Smoking Cessation Essays (Examples)

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Pregnancy Hypothyroidism the Risks of

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 80704348

In addition, she must engage regular thyroid function checkups to ensure that the standard regimen of treatment for this condition remains effective. In this case, the hormone replacement therapy that is the traditional method of treatment is one which absolutely must be continued to the benefit and survival of the unborn child. As the article by Shomon (2006) indicates, "you must continue to take your thyroid hormone replacement (i.e., Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid, Armour, Thyrolar) and it's extremely important that you do, now and throughout the rest of your pregnancy. You are your baby's only source of thyroid hormones at this point - your baby's thyroid gland isn't fully functional until after 12 weeks of pregnancy. If you don't have sufficient thyroid hormones, you are at an increased risk of miscarriage, and your baby is at increased risk of developmental problems." (Shomon, 1)

Jane indicated in her interview with me that…… [Read More]

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Incidence of Lung Cancer in

Words: 1333 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24422720

" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005)


Concept Definition

Innovation an idea, object, or practice that is thought to be new by an individual Organization, or community

Communication Channels the means of transmitting the new idea from one person

To another

Social system a group of individuals who together adopt the innovation

Time How long it take to adopt the innovation


It is related that "diffusion of innovations that prevent disease and promote health requires a multilevel change process that usually takes place in diverse settings, through different strategies." At the individual level, involved is a change in lifestyle. At the organizational level "it may entail starting programs, changing regulations, or altering personnel roles." (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005)



The intervention in this study…… [Read More]

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Consultant Pharmacists Impact on the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia

Words: 32313 Length: 116 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 32119635

Consultant Pharmacists Impact on the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia

What is Cholesterol, and Why is it of Concern?

Guidelines for Treating Hypercholesterolemia

Management of Hypercholesterolemia

Management of Hypercholesterolemia By Different Health Care Workers.

Practical Management of Hypercholesterolemia

Community Pharmacists and the Management of Hypercholesterolemia

Economic Impact of Pharmacists' Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia

This paper will look at the impact of consultant pharmacists on the treatment of hypercholesterolemia by physicians. Pharmacists have now assumed responsibilities outside the dispensing counter and have been active in monitoring and treating (under protocol) patients with high cholesterol levels (as well as other disease states).

A review of the treatment of hypercholesterolemia by physicians by a group of consultant pharmacists who call on physicians offices, and check physicians progress by reference to the achievement of NCEP cholesterol guidelines, has shown that physicians are doing an overall poor job of getting their patients to national cholesterol treatment standards (NCEP…… [Read More]

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CVS Pharmacy and Pulling Off Tobacco Products

Words: 4309 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40484292

Business Strategy - CVS Pharmacy Strategy.

CVS Rebranding Strategy

CVS took out tobacco from its stores' shelves one month earlier than was planned originally. This move plus the alteration of the company's corporate name is targeted at helping the company rebrand as a health care company. With a name such as CVS health, the company believes that not being part of the tobacco distribution system is good for the company in the long-term and is aligned with the company's new focus on health. CVS health had also announced that it was to launch a campaign against smoking. Observers were surprised by CVS Caremark Corporation (NYSE: CVS) when it made the announcement concerning its stance on Tobacco. The announcement was accompanied by a big banner proclaiming the new logo and name of the company across the NYSE (Sheets, 2014).

The company's rebranding, they said, is aimed at assisting people be of…… [Read More]

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Nip in

Words: 4113 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29466092

Mainstream smoke is exhaled from a smoker. Some experts say that side-stream smoke can emit higher levels of toxins than mainstream smoke. In response to these new reports, the Environmental Protection Agency classified secondhand smoke as a carcinogen because of its harmful effects on the health of both adults and the children of smokers. In addition, a lot more about the harm of other substances in tobacco smoke remains unknown (Cooper & Moley pp 206-209).

Both active and passive smoking can potentially harm almost every organ of the body (Cooper & Moley, 2008 p 209). Smoking has been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer, stroke and chronic lung disease. Health costs are enormous to public health in terms of increased deaths, the nature of the addition, and the overall medical expenses and indirect costs. A recent survey of 388 women showed that not many of them associate smoking with miscarriage, ectopic…… [Read More]

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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar,…… [Read More]

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The Implementation of the Mipcd Project

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73135772

responsibilities as it relates to implementation of the MIPCD project. All four study arms should be described.

Disease Area

Implementation Steps

Barriers and Solutions

Diabetes Management

Diabetes is linked to cardiovascular mortality, neuropathy, stroke, amputation, periodontal disease, kidney failure, and blindness.

Attending a session with an endocrinologist or primary care appointment or filling medications for diabetes is required.

The number of deaths from chronic illnesses in the State of New York is slightly more than the U.S. average, principally on account of a greater number of deaths from heart disease. The characteristics of chronic illness include complex causality, long latency, various risk factors, functional disability/impairment, prolonged illness, and improbability of cure, in some instances.

They deeply impact the affected person's physical, mental and emotional well-being, and are linked to substantial economic costs.

Timely chronic illness detection and cure, in addition to a focus on self-management on the part of the…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Health Psychology Issues

Words: 5172 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72843281

Health Psychology Issues

Health psychology is the field of study in which psychological and behavioral factors of health, sickness, and wellness are examined. This paper has three parts in which the first part is dedicated to an investigation of a health psychology topic along with a broad literature review; the second part reviews a recovery process aided by a self-help group; the third part encompasses presents a behavioral health prevention report.

