There are some papers that are to be released and referred to by her in the above article. In the first of those papers, the belief is that the present result of the aptitude tests of the teachers today is the same as was the case a generation earlier, but the best among them are not likely to become teachers. In the second paper, the result shows that the women from the best colleges are not continuing to be teachers as the pay received by them as teachers is low, and not due to the attraction of higher pay in other occupations. On the level it can be assumed that if the salary of teachers were better, a lot of the best students would still be going into teaching.
According to the columnist, "Teachers aren't exactly getting worse. They're getting more consistently mediocre." She ends her own article by saying…… [Read More]
(Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Motivation to Learn
Motivation to learn can be defined as the degree of cognitive effort invested to achieve educational goals (Li, 2003). It can also be understood as the degree of "seriousness" with which a student attempts to address the commitments and targets school with the purpose of: a) master the knowledge and skills rather than and get away with doing the minimum, b) clearly verify the status of their knowledge rather than try to complete the task independently of being sure that they actually learned something (MacIntyre, 2002).
Marshall (2001) have proposed to distinguish two types of motivation to learn, one that manifests itself as a personality trait and one that manifests itself as a state. In the first sense, the concept refers to a general provision that allows a student to perceive learning as an inherently valuable and satisfactory and therefore to engage in…… [Read More]
A special education assistant is classified as a teaching assistant in the British Columbia educational system. The definition of a teaching assistant, according to the Make a Future: Careers in BC Education Web site, is someone who provides general assistance to support teachers, students, and/or school programs (Make a Future: Careers in BC Education, 2012). In addition to the desired post of special education assistant, other teaching assistant positions include general teacher assistants, Supervision Aides, Food Program Aides, Library Aides, Science Aides, Multicultural Support Worker, Youth Care Worker, Aboriginal Support Worker, and Community School Assistants. For each of these teaching assistant positions, including special education teaching, a high school graduation is required.
The specific qualifications necessary for a special education assistant includes include certificates or diplomas from recognized college programs such as Classroom and Community Support Worker Program, Special Education Assistant Certificate, and Special Needs Worker Program (Make a…… [Read More]
Most Internet providers will create Web sites for their members, and there are large amounts of software that can be purchased to create one's own Web site as well as companies that will do this for a fee. Because of this, creating a web site for a particular instructor and his or her particular classes will be relatively easy. Most universities already have allocated this type of space to each faculty member and even adjunct professors often have space for Web sites for distance learning classes. These are usually not overly fancy, but this is irrelevant based on the fact that any type of web site which provides the necessary information clearly and correctly will be sufficient to do what is needed for a class to learn and understand (Cornell, 1999).
This type of simple web site and an e-mail address are really all the faculty needs for a very…… [Read More]
Teaching used to be easier than it is now. Teachers presented the information, assigned homework, made up tests, and graded students. It was the teacher's job to separate the wheat from the chaff, and the test was one of the most effective tools for that important task. Tests were sometimes complicated or tricky. Students who were weak readers found that their reading difficulties depressed their grades in all subjects, because only the best readers could negotiate the complicated test formats often used in social studies and science classes.
However, it was an easy way to grade. Tests were constructed to have ten items, not nine or eleven; or twenty, not nineteen or twenty-one. This made grading easier: "-2" to "-0" was an A, because those grades were 90% or higher.
The way teachers graded affected the way they wrote their tests: that 20th question might not have been important; that…… [Read More]
S. Department of Education presented a five-year grant to University Research Co's - URC Center for Human Services to work in collaboration with McDaniel College. The project is intended to act as a source to McDaniel to expand and execute a high quality bilingual education/ESL teacher-training program. By this project, CHS/McDaniel will offer various professional development openings to public school teachers and administrators, including workshops, graduate courses in bilingual education, field experiences, and a rigorous summer training institute. (Bilingual Education: Training for All Teachers)
The language immersion programs that are now provided in the United States came from Canada. They wanted their English-speaking population to learn French. Canadians realized English-speaking students were not getting adequate French to get minimum grades in school and to get jobs in French speaking areas of Canada. In 1975, Canada's first French immersion program began and by 1980 this program was launched in the United…… [Read More]
Teaching Strategies for Students With ADHD
The article by authors Kiuhara, O'Neill, Hawken, & Graham discuss ways to improve persuasive writing in high school students. They stress the importance of persuasive writing because students with ADHD had difficulty planning and drafting text. Any teaching strategy that dealt with these weaknesses could improve the writing ability of a student with ADHD. "Intervention studies with younger, middle school students with disabilities shows that their persuasive writing can be improved by teaching them strategies for planning and drafting such text" (Kiuhara, O'Neill, Hawken, & Graham, 2012, p. 337).
The authors found a modified version, developed by De La Paz and Graham geared towards the education of younger middle school students, can be upgraded so that it would be more relevant to high school aged students (Kiuhara, O'Neill, Hawken, & Graham, 2012). The De La Paz and Graham approach addressed two sets of intellectual…… [Read More]
Real Crisis in the Classroom: Where Have All the Teachers Gone?"
