Television Violence Essays (Examples)

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Video Game Violence During the

Words: 4289 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 76476903

, 2000). Specifically, the fact that video games portray extremely violent actions without a human cost can lessen a person's natural response (including empathy) in addition to promoting reckless conduct in real life.

It is not necessarily that teenagers consciously believe they can "do" what they see in the games the way children sometimes come to believe that they can fly. But they may absorb unconscious images that inhibit their ability to anticipate real-life consequences of certain choices and behaviors (Wilson, Smith, Potter, et al., 2002). According to the Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children presented to the Congressional Public Health Summit July 26, 2000 by several very prominent pediatricians and child psychologists:

"At this time, well over 1000 studies - including reports from the Surgeon

General's office, the National Institute of Mental Health, and numerous studies conducted by leading figures within our medical and public…… [Read More]

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Video Games & Violence in Children

Words: 5597 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3976305

" (Eagleheart, 2000) Eagleheart (2002) notes that violence does constitute a primary concern for children, particularly in schools. Rather than contributing video games as a cause of violence in children, she encourages educators and others to look deeper and consider that violene has goals; that the particular goal will depend on the individual.

At times, goals of violence may be evident, conscious choices from a child is playing now wants. Other times, goals may not be evident nor conscious. Possible examples of goal from violence, Eagleheart (2002) suggests, include but are not limited to:

child's need to try to secure power and control;

child's expression of painful emotions (anger, fear, despair) that he/she may be experiencing;

child's method of protecting him/her;

child reenacting and experience to try to obtain a different result;

child displaying behavior but he/she learned from others.

Trouble? America's youth, particularly boys, are in trouble. According to…… [Read More]

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Young Minds and the Television

Words: 1935 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80962086

Television on Children and Youth

As one of the most easily accessible, affordable entertainment forms, television is one thing people everywhere in the world have in common. Regardless of the way television has been described over the decades since television has entered regular people's houses, anyone who has witnessed children watching TV knows that it captures children's and adolescents' attention with excessive force and it holds the power to keep them glued to the screen. Even today, in 2014, when the internet claims a good portion of the viewing time dedicated to television in the past, television is reported to have kept a good deal of its influence. Parental control is thus crucial to the way television influences children's minds and shapes their development.

According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, children in the United States watch an average of three to four hours of television a…… [Read More]

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War Violence and the Nation

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2774555

This article addresses why children and adolescents may become violent, what factors influence them, what are the signs, and what preventive measures work in society's attempts to end violence among children and adolescents. In our society today, many parents have become irresponsible, not only allowing their children to immerse themselves in violent video games and movies but also causing a lot of violent behavior among their children by having unhealthy marriages, abusing their children, and becoming alcohol and drug addicts. This problem needs to be addressed, and therefore I found it important to include into my blog.

4. http://www.parentingbookmark.com/pages/NCP03.htm

The last material I decided to include into my blog is an article by a professor of education who talks about the connection of toys to violence. This article points out that we often look at violence in media, TV, the Internet as causes of violence among Americans but we rarely…… [Read More]

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War Violence and the Nation

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7003750

It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. These include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. The article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." This comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.…… [Read More]

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Video Game Violence and Restrictive

Words: 1110 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58518945

It would seem that on the basis of the causation rationale that age restrictions on violent video game content is no more logically justified than other types of overly broad restrictions (Olson, 2004).

In the 1950s, several instances occurred where young children watching the original Superman television series fell to their deaths after trying to emulate the star character's leaping takeoff from high-rise building windows. The series was not cancelled or changed to an adult time slot; instead, public service announcements were produced using George Reeves, in character and costume as Superman, expressly warn children not to try to emulate their hero. That approach solved the problem of inappropriate and dangerous behavioral emulation among children too young to distinguish entertainment from reality.

Much more recently, movie theaters began restricting entrance to movies with violent content or expressly sexual themes and imagery based on age; however, those restrictions are flexible enough…… [Read More]

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Causes of Teen Violence

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60079361

Teen Violence

Imagine being caught in the middle of a crossfire with two students shooting and you are right in the middle of it. Well that is exactly what students and teachers in Littleton, Colorado went through. On April 20, 1999, at approximately 12:20am, two students armed with semi-automatic handguns, shotguns and explosives conducted an assault on the Columbine High School and the people inside. A total of 12 students, 1 teacher and 2 suspects were killed; 24 students were transported to six local hospitals; and 100 students were treated at the scene (www.Littleton.org).Isthis what is happening inside the walls of where America's youth is suppose to be learning and in a safe environment. What can we do to prevent events like this from happening? It is a question we are constantly searching for answers to. There seems to be no concrete answers or solutions just certain explanations.

Many people,…… [Read More]

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Images Commercial vs Educational Children's Television I

Words: 3644 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37304595

images commercial vs. educational children's television. I research paper include sections/information: I. Introduction: You spark interest discuss: A. Why topic significant study? B.

Stereotypes presently dominate society, even with the fact that it has experienced notable progress in the last few years and discrimination is presently on a lower level. When considering children television, one is likely to observe that, depending on its purpose, it can be more or less stereotypical. On the one hand, advertisements are typically shown in a cliched, as girls are portrayed playing with dolls and cooking while boys are pictured as being more aggressive, more competitive, and generally determined to attain as much power as possible. On the other hand, children also have access to educational television, this normally making it easier for them to understand social order and moral matters.