People are becoming more health conscious than they used to be a few years back and as a result, they are opting for healthier food options. Although diet plans and exercise programs play a major role in weight loss but the imperative role is that of human cognitive processes that persuade one to stay healthy (Smith, n.d.). Human mind is responsible for making everyday decisions, such as what to eat, and in what quantities, hence, the weight loss greatly…… [Read More]

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Employee Health Programs an Employee

Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27648689

Employees that wish to work in healthy environments are likely to be more motivated, and workers who are encouraged to be healthy will enjoy their work more, and become more productive.

"Some say it may be more effective just to award employees cash and prizes for weight loss rather than devote resources to long-term wellness programs" (Obesity, 2008, Consumer Affairs). However, this would seem to unjustly penalize poorer workers, as workers with "limited economic means may not have the ability to pay for gym memberships, smoking cessation drugs, or more nutritious food. Indeed, data from several studies confirm that those in lower socioeconomic classes have poorer smoking cessation rates and diets with less whole grains, lean meats and fresh fruits and vegetables" (Mhurchu 2010). Less affluent workers are less likely to work for companies like Google that provide amenities like on-site gyms or even gym memberships. Ironically, workers who are…… [Read More]

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Nursing Informatics in Clinical Research

Words: 1217 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74998355

Clinical Question Using Nursing Informatics

The main objective of nursing informatics is to manage and communicate data information, knowledge, and wisdom. This various aspects are part of a continuum in the nursing field that reflects the overarching structure of nursing informatics. The use of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom continuum is increasingly vital in conducting a study on a particular issue that relates to a specific area in the nursing field. Once a research question is developed relating to a practice area in nursing, the researcher works through the progression in this continuum to help address the question. This is an important process in research because a search for a journal article on a particular topic usually generates a huge number of journals that are available in the health care field.

Summary of Clinical Question

As a nurse in an acute care setting, one of the most important aspects of…… [Read More]

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Wellness Programs in Recent Years

Words: 2020 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 26340265

Such an evaluation will examine factors such as program participation, specific health outcomes, and the satisfaction levels of participants (Mulvihill 2003). Once these outcomes are fully understood the appropriate actions can be taken to ensure that the benefits of the program continue and the aspects of the program that need correction are remedied (Mulvihill 2003).

Obstacles to Wellness Program Participation

Although wellness programs are extremely positive, there are some obstacles attached to such programs. For instance, in some cases it is difficult to get employees to participate in such programs. The reason for the hesitancy is fear. This fear arises when employees feel that a health screening might reveal ailments such as diabetes and their jobs may be jeopardized. Basically, many employees believe that their medical information will be given to employers and been used to deny them job promotion.

To overcome this particular obstacle it is important that organizations…… [Read More]

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Health Psychology

Words: 825 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69234900

Dean Ornish in his 2008 TED talk on "natural healing" presents a simple, low-cost and effective plan for disease prevention and management through lifestyle change. Ornish breaks down the areas of discussion into four basic subjects: diet, smoking cessation, obesity, and finally the "psychosocial" implications of health and how to address them in practice. The thread that runs through all these four topics is Ornish's insistence that "the body can heal itself if given half a chance." The lifestyle changes he offers by way of disease prevention are not just a better option than more drastic medical intervention when the disease has progressed, Ornish compares any kind of medical solution without prevention is like "mopping up a floor without turning off the faucet." And as he notes later in the talk, large-scale lifestyle changes may be viewed as disruptive, but the decision to have children is such a large-scale lifestyle…… [Read More]

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Tobacco Use Prevention Budget

Words: 1145 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73150760

Healthy People provides nationwide objectives for 10 years that are based on science with the objective of enhancing the health of all Americans nationwide and abroad. For the past 30 years, Healthy People has established standards and monitored advancement in the course of time so as to measure the influence of prevention activities, empower individuals towards undertaken knowledgeable and well-versed health decisions, and encouraging partnerships across communities and dissimilar sectors. Notably, Healthy People 2020 purposes to enhance the health of the nation with the main vision of attaining a society in which all individuals live lengthy and healthy lives (Healthy People, 2017).
The following is a small budget of a proposed program that will delineate expenses, the manner in which it will funded, the suitability of the choice of funding and why the program is essential on the basis of an objective from Healthy People 2020.
The effects of Tobacco…… [Read More]

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Profile of an Elderly Patient

Words: 1429 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 85419760

Client Evaluation

The client is a 78-year-old female. She has been divorced for 30 years. She is retired. Her social class is upper middle class. Her medical history is free from significant trauma. She had six hospitalizations, all for childbirth, and one surgery; a cesarean section combined with a tubal ligation. She has two chronic health conditions: high blood pressure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She is a former smoker. She lives with an adult son and her other children live nearby. She was a domestic violence victim for the 20 years of her marriage and has some lingering physical problems (an improperly healed broken rib) and emotional problems from that period of abuse. Her parents, a younger brother, and two of her children predeceased her.

Medical Issues

The patient is not currently suffering from any acute medical issues. She does have two significant chronic medical issues: high blood…… [Read More]

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Management of Left Ventricular Heart

Words: 3436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90872428

(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are

Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…… [Read More]

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Absorb Them and Regurgitate Them at Face

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79736603

absorb them and regurgitate them at face value. To the contrary, part of conducting research is scrutinizing our research sources to determine their scholarly credibility. The importance of this ability is demonstrated in the discussion here, which considers two articles which are drawn from scholarly journals but which differ considerably in their scholarly credentials.