The article "The Real Crisis in the Classroom: Where have all the teachers gone?" By William R. Ogden, discusses the problematic circumstance of teachers leaving schools more quickly than schools are able to replace them. Ogden argues that a majority of students simply aren't willing to "wade through" complex field exams, coursework and certification programs. Part of the literature analysis begins by pointing out that educational facilities are subject to far too much scrutiny from outside organizations.
From a beneficial perspective the article does point out the crisis that is obviously plaguing educational facilities: a shortage of teachers. Also pointed out is the notion that professionals are poorly compensated. In this case the literature review provides too much "fluff." The article talks about songs in the 1960s, "Where have all the flowers gone" seemingly veering focus away…… [Read More]
This type of education has worked best within societies that contain large amounts of oppressive practices, where the oppressed need to learn some autonomy. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000).
It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. Some environments, as seen above, would benefit more from the behaviorist philosophy than from the humanist philosophy, and vice versa. It is therefore important to establish an initial focus, determine goals, and assess student needs. When there is for example a need for strongly skill-centered learning, such as a computer-skills course, this would benefit little from a behaviorist methodology. When the course is however more flexible and artistic, it might be better to focus on students' individual needs and concerns. In order to find what would work best in a specific classroom therefore, once should assess needs…… [Read More]
actual. The sample size is so small and concentrated that it is possible that intra-respondent bias was also present. Finally, the results provide support for the Internet in general and social networking applications specifically supporting appreciative, expressive and creative abilities yet fails to actually define how these strategies can be attained based on the research. The result is a study that reflects more of a consensus across the teaching profession than a rejection or critique of rote memorization and the embracing of scaffolding as a teaching strategy. It is disappointing that the research is not more robust and focused on getting past the obvious conclusions, stating instructors need to sharpen their online teaching skills. The most critical questions of how to create effective scaffolding strategies for each student using the new tools available from Web 2.0-based technologies goes unanswered. There is also the lack of charting and analysis of the…… [Read More]
However the effects of style on performance are contingent on the nature of the task. For example visual learners are likely to perform better on pictorially-based tasks than on verbal-based tasks. There is no significant correlation between intelligence and learning style. However reach indicates that academic achievement was positively correlated with a strategic approach to addressing learning styles and negatively correlated to an apathetic approach. Learning style was also found to correlate significantly with other academic performance related factors such as self-efficacy and academic locus of control (Cassidy, 1999).
A style of thought is a preference for using abilities in certain ways. Sternberg and Zhang (2005) point out that learning styles have certain general characteristics. First of all styles are preferences, not abilities. There is a difference between how creative a student is (ability) and how much the student likes to be creative (style). Styles are not "good" or…… [Read More]
Sometimes, an apparently poor performance on a standardized proficiency exam may be a remarkable performance for an individual student, although not when compared to the rest of the district's more privileged or capable children,
Linking pay to student performance provides a profound disincentive for teachers not to take the risk of teaching in historically disenfranchised and underperforming school districts. Why work twice as hard to deal with students who are more difficult to educate, for less pay? Finally, linking pay to performance assumes the validity of the test used to measure student performance. Teachers who teach 'to the test' may receive a bonus, while teachers who spend time devising creative assignments, or who cover material in a way that deals with all of the student's multiple intelligences, rather than just the verbal and mathematical capabilities tested on standardized proficiency tests, may not be rewarded adequately.… [Read More]
Students in grades 3-8 tested annually in reading and math. Students tested in science at least once in elementary, middle and high school. NAE Progress test taken by sample of 4th and 8th graders to compare results.
Academic progress. States must bring all students up to the "proficient" level on state tests by the 2013-14 school year.
Teacher Qualifications. Every public school teacher must attain the "highly qualified" level in each core subject he or she teaches. "Highly qualified" means teacher is certified and demonstrably proficient.
Controversy has swirled around the NCLB law since its inception. Arguments over funding, standards, fairness, and legality of NCLB continue even today. (EPE Research Center, 2004)
EPE Research Center. (2004, September 21). No Child Left Behind. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from Education Week: http://www.edweek.org/rc/issues/no-child-left-behind/
Lips, D. (2007, April 23). Saving 'No Child Left Behind' From Itself. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from the Heritage…… [Read More]
While the functionalist theory and the conflict theory aren't so different in theory, Durkheim's functionalist theory at least offers a bit more hope for students and it doesn't assume that education is meant to keep people in their place. However, preparing students for life is rather elusive as we can see especially today where the quality of education differs so dramatically from state-to-state and even from zip code to zip code.
The interactionist theorists examine how the educator's expectations influence the students' functioning, attitudes and impressions. Rosenthal and Jackson's groundbreaking study for the interactionist theory approach occurred in 1968 when the researchers studied a group of students of average IQ. The researchers then pointed out a handful of students whom they said would excel dramatically over the course of the coming year. The teachers were told who the students were and the teachers were asked to monitor the students' performance…… [Read More]
This approach also is supported by volumes of empirical research and it is particularly well suited to effective learning in the physical sciences. Instead of focusing on narrative explanations of scientific concepts in the traditional educational approach, inquiry-based methodology utilizes practical materials designed to allow students to experiment and directly observe and experience the scientific concepts presented in each lesson (Huber & Moore, 2001).