Literature Review

Ever since its appearance approximately half a century ago, television has played…… [Read More]

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Video Games Violence and Aggression

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 27167744

Video Games, Violence and Aggression

The Effect of Video Games on Violence and Aggression

Numerous arguments over video games primarily center on topics such as sexism, nudity, racial profiling, sex and criminal behavior as well as other provocative material. Many conflicting results have been brought out of research and study of the relation between video games and its assumed effects of violence and aggressive behavior. Here, aggression is defined as behavior intended to harm another individual who is motivated to avoid that harm. Emotion, effect, or aggressive thought, plan or wish are not included .This means it includes attempts to harm regardless of if the harm was committed or not. Violence on the other hand is refers to extreme forms of aggression, such as assault and murder. In essence, all violence is aggression but the reverse is not true.

Literature Review

According to Anderson & Ford, 1986, Ballard & Wiest…… [Read More]

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Redneck Stereotypes Rednecks and Television

Words: 4773 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54935002

Goad (1997) notes the use of stereotypes helps reduce uncertainties one may have with their own status or relationships in society. He goes on to suggest people use the term "redneck" to reduce their anxiety and insecurities they may have about their own ability or socio-economic status, or their concerns about the welfare of their own ethnicity in an environment where they may feel outnumbered (Goad, 1997). To resolve stereotypes generated by groups as Goad suggests, education would help placate people by addressing their fears and providing them with tools to reduce anxiety and insecurities that arise when one encounters a member of a different ethnic or cultural background. (the uncertainty reduction theory suggests most people tend to amass feelings of insecurity and anxiety when approached by members of a group unknown to them Mullin & Hogg, 1999). Another theory commonly used to explain group behaviors is the social identity…… [Read More]

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Super violence in the Media

Words: 2194 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39034320

Super-violence is a new term that defines violence in a grand and exaggerating way. (Klare 16) Seen as an era of constant warfare and violence, it has made its way into entertainment and media. Whether it is chopping the heads of people and seeing the blood from their bodies gush like champagne fountains or seeing throats slit by children, today's media has taken on a new level of violence that thanks to visual effects and special effects makeup, shows just how intense the public has become in their quest for savagery. But why does the public desire more and more violence in their stories? What turn will this take in the future?

The recent invention and use of virtual reality just may be the way people will participate in the increasingly violent nature of media. Through virtual reality people can feel as though they are right in the middle of…… [Read More]

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Educational and Psychological Analysis of School Violence

Words: 2006 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75690048

Psychology Human Services

Violence in schools is becoming prevalent as one of the worrying aspects in the society. This particular paper seeks to analyze the violence in schools from an educational and psychological point-of-view. According to studies and scholarly research, bullying is the most common form violence prevalent in schools. Scholars suggest that school violence signify a variety of manners referring to physical damage, psychological harm, and property damage. Literature indicates that the most prevalent form of violence in schools comes in the form of bullying. Bullying is seen as behavior intended to harm someone, occurs recurrently, and shows a distinct difference of power between the bully and the victim. The link between parental violence, history with violence and unfortunate socio-economic state of affairs and violence amongst children is perceived in the literature. The psychological aspect of having such scenes and the experiences projected on the children is considered to…… [Read More]

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Gender in Television

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53121479

Gender Portrayals in Media

Since the advent of the television during the latter part of 1920s, men and women have been portrayed differently in movies, television, radio, music videos, news, and social media. Stereotyping men and women aided in developing sustainability strategies for marketing and advertising efforts. Essentially, it is about appeal and influencing the consumer. Unfortunately, the various mediums are fraught with sexism and racial disparities, which are difficult to overcome since the mediums are controlled by those in power. This level of control may be disguised as marketing techniques for certain target groups. By devising an appealing image for a consumer in which he or she may identify, advertisers establish a connection, thus building loyalty and developing a following. Hence, gender portrayals are fundamental practices to reach a large group of consumers by creating categorical images.

Gender Socializer: Television

Several of the popular radio soap operas made the…… [Read More]

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Violent Computer Game Violence and

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13272289

Quite to the point, television, film, pop music and video games share in common a proclivity to promote that which yields prosperity. Thus, there is little regard from the computer gaming industry for indications that "a meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults." (Anderson & Bushman, 353)

In spite of this, revenue for video game produces revolves on role-playing titles such as World of Warcraft, which promotes fantasy world combat, simulation games such as Grand Theft Auto, which glorifies violence and antisocial behavior, Halo, the simulated first-person shooter game, and Madden Football, which portrays in detail the often brutal sport of football.

Connecting absorption of such media with the commitment of violent crimes remains a challenge however. Famously, the two minors responsible for the massacre at the Columbine High School in 1999 were noted for playing such…… [Read More]

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Youth Violence There Is No

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27379202



In addition to psychological factors, social factors also play a part in the development of violence in youth in the United States. According to the University of Pittsburgh's Office of Child Development, these social factors may play as important of a role as the psychological factors. First, educational institutions can have a large impact on violence in children. According to their research, over 80% of children failing school have serious youth violence issues, including arrests for violent crimes. According to one study of 11-year-old males, 20% of the subject population of whom the teachers rated as low achievers were later convicted of violent crime, compared to less than 10% of those rated as higher achievers. According to researchers, social situations within the school system, such as overcrowding, imposed conformity, and peer pressure all contribute to youth violence (Farrington, 1989).