A study by Anderson & Keller (2002), published in the Western Journal of Nursing Research, concerns the therapeutic implications of smoking cessation. The primary objective of the study by Anderson & Keller is to draw a direct correlation between the transtheoretical model of health behavior and the variables associated with smoking cessation. The purpose is to promote an improvement of existing smoking cessation programs by finding ways to hone in on determinant independent variables. The transtheoretical model employed in the study is important to our discussion because, as the researchers acknowledge, this is a commonly employed…… [Read More]

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Stroke Is One of the

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36611783

Patients with aphasia struggle with language disorders including both oral and written communication problems. Also, clinical depression is found to be common among many stroke victims. [NINDS]

Stroke Prevention

Given the high stakes involving both mortality and morbidity, stroke prevention is considered a very vital health care policy. Prevention strategies are usually targeted on controlling the important 'first tier risk factors' which were mentioned earlier. First and foremost among these is to control hypertension. Based on evidence-based practices, the American Heart association recommends that antihypertensive treatment including the use of diuretics and class 1 ACEI drugs be standardized for all patients to prevent recurrent strokes as well as to serve as a proactive intervention against other cardiovascular complications. Since diabetes is considered a high risk factor for stroke, clinical practice also recommends that glucose levels for all diabetic patients with ischemic stroke be maintained near-normoglycemic levels. The AHA guidelines also…… [Read More]

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Broms Et Al 2010 Found That Evening

Words: 1176 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10078279

Broms et al. (2010) found that evening type people were more likely to become smokers, and less likely to cease their nicotine addiction.

The study was a cohort design that used random-effects model regressions over a longitudinal period of time in order to study the comparison of attraction to smoking and tendency to remain addicted between diurnal and non-diurnal participants.

A sample of 23289 same-sex adult twin individuals from Finland was used. Nicotine dependence was studied on a sub-sample of 676 individual twins. The subjects were split into four groups: morning type, somewhat morning type, somewhat evening type, and evening type. Past and present smoking patterns were assessed. The DSM-IV and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) were both used to assess nicotine dependence.

Researchers found that of the four categories, it was diurnal types who were most likely to be past and current nicotine smokers and addicted to smoking,…… [Read More]

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Organization's Values Organizational Values Philip

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 55368110

Restructuring itself for a better fit with its environment, the company established a Youth Prevention Department, staffed by a senior vice-president in Philip Morris, U.S.A. To look for ways to help reduce smoking among teenagers" (Glover 2008).

The relative lack of sincerity of these claims and the transparent dishonesty of Philip Morris' claim to stop youths from smoking is manifest in the fact that the company recently filed a suit in federal court to overturn a San Francisco ordinance that would ban the sale of tobacco products in convenience drug stores. It proclaims this proudly on a September 2008 press release on its website: "Philip Morris USA sues to overturn controversial San Francisco sales ban on tobacco products." However, teens are more likely than other consumers to use these venues to purchase cigarettes than other consumers. Philip Morris defends its actions as the promotion of freedom for adult consumers, given…… [Read More]

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Management Pregnant Figureswomen Are a

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27522233

Using a multidisciplinary team approach in order to treat a 14-year-old pregnant teenager who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day would involve using various services. These would include nurse practitioners, registered nurses, social workers, nutritionists along with other support staff. Using this approach would help address the challenges that young pregnant teenagers may face, both physically and socially. Through group discussions and interactions with other teens, young women and their partners empower and educate one another as they progress from pregnancy into parenting (Shetty, 2009).

This would require an approach that would involve midwives, nurses; community-based young people's services and targeted youth support services. The basis of the program would be to help the teenager to quit smoking in order to improve her overall health and that of her unborn child's. It should offer advice and support on childcare, parenting and health-related topics. An intervention program should be set…… [Read More]

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Health and Wellness Programs Research

Words: 4180 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99814240

According to Zoller, scholars and/or practitioners proponents of workplace health promotion (WHP) generally assume that employees universally welcome the programs. Perhaps, the primary delimitation that could be contributed to health and wellness programs would be that one of the other would not be wanted by employees. Consequently, health promotion literature that deems the programs to be "pro-social" endeavors designed in employees' best interests frequently fail to engage employees' participation.

Additional delimitations incorporate:

Failure to adequately engage employee needs

The development of divisive gender issues and Reliance on disciplinary models of health contributed to negative reactions and lower employee participation." (Zoller)

Smoking, Diet and Exercise in 1996, approximately nine out of ten major employers offered health promotion programs which ranged from fitness centers; health testing; health education programs; incentive/disincentive programs to increase health behaviors like dieting or cease smoking; health outcomes (lowering body fat levels and/or cholesterol). By changing employees' voluntary…… [Read More]

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Cardiovascular Disease in Middle Aged Individuals in a Worksite Setting

Words: 5037 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40424539

Cardio-vascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and leads the statistics for emergency room (ER) cases. This literature review combines two primary causative agents in CVD: (1) Stress in the workplace, and (2) Middle Age. This review will explore one of the key reasons why the harmful ramifications of stress and middle age can be nullified or, at least, reduced -- through physical activity and exercise.

Job stress is defined as harmful physical and emotional responses to job requirements that do not match the abilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Occupational stress is a perceived imbalance between occupational demands and the individual's ability to perform when the consequences of failure are significant (Brehm, 2002) This makes the entire concept of job stress a very personal and psychological matter -- whenever perceptions play an important role. Contemporary magazines like Newsweek, Time, and U.S. News and World Report have…… [Read More]

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Resistance in Group Counseling Group

Words: 3215 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75725319

Counselors should be careful that adult survivors of childhood trauma generally suppress memories of some traumatic incidents or lessen their symptoms, either deliberately or not. (Substance abuse treatment for persons with child abuse and neglect issues) These are a few instances where the problems of resistance originate within the individual, and are not very easy to remove.