According to the available research, hands-on inquiry-based active learning is much more effective than traditional educational methods (Huber & Moore, 2001; MDE, 2010). While the financial costs associated with procuring commercially-produced active-learning educational materials can be a considerable barrier for many public education systems, the general approach can also be implemented through improvised materials without substantially detracting from the value of the instructional method (Huber & Moore, 2001).
Based on the available empirical research on active learning and inquiry-based learning, it should be anticipated that…… [Read More]
Teacher Behavior/Class Culture
Avoiding Seeking Help in the Classroom: Who and Why?" appeared in the Educational Psychology Review in 2001. The article, by Allison Ryan, Paul Pintrich, and Carol Midgley, is mainly a literature review in the interrelated areas of achievement goal theory, social-goal orientation, and classroom dynamics and how these things impact the decision to seek academic help. The researchers investigated the causes of help avoidance, which has been found to increase during early adolescence (p.94). Therefore, the population in question is early adolescents, although the researchers to include references to studies that deal with other student populations. The article is well-written, well-organized, and clear. Help-seeking is the main focus of the paper, and is described by the authors as "an important self-regulatory strategy that contributes to student learning," (93). As help-seeking directly relates to actual student performance, the current research is important and can help educators understand and…… [Read More]
Preparing Students to Face these Issues: Proposed Strategies
As Mahanay-Castro (2010) notes, "many factors influence the success of students leaving secondary school special education programs." In the author's opinion, rather than equipping such students with the necessary skills for life after school, educational processes instead mainly concern themselves with the students' academic concerns. Some of the strategies schools may adopt so as to ensure students are well prepared for life after school are highlighted below.
To begin with, schools can plan field trips for such students. These field trips should be designed in a way that allows students to understand more about an issue at hand. For instance, schools can organize a field trip to the bank so as to enable students learn how the banking system works.
Secondly, schools can use pretend play or role-play so as to ensure that students learn some relevant skills. For instance, as Browder…… [Read More]
Even when information should be shared with other educators and/or administrators, however, this does not mean that the information should become a part of general or public knowledge (Omstein & Levine 2007). Again, the risk of stigmatizing the student or in some way calling their development into question is quite high in certain circumstances, and even in the most mundane of instances other parents and non-educators might attempt to exert undue influence over another student's placement based on rumors or knowledge obtained through a lapse in privacy protection. This ultimately takes the power of decision making out of the teachers' and administrators' hands; instead of leaving the information and the decisions to those trained and equipped to handle them, breaching the privacy rights of students could potentially lead to a sort of mob rule of the schools, where the loudest voices make the decisions.
This is, of course, an extreme…… [Read More]
Teacher Judgments of Student Success Based on Appearance
Methods in Sociology of Education:
The value of methods in sociology to identify and respond to factors associated with success of students in schools cannot be underestimated. Research in sociology indicates that non-cognitive traits play an important role in student success. The physical appearance of a student has an influence on the way he or she is perceived by both peers and adults. For better or worse, one's appearance is considered representative of one's values, intellect, and ability to succeed. Bias based on appearance can be due to physical attractiveness, grooming, dress, demeanor, attitude, physical handicap, disfigurement, race, gender, and many other perceivable traits.
In a related study, sociologist from the University of Miami Health Economics Research Group conducted research on three influential non-cognitive traits on high school grade point averages (GPA). The primary objective of the study was to ascertain if…… [Read More]
In my experience, it is actually possible to transform this potential liability of digital technology in the classroom into a definite benefit. That is primarily because the topic of identifying credible academic sources of information was rarely, if ever, a topic that was ever addressed previously. Today, students who have had to participate in exercises designed expressly for that purpose are much better qualified to do so than many of their predecessors.
Future Implications of Technology in Education
I would expect that one of the critical issues facing the future of education in relation to technology is academic integrity. Already, plagiarism has increased dramatically as a function of the tremendous expansion of the resources available at the click of a mouse in conjunction with the ease with which sources can be copied through copy-and-paste functions. According to some of the available literature, digital technology in contemporary education has also introduced…… [Read More]
The students were animated and worked diligently; at times, it was necessary to tone down the volume of voice. The 45 minutes went by quickly.
This more flexible and nontraditional method of teaching worked in most cases. However, there were times, depending on the students, when someone asked for help and could not find anyone free or asked for help and was helped to quickly and did not truly understand the rationale for the answer.
STUDENTS WENT to LUNCH
While this class went to lunch and the play ground, the observer went to the special needs room. This area was for about a dozen students maximum at a time. The students there ranged from ADD to a child who was incapable of acquiring any more learning. There was one teacher and the students all in one row along a long table. The teacher sat on the opposite side of…… [Read More]
"Many of our current challenges are unprecedented," the president explained. "There are no standard remedies, or go-to fixes this time around. That is why we are going to need your help. We'll need young people like you to step up. We need your daring and your enthusiasm and your energy." I will continue to offer my enthusiasm and my energy -- and hopefully I will be daring enough to learn new skills and strategies for the betterment of my students and my community.