Still further, study after study has shown that poverty greatly increases…… [Read More]

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Fanon Violence

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67157415

Fanon" by John Edgar Wideman and "Wretched of the Earth" by Frantz Fanon. Specifically it will discuss physical violence in the two works. Violence, especially physical violence such as torture, figures prominently in these two works. Fanon himself promotes violence as a way to fight against colonization of one country by another, and Wideman's book uses violence for its shock value (as in the severed head), almost as a tribute to Fanon's support of violence. Violence is prominent in both works, because we live in a violent society, and violence is what gets our attention.

Wideman's work shows the violence of the inner city, where he grew up, and shows the effects of it on his family. His brother is incarcerated for murder, and violence permeates the work, which he means as a tribute to Frantz Fanon. Fanon actively promoted violence as a way for colonial territories to gain their…… [Read More]

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Looking at Psychology of Violence

Words: 3493 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95800609

MFT: Psychology of Violence

Types of Abuse Inflicted on Spouses

There are various forms of spousal abuse, but the legal definition of the term is, reckless or deliberate infliction of emotional or physical injury on one's spouse. Spousal abuse penalties and charges are dependent upon whether serious physical damage was inflicted on the spouse, whether the abuse events have been occurring continually, and abuse history of the offender. While domestic violence and spousal abuse are similar, the former incorporates other kinds of relationships as well, including same-sex unions or civil partnership. Spousal abuse can lead to devastating emotional damage as it typically entails spousal domination by means of violence, verbal abuse, intimidation, or threats of bodily maltreatment, causing intense terror, hopelessness, and powerlessness in the other spouse (Attorney, 2015).

Physical

An individual is said to be physically abused if he/she suffers deliberate bodily hurt at the hands of another; physical…… [Read More]

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Media Violence Sex and Police

Words: 3068 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22169282

Berrington, E., Honkatukia, P. (2002). An Evil Monster and a Poor Thing: Female

Violence in Media. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 3(1): 50-72.

Berrington and Honkatukia examine patriarchal constructs of British news media using case of Rosemary West as an example and comparing by way of contrast to the Finnish reporting on Sanna Sillanpaa, another female "killer." The ways in which media representations of these two women differed suggest that the cultural societies in which they lived espoused different views regarding women and violence.

This article is interesting because it supports what the study by Naylor (2002) shows, which is that media representations are gender-skewed in the British news. Women who commit violent acts are described in monstrous terms as though they were the epitome of evil, whereas in other countries there is more sympathy or sensitivity expressed in the media and therefore felt by the…… [Read More]

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Gender Violence Rape and on

Words: 2232 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66909517



Reasons to hear victim experiences.

The victims of rape have a right to be heard, and it is not only healthy for their psychological composure, but also for the community to know what menace this is and face it. There are several reasons why the rape victims should be heard, here are some:

A. May inspire others to speak out; this way more of the victims will get the confidence to speak out make the society to embrace the cruelties of the crime and act upon it.

B. Educational purposes- the experiences that the society has had can be used to educate the entire community on the ills of the heinous act and it is an education that cannot be given better than the victims themselves, for a safer future society.

C. Public awareness- the victims should be allowed to speak so as to help heighten the public awareness on…… [Read More]

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Challenges Domestic Abuse Teen Violence

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30486044

Sociology

Challenges -- Domestic Abuse/Teen Violence

Domestic Abuse

Domestic abuse takes place when one person in a close relationship or marriage attempts to govern and control the other person in the relationship. Domestic abuse that comprises physical violence is known as domestic violence. Domestic violence and abuse are utilized for one reason and one reason only and that is to get and continue total control over someone else. An abuser never plays fair. Abusers use terror, guilt, disgrace, and intimidation to wear a person down and keep them under their thumb. Domestic violence and abuse does not distinguish. It takes place among heterosexual couples and in same-sex relationships. It takes place within all age categories, ethnic backgrounds, and economic levels. And while women are more frequently mistreated, men are also abused, particularly verbally and emotionally, although sometimes even physically as well. The bottom line is that abusive actions are never…… [Read More]

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British Television and Journalism War on Terrorism

Words: 3194 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66274085

The writer of this article, Victor David Hanson, states that since earlier times, this sort of disparity in power has been in evidence, and it is a fact that the others have been attempting to build up their innate strength and power by merely imitating the West. This is sometimes referred to as a type of 'military parasitism', wherein those who were weak would often try to steal or buy or clone those weapons of the West that they found to be powerful. One example of this phenomenon is that of Japan. This country had no munitions manufacturing unit, no organized naval fleet, yet she managed to defeat a Russian Armada during 1905. (Post-Modern War)

The main reason for this success was that Japan had been sending thousands of her students to foreign universities and to military academies to study, and this resulted in the gaining of certain knowledge in…… [Read More]

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Rap the Cause or the Result of Violence

Words: 2703 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3115064

Rap Music: The Result of Violence

Rap music is a phenomenon that is unparalleled in America, at no other time has a music form risen in such a way and gripped a nation as fully. While, rap music has its roots in the ghettos of the U.S.A. And black culture, it is now a full scale industry that caters to the disenfranchised youth of America and bridges all gaps of culture and social level. Indeed, one of the currently most famous rappers, and relevant to this topic, is white, as are most of the current buyers and listeners to rap music. Violence and rap music are interwoven in such a way that it is impossible to completely untwine them but looking at the cause and results of violence is a different topic that needs going into as it has far reaching implications, including the government control of the music industry.…… [Read More]

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Speech Video Game Violence a

Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86769428



There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to support this theory -- several prominent school shootings have been ostensibly linked to video game playing -- but real scientific evidence is also emerging that suggests a more subtle but similar effect. In one study, college-age participants who had spent time playing Wolfenstein 3D, a first person shooter computer game, "punished" their opponents by subjecting them to loud noises of high intensity more frequently and for longer periods of time than participants that had played a non-violent computer game. In the words of Dr. Craig Anderson, one of the psychologists and researchers who conducted the study, "violent video games provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations."

