supreme Court Decisions the Nature

Words: 2427 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84941893

For example, he voted to require that schools utilize resources to support religions activities if they designate resources to non-religious activities (Board of Education. v. Mergens, 1990). Further, Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002) called for vouchers to be given to families of low socioeconomic standing for both religious and secular educational institutions. This being said, Rehnquist was not able to completely disrupt the social change that Warren had started in this area but he was able to utilize his conservative nature to take a few steps backward.

Where Warren set to emphasize the equal protection rights of the individual in the criminal justice system, Rehnquist focused on the importance of the conviction of the guilty and absolution of the innocent (Davis, 1992). Police practices were believed to be necessary and appropriate if they were able to secure the conviction of a guilty party. In fact Rehnquist attempted to overturn the ruling…… [Read More]

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Fall of Christendom in Modern Era

Words: 1859 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14331401

Christianity in Europe

The Decline of European Christianity, 1675-Present

The demise of Christianity in Europe coincides with the rise of the Age of Enlightenment at the end of the 17th century.

Up to that moment, Europe had been relatively one in religious belief. True, religious wars had been raging for more than a century, with the fracturing of nations in the wake of the "Protestant Reformation." But even then, Europe had acknowledged a single Savior -- wherein lay His Church was the major point of contention. But today Europe exists in a post-Christian state. Its Christian identity has collapsed under the weight of Romantic-Enlightenment ideals, expressed dramatically in the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century and adopted politically throughout the continent as a result of a more man-centered, rather than God-centered, vision of life. This paper will trace the decline of European Christianity and provide three reasons…… [Read More]

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Multicultural Perspective in America the

Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86464179

Kennedy spoke for most Irish-Americans when he said:

believe in an America where the separation of Church and State is absolute -- where no Catholic prelate would tell the President (should he be a Catholic) how to act.... If my church attempted to influence me in a way which was improper or which affected adversely my responsibilities as a public servant, sworn to uphold the Constitution, then I would reply to them that this was an improper action on their part, that it was one to which I could not subscribe, that I was opposed to it, and that it would be an unfortunate breach -- an interference with the American political system. I am confident there would be no such interference (Howard, Doyle, et al., 84).'"

The recent election of Barack H. Obama as the first black president of the United States, has enfranchised the population of black Americans…… [Read More]

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Christian Ethics and Politics A

Words: 1413 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59215616

From a practical standpoint, one must also realize that being overly vociferous in either arena will alienate the very people who are the intended targets of the message. Hence, the best approach to engaging Christian ethics in politics is to engage in worthy issues, remember the reason for involvement is to promote the good of the community and not the goals of an individual and to modulate one's delivery of ideas so as to not chase of the audience.

Works Cited

Dayton, Donald. Discovering an Evangelical History. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson

Publishers, 1988. Print.

Hays, Richard. The Moral Vision of the New Testament: Community, Cross, New

Creation; A contemporary introduction to New Testament Ethics. San Francisco:


Collins Publishing, 1996.

Lovin, Robin, W. Becoming Responsible in Christian Ethics. Studies in Christian Ethics, Vol. 22, 4 (2009) pp. 389-398.

Miles, Rebekah L. The Pastor as a Moral Guide. Minneapolis: Augsberg Fortress,

1999.…… [Read More]

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Western Studies Emphasizes on the Following Two

Words: 2590 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92266819

Western Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.

Western Studies

Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.

The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…… [Read More]

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Violence in 19th Century Europe

Words: 3259 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54507686

Anarchy in the 19th Century

An Analysis of Merriman's Dynamite Club and Anarchy in the 19th Century

John Merriman makes the point early in the Dynamite Club that there exists "a gossamer thread connecting…Islamist fundamentalists and Emile Henry's circle."

Merriman goes on to define that connection as being one of "social inequalities." But more to the heart of the matter, however, is the difference in ideologies -- ideologies that transcended the economic, political, and social realities of the 19th century. This paper will analyze the tug-of-war between old and new society in the 19th century, and show how anarchy became the ultimate expression of modern man's frustrated attempts to deal with the lost definition of his spiritual aspect, which, prior to the Enlightenment had at least supplied a kind of framework for social order.