Critical Incidents in Education
Before I share specific school experiences I have had, I want to express my own perspective on teaching and education. I have always been very impressed by the thinking of John Dewey, who is considered the "Father of Public Education" in America, and also I've been influenced by the more contemporary strategies put forward by Albert Bandera, who is well-known for his…… [Read More]
If a religion forbids dancing, those children should not have to learn a new dance, even though it might be a lot of fun for others. In other religions, any kind of image is forbidden. These children should not be served cookies that have, for instance, a jack-o-lantern or the country's flag on it.
At the same time, such a day can help students learn about each others' cultures. In those cases, parents who belong to those cultures might organize the activities. For instance, if there are Jewish children in the school, parents might make latkes with applesauce or have an activity that explains the significance of a Jewish holiday. Ethnic minorities might set up an activity that demonstrates something important about their culture and history. "Under Eights" can be a learning experience as well as a lot of fun.
13. You are a teachers' aide. Discuss with a teacher…… [Read More]
If I had been in the instructor's position, I fear that I would not have handled the disciplinary issues quite as well, as I had not thought of all of the considerations mentioned by the instructor during the interview, especially the issue of the disruptive students' right and need to be educated and grow. An aide would have been of assistance in these scenarios, as they could remove the student from the public setting while going over rules and restoring discipline, but this is secondary to a proper consideration of the issues. I might have dropped different items from the week's curriculum, as well, but these changes would have been minor and largely unimportant. As far as moving ahead with tasks, I would have done just what the instructor did.
The rationales along which the above decision would have been-based is simply that these approaches appear to be the best…… [Read More]
When students can see and manipulate objects, they can be asked to describe them and put objects in visual and verbal terms that they can relate to, in their current developmental stage. Piaget observed students relate to objects at this age by touching what is concrete, describing objects and an object's location in space.
How well did Jenny follow constructivist guidelines? What could she have done differently to make the lesson more constructivist?
Jenny made use of group activities, and socially engaged forms of learning, although a strict constructivist would have wanted her to begin with such group activities.
Discuss constructivism in terms of the constructs defined and discussed by both Piaget and Vygotsky in the text. What is the basic difference between the approaches of these two theorists?
Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next, while Vygotsky stressed the need…… [Read More]
Responding to hate crimes
Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. Retrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Black's law dictionary. (1990).…… [Read More]
Teaching Impression and Reality
Out of all things I expected myself to do, teaching was probably the least of my expectations. However, things unraveled and led me to get a job at ICCD School.
Prior to this job, I had no experience as a teacher at any level. However, I had been raised by two parents in the field of education, both of whom would always come home with their share of amazing stories that I enjoyed hearing. I also got an ample amount of opportunities observing my parents at their work place, during breaks, when they would be busy with enrichment programs and would bring me along so that I would be able to spend quality time with them. Although I can't say I spent a lot of time bonding with them during their working hours, I can doubtlessly say I got to learn a lot from those trips.…… [Read More]
Teaching Critical Thinking
Critical thinking has been explained as the capability to evaluate and assess information and facts. Critical thinkers establish important issues and concerns, construct them clearly, collect and examine pertinent data, make use of abstract concepts, contemplate open-mindedly, and also communicate efficiently with other individuals (Duron et al., 2006).
I recommend the following 4 teaching strategies to be the most relevant to critical thinking. (We will only discuss two in detail here):
Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
Teach the process
Adapt tasks and assessments
Incorporate games into lessons
Teaching Strategy 1: Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
"Teachers who have been great questioners inspire their learners, promote higher level thinking, support creativeness, as well as improve self-concept in their learners and also themselves." (Johnson, 1990)
Teaching that encourages critical thinking utilizes questioning methods that demand students to evaluate, synthesize, and also…… [Read More]
Since smaller class size has been shown to positively affect student learning, at least in the early grades, one might also infer that this affects teachers' work positively. Further, researchers have found a positive relationship between collective bargaining and increased preparation time for teachers, which many educators believe is essential for good teaching and collaborative work among colleagues within a school.
Collective Bargaining, Unions and Teacher/Educational Quality
In a March 1999 study of Texas Schools, teacher salaries were shown to have a modest impact on teacher mobility and upon student performance. The authors of the study found that teacher mobility was more affected by the characteristics of the students, including income, achievement and race.
Salaries are also more weakly related to performance on teacher certification tests. This appears to be relevant only in districts where there are high levels of hiring (ibid., 30). The study found that certification tests were…… [Read More]
1 million today, Smith explains. About 79% of ESL students have Spanish as their native language, and hence, Smith insists, "there is an urgent need for as many teachers as possible to be skilled in and passionate about working with ESL students" (Smith, 2008, p. 5).
The mentor (an ESL specialist) needs to apply "professional knowledge to actual practice" when working with another teacher, Smith explains. There are two components to Smith's mentoring suggestions: a) the ESL specialist shares his or her "best of ideas"; and b) but by mentoring, the ESL specialist is "supporting the professional and personal growth of the teacher" (Smith, 6). Smith breaks down her mentoring program ideas into six conversations, or specific aspects, of how to relate to ESL students. This mentoring is for new teachers, who need to be submerged in diversity and inclusion quickly, and for existing teachers, that have perhaps avoided becoming…… [Read More]
This is the chance for the teacher to shine, to share his or her core ethics and values.