Basically, time spent playing violent video games is time spent learning life skills that could be detrimental and counter-productive in real world situations, and could even replace more socially valuable skills sets…… [Read More]

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Effects of Family Violence on School Aged Children

Words: 5115 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95936710

Family Abuse on Children

The widespread prevalence of family abuse has been increasingly the focus of media, societal, and scholarly attention. This research paper examines the effects of various forms of family abuse on the psychological development of children, and its long-term consequences for adult functioning. The scope of the paper includes research on the causes of family abuse and a discussion on the need for social interventions to minimize the effects of abuse on children.

The well-rounded development of children is a matter of great societal concern since they constitute the citizens of the future. As such, society has a definite stake in ensuring that its children are nurtured well today, in order that they function as responsible adult members of society tomorrow. This is a well-recognized fact as evidenced by governmental, societal, and legal interventions in providing for the development of children through free education, child care subsidies,…… [Read More]

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Psychology Affect on Domestic Violence on Children

Words: 3107 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42557590

psychological research there a thousands of pressing questions, yet among all those questions one rises to the top of the list. In the area of family psychology and family therapy the question of the psychological affects of domestic violence on children has been hotly debated and eternally researched, yet many questions remain unanswered. These questions are pressing as the institution of family in our culture evolves and emerges as an entirely different social dynamic than existed even twenty years ago. The psychological effects of violence, in the family upon children are vast and will probably always need further address.

Many families garner a different definition as more and more family units are head primarily by one parent and many families combine to become families consisting of several members who are related only by law, rather than by genetics. These trends began many years ago but continue to change the face…… [Read More]

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Snickers' Thirty-Second Television Commercial During

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75289154

" And then the candy bar is shown quickly, breaking in half and a voice says, "Snickers satisfies."

The ad communicates the product, but as to the benefits -- what are the benefits of eating a candy bar? Nutrition? Not really. it's a clever ploy to get people to eat one between meals. Does it differentiate the product from the competition? Snickers is the only candy bar that uses comedy and some violence to appeal to consumers -- young consumers, to be sure. It is targeting a young market because older people know a vicious blow to Roseanne Barr like that (with the full force of tons of wood) would kill her. It could be redesigned to not be so brutally violent at the end, but the ad company placed this in the Super Bowl so they must believe the appeal will be pretty much across the board. But personally…… [Read More]

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Crime and Violence

Words: 1708 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70633697

Crime and Violence: Cultural Beliefs and Biases

Religion and Stereotyping

Diverse sociocultural customs promote diverse forms of aggression; e.g., the conventional idea that males are authorized, by nature, to discipline or control females renders the latter susceptible to sexual abuse and spousal violence. Societal tolerance towards such hampers external intervention, preventing victims from protesting and seeking support. Sexual abuse reporting is also hampered by the stigma certain cultures attach to victims. Further, the powerful link between violence and drunkenness implies societies' and cultures' alcohol utilization trends and the related impacts also promote and warrant violence. Several nations report alcoholism accounting for sixteen percent of female and twenty-six percent of male DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) loss due to murders. Initiatives challenging socio-cultural customs supporting aggression are normally combined with other strategies (WHO, 2009).

Prior studies have revealed a consistent association between religious participation and positive conduct in society among youngsters. Religious organizations…… [Read More]

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Understanding Violence

Words: 1916 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86996299

Psychosocial Assessment

Identifying Information / Setting

The purpose of this study is to examine Jackson. This client is in his early 40's and works as a professional police officer in a men's correctional facility. Jackson is a veteran and is married to a minority wife. They have a twins, a boy and girl aged 10. This study is based on therapy that is being conducted online.

Reason for Referral

Jackson was referred to me due to issues at his job. The client was involved in a physical dispute with his wife that resulted from an argument over gambling. It is evident that Jackson's wife has serious gambling problem. Jackson's wife called the police during the dispute and this resulted in his police department's standard operating procedure to provide mandatory counseling for 13 weeks. Another result of the dispute, required Jackson to surrender his firearms. In order for client to get…… [Read More]

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Domestic Violence

Words: 439 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59815419

Media Coverage of Trials

Providing in-depth coverage of trials, including pretrial hearings and all events related to a case has become a prime topic for the television media. In the last five years, the television channel "Court TV" has acquired over twenty million viewers (Lassiter, 1996). In addition, a body of research exists demonstrating that pretrial media coverage affects the outcomes of some trials (Bruschke & Loges, 1999). A variety of experts including lawyers, psychologists, and communication experts have all suggested that pretrial publicity, when negative, may influence juries negatively against defendants (Dixon & Linz, 2002) in spite of the fact that under our legal system, a person is considered innocent unless and until proven guilty in a court of law.

But at the same time, one of the most cherish rights given to us in the Constitution is freedom of the press -- the right of the media to…… [Read More]

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How the Media Depicts Violence against Blacks

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28342392

hate crimes against African-Americans. In particular I want to address media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans and how media interprets this phenomenon and in turn depicts it. As media is responsible for shaping much of public opinion (Baum, Potter 39), it is helpful to understand how the public is impacted by media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans through popular news reports, film and television portrayals, books, magazines, music and even scholarly articles. This essay wants to see if different types of media portray hate crimes against African-Americans with more or less sensitivity, with a more or less judgmental approach, with a more or less confrontational/antagonistic tone, and with more or less sympathy and empathy. This may help us to better understand why hate crimes against African-Americans occur.