Shift perception of resistance to a solution:

Till now the problem of resistance is being viewed in the manner of a counselor. The view here is that resistance is a problem for solving the issue that has to be solved. From the viewpoint of a psychotherapist, the finding of resistance is very important as he can use this to find out the reasons for resistance and then he can change the client. (Differences between Counseling and Psychotherapy)

Exploration/Collaboration of Resistance:

The awareness of the requirement for the changes or variations comes by means…… [Read More]

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Mark Twain The Influence Psychology

Words: 4576 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6737541

The funeral [for Jean] has begun...The scene is the library in the Langdon homestead. Jean's coffin stands where her mother and I stood, forty years ago, and were married; and where Susy's coffin stood thirteen years ago; where her mother's stood five years and a half ago; and where mine will stand after a little time." A little time indeed: Twain died on April 21, 1910.

Another health issue: Twain on smoking and the University of Rochester's use of Twain's writing

In his What is Man? And Other Essays book (pp. 216-219), one hundred and fifty years before there would be any reliable information on the link between cancer and tobacco use, Twain talks about superstitions and interesting habits regarding tobacco, and quips, ", who came into the world asking for a light." He pokes fun at those who thinks they know what a good cigar should taste like, and…… [Read More]

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Memorial Herman Business Research Applications

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16578268

Being able to merge the resources of a variety of different specialists is one strength of the Memorial Herman approach. In the future, as the interrelationship between the body and the brain, and psychological disorders and overall functioning has become an accepted part of mainstream science: studies such as these will be even more important for research institutes. Memorial Herman is clearly on the cutting-edge of the field in this regard.

Because of its impressive outreach, the hospital is also able to draw upon a wide array of specific populations, as in the case of studies such as the "Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of smoking cessation in HIV-infected patients" (Bell 2009). Few other hospitals would be able to draw from a large amount of HIV-positive patients who were smokers and willing to participate in research studies. The study may prove beneficial to the research subjects as well as to the…… [Read More]

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Business & Society Questions Business & the

Words: 1581 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12381064

Business & Society Questions

Business & the Environment

The UPS Green Fleet

A United Parcel Service (UPS) store is located in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The company has established a number of initiatives that are environmentally friendly, not the least of which is the conversion of a portion of their fleet to hybrid electric vehicles. In fact, as of February 2011, the UPS delivery fleet using alternative fuel and technology had driven 200 million miles since the alternative fuel vehicle fleet (AFV) was established. That's the equivalent of circling the globe more than 8,600 times or the equivalent of nearly three round trips to Mars. At the time the 200 million mark was accomplished, UPS had more than 1,900 AFV vehicles and had placed an order for an additional 62 vehicles. All things being equal, UPS believes the AFV will accomplish another 200 million miles mark by the year 2017. The UPS…… [Read More]

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Compare and Contrast at Least 5 Cultural or Ethnic Beliefs in the Treatment of Cancer

Words: 3800 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4839025

Treatment of Cancer

Cultural and Ethnical Related

Beliefs in the Treatment of Cancer

Healthcare disparities among cultural or ethnic lines have been shown to not be as totally unbalanced burdens from disease, disability or death. Particular populations or groups when compared to the majority of the population are at an obvious disadvantage but not as wide a gap as they would have you believe. "Racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care are not due to access-related factors or clinical needs, preferences and appropriateness of intervention." (Smedley, Stith, & Nelson, 2002) The true problem is that there are unique cultural and ethnic beliefs that could be affecting the overall care these groups receive. This report will attempt to compare and contrast at least five cultural or ethnic beliefs in the treatment of cancer to see if those beliefs do in fact affect the overall care received.

The treatment…… [Read More]

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Anatomy and Physiology of the

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77902653

Even though the heart works harder, blockages still shortchange the needed blood supply to all areas of the body. Kidney disorders, which leave extra fluids, sodium, and toxins in the body, obesity, diabetes, birth control pills, pregnancy, smoking, excess alcohol, stress, and thyroid and adrenal gland problems can also cause and exacerbate a high blood pressure condition.

Proper ranges of cholesterol are also important in the prevention of heart attack or stroke. Total blood cholesterol above 200 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol above 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol below 35 mg/dl; and lipoprotein (a) level greater than 30 mg/dl are indicators of problematic cholesterol. Cholesterol is not actually a damage mechanism but is more an indicator of compromised liver function, and increased risk of heart attack.

Damage to the heart tissues from cardiovascular disease or from heart surgery will disrupt the natural electrical impulses of the heart and result in cardiac arrhythmia. Sudden…… [Read More]

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Cigarettes Why Do People Smoke All of

Words: 4077 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84887977


Why do people smoke? All of know that smoking is a dangerous, even potentially lethal habit - and one moreover that now carries an increasing weight of social stigma. And yet still people do it. There must therefore be compelling reasons why people should endanger their health to such a degree and the most obvious of these reasons is the one that smokers themselves offer up the most often: Smoking is simply pleasurable. This paper examines why people smoke cigarettes and especially how young people (who have been aware of the dangers of smoking their entire lives) begin their love affair with nicotine.