5. Sample lesson plans and/or curricula, for each subject area the teacher specializes in.
6. Samples of student work, as varied as possible and as up-to-date as possible.
7. Multimedia content, if applicable.
8. Links to other portfolios, educational websites, photologues, or any other relevant Web site.
The format for a teacher's e-portfolio varies. Some degree of flexibility is needed to allow educators the opportunity to imbue their portfolios with personal flair. Therefore, the format can vary as long as the checklist items are complete. At the same time, electronic portfolios should become more consistent to allow easy access to potential viewers. If all portfolios are different, readers have a hard time navigating them. Therefore, the educational portfolio should at least have the same section headers, arranged in the same order. Color,…… [Read More]
She says that even "ordinary" situations, as soon as mandatory state testing is emphasized, that testing process becomes less valuable because it often ends up measuring results that are more representative of test-taking preparation rather than they are representative of genuine learning and academic proficiency.
The interview subject expressed intense frustration at the way that the tenure system in modern education undermines the system. She has encountered several different fellow teachers who were tenured but clearly no longer motivated or particularly interested in teaching except as a regular paycheck. Some of them simply do the minimum and never challenge their students. Other teachers have even been disciplined for serious conduct issues. However, those teachers are almost always retained and even when they are suspended or placed on modified administrative duty, they still receive their full salaries. According to the interview subject, the tenure system is much too protective of…… [Read More]
Even the most idealistic young teacher will quickly realize that while the dog did not eat the student's homework, something stopped the student from completing the assignment. Reality will seep in, and the teacher will have to adapt to that reality. Existentialism may assist the good teacher in that adaptation process. The teacher that assimilates existentialism into the classroom can help the students understand that they must take responsibility for their own actions, their own deeds, and the homework or project that was (or was not) completed is solely due to their own efforts or lack thereof. The student that learns (and the teacher that teaches) the truths of distractions will both be rewarded accordingly. Distractions can be the cause of anger, anxiety, despair and boredom and if the unlucky student falls victim to those distractions or the underlying emotions brought on by those distractions, then more than just…… [Read More]
In other fields, going the extra mile, investing extra weekend or evening time, or providing exemplary presentations and materials usually results in some form of bonus. In teaching, however, much of this is expected -- before and after school tutoring, evening performances, weekend events, out-of-pocket expenses for supplies and materials not covered in the budget (See: Johnson, 2004).
Thus, while still presenting the overall debate from the public administration, governmental, and even sociological (parental, community) views, the proposed study will focus on specific views and attitudes that teachers' hold towards a pay for performance concept. The study will examine current and proposed legislation adopting such a compensation package, as well as a qualitative evaluation of the efficacy of such programs within the 21st century educational climate. The study will quantitatively analyze the data based on demographic and psychographic indicators such as age, gender, ethnicity, teaching level, education level, length of…… [Read More]
This order is independent of many factors including the student's environment and exposure to a language (Schultz, 2005; Wilson, 2005). This suggests that with different languages students may learn at a different pace. One may also argue that different students may acquire language differently simply because of individual personality or genetic related factors. These are important considerations for teachers.
The input hypothesis suggests acquisition of a language is more likely to occur when students receive input in the second language that is above their current level of linguistic ability (Krashen, 1988; Wilson, 2005). Input helps challenge the learner to achieve new levels of understanding. This idea is one often used in classrooms because students are always aspiring to learn more, and will do so more often when challenged appropriately (Wilson, 2005).
This hypothesis suggests that many variables may help students acquire language more comprehensibly. Among the variables…… [Read More]
In addition to utilizing the ELMO system as a lesson presentation tool, we intend to incorporate it as a motivational device, such as by rewarding both improvement and superior performance with the opportunity to have their work presented to the class.
Including the ELMO system in our Accelerated Reading Program and Florida Reading Initiative present additional avenues for more extensive incorporation of the equipment.
4. Proposed Evaluation of Objectives:
The proposed evaluation objectives consists of conducting comprehensive objective reading skills diagnoses before the introduction of the ELMO system into the classroom environment. A subsequent series of objective diagnostic evaluation will provide a method of measuring the beneficial effect of incorporating the ELMO system into the lesson plan.
Similarly, analysis and comparison of standardized achievement tests results will provide a direct measurement of the success of this initiative at achieving the educational goals that the system is intended to accomplish.
5.…… [Read More]
Scottish universities generally offered more mathematics and science programs than were offered by most English universities. The strong mathematics and science programs in Scotland attracted such American students as Benjamin Rush. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh. When he returned to North America in 1769, he helped form the earliest American medical education programs at the College of Philadelphia. After the United States won its independence from England in 1783, the states that made up the new country began to establish state colleges. The University of Georgia was founded in 1785, the University of North Carolina in 1789, the University of Tennessee in 1794, and the University of South Carolina in 180l (Colleges and Universities, 2009).
The University of Virginia was founded under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson in 1819. This marked the beginning of the modern style of state university organization, control, and curriculum. Jefferson's ideas was…… [Read More]
The majority of peoples learning in fact take place when they view and discover from those around them. In this facet, the civilization and the people who are embers of it play a major function. Civilization includes family, acquaintances, relatives and the citizens who live in the community, county or even the nation. Take for example the instance of people in indigent civilizations. In these poor civilizations, the lack of assets significantly influences and obstructs schooling. Frequently the children of such civilizations cannot afford expensive manuscripts, computers, laboratories or realistic work and may have to just barely get by. In such civilizations, stripped literacy is at times all that some can afford (Impact of Society on Education, 2009).