A Conflict of Ideologies

No doubt the revolutionary ideology of the Romantic/Enlightenment era held some influence…… [Read More]

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Rev Doctor Charles Todd Quintard

Words: 2527 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21288300

Todd Quintard: Civil War Doctor, Preacher, Soldier and Friend

Personal Chronology (Todd Quintard was born in Stamford, Connecticut, 22 December, 1824. His father, Isaac, was born in the same house, and died there in the ninetieth year of his age. Todd was a pupil of Trinity school, New York, and he studied medicine with Dr. James R. Wood and Dr. Valentine Molt. He graduated at the University of the City of New York in 1847. He afterward removed to Georgia, where he began to practice medicine in Athens. Elliot, 2003) in 1851 he accepted the chair of physiology and pathological anatomy in the medical college at Memphis, Tennessee, and became co-editor with Dr. Ayres P. Merrill, of the Memphis "Medical Recorder."

In 1855 he took orders as a deacon in the Protestant Episcopal Church. He was advanced to the priesthood in the following year, and in January, 1857, became rector…… [Read More]

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His Legacy

Words: 2128 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67893461

William Penn and His Legacy

The conventional view of political life in the American colonies prior to the Revolution is one of instability and turmoil, characterized by political infighting and conflicts over who would be dominant. Alan Tully, in his book, William Penn's Legacy, has presented a completely different view of politics in the Province of Pennsylvania. His view, based upon the study of a thirty-year period in Pennsylvania history (1726-1755), is that the political world was one of peace, regularity and order. "This penchant for avoiding contentious politics was something most Pennsylvania politicians shared. They preferred to keep political relationships low keyed and controlled, in a subsidiary relationship to many of their other concerns."

He theorizes that there were a number of institutional safeguards, informal political practices, and behavior standards that helped to resolve conflict before it became violently disruptive. He argues that society did not become divisive, as…… [Read More]

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Personal Reflection on Religious Perspective

Words: 1225 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9405683

In my opinion, the way we manifest our religious values is by expressing them in meaningful ways in the lives of others. Furthermore, the opportunity to do so comes in myriad forms. In a typical day of my life, I express my Christian worldview of loving my neighbor and dong unto others on a continual basis from the moment I wake up until I go to sleep.

For example, when I get up in the morning, I am careful about how loudly I play my radio because I understand that my neighbors sleep later than I do. Likewise, I avoid doing certain things that I have every right (i.e. every secular legal right) to do, such as mowing my lawn early in the morning, purely out of consideration for my neighbors. Similarly, when I drive to school or to work, I am always mindful of the sensibilities and welfare of…… [Read More]

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Abortion Issue in the United

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 9079536

Instead, considering the more empirical medical and social considerations at hand, the Supreme Court established the position that stands today.

In spite of this precedent, pro-life groups have mounted powerful, ongoing and determined opposition to this constitutional position. Indeed, the political relevance of abortion can mostly be attributed to this determination, which reflects a belief on the part of the conservative population of the United States that abortion is wrong, that it should be regarded as murder and that the failure of the nation to intervene on the behalf of its unborn children is a fundamental sin. This is a view which has resonated with many Republican office-holders and Christian community leaders in recent years, who have battled aggressively to shift the public perspective to a place of rejection of these values.

However, most of the evidence available to us suggests that abortion is a critical right which must be…… [Read More]

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Teachings and Practice of Islam the Teachings

Words: 3106 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85084491

Teachings and Practice of Islam

The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline

Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.

Basic Teachings of Islam

History of Islam

The Quran

Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices


How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain

Influx in Muslims

Facing Adversity and Stereotypes

Muslims as a Minority


Spread of Islam into India

Sufi Islam

Other Asian Nations

Southeast Asia

Islam as Reacting Against a Growing Western Presence

The Middle East

Prominent Denominations

Islamic Law as National Law

C. Gender Issues


A. Fundamentalism



The Teachings of Islam Around the World


No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…… [Read More]

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First Amendment the Constitution and the Supreme

Words: 2383 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5017596

First Amendment, the Constitution, and the Supreme Court

Freedom of and from religion and freedom of speech are the distinct provisions of the First Amendment; it gives citizens of the United States the unalienable human right to assembly and speech. However, the language is intentionally vague. The framers of the Constitution, anticipating unknown applications of the amendment, gave power to the Supreme Court to act as ultimate arbiter in matters involving its provisions. The Constitution of the United States is a living document and the interpretation of its amendments by the Supreme Court changes over time. Freedom of speech and the press, and religious freedom, are exercised according to the Supreme Court's rulings in cases that come before it. Exploration of these cases illuminates the evolving meaning of the First Amendment and the freedoms granted therein.