When it comes to the issue of smoking and young people, it seems that despite numerous advertising campaigns to quell the use of tobacco in those under the age of eighteen, the reality is that these tactics have been highly ineffective. While the use of tobacco…… [Read More]

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Study of Workplace Stress Factors

Words: 4615 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69819053

Stress in the Workplace

The research topic under discussion is Stress at Workplace. Stress comes with different definitions, one of which is that stress is a 'physical, chemical or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension.' Emotional stress relates to job burnout, tension and strain and many scholars have called it a psychological process and linked it with the individual and the situation that he is in (American Psychological Association, 2009). The global economy has become very competitive and demands a lot of work from the employees which puts a lot of pressure on them. These increased expansions and demands of the traditional workplace have put a lot more pressure on the workers (Lokk & Arnetz, 1997; Soylu and Campbell, 2012).

The International Labor Organization and World Health Organization have recognized many different effects of stress that are harmful to the person. These effects include physical problems, psychological problems,…… [Read More]

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COPD Teaching Plan and Healthcare

Words: 1872 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90318906

COPD Teaching Plan and Its Contribution to Healthcare:

Nurses not only strive to restore health in sick individuals but they also seek to promote maximum health potential in healthy people. The major way through which nurses achieve this goal is through patient teaching in which these health practitioners assist patients and their families to develop effective health behaviors and lifestyles. During this process, nurses use various teaching plans including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) teaching plan. The need for using this teaching plan is attributed to various factors such as the increase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the past 25 years despite COPD cases being largely underreported or misdiagnosed. The other reason necessitating the use of this teaching plan is the fact that management of COPD is complex as patients need to make changes in their lifestyles as the take medications.

Contribution to the Future of Healthcare:

The contribution…… [Read More]

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Healthy Lifestyle

Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38184861

Health Letter

Dear Joe,

As you know, I have been at school working hard on my education. Currently I am studying issues related to health and wellness and I have learned a lot. We have been studying issues that are common in our society that greatly contribute to health risks. Examples of this include such things as smoking cigarettes, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. Each of these behaviors can cause problems far beyond what I would have ever expected. I think if more people were aware of the scope of the risks that they were taking then less people would take these risks.

As a result of this I wanted to confront you smoking habit. By no means do I want to upset you nor do anything that would make you feel pressured or annoyed. That's why I'm writing this letter. I thought a letter would be…… [Read More]

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Parenting Program for Women and

Words: 41621 Length: 150 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12171638

There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.

Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.

Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Promotion Prevention and the

Words: 3190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80129421

Nurses, who have first hand knowledge and understanding of how to live healthy and how to take proper care of themselves, are far better equipped to teach others about these concepts. Certain populations can benefit greatly from prevention, especially those who are prone to specific types of diseases or conditions.

One of the most common behaviors that leads to many chronic and often very damaging health conditions is smoking. Smoking can cause a multitude of diseases and conditions from emphysema to heart disease to lung cancer (Chapman, 2007). The list goes on and on. But smoking is 100% preventable and nurses need to understand not only how to treat these smoking-related diseases but how to more importantly discourage and prevent people from smoking in the first place. Many nurses agree that this behavior leads to many of the worst case scenarios for people with pre-existing chronic conditions. It is therefore…… [Read More]

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Role of Lifestyle Factors in Inducing Cancer

Words: 3777 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 72545690

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

Course code

Cancer is one of the leading international causes of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle factors that contribute to causing cancer have been widely studied in recent years. Summarizing relevant studies, lifestyle factors identified include smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, weight management, physical activity, and environmental exposure. These studies use a variety of methodologies to determine the link between the lifestyle factor and risk of cancer. Issues with the methods of these studies can be addressed by future research that attempts to remedy methodological defects while replicating results. Valid and reliable information is essential to using information about lifestyle factors to combat cancer.

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

As one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, it is estimated that cancers will have killed 10 million people around the globe by 2020 (Haque et al. 2010). In 2009, the American Cancer Society estimated that there…… [Read More]

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Internet-Based Persuasion the Feature of

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38127689

I do not believe there is anything the website could do to persuade people out of an addiction; the best it could hope for is to persuade people to begin fighting an addiction.

The web site really did not impact me personally, but it was not due to a design flaw in the web site. I am a non-smoker who does not have any plans to ever become a smoker. I grew up in a smoking household and am sensitive to cigarette smoke, so I spent much of my childhood with smoking-related illness. A website that tries to prevent people from smoking does not have to be very persuasive for me to listen to its message.

One of the things that I think the website failed to do, which would have made it more persuasive, was to work with the ABCs of attitude. I think it missed the opportunity to…… [Read More]

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Diseases I E Lung Cancer Childhood Leukemia Obesity

Words: 3195 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60299520

diseases i.e. lung cancer, childhood leukemia, obesity and Alzheimer's disease. In each explanation, I have included a definition of the disease, risk factors, treatments, prognosis, and prevention. Later, I have provided short literature reviews of four articles.

Lung Cancer

Lungs are those organs in the body that help the human beings to breathe i.e. inhale and exhale oxygen. Their primary function is to provide oxygen to every cell in the body. As far as cancer cells are concerned, they are abnormal and deformed cells with the basic property of rapid growth and multiplication as compared to healthy cells. Thus, lung cancer begins in the lung tissues when lung cells start to become deformed. It is the Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer for all human beings as it is due to lung cancer that more people die each year as compared to other cancers that occur in breast, colon, and…… [Read More]

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Bipolar Psychiatric Disorder Bd -- Which Is

Words: 3047 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67751574

Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.

Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking

In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]

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Healthy People 2020 and Tobacco Use the

Words: 911 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9711201

Healthy People 2020 and Tobacco Use

The Healthy People 2020 initiative provides a set of goals to improve the health of American citizens. The science-based goals set out ten-year targets to be achieved by 2020 across a wide range of health issues. One health issue included in the initiative is tobacco use with a target to reduced tobacco use to a "point that it is no longer a public health problem" (DHHS, 2012).