Societal standards also significantly impact schooling. In many underdeveloped nations where female liberation and liberty is missing, approximately half the population has strictly restricted or abridged schooling. This is due to the…… [Read More]
S. citizens. Given the occasion to get supplementary education and obtain better paying employment, undocumented students would contribute more taxes and have more money to invest in the country (Undocumented Students Face Barriers to Higher Education, 2009).
The studies challenge that immigration and educational policies should not be universal. Kids make up almost two million, or fifteen percent of the undocumented immigrants in the nation. They have had no voice in their parents' choice to come to and stay in the U.S. illegally but are nonetheless paying the penalty. They may work hard in grade school and high school, only to find the door to higher education blocked to them. The report also says that K-12 education mandated by the Supreme Court in 1982 is for not if the U.S. persists in making it hard for undocumented students to go to college (Undocumented Students Face Barriers to Higher Education, 2009).…… [Read More]
The Teacher and Principal Relationship with the Principal as Leader
Research indicate that the primary role of the principal is that of
the school "leader." The decision a principal makes concerning the issue
of instructional leadership and the extent to which that principal
develops the skills needed to exercise appropriate instructional
leadership will influence what does or does not happen in classrooms
throughout the country. Marks and Printy (2003) agree that the
importance of the instructional leadership responsibilities of the
principal cannot be ignored, nor can the reality that good leadership
skills are seldom practiced. Principals require information and skills
in order to support practices of instructional leadership in their
schools. They need to know what effective instructional leadership is
and how to become an effective instructional leader. Tasks to be
accomplished encompass those of supervision and evaluation of
instruction, of staff development activities, of curriculum development
knowledge and activities,…… [Read More]
Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis
Quantitative Methods and Qualitative Methods
Constructivist Learning Theory
Group Work and Team Work
Drama, Role Playing
The paper is a research proposal which discusses the issue of teaching methods that are unable to deliver students with the required level of translational skills for students enrolled in Language and Translation courses in colleges. The research will be based on finding the problems with the current teaching methods and the consequences of the flaws. The research is also aimed to find out possible solutions by evaluating the teaching methods which can be used to improve the current structure.
The Problem Statement:
The students of Translation and Languages in Colleges usually face a lot of problems in developing required translation skills that are must for a professional qualified translator. There are a number of reasons that cause the problems in acquiring the level of translation…… [Read More]
Lunenburg offers a series of suggestions for parents than can effectively aide the parent in home teaching, an essential aspect of child development and school readiness. Those which are applicable tot the ECE classroom are as follows:
1. Read to preschool children at least 20 minutes a day. Regular reading to children is one of the most important activities parents can do with their children to improve their readiness for school, serve as their child's first teacher, and instill a love of books and reading.
2. Keep good books, magazines, and newspapers in the house; the home can mirror the school in this respect. Make it easy - both for adults and children - to find something interesting to read.
3. Add to children's enjoyment of reading by discussing each book they read. Discussing the book familiarizes children with story components such as character, plot, action, and sequence and…… [Read More]
Teacher leader(s) is an individual teacher or a group of teachers who can influence their fellow teachers, the principal and other members of the communities of the school so as to improve learning and teaching practices. The aim of teacher leaders is the increase of student learning as well their achievement. Teacher leaders are therefore facilitators within the school and are important elements when it comes to the spread and strengthening of reforms and improvements in schools. The definition of teacher leadership gives it value as well as making it realistic and an accelerated process of progress towards development of leaders in the community (WETA Washington DC, 2013).
There are various individual capabilities that enable a person to be a good leader in an organization. Team leadership ability is one of the capabilities I possess as a teacher. This means that I can drive students and my colleagues…… [Read More]
Everywhere we look, individuals use body language and non-verbal signals. We've seen evidence of politicians and the media using signals to improve their veracity (or the contrary), but non-verbal clues have even been studied by anthropologists as a way to recognize subtleties of communication. In fact, anthropologist Ray Birdswhistell found that most humans can recognize over 250,000 facial expressions that impart meaning (Pease 2006, 10).
Sources of Nonverbal Communication- Psychologists believe that nonverbal communication is both part of individual behavior and the result of that behavior. The environment plays a huge part in how we as individuals "feel" and therefore express ourselves. The difference, say, between a well lit hotel atrium with classical music playing, numerous plants, and earth tones vs. A dark and dingy hallway in a public building will certainly provide different nonverbal impetus. In addition, the following are part of the entire nonvernal universe:
Physical…… [Read More]
Teaching Communication Skills for Students With Autism
The conditions for diagnosis for autism that are presently prevalent within the U.S. are those mentioned in the American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders," Fourth Edition, which is generally pinpointed as 'DSM-IV." Autism is taken into account by the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual (4th Ed, DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as an existent development disorder (PDD) that is impacted by abnormal or impaired development in social cooperation and speech combined with a constrained array of actions and individual wishes. (Gresham et el, 1999).