The First Amendment to the Constitution is partially designed to protect journalists and news-content…… [Read More]

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Israeli Politics Separating Religion From

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94273644

Most Israelis do not desire assimilation into a common whole, given that they hold the other components of their identity equally dear as their Jewish heritage and their Israeli citizenship. A Russian Jew may have more in common with fellow Russians than an Ethiopian Jew and an Israeli may be an atheist yet a member of a religious state.

Does an Israel national identity still exist, asks Yehoshua? He does not ask this question of the Palestinian nationals, who clearly see themselves as apart from Israeli society, both legally and in terms of how they profess their own citizenship and nationhood. However, even for Jews, Israel proposes an interesting question of what constitutes a nation. Israel gives refuge and citizenship to every Jew, no matter where he or she may hail from, but the state of Israel also has civic institutions that are limited to professed nationals, some of whom…… [Read More]

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Religion Shaped AMERICAN& 8230 How Religion

Words: 2067 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68756801

Revisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.


Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.

At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…… [Read More]

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History of Israel Author John

Words: 3272 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20211278

" (This statement appears to fly in the face of his detailed emphasis on trying to be terribly thorough at other times throughout the book; and his seeming editorial neurosis creates doubts in the minds of the reader as to precisely how consistent and valid his values are vis-a-vis what he believes to be true.)

Those biblical students probably read his book and had a sense that he was in a classroom, behind a podium, lecturing to them, when, on pages 18-20, he discusses pre-history (Stone Age) and Neolithic Jericho. His bias towards places and people who are in some way connected to Scripture comes across numerous times in obviously favored passages.

To wit: one can almost hear his voice as he describes the relative distance in time to make his point about the advent of the Israel we know today. "Difficult as it is for us to realize, it…… [Read More]

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The Early Days of the Puritans in the New World

Words: 1916 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75199455

The Puritans’ Search for Religious Freedom in the New World
By the turn of the 17th century, much of the New World had already been explored by Europeans in search of gold and glory, and reports of the opportunities and riches available encouraged others to follow. Not everyone who ventured into the New World wildernesses was in search of money, including the Puritans who braved the elements in search of religious freedom. This paper provides a review of selected primary sources from the era together with other relevant literature to determine why the Puritans came to America as well as a description of their overarching goals and an analysis concerning whether they achieved these goals. In addition, a discussion concerning the difficulty of the lives of these early colonists and a description of their interactions with Native Americans are followed by an assessment of their values and whether these values…… [Read More]

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Gay Marriage the Overwhelming Passage

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76602138

Further, the American government and political system was built on multi-cultural, multi-religious and multi-denominational principles (Marcel, 2004).

American is not a Christian nation, or at least it was not created on this ideology. Rather historically America has often been referred to as the 'melting pot' where people could seek refuge from persecution on the basis of religion or other practices or beliefs that might be considered personal and individual. Religious fundamentalism has not wrought success in other countries such as Saudi Arabia or for people living under the rule of the Taliban (Marcel, 2004), and thus is also likely to fail as the primary basis for government regulation in this country.

The role of government is to make decisions that support the good of the whole rather than the good of individuals; by nature the law should not determine whether or not something is morally correct or fair (Marcel, 2004).…… [Read More]

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Abortion Pro-Choice Argument Ever Since

Words: 1072 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53338727

Generally, secular science reminds us that even the distinction between the value supposedly inherent in human life and that of other "higher" non-human life forms is very difficult to maintain logically. In fact, it may very well be that many species are sufficiently capable of complex emotions and other intellectual behavior previously considered exclusive hallmarks of "humanity" as to deserve greater moral consideration.

If anything, the convergence of contemporary knowledge made possible by combining our modern understanding of genetics and the biological basis of behavior suggests that whatever "quality" or 'aspect" of human life that qualifies for moral consideration is not anything that is uniquely human at all.