In order to answer these questions, I will look in particular at films such as Malcolm X by Spike Lee, books…… [Read More]

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The Violence and Anti Social Actions of the Taliban

Words: 1680 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96711920

Psychosocial Assessment

Malala Yousafzai -- A Girl with a Message

Description of Issues and Problems

The psychosocial review of Malala Yousafzai, a girl who was shot in the face while trying to promote education in a region of the world where girls and women were not permitted to do many of the things that boys and men can do, is a fascinating story of resistance to cruelty and resilience in the face of violence. This is Malala's review, but the story should begin not with her life, but with the political and social structure into which she was born -- in the SWAT region of Pakistan (in the town of SWAT). The Taliban, a fundamentalist Sunni version of Islam, was in control of the SWAT region of Pakistan. Their goal was to create a "puritanical caliphate that neither recognizes nor tolerates forms of Islam divergent from their own" (Tristam, 2011).…… [Read More]

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Proposed Story Pitch for TV Program About Low Income Residents

Words: 399 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76343160

Story Pitch: Supporting the Development of Hell's Kitchen

Today, more and more people are acutely conscious of the need to improve the lives of residents of our inner cities. This proposed story will showcase the positive activism surrounding the development of the Hudson Yards Business Improvement District (BID), including the "open space" movement to bring more parks and preserved greenery the neighborhood of Hell's Kitchen so residents can exercise, enjoy time with their children, and experience a respite from the pressures of their lives. At a time when people are growing increasingly cynical about the ability of government to help them, they are crying out to hear a story like this, one which indicates how local residents can make a change. BID is committed to providing district-wide services for community improvement and will extend from West 30th Street to West 42nd Street, from Ninth Avenue to the east side of…… [Read More]

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Social Psychology Analyzing a Major Issue

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78425440

Media Violence

What impact does media violence have on society? How are children affected and how are adolescents affected by violence portrayed in movies, television, video games and in other forms? This paper reviews and critiques peer-reviewed articles that address the subject of media violence from several perspectives -- and takes positions on the arguments and research presented in those scholarly articles.

There is ample empirical research available to back up the assertion that violent video games, movies and television programs have a negative impact on young people. It is the thesis of this paper that ultimately the responsibility for guidance vis-a-vis violent media is not on schools or law enforcement but in fact is on the shoulders of parents.

The Influence of Media Violence on Youth

An article in the Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Anderson, et al., 2003) flatly asserts that there is "…unequivocal evidence that media…… [Read More]

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Media and Aggressive Behavior the

Words: 1156 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37474104

Acceptable forms of behavior need to be modeled and reinforced while unacceptable forms of behavior need not be supported. This all needs to be done before these acts and violent behaviors become imprinted as a part of normal behavior. Individuals are still going through hormonal and physical changes far into their twenties; neuronal connections are also still being developed during this time (Perry 2013). This means that if appropriate behavior isn't being modeled during this essential time period, then the individual does not biologically know what is right and what is wrong. Someone who has been exposed to aggression their entire lives may turn to violent media because it is all that they are familiar with (Rappaport 2004). This familiarity is therefore constantly reinforced by everything that they are exposed to thereafter. Therefore biological factors such as brain development, is another reason why media has a great influence on violent…… [Read More]

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Chip Censorship Vchip Significance

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7676598

Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?

In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the…… [Read More]

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Sociology Speculations on the Causes

Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39233448

The orgy of gratuitous violence continues into adulthood. Viewers and listeners become desensitized to the sufferings of others. Movies and songs teach young people to be selfish and self-centered, and to denigrate and devalue feelings of empathy and compassion. Some people do indeed imitate what they see on television. But the media is not the only model. Parents and guardians provide ethical guidance and moral direction. Nevertheless, not all young people enjoy the benefits of a healthy and wholesome upbringing. Many come from broken homes, and all exist in a society that is increasingly atomized and dysfunctional. The media may help, but it is society itself that urges on individuals toward the commission of violent acts.

Works Cited

Cannon. "The Argument for Eliminating Movie and TV Violence." NEEDS COMPLETE CITATION

Gitlin, Todd. "The Symbolic Crusade Against Media Violence is a Confession of Despair," NEEDS COMPLETE CITATION www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110024270

Nichols, Sharon L.,…… [Read More]

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Video Reviews Social Networking and Kids Http Www youtube com Watch v -80rtgqtgq

Words: 1314 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51716870

Video Reviews

Social Networking and Kids http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-80RTGqTgQ

We live in a world that is immersed in technology. In this context, the rise of social networks and their increased popularity among children, teens and adults is a hot topic today. I have chosen to review a video that describes in detail a social network called Everloop, designed especially for children under 13. The video is an interview with this network's Chief Strategy Officer, who presents the advantages of Everloop, its main features, why it is suitable and attractive for children and how it allows for parental control and supervision.

Children should not be banned from having access to networking utilities. These have almost become indispensable, people of all ages somehow relate to them and therefore being excluded from such environments also excludes them from normal social interaction with their peers. However, one thing is essential: parents need to make sure their…… [Read More]

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Criminology in the UK and How Media Shapes it

Words: 3331 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81605626

Violence

Becker, S, Tinkler, J (2015) 'Me Getting Plastered and Her Provoking My Eyes': Young

People's Attribution of Blame for Sexual Aggression in Public Drinking Spaces, Feminist Criminology, 10(3): 235-258.