Autism is termed as an impotent syndrome marked chiefly by important difficulty in the evolution of speech and social functioning. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) envisages a vast definition of autism that is comprehensive of associated impotencies like Asperger Syndrome, Rett's Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Autism and ASD are identifications portraying students with a vast array…… [Read More]
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as Reacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…… [Read More]
With the conceptual tools offered by psychology, we now can, for instance, more readily investigate the effects of mistreatment on children's development.
My concern regarding the general disharmony of the relationship between adult and child stems from the awareness that we adults have the inclination to view the child as grossly inadequate. In our misguided efforts to help them, we downplay the significance of what the children themselves find applicable or attractive to their interests during their formative years. To put it briefly, the child's natural curiosity and spontaneity is suffocated by the unnecessary, if not outright damaging, and constant interventions of adults, who have the tendency to treat the child, often unconsciously, as an inferior human being. Such attitude, of course, implies distrust in the value of the child's self-regulation in the learning process.
This general attitude inevitably percolates through elementary educational structures, potentially reducing education to a mere…… [Read More]
In this regard, one general officer states, "Military ethics based upon 'me-ism' or 'egotism' cannot function. Military ethics is about knowing whom and what we owe. That is exactly what is meant by 'service before self' (in the Air Force), 'selfless service' (in the Army), or 'commitment' (in the Navy and Marine Corps)" (Toner, 2003, p. 37). This larger sense of duty and responsibility is the crux of military ethics today: "Military ethics cannot properly exist without the concept of owing. If we know why we owe what we do, we are able to recognize the obligation, responsibility, and duty which give rise to moral thinking and ethical reasoning" (Toner, p. 37).
Nevertheless, there are broader considerations involved in any discussion of military ethics that must be taken into account as well, particularly in an increasingly globalized world where different value systems and cultures will undoubtedly affect the perception of…… [Read More]
), there is far more to their use than simple memorization. Instead, as English moves into a lingua franca situation in global economics and politics, students of English need to understand idioms in order to respond and understand context as well as fact. Not doing so reduces ESL speakers to a reduced form of English and a larger scenario of uncomfortability within community, school, and therefore, culture (O'Keeffe, McCarthy and Carter, 90-8).
Lesson Ideas- Teaching idioms can be difficult and challenging simply because they must be memorized within a new cultural setting. Depending on the level of the student, it may be necessary to provide more or less explanation about the why. In other cases, simple memorization is really the only way to increase the use; making it a game; showing how used in prose, and practicing in writing and speaking will often help. However, it is wise to limit…… [Read More]
Non-commissioned officer works under the authority of a commissioned officer in the military, but technically, they do not have any command. With time, non-commissioned officers rise to higher positions of nominal powers depending on how military is organized. They act as liaisons between highly ranked officers and the regular officers of the military. With this, they play an important role in the army and act as a military backbone. Teachers (class leaders) are chosen from the group of the same academia by non-commissioners of the same class, who in turn learn and perfect their skills as they teach the rest. Training while performing duties in the army takes place simultaneously for non-commissioned officers. They carry increasing levels of responsibilities in the army and demand greater levels of respect and deference. While under training, several teaching aids should be put into consideration. First, teaching of non-commissioned officers should be…… [Read More]
Children in this stage lack conceptions of size, volume, and mass so teaching a child about something like portion sizes of food in a discussion of nutrition would be ineffectual at this stage.
Concrete Operational Stage (ages 7-11)
During this stage, children can understand the concept of multiple stages or aspects of a problem, the concept of transferable size and volume, and also reversibility of things like numbers or steps of an action. A child at this stage can understand, for example, that a large plate of fries and a small plate of fries have the same amount of food, even though the portion looks smaller on the large plate. Also, the child at this stage is no longer egocentric. The child can understand that he or she must undergo a difficult treatment, even though it hurts, because the family wants the child to get well, or that he or…… [Read More]
Teaching, I believe, is a vocation that should be pursued by those who can help students to not just master required subject matter but develop skills for critical thinking, so that, they in turn, will be able to contribute to and further build on the accumulated body of knowledge in their chosen fields. To successfully achieve the aforesaid objective requires personal commitment; mastery of the subject being taught; originality and creativity; and the ability to make students relate to the subject matter.
Given my own views on 'teaching,' I was naturally pleased to find that the objectives of my course had been carefully structured and defined to meet precisely the above-mentioned requisites. This has been particularly meaningful for me as both a student today, and hopefully, as a teacher of high schools students tomorrow.
The personal importance of successfully achieving the stated goals of the English program led to my…… [Read More]
teacher & student relationship between Dante and Virgil in Dante's Inferno
This paper presents a detailed examination of the relationship between Dante and Virgil in Dante's Inferno. The writer uses examples and character analysis to present the relationship between the two to the reader.