The more familiar one is with the lives and relationships apparent in primate societies as well as those of elephants, whales, and porpoises, the more difficult it is to argue against the need to consider the sentience and consciousness of animal life…… [Read More]

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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

This was a very powerful show. Watching and listening to Howard Zinn talk about what he believes and what he hopes for was an amazing experience. Seeing clips from the History Channel documentary ensured that I will go in search of the entire show. The actors who represented the historical figures gave poignant readings that truly brought that time in history to life and -- importantly -- made it possible to understand how the individual portrayed were catalysts to incredible change. It was interesting to listen to Zinn's comments about the Obama and his comparison of Obama to Martin Luther King. The comparison seems a bit unfair as Martin Luther King was not an elected official. Rather, Martin Luther King's comments were entirely in alignment with his role as a pastor and a change agent. Indeed, in retrospect, Zinn's comments were pertinent to the criticism of Obama at the…… [Read More]

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Ethical Dilemma in the First Scenario the

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12740747

Ethical Dilemma

In the first scenario, the vice president of a beer company has been asked to organize a lobbying effort to reduce the drinking age to 18. From a strictly legal perspective, there is nothing wrong with this request. The company has the legal right to lobby government for legislative changes that it wants to see. Indeed, the Citizens United ruling expands the privilege of free speech in elections to all bodies, individual or corporate. From a legal perspective the company can organize such an effort and if it is successful will have achieved its objectives through legal channels.

The ethics of the issue are a little fuzzier. There are different ethical perspectives that can be used to analyze this issue. One perspective is the consequentialist perspective. A consequentialist looks to the outcomes of one's actions to determine the moral worth of those actions. The different outcomes here can…… [Read More]

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America Wealth and Power Are

Words: 1537 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79992429

Unfortunately many aspects of modern American society threaten individual liberties. For example, the disparity between the rich and the poor in American society impacts the level of freedom enjoyed by certain segments of the population. The "freedom" to pay workers a pittance in order to increase profits in a large corporation is therefore not really a "freedom" at all. Therefore, it is up to the government and to the people who support it to ensure that the rights and freedoms of all persons are preserved. Similarly, when religious institutions hope to influence public policy, they inadvertently infringe on the rights and freedoms of the American people. Even if well-meaning, religious institutions cannot bind people in a free society to do what they do or believe what they believe. Morals are a reflection of common sense and education, not of specific religious values. Therefore, the government cannot bend its legislation to…… [Read More]

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American Democracy & the U S

Words: 2075 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65426903


Thus, the members of the Convention assumed that, although power was a necessary evil, it was also dangerous, especially when provided to the wrong person who might take advantage of this power for his own gain. In essence, the members attempted to compose a constitution that would insure effective power for the government when needed but that would also place reliable checks and safeguards on the use of that power. Once again, this aim can be traced back to Montesquieu's essay in which he states "to prevent the abuse of power, 'tis necessary that by the very disposition of things (that) power should be checked... " (Leone 37).

But the members were also much too experienced in the ways of politics to take for granted that conscientious and moral men would always be elected to office. To them, human nature was universally fallible and only built-in safeguards could be…… [Read More]

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Liberalism and Conservatism in Contemporary

Words: 926 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31434040

The conservative view -- that of teaching intelligent design, or an alternative to Darwinism, is antithetical to science. In American public schools, religion may be taught about, but not taught. This means, religion may be presented as an historical or philosophical debate, as long as belief systems or spirituality are neither taught nor given predominance by the teacher. The idea of evolution is central to almost every biological and scientific paradigm in contemporary culture, and must be taught in order to students to be well informed. The idea of taking a non-scientific concept and presenting it as science does not make it science, regardless of how it is dressed up (Polkinghorne, 2006).

Indeed, the idea of presenting fairness in a classroom situation is untenable when trying to teach a religious-based concept next to a scientific-based set of principles. When we teach the Civil War, we do not typically teach the…… [Read More]

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Same Sex Marriage

Words: 2270 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79473248

Gay marriage has become one of the most controversial public policy issues in contemporary Western society. In many respects, opinions on the issue follow two particular lines of ideological allegiance, such as to the religious roots marriage as a cultural institution and of the traditional bases for prohibitions against same-sex relationships. In my experience, age is also a predictor of attitudes about same-sex marriage: my generation views homosexuality as a natural predisposition of a certain portion of the human population and as a distinction of virtual irrelevance, especially to any so-called issues of moral values. Conversely, older generations seem much more likely to adhere to traditional religion-inspired pejorative views about homosexuality in general and about extending the privileges of formal marriage to same-sex couples. Among my social circle, homosexuality is not considered an important distinction about any individual and the withholding of marital rights from same-sex couples is extremely difficult…… [Read More]

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Spirit Catches You and You

Words: 2568 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35202783

To a culture that didn't use calendars, giving a certain medicine at a certain hour of the day was incomprehensible. Neil and Peggy didn't consider that a somewhat less effective, but easier-to-follow drug regimen may have been better given the state of affairs. Instead, the Western idea of doing as much as medically possible for as long as medically possible prevailed. When Nao Kao and Foua failed to comply, Neil and Peggy viewed them as unable or unwilling to follow what was to them, directions that could save Lia's life. If Neil and Peggy had asked Nao Kao and Foua why they didn't comply, perhaps a productive dialog could have been created. When the author asked Peggy and Neil about it, they said that they had had no idea that Nao Kao and Foua would even consider traditional medicine, because they looked so Americanized.