This article is about how "unregulated" barroom aggression that is sexual in nature can lead to questions of hostile conflicts that are confused and not very well studied by researchers. So this study examines this environment to better understand what causes this activity. The researchers show that alcohol, gender, and contextual setting affect the way that blame is placed when sexual aggression happens in public barrooms.

This article is helpful because it shows how many different factors play a role in shaping the way that opposite sexes view conflict and sexual aggression in public drinking environments. It shows that alcohol is a big factor in flirting and causing rows and that genders are identifying different actions and reactions to joking…… [Read More]

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Cartoons and Comics Affect Children Media Has

Words: 2136 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11621112

Cartoons and Comics Affect Children

Media has a powerful impact on society. Media alters our buying habits, controls our tastes, incites our feelings against or for one or the other group or country, it is a powerful weapon indeed. Considering this influence of media over our lives psychologists and social scientists have become concerned that violence depicted on our media; TV, videos and videogames is responsible for increased violence among the children and in the society.

A number of studies claim to have conclusive proof that violence in the media and bad habits seen in cartoons and comic are making our children aggressive, fearful and developing a negative attitude towards the society. Other researchers and analyst dispute this theses and point to other factors as a cause of increased violence.

This paper reviews the arguments presented by both sides of this divide and also the writer's on opinion on this…… [Read More]

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Popular Culture Affects Children Today

Words: 2178 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76613011



In fact, it is interesting to note that violent television and video games become more likely to lead to aggression in children as they get older (Krcmar, 1998, p. 251). Factors that cause this include the fact that from new-born to the age of eight, children pay an increasing amount of visual attention to television. This increase levels off at the age of eight. Moreover, as they get older, children appear to grow increasingly likely to identify with television characters. This may be because they become more cognitively sophisticated, and thus can better understand what they are watching. Krcmar (1998, p. 251) notes that these changes may partly explain the fact that as children grow older, the likelihood that viewing violent television will result in increased aggressive behaviours becomes higher. They also become increasingly desensitized to media violence as they age. There seems to be little doubt that exposure to…… [Read More]

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Video Games and the Increase in Adolescence Aggressive Behavior

Words: 3903 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 50897339

exciting about video games is you don't just interact with the game physically -- you're not just moving your hand on a joystick, but you're asked to interact with the game psychologically and emotionally as well. You're not just watching the characters on screen; you're becoming those characters.

Nina Huntemann, Game Over

Violent Video Games: Do they Cause Violent Behavior?

Disasters such as school shootings in Colorado and in other academic institutions have prompted national and international concern over media that children watch and are involved in and the consequent result in their level of aggression (Ferguson, 2007). The majority of studies have focused on the impact of TV in producing aggression and a significant amount of studies have indeed noted an association. Relatively few studies, however, have been conducted on video games and whether or not these stimulate inspired violence. Moreover results are mixed. Ferguson, (2007) conducted a meta-analysis…… [Read More]

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Violent Video Games Is Having

Words: 3258 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34943026

The variables of situational input (like current violent media exposure) affect hostile behavior via the impacts they have on the individual's current interior state, characterized by cognitive, sentimental, and stimulation variables. Hostile media maximizes aggression by instructing the observers the way to be violent, through priming hostile cognitions (as well as formerly learned hostile scripts and hostile perceptual schemes), by escalating provocation, or by making a hostile emotional state. Long-term results are also involving learning processes. From childhood, human beings study how to interpret, perceive, respond and judge events, both in the social and physical environment. Different types of knowledge organization for these tasks are developing with time. They have their basis on daily observations of other people and also the connections with other people. Every episode of violent-media is fundamentally one additional learning trial. When these structures of knowledge are rehearsed and practiced over time, they get more compound,…… [Read More]

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Violent Video Games and Children

Words: 1885 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 641040

In D.A. Gentile (Ed.), Media violence and children. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishing. [the authors of this book contend that learning comes from repetition. The fact that the violent games require violent acts to be played over and over again creates an ideal learning situation. But what the players are learning is antisocial behavior and the idea that violence is a good way to resolve conflict.]

Hockenbury, S.E. & Hockenbury, DH (2003). Psychology, New York: Worth Publishers. [the researchers argue that even a small amount of violent behavior triggered by seeing it in TV or video games is unacceptable for society and that video game violence should be regulated.]

Hough, K.J. & Erwin, P.G. (1997). Children's attitudes toward violence on television. The Journal of Psychology, v.131, July, 411-15. [the researchers asked 316 children, age 11-16, to answer 47 questions. They found that attitudes toward violence were linked to how many hours…… [Read More]

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Values of Media Life in

Words: 1438 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12562314

With the technology available in today's economy, it is probable that education could go back to the days when students received more individualized instruction. There is no refuting that technology will continue to alter education (Cornell, 2007).

Socialization is the development of a sense of being self connected to a larger social world by way of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of one's culture. During socialization people learn to carry out certain roles as citizens, friends, lovers and workers. In the course of internalization our culture becomes second nature. People learn to behave in socially suitable and adequate ways. Some social institutions have precise roles in socializing the young and others have less deliberate but still powerful roles in the process. The mass media is a very influential socializing force. Media affects how people learn about the world and interact with each another. People often base most…… [Read More]

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Technology and the Effect on Dating in the U S

Words: 1803 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21067033

dating in the United States, and how technology has affected dating in the last 50 years. Specifically, it will express the impact of technology over the past 50 years on dating patterns of "young adults" (ages 13-30 depending on the social norm of the decade). Dating has always been a ritual for young adults to find themselves and discover their sexuality while trying out potential long-term mates. Today, dating, and how young people date, has changed considerably due to advances in technology. Technology has changed dating tremendously in the last 50 years, and yet, one thing remains the same. Dating is a young adult ritual that helps prepare them for the relationships of adulthood, and that, no matter what changes on the outside, will continue to be a constant in dating today, and in the future.