Over the last forty years there ahs been a wealth of research examining the health impacts associated with the use of tobacco, with tobacco use being cited as being the single most preventable cause of death in the United States (DHHS, 2012). Tobacco has a negative impact on those who smoke as well as those who do not smoke but are exposed to the second hand smoke. The health problems associated with tobacco use in cancer, heart…… [Read More]

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Need for Regulating E-Cigarettes Usage

Words: 1979 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60720140

Policy Position for Electronic Cigarettes in Public Area

Electronic cigarettes, which are commonly known as e-cigarettes, can be described as battery-powered devices that are packed with liquid nicotine. The liquid nicotine is a highly addictive chemical which is dissolved in a combination of propylene glycol and water. These devices are usually designed in a way that they look like real cigarettes and are availed in different colors such as brown filter, cylindrical tube, and red-glowing tip. While an individual who takes e-cigarette does not really smoke, he/she feels a sensation of smoke in the lungs and mouth. Electronic cigarettes have several advantages and disadvantages that have contributed to the numerous controversies they have generated. This has contributed to the emergence of the need for policy makers to establish a position for e-cigarettes in a public area.

Evolution of the Issue

Electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that are created…… [Read More]

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Diseases the World Health Organization

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75529429

Similarly, developing countries are far less likely to be interested in regulation on industries. Regulating major polluters is a primary objective of any public health campaign designed to target respiratory illnesses in particular. Because primary, secondary, and tertiary elements are complex and related to the regulatory environment, a public health campaign will be difficult to engage. There needs to be significant financial incentives for a public health campaign to work, making it important to work with local and federal officials on the basis of cost savings in worker productivity and health care. If such incentives can be quantified, it may be possible to get the cooperation of both government and the private sector.

With regards to smoking culture and creating a public health awareness related to respiratory illness, it will also require a thorough cultural transformation that is difficult to effect due to the complex primary, secondary, and tertiary forces…… [Read More]

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Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System PRAMS

Words: 3864 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94008857

Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is a project involving examination of health departments and CDC (Center for Disease Control) of a given State. PRAMS was unveiled in 1987. This project gathers data relating to the experience and attitudes prior to, in the cause of and period immediately following a pregnancy. Data collected is always specific to a given State. The surveillance expedition takes care of up to 83% of Infant births in U.S.A (CDC, 2017).
When PRAMS was unveiled there was a serious national and statewide curiosity around infant mortality, reduction, and disparities. Prenatal care with State support had my interest as well. At the time there was no information in relation to States that would enlighten State or local program evaluation and development. PRAMS structure makes it possible for deep inquiry into topics of reproductive health compared to the extensive but limited information contained in birth certificates (CDC,…… [Read More]

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COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD Is

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40820084


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is actually a family of diseases affecting the respiratory system including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Primary risk factors include smoking and environmental pollutants. Therefore, most cases of COPD are preventable. According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (2011), COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, and according to the American Lung Association (2015), is the third leading cause of death domestically. The disease is not only preventable, but also curable, particularly when it is detected early.

However, there is no actual cure for COPD. Once COPD has developed, it is irreversible, although symptoms can be managed. Pathophysiology centers on the inflammation or destruction of the airways and the destruction of lung tissues. With emphysema, the walls of air sacs become damaged and lose their shape, affecting the rate and quantity of air exchange in the lungs. Moreover, emphysema destroys…… [Read More]

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Public Health Program Challenges

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Interview Paper #: 52616414

Public Health Program Challenges in Municipalities
For public health challenges to be amicably solved, the entire community, political, legal, and government processes have to be synergized. This collaborative effort is quintessential in improving public health. A one man show would be detrimental because we have to appreciate that policies that help in running public health system require the input of the local community, the political class, and public health administrators (Gostin, 2001). The devolved nature of the public health law has seen limited scope the state and the federal government has had on the operation of public health. To that effect, local entities like boards of health, city councils, and county council have had a lot of say on how public health issues are managed within their areas of jurisdiction. Most of the available literature on public health law largely captures matters pertaining to firearms, housing, or smoking regulations. There…… [Read More]

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Health Education for Personal Care

Words: 9314 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 66373376

Diabetes and Self-Care Ability of High School Diabetics

The diabetes menace has become on of the central health challenges that ail our contemporary society. The trends have change significantly over the last 50 years and now the high school population that suffers form diabetes has vastly increased. This is informed by the predisposing factors that the children are exposed to at their younger age and the fewer physical activities like sports that they engage in before the high school stage. The dietary habits of most young children is yet another factor that leads to the development of diabetic conditions among the children with the easiest foods that they indulge in on a daily basis being high sugar low-carb diets. These being the prevailing facts, there is need to have an intervention plan which will help the high school students who suffer from diabetes to better handle the condition. This is…… [Read More]

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Reducing 30 Day Readmissions

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 95495647

Patient Education

Patients education

Patient education can be described as a process by which majorly health professionals and other related stakeholders impart information to patients together with their caregivers so that there can be improvement of health status and also alter health behavior of patients. Those who may be involved in health education may include physicians, pharmacists, registered nurses, psychologists, special interest groups, and pharmaceutical companies. Health education can also be used as a tool by managed care plans in general preventative education and health promotion. Some of the important elements that are supposed to be considered when dealing with patient education are skill building and responsibility. It is necessary for patients to know why, when and how they are required to make their lifestyle change. This process of patient education is capable of reducing healthcare costs.