Despite Neil and Peggy's perceptions, Nao…… [Read More]

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Engel v Vitale 1962

Words: 1255 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54320905

Engel v. Vitale (1962)

Supreme Court Case-- Engel v. Vitale. Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962) [Establishment of Religion - Prayer in Public Schools].

Year of the Case -- 1962.

Author of the majority opinion - Justice Hugo Black

Members of the Court at the time of the decision:

Felix Frankfurter, Byron White, Potter Stewart, William O. Douglas, William Brennan, Jr., John M. Harlan, Hugo Black, Tom Campbell Clark (Members of the Supreme Court of the United States).

The parties to the case

The parties in the case include the William J. Butler, who argued the cause for petitioners, with him on the briefs was Stanley Geller. The petitioner was Steven Engel and four other parents from the Searington Elementary School in the Herricks school district in New York (DeWan).

Bertram B. Daiker argued the cause for respondents. With him on the briefs was Wilford E. Neier. These attorneys…… [Read More]

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Same-Sex Marriage Few Modern Issues

Words: 2186 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15509541

Divorce is no longer taboo at all. It is not unusual, but almost expected, for couples to marry, have at least one child, and subsequently separate. About half of American children are being raised in single-parent households or in households where there is a revolving door of partners for their custodial parent. Divorce is not the only issue that threatens the institution of marriage in America; approximately one in four people are currently in an abusive marriage. Furthermore, if a woman in America is murdered, the odds are overwhelming that her husband is the killer. Domestic violence does more to provide a real threat to more marriages in America than same-sex marriage ever could. As far as threatening individual marriages, the legalization of gay marriage would probably promote individual relationships. If homosexuals had the opportunity to marry their chosen partners, they may feel less pressure to remain in the closet,…… [Read More]

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Bush Religion the Religious Policies

Words: 2536 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 90004907

Proponents of stem-cell research believe that it may be the secret to curing infertility, genetic imperfection and neurological degeneration, and on the premise of this supposition, have lobbied vigorously to prevent legislation that would protect embryos from harvest and use in research, espousing the idea that:

"Criminalizing human reproductive cloning in the United States will only make it less safe and more costly for these infertile couples. They will be forced to travel outside the United States to pursue their dream of creating a family. After all, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), infertility is a disability and reproduction is a major life activity for the purposes of the ADA (Bragdon v. Abbott, 118 S.Ct 2196; 1998). In light of this, it is the right of each and every American citizen to bear a child." (Speeches, 21)

In spite of this, there were very few legislative efforts which…… [Read More]

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Morality of the Death Penalty

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64729688

S. has a greater crime problem than other nations would, if it were sufficiently bad, also justify torture by the author's criteria. To my mind, the relevant issue is that many countries impose much more barbaric sanctions, such as cutting off limbs, stoning, and other brutal forms of cruel capital punishment. I would regard humane capital punishment as morally preferable, particularly in conjunction with the U.S. constitutional protections.

I would strongly disagree with the author's position that the death penalty is no longer (especially in 1985) routinely imposed in error, as well as with the author's position that the death penalty is no longer imposed in a discriminatory manner. Specifically, since this essay was written, the field of DNA science has demonstrated time and again that there is a definite risk of wrongful imposition and that is, perhaps, the strongest of all possible objections, especially given the profound importance of…… [Read More]

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Thomas Jefferson Malone Dumas Thomas

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16857429

For Jefferson, severing from England was never merely economic in its intention, rather he envisioned an entire separation of church and state, a secular and truly republican nation run by a "natural aristocracy of talent and virtue" elected by the "enlightened" (17).