Technology and its Affect on Dating in the U.S.

It is not surprising that…… [Read More]

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Video Games Impact Adolescent Aggression

Words: 2961 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38341638

Thee children, when socializing with their friends, invariably mimicked those violent characters they saw in the video games. While concluding, these researchers, pointed out that if children continued to play these kinds of violent and aggressive video games, then it is highly likely that negative and anti-social behavior becomes a norm for them (Nicoll and Kieffer, 2005).

In one study carried out by Williams and Skoric (2005) revealed that gamers who spent an approximately fifty six hours every month playing a special type of game called "Asheron's Call 2" had not been statistically any different from those gamers who did not play any game during the same time period. The results indicated that video games are not linked with adolescent aggressive behavior. This study was considered to be the first of its kind, since it studied a particular game over a month long period.

It is noteworthy here that the…… [Read More]

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Teaching Our Kids to Kill

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13451529



Further extending the application of the stimulus-response model, it can also be argued that weapons such as guns are being heavily associated with numerous components of flight simulators such as killing. Weapons such as guns are associated with the feeling of being able to kill or assault the enemy in the video game. Unfortunately, these interest or passion for weapons is oftentimes also associated with real life weapons. To prove, news of children playing guns or accidentally firing real guns are nothing new today. Just early this year, two-eight-year-old boys uncovered a gun and fired into the playground (see Pierce & Stoltz, 2009).

Statement 5

The fifth statement of this assignment is brief but very meaningful and insightful. It simply says, "Don't just stand there…do something."

I have learned that to some extent the issue of media violence and children exposure to them has become mundane to most of us.…… [Read More]

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Pop Culture in Dangerous Attitude and Trend

Words: 1792 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59469493

Pop Culture

The most important development in a child is his individual identity. While children are shaping their attitude and identities, most of the times they tend to imitate their ideals and personalities for inspiration. The youth relates to a specific individual or a personality as their role model due to a certain quality or skill that they posses. It is not necessary that the child should look / dress or copy all the qualities of his hero, they can just select the attributes which suit them best and the ones they can relate, hence applying those skills or attributes to themselves. For example, the Supreme Court judge Ruth Bader Ginsberg may not have a direct influence on girls and women to become lawyers and subsequently judges, but her being there makes other female believe that it's a possibility too (Gibson & Cordova, 1999).

This is the ongoing pop culture,…… [Read More]

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Media Consumption

Words: 4745 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73159402

media consumption and subsequent behaviour?

Profiling the criminal behavior of rampage perpetrators is one of the main areas of focus in the social science research community. Gender, mental health issues, social exclusion, genetic susceptibility or predisposition, and ultimately, violent media, are most of the factors that guide researchers in the field, seeking to develop broader frameworks of understanding rampage violence. Over the past three decades, 78 cases of public mass shootings have been registered by the Congressional Research Service (2013). An FBI report indicated a rise in typical mass shootings, from 6.4 incidents occurring between 2000 and 2007 to an average of 16.4 incidents between 2007 and 2013 (2013). Most of these public mass shootings have been found to occur either at workplaces or at schools across the United States.

The proliferation of mass shootings over these past few decades has further brought into the public and academic's attention the…… [Read More]

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Zero Tolerance Policies in Public Schools

Words: 5978 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28363637

Education:

The Intolerance of Zero Tolerance

Zero Tolerance Policies in Public Schools

One has only to turn on the television, log onto the Internet, or glance at a newspaper to see that violence is everywhere in our society. The nightly news is dominated by one act of depravity after another: murders, rapes, and violent assaults, among others. Hate crimes send shockwaves through seemingly peaceful communities. A cross is burned in a field, a Jewish cemetery is ransacked, the tombstones broken and covered with swastikas, a gay college student is crucified on a fence, left to die by his homophobic classmates, and a Black man is dragged behind a speeding car. Such horrific incidents seem almost commonplace. Mutual intolerance of one group for another breeds hatred and cruelty. People today appear quick to anger and even quicker to react...violently. Stabbings and shootings and bloody assaults are as frequent as fights on…… [Read More]

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Chip the Growing Instances of

Words: 1768 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83438702



In conclusion, many studies have shown the harm caused by the exposure of young children and minors to violence on television. Until now, however, regulating programming has been difficult. Television manufacturers were unwilling to voluntarily comply with technology requirements, while television networks failed to practice self-regulation. Furthermore, attempts to require a ratings system have consistently been challenged based on the First Amendment.

By placing control of viewing in the hands of parents and private citizens, V chip legislation effectively limits a child's access to harmful programming without violating any constitutional rights or civil liberties. The V chip is therefore a step in the right direction in the fight against violence on television.