Looking at studies pertaining cost containment, it shows that patient education results to…… [Read More]

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Three Ways to Cut Health Care Costs Right Now

Words: 1400 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: A2 Coursework Paper #: 54967937

Health Care Costs

Ways to Cut Them Right Now

In the face of high health care costs, the health care industry is striving to reduce costs by addressing chronic, expensive drains on health care dollars. Researchers have offered numerous steps that can be taken to significantly reduce costs. Furthermore, while some cost-cutting programs are considered ineffective window-dressing, major health care providers have systematically and pointedly taken successful steps to reduce costs while rewarding compliance with those steps.

Three of the Ten Ways to Cut Health Care Costs Right Now, Described by Arnst

While Catherine Arnst describes 10 ways to cut health care costs right now and Kaiser Permanente addresses all 10 of those ways, 3 of the ways Kaiser Permanente cuts health care costs leap to mind: cracking down on fraud and abuse; developing a healthy workforce; and stopping infections in hospitals. "Fraud and abuse" in health care includes but…… [Read More]

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Rt for Decision-Makers in Respiratory Care May 2008

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 13039915

RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care


Craig Rosebrock, MD, and James Donohue, MD

RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an inflammatory-linked condition associated with airflow limitations to the lung tissue of a patient. Numerous disease states can be linked to the condition including asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and triggers associated with the presence of inflammatory inhalants. Epidemiologically, the strongest causative factor in COPD globally is cigarette smoke (Lopez, 2006). The authors present the prescription pharmacological factors associated with COPD treatment focusing on clinical pharmacology, clinical data and meta-analysis data to demonstrate treatment options and effectiveness. The primary recommendation for COPD management is cessation of smoking and avoidance of tobacco and nuisance particles. Following a discussion of smoking cessation, the authors discuss the types and use of pharmacotherapy in treating COPD.

Table 1 within the publication describes the recommendations for managing…… [Read More]

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Compare and Contrast China Preventive Health Services and US Preventive Health Services

Words: 1395 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98965633

China Preventive Health Services and U.S. Preventive Health Services

The objective of this study is to compare and contrast China preventive health services and U.S. preventive health services.

The work of Clarke (2010) reports that prevention "was a prominent feature of the health care reforms that took place in the late 1960s through the early 1970s. During that time strategies such as universal vaccination, promotion f lifestyle changes, population screenings, and safety regulations were introduced and became widely accepted as means to improve public health while reducing health care expenditures." (p.3) The U.S. while one of the world's richest and most technologically advanced nations, is experiencing a severe lack in meeting expectations for health status and the costs are reported as "alarmingly high." (Clarke, 2011, p.3)

Specifically, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity in the United States in 2007-2008 is reported to have been 33.8% overall, 32.2% among men and 35.5%…… [Read More]

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Employee Safety & Health Employee

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14251665

cannot automatically assume his or her right to serve. And even the American with Disabilities Act allows that all employers cannot necessarily accommodate all conditions, of all employees.

The Weyco website, in response to criticism, defended its position, stating that smoking employees of Michigan businesses each drained their companies, and thus shareholders and fellow workers as well as company owners, of an additional $4,000 a year in absenteeism, medical benefits and the earnings that are lost to sickness and premature death. (McConnell, 2005) but handicapped employees who can still do their jobs effectively cannot be discriminated against, nor can an employee with a predisposition, genetically, to cancer, be excluded from an employee health care policy simply because he or she is more costly.

Again, these costs are not choices like smoking. But federal laws protect workers with conditions such as obesity and alcoholism, where there is at least some 'choice'…… [Read More]

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Heart Disease and the Elderly the Objective

Words: 2889 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64407527

Heart Disease and the Elderly

The objective of this work in writing is to examine how heart disease takes a toll elderly. Toward this end, this work will conduct a review of literature that examines the toll that heart disease takes on the elderly population.

Approximately 18 million people or 7% of all individuals in the United States have heart disease. Heart disease affects older people more significantly as the elderly are more likely, according to reports "to have coronary heart disease, commonly known as a heart attack or chest pain, which is more debilitating than other types of heart disease." (National Academy on an Aging Society, 2000) Many types of heart disease are largely, preventable through controlling high blood pressure and diabetes and engaging in a lifestyle that is healthy. While some individuals with heart disease do not have trouble on a daily basis the majority of those with…… [Read More]

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Community Health Issue Nursing and

Words: 1323 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94289019

The team analyzed samples for carcinogen-DNA adducts, biomarkers associated with increased cancer risk, and cotinine, a measure of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure. Based on prior findings in animal models, scientists believe only one-tenth of the dose of PAH passes from the mother to fetus through the placenta. Even so, the investigators found that newborns incurred DNA damage at a rate slightly higher than their mothers" (Wood, 2006). In other words, even if a mother does not smoke, the nurse may wish to ask about the patient's partner's smoking habit, or if the patient works in a smoke-containing environment.

The study also found that "detectable adducts were identified in 45% of the newborns and 42% of the mothers. Newborn cotinine levels were higher, 47% in the infants versus 44% detectable in the mothers," despite the screening effect of the placenta (Wood, 2006). "Researchers said the fetal concentration may be due to…… [Read More]

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COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Words: 2149 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55510884


There are several components of the pulmonary rehab program that is inclusive of the following:

Medical evaluation and management;

Setting Goals;

Exercise Training;


Program Results or Outcomes;

Oxygen Treatment; and Surgery. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Disease and Conditions Index, 2007)


Progression of COPD is, first and foremost, approached through addressing smoking cessation by the individual and this includes refraining from being with those who smoke and being in locations where smokers will be present. Secondly, it is important to keep away from other lung irritants to include: (1) pollution; (2) dust; (3) certain cooking or heating fumes; and (4) the outside air when air quality is rated as 'poor'.


Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known to have symptoms of the disease that worsen suddenly causing…… [Read More]

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Patient With Terminal Lung Cancer

Words: 2087 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 80100895

" (2003)

It is reported in the work of Morrow (2009) that prior to palliative sedation being considered the team of people caring for the patient or the palliative care team "…will look at many possible options to help relieve suffering, such as aggressive symptom management (using any and all medications and treatments that may help) and mental support to help with emotional concerns. The goal is to make the patient as comfortable as possible. When this effort isn't enough, palliative sedation may be an option. " (Morrow, 2009, p.1) in some cases the symptoms are difficult if not impossible to treat and fail to respond to any treatment despite extremely high doses of pain medications. Also causing severe distress is such as "frequent and severe nausea and vomiting, uncontrollable tremors or seizures, and severe breathlessness are just a few examples of distressing conditions. In these cases, sedation may be…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Family Health Assessment

Words: 1693 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44973555

Health Assessment

Family Health Assessment

This paper reflects upon the wellness diagnosis of my uncle's family. There are four family members in this family, consisting of parents (2 individuals), son and daughter. The report includes a questionnaire based upon the 11 health patterns and an analysis of their overall family health with nursing diagnosis.

The summary of the findings of the 11 heath patterns is described below:

The values and health perception of the family is below the standards healthy criteria since the mother of the family is suffering from severe defining of Vitamin D, the father suffers from diabetes and severe stomach problem and none of the children go to the gym.

The family does not consume alcohol but the father smokes on a regular basis. The family cannot be considered as 'healthy eaters' since they eat junk food twice or thrice a week. The mother considers herself a…… [Read More]

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Strokes and African Americans

Words: 4072 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81628730

Strokes and African-Americans

African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of African-Americans and stroke. The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of study. The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative and interpretive nature and has been conducted through a review of literature in this area of study.

Strokes and African-Americans

African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose…… [Read More]

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Health Theory Theories Application

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90174072

Syndemics of Adolescent Health


There are several social theories that attempt to explain health risks for defined demographics, such as adolescents. Socioeconomic theory suggests a lower status for an individual increases the risk of morbidity and mortality (Ward, Meyer, Verity, Gill, and Luong, 2011). In contrast to a focus on the individual, social quality theory suggests that social inclusion and empowerment lowers health risks. Syndemic theory, on the other hand, proposes that the morbidity and mortality of a defined demographic is determined by both social and economic factors (reviewed by Bruce, Harper, and AMTNHAI). To assess the value of socioeconomic and social factors in determining the health of adolescents, a study examining syndemic factors in adolescent gay males will be analyzed.

A Case Study in Syndemic Theory

A recent study investigated the syndemic of tobacco use in adolescent and young adult homosexual men in New York City (Storholm, Halkitis,…… [Read More]

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Coronary Artery Disease development

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82056294

Coronary Artery Disease
Development of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Coronary artery disease represents an obstruction or constricting (stenosis) of vessels and arteries which supplies the heart with oxygenated blood. The cause for CAD is atherosclerosis (arterial hardening), or a fatty plaque buildup on inner arterial linings. The resultant obstruction impedes blood flow across coronary arteries. The complete cut- off of blood flow leads to a heart attack (or myocardial infarction, in medical terms). CAD takes place when coronary arteries are partly obstructed or hindered, thus cutting off oxygen supply to heart muscles (i.e., myocardial ischemia). When the blockage is temporary or partial, angina (chest pain or pressure) may occur. The sudden, complete cut- off of blood flow due to the blockage leads to myocardial infarction (Milto, Costello, Davidson & Lerner, 2013).
CAD is a condition that sets it from a rather young age, a fact not many are aware of.…… [Read More]

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Link Between Stress and Heart Disease

Words: 1853 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94478813

Stress and CAD

Before discussing the link between stress and heart disease, we must operationalize stress. The reason for this is that when one does a literature search in PubMed using the search terms "stress and heart disease" one will get nearly 40,000 references. Stress contributing to cardiovascular disease has been defined as vital exhaustion, oxidative stress, psychiatric disorders, or multiple other physical stressors that impact cardiovascular functioning. This paper will discuss the effects of chronic psychological stress and its effect on cardiovascular functioning.

Psychological stress has also been difficult to define as basically because there is no objective measure of such stress. Perhaps the classic approaches are the best. Hans Seyle (1956) defined a stressful event as one in which an environmental demand surpasses the inherent regulatory capacity of the organism. Seyle also defined a psychological model of the reaction to prolonged stress, the General Adaptation Syndrome, that is…… [Read More]

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Measurable Outcomes Tobacco Control Program

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 85515578

Health Care -- Measurable Outcomes -- Tobacco Control Program

An "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of a program. Programs ideally have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes leading to achievement of the program's stated goals. The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) is an excellent example of a program that has attained short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes due to its aggressive, ambitious mission and efforts. Through its 20+ year history, the CTCP program's outcomes have included significant inroads in public attitudes about smoking, lower smoke-related illness, morbidity and health care costs, and impactful actions against the tobacco industry. Given the measurable outcomes of the CTCP program, it is understandably a guiding force for tobacco control programs in other states and countries.

Body: The Measurable Outcomes that Would be Representative of the California Tobacco Control Program

An important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome"…… [Read More]