However, Malone seems determined to ignore the more unsavory aspects of Jefferson's reputation. Malone states categorically that Jefferson's "illicit relations" with is slave Sally Heurings is "wholly out of character" and there is no evidence it took place (42). Malone's determination to cast no aspersions on Jefferson's reputation is also obvious in his choice of language. He describes Jefferson's slaves welcomed Jefferson "tumultuously" (implying they were happy) when the Founding Father returned from a journey (24). Ultimately, because the book is so insistent on focusing on Jefferson the hero, the humanity of this man who was both of his time and ahead…… [Read More]

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Doctors From Hell the Five

Words: 1950 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77038092

Using what the Germans did is not intended to be a typical example of how mentally handicapped people are treated as part of the healthcare industry's approach, or the strategies taken by schools and other institutions under whose care emotionally troubled people have been placed. But it serves as an example in the sense that any mistreatment of mentally troubled citizens is a crime, not just the murderous bloodletting that the Nazis engaged in.


Hatefulness, prejudice, bias and discrimination based on religion, culture, gender or skin color is wrong and this message must be forcefully presented to the world's populations. One of the most dramatic lessons that emerged from the wreckage and rubble and lost lives in the European theatre of WWI is that without strong moral leadership, unbelievably evil things are allowed to take place. Indeed, the necessity for strong political and social leadership worldwide has…… [Read More]

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Universities in Reviewing the Actions

Words: 857 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13524225

520). Viewpoint neutrality ensures that funding is equally allocated to all registered student groups, and that registered student groups use their allocated funds in neutral ways.

For instance, public funds collected by students can be used to support campus facilities and meeting halls but not donations to political action groups. Student funds must be designated in ways that maintain institutional neutrality: meaning that student-funded groups cannot use student monies to support a political candidate. Moreover, student organizations "with a primary political mission" are not viewpoint neutral and are thus not entitled to student money (Kaplan & Lee p. 520). Universities are also not permitted to allow funding allocation decisions to be made by student referendum: "because there were no safeguards in the referendum process for treating minority views with the same respect as majority views, a fundamental principle of viewpoint neutrality," (Kaplan & Lee p. 521). Public universities are permitted…… [Read More]

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God and Government Christians and

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12378285

At first, the passage in Romans seems unequivocal -- a rebellion against established authority seems to be the same as a rebellion against God. But a closer and more considered examination of the situation suggests that this is not the case. First, Romans was written with a very specific government in mind -- the Roman government, as a matter of fact. It considers authority as the earthly servant of God. At the same time, this passage suggests that free will exists, in that men have the ability to rebel against God and authority. Therefore, individual authorities could rebel against God and use their authority in ways that were not in his service. This would make the authority no longer the arbiter of sin, and rebellion would be almost morally necessitated.

For many who rebelled during this nation's revolution, and even those who came to the continent in the preceding century…… [Read More]

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Law and Ethics

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Other Paper #: 14400826

trade libel is fair to business owners. Argue both sides of the issue.

From the general public's viewpoint, the definition of trade liable is accurate. This is because the store detained someone they accused of shoplifting. To determine where the stolen item was hiding; they effectively conducted a strip search by revealing private areas. At one point, Cockrell (the plaintiff) had to remove a bandage that was use to cover a recent scar from a liver transplant. He asked security not to remove it and they insisted. This is a clear violation, as the security at Wal Mart has no right to conduct these activities. Instead, they should have detained the person and contacted the police. (Statsky, 2011)

Wal Mart will argue that shoplifting is a major problem and they were following proper procedures. This occurs by bring the subject into an isolated area and checking them. After they have…… [Read More]

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Censorship Anyone Who Genuinely Believes

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29625752

Of course, this case highlights the tension inherent in any public support for art, because Giuliani's contention was that "you don't have a right to government subsidy for desecrating somebody else's religion" (Barry & Vogel 560). By singling out the potential offensive that religious people might take, Giuliani reveals the truth that any official support for art is inherently problematic, because art exists to challenge the very ideological structures which hold up the official state.

Despite nominal movements toward a separation of church and state, Christian ideology still holds an unhealthy sway over American politics, so it is only natural that the mayor of the United States' largest city would find a work that challenges Christianity offensive, because that is similarly a challenge to the political order which has served to perpetuate and protect Christian ideology. Thus, while no one can claim a right to public funding for the arts,…… [Read More]

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1st Amendment the First Amendment

Words: 1121 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33095310

Many conservatives believe that the Anti-

Establishment Clause prohibits only the actual establishment of a national religion in the manner of the English Crown. To them, the right to freedom of religion is all that the First Amendment guarantees, not the right to be free from religion (Dershowitz, p. 202).