The unfolding of Dante's Inferno is one in which the reader is drawn into the personality characteristics of the players. Because the topic of the writing is enmeshed in the understanding of hell it is important that the reader become attached to the various players in the work so the reader can understand who the events took place. The relationship between Dante and Virgil is extremely important to the context of the story. Dante and Virgil have a relationship that provides a tour and pathway to the ideas the writer wants the reader to understand and grasp. The relationship between the two moves in several directions…… [Read More]
Moyer also cites literature showing that learning math through literature involves higher cognitive processing, potentially increasing the rate of absorption of knowledge. Main points of Moyer's article include the following. One, children's literature can promote enhanced learning of mathematical concepts, and two, a plethora of math-related children's literature already exists and therefore teachers should actively try to incorporate those books into their everyday curricula. Finally, the author emphasizes that math-related children's literature is beneficial for the simultaneous development of language and math skills. Literature is actually an ideal medium for the conveyance of mathematical concepts.
Moyer's article is based on a review of literature and on expert opinion. The author also offers several examples to back up her statements, and therefore the article is well-researched and reliable. The ideas the author presents are instrumental for elementary school teachers who might otherwise rely too heavily on textbook-taught mathematics, neglecting the wealth…… [Read More]
teaching BSN program ADN level a graduate level nurse. Prepare online te
The topic for the online teaching session covered in this document is Evidence-Based Nursing: Transforming Clinical Practice. This is a prudent topic for individuals looking to pursue a Bachelor's of Science Degree in Nursing or an Associate Degree in Nursing, since in either case individuals will be looking to compete in a workplace environment that is increasingly looking to augment traditional techniques with evidence-based ones (Matthew and Aktan, 2014, p. 1). As the title of this topic suggests, evidence-based practices have the potential to actually revolutionize the way clinical practice is performed.
I would deliver the didactic content for this course in two different ways. The first would be via pre-recorded, online lectures. These lectures would be pre-recorded so that students could access them at their leisure (whether in the evening, daytime, or in the wee hours of…… [Read More]
If I had the opportunity to teach a skill to someone else, I would show how to conduct fundraising campaigns for a worthy nonprofit organization. Once a leader in a nonprofit group has the skills and the experience he or she could use those skills to help raised needed funds.
We would start with some basic fundamentals. A nonprofit group should be incorporated so that donations people and businesses make can be tax-deductible. There are groups representing the American Bar Association in nearly every city in America and they offer a half hour free consultation to nonprofits. This is a good starting point for a group, to achieve the ranking of a 501(c)3, a federally licensed nonprofit corporation.
There are many ways to raise funds other than just asking for handouts or sponsoring a bake sale. A good starting point is to plan a community benefit concert.…… [Read More]
The concepts of energy and matter are slightly more intuitively understood, but before reading the passage a class discussion that attempts to define tese terms would also be useful.
After reading the passage once, the question of what substances are elements could be put to the class. No doubt some substances such as water will be listed that are basic compounds, and not true elements. These answers can then be used to illustrate the interaction of atoms and elements to create other substances that are not pure elements. At the same time, this will help illustrate the way different elements can form different substances depending on atomic structure. This in turn leads into Fermi and the splitting of an atom.
When this portion is reached, students can be asked what the parts of an atom are. Students can also be asked to explain how magnets work; this discussion will take…… [Read More]
Teacher Performance Assessment
Lesson Title: Science
Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about
State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.
Lesson Objectives and Language Demands
• Content/Skill Objectives:
Students should state the definition of science
Students should discuss the various science methodologies
Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists
Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life
Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.
Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.
• Key Vocabulary:
Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods
Resources and Materials
• Resources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.
• Materials: worksheets, games, projector, Smartboard, paper, pencils, art supplies, cards, post- its, etc.)
NOTE: Attach and/or embed…… [Read More]
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). "Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes." in, Spence, K. & Spence, J. (Eds), Advances in the Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 2(1): New York: Academic Press.
Bailey, a.J. (1986). Policy making in schools: Creating a sense of educational purpose.
Balshaw, M. (1991). Help in the classroom. London: David Fulton Publishers.
Campbell, J., Kyriakides, L., Mujis, D. & Robinson, W. (2004). Assessing teacher effectiveness: Developing a differentiated model. New York: Routledge Falmer.
Field, K., Holden, P. & Lawlor, H. (2000). Effective subject leadership. London:
Hoban, G.F. (2002). Teacher learning for educational change. Buckingham: Open
Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Loughran, J. & Wallace, J. (2003). Leadership and professional development in science education: New possibilities for enhancing teacher learning. London: Routledge Farmer.
MacBeath, J. (1998). Effective school leadership. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Maslow, a.H. (1943). "A…… [Read More]
Educators' instructional 'knowledge base' encompasses all necessary cognitive information needed to cultivate efficient learning-teaching settings. Scholars indicate that it is possible to study such information. But discerning the contents that make up the aforementioned knowledge base is complicated. A majority of research works distinguish procedural (i.e., 'knowing how') from declarative (i.e., 'knowing that') knowledge (two forms of knowledge defined by cognitive psychologists) and employ this as their theoretical foundation. The above strategy is appropriate since it concentrates on comprehending the link between behavior and knowledge, that is, educator instruction quality. The foremost major research into educator knowledge (Shulman, 1987) grouped educator knowledge into a total of seven groups, which included the following ideas:
generic pedagogic knowledge (cross-curricular schoolroom organization- and management- related approaches and rules) and
1. Instructional content knowledge (that assimilates particular subjects' content knowledge and the instructional knowledge needed to teach the subject).
The second group…… [Read More]