Luckily for those who consider themselves atheists and agnostics, the Supreme

Court has interpreted the First Amendment to include the separation of church and state much more broadly, because under the conservative interpretation, the government might, in principle, be able to require some religious affiliation of its citizens provided it did not specify any particular religious faith. That issue has arisen numerous times and in many different forms over the years, including whether or not public schools may require recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance with the words "under God" or "moments of private reflection" intended for prayer during school…… [Read More]

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American History America's Puritan History

Words: 377 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51894822

. . Even puritanical John Adams thought that the argument for Christ's divinity was an 'awful blasphemy' in this new enlightened age." (Wolf, 160)

And yet, Wolf goes on to discuss the manner in which religious values remain such a prominent part of the political process. In spite of the effort to which our founding fathers went to prevent such manipulation, the puritanical roots of American culture and values is now suffieiently entrenched to the point that presidential candidates must declare their faith to expect any chance of victory. To the point, Wolf recalls the manner in which recent elections, included those of Bush and Obama thereafter, have called religion into the public discourse as a way of identifying the candidates and their resonance with American culture at large. The degree to which Obama, Wolf's text denotes, would work to articulate his faith in Christ as a response to politically…… [Read More]

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Breadwinner by Deborah Ellis

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12560921

Breadwinner by Deborah Ellis

Cultural issues that alter the life of the main character in Afghanistan

The first and foremost difference between the life of Parvana and that of a child in the United States is the extent to which gender defines the girl's life. Parvana lives in Afghanistan, under the rule of the Taliban. Because of her gender, she cannot obtain an education or work to help her family. Her entire life is defined and limited by the fact she is a girl -- her future destiny, the way people treat her, and the restrictions placed upon her life by the government. In the United States, although sexism still exists, women are not judged first and foremost by their sex by their employers, because to do so is against the law, and all children are entitled to an education.

Another difference between Parvana and a United States child of…… [Read More]

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Courting Disaster This Response Reviews

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 82285371

Robertson illustrated his point about the dangers of the Supreme Court's power anecdotally, such as when, later in the book he talks about the McCain-Feingold Bill which was designed to restrict campaign finance and reform the ways political campaigns were funded both privately and via government assistance. Although the Republicans in neither the Legislative or Executive branch supported the bill, they agreed to pass it in order to end the debate, believing that the bill would be ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in that it violated first amendment laws, among other things (Robertson 2004,-page 234). When the voted for or signed the bill as the case may have been, they believed that the court would ultimately overrule the other branches by finding the proposed legislation unconstitutional based on the text of the law itself. The Supreme Court, however, did not agree with this perspective and ruled the law legal.…… [Read More]

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Liberalism libertarianism or Conservatism

Words: 1389 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26016329


Liberals tend to emphasize individual rights over governmental authority and to leave the economy alone, unless it needs help. More and more, the economy has been controlled by conservative elements and this has tended to squelch free trade and put too many regulations on imports, while allowing special interests avenues of squeezing more revenue out of the citizens by legalizing higher interest rates, putting tariffs on imports, freezing influx of cheap labor even while raising private profits by raising prices (such as for gas) and shipping manufacturing out of the country to where free labor resides.

Where conservatives have traditionally believed in the superiority of the ruling class, today in the United States they have concentrated power and money into smaller numbers of people, corporations and bureaus, and the government is used to protect those interests.

Liberals believe in individual rights, and, as it says in the Preamble, to…… [Read More]

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Religious Freedom in the Workplace

Words: 3287 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26568657

This modification of the Civil Rights Act failed to define what was meant by "financially detrimental." This issue was left for the courts to decide and there was wide variability in case law.

In 1977, Title VII was modified to include widespread employer exemption, even in cases where the cost was minimal or caused little difficult to the employer (Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, n.d.). This modification shifted the balance of power, almost entirely to the employer. They could allow or disallow as they wished, and an employee could be terminated for failing to follow the rules governing the company. Religion was essentially wiped out of the workplace by this act. In July of 1997, congress failed to pass a bill that would change the wording of Title VII back to something similar to the original 1972 wording (Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, n.d.).

In August of 1997, the Clinton…… [Read More]

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Against Proposition 8 California's Proposition

Words: 563 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31766216

According to the logic of the procreation argument, California should refuse to sanction any marriage unless the individuals involved are both willing and able to conceive. With respect to the "opening door" argument, opponents of Proposition 8 point out that incest, underage marriage, and bestiality are all prohibited by criminal laws for objective public policy reasons. Finally, the suggestion that gay marriage will "define" marriage is as preposterous as the concern that interracial marriage will have that effect. Unlike incestuous, underage, or bestial types of relationships that victimize one of the individuals involved, gay marriage between consenting adults does not involve victimizing either of the individuals involved.

Furthermore, heterosexual marriages are sanctioned by law completely irrespective of any measure of quality of the relationship; marriages typically last less than a decade in the U.S. And more than half of them end in divorce. Likewise, both sexual infidelity and domestic violence…… [Read More]

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Evolution in 1987 the Supreme

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94342819

The Argument- The theory of evolution was developed out of the work of 19th century botanist and explorer, Charles Darwin and his book On the Origin of Species. Essentially, it is a scientific theory that postulates that organisms change over time based on pressures from the environment that cause genetic mutations within the organism. Over time, these changes are more adapted to a specific environment, more of that organism live longer and reproduce more, thus causing those traits to become even more entrenched in the population. Life then, is part of a gigantic tree in which primitive organisms, over millions and millions of years, evolved into higher beings due to the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits (common or rare) and natural selection (which traits aid survival) (Understanding Evolution).

Creation Science is a branch of creationism that has resurfaced in American education after several Supreme Court decisions defined…… [Read More]

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American National Character

Words: 3200 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37432127

American National Character

America can almost be thought of as a massive experiment in culture. Here we have a nation inhabited almost entirely by immigrants; all with different languages, customs, beliefs, and appearances who are forced to somehow reach a common understanding and identity. Through the over two hundred years of American history many differences have threatened to unravel our diverse nation, but still, many commonalities have ultimately held it together. Amidst such a range of economic, political, and racial mixtures it is a daunting task to identify what characteristics are uniquely American.

Yet, what can be considered "American" can also be traced to the roots of the nation. The place now called the United States was founded by puritan settlers who valued the notion of all men's equality in the eyes of God. Accordingly, the authors of the U.S. Constitution included equality under the law as one of its…… [Read More]

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Comparing and Contrast

Words: 1588 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29642885

Israeli and U.S. Educational Systems

Comparison of the Educational Systems in the United States and Israel Today

Schools are unique in any society since they educate and mold the next generation who will then be in charge of how the world will shape up and how these schools will be run in the future. Educators in every country help shape the character and the morality of their students beyond the intellectual and physical instruction provided. An education today must prepare a person for the realities of life, including how to balance a checkbook, answer an employment ad, and how to comport oneself at a job interview. These fundamental skills are just part of a huge body of knowledge which includes everything about a given society and the world in which people live. This paper will provide an overview and comparison of the respective educational systems employed by the United States…… [Read More]

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Modern Middle East History

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57126716


"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…… [Read More]

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Government Politics Texas - A Good

Words: 3394 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16248028

" For most this is generally seen as a reference to the Federal Judiciary. One thinks of the Warren Court, and the great number of decisions concerning civil rights, voting rights, etc. It is often not realized, however, to what an extent state judges play ar ole in shaping these issues. In many state court systems, the state system was actually more liberal than the Federal:

First and foremost, state constitutions may be used not only to broaden rights but also to restrict them. They are far easier to amend than the U.S. Constitution. Therefore, forces within a state dissatisfied with liberal court interpretations of the fundamental state law may, without nearly the same effort required on the federal level, undo those rulings....In Florida... voters adopted an amendment to the state constitutional search and seizure provision, requiring the provision to be "be construed in conformity with the 4th Amendment to…… [Read More]

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Thomas Jefferson Personal Profile Contirbutions to the

Words: 6156 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94981989

Thomas Jefferson

Personal Profile

contirbutions to the founding of the nation

Religious Freedom

Declaration of Independence


Thomas Jefferson has undoubtedly made significant contributions to the founding of the United States. Regarded as one of America's most predominant political figures, Jefferson has been lauded for several milestones during his career. Jefferson is perhaps most well-known as the author of the Declaration of Independence and as the staunchest supporter of the separation of church and state. Several of Jefferson's writings are focused around religious and individual freedom as the American way of life. Among Jefferson's other well-known accomplishments include, serving as the first secretary of state, the second vice-president, the third president and as the politician responsible for the Louisiana Purchase.

Although Jefferson is strongly connected with the theology of personal and individual freedom, much has been made of his dependence on slavery and his conviction…… [Read More]