Works Cited

Center for Communication and Social Policy, University of California, 1998. National Television Violence Study, III. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hogan, Marjorie, Miriam Bar-on, Lillian Beard, Suzanne Corrigan et al. 1999. "Media Education." Pediatrics, 104(2). April.…… [Read More]

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Cartoons Then and Now and

Words: 2930 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81416637

( Enderson) Nathanson and Cantor (2000) concur with this assessment and also make the important point that "…the negative consequences of violence to victims are seldom shown on television" (Nathanson & Cantor, 2000, p. 125) This study refers to the way that older cartoons tended to diminish the consequences and results of extreme violence. "Many children's programs-especially the so-called classic cartoons (e.g., "Bugs Bunny," "Woody Woodpecker")-present violence in a humorous fashion that minimizes the pain and suffering of victims" (Nathanson & Cantor, 2000, p. 125). Children therefore 'learn' that violence is funny and has little actual effect on the victims (Nathanson & Cantor, 2000, p. 125).

The literature on crime and cartoons also emphasizes that one should take into about other variables and factors besides cartoons when evaluating the causes of criminal predispositions and behavior patterns. For example, factors such as violent television programs, violent video games, biological predisposition, and…… [Read More]

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Political Social or Cultural Issue That Has Impacted Society

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55176926

Political, Social, Or Cultural Issue That Has Impacted the Society

In this essay, I will focus on the issue of violence on television and argue how it has impacted the society. I believe that over the years, television programs have become more violent. The research indicate that the children who watch less TV are less bothered by violence and the children, who watch more violent program in general become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others, turn into more fearful of the others, behave aggressively toward other people, decrease cooperation with others, and undermine the human and social values. The impact of TV violence may be evident immediately in a child's behavior or may emerge years later.

Research also states that sixty percent of the content of TV programs is filled with violent scenes. Such programs often portray violence with success. According to Neifert (1995) the problem of…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Crime Rise in Juvenile Crime This

Words: 3358 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57254062

Juvenile Crime

RISE IN JUVENILE CRIME

This paper is about the rise of juvenile crime. It reveals the factors responsible for the high rise in crime and steps on how we can curb it. Juvenile crime is a major problem for people nowadays. Young children have resorted to acts of brutality and violence. It is hard to believe that young children can be responsible for acts of rape, assault, robbery and homicide. The rates of juvenile crimes have been fluctuating throughout the years. The U.S. Government hasn't done much to counter this problem. This paper shows the major factors behind juvenile crimes. It also shows practical and mature ways of countering this problem without being too harsh.

What is Juvenile Delinquency

What is classified as juvenile delinquency? The U.S. Code states that it is a violation of the law if a person under the age of 18 commits a crime.…… [Read More]

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Teens and the Media One

Words: 4544 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39988476

The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).

Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…… [Read More]

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Kids Who Kill the Growing

Words: 3413 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87599756



Lowenstein)

These children also might see their own feelings of a wish to do physical harm toward another reflected in the feelings of others, the psychological term known as projection, and may be afraid or paranoid of others intentions.

Sometimes the criminal act of murder is an extension of previous anti-social acts of less serious forms of delinquency and criminality and children merely graduate to more extended and more violent and extreme forms of behaviour in the form of murder.

Lowenstein)

Anti-social behavior is rare but is often a trigger for the child, he or she does not have a clear sense of self or a clear sense of the pain he or she inflicts with his or her actions toward another. They are partly or completely disassociated from the emotionally charged elements of violence. They do not have fear, and as Lownstein states they do not often experience guilt.…… [Read More]

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Empathy Change if Any With

Words: 1522 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32142348



Conclusion

This proposal is for a study that will determine what, if any empathy changes take place with regard to war, after viewers watch a movie about the realities of war. It will not provide answers about the possible desensitization of feelings, if the participants were to be exposed to the movie many times, as has been proven happens in television violence exposure. The weakness of this study will include the inability to know if a different movie would provide a different impact and if the geographic and regional area that all participants are drawn from have an impact on the results.

References

Cesarone, Bernard (1998) Television violence and children. Childhood Education

Erwin, Philip G. (1997) Children's attitudes toward violence on television. The Journal of Psychology

Jamil, Hikmet Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C. (2004) the aftermath of the Gulf War:. mental health issues among Iraqi Gulf War veteran refugees in the United…… [Read More]

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Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying Interventions

Words: 3826 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64816944

Creating Effective Interventions to Reduce or Eliminate Cyberbullying

Unit 1 MBA 5652, Research Methods

David E. Couch Jr.

The proposed research study explores the perceptions of secondary students with regard to cyberbullying interventions. The hypothesis of the study is that students' perceptions of cyberbullying will be influenced by the instructional and curricular intervention as measured by increased empathy and willingness to report or intervene when they learn about or witness cyberbullying. The research findings will be of interest to educators and parents, and it will add to the literature on interventions for cyberbullying.

Key terms: cyberbullying, bullying, interventions, student perceptions

Creating Effective Interventions to Reduce or Eliminate Cyberbullying

Introduction

Cyberbullying is something new to the youth of the modern world today. In years past, bullying was something that happened within school contexts and at events that students attended where other students their age. In the contemporary high tech world, it…… [Read More]

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Dr Bandura Is the Classic

Words: 1357 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 77157523

Violence is not just programmed and imitated, it is also chosen and controlled by the participant in a complex continuum of stimulus, response and participant interaction via other factors (Hoffman, 2007, 9).

Abstract

In an article by Stefan G. Hofmann entitled Cognitive Factors that Maintain Social Anxiety Disorder, it discusses the effects of social cognitive theory on social anxiety disorder (SAD). Recent studies have identified multiple psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the disorder. The model that is constructed in the article makes the assumption that social apprehension is to be associated with unrealistic social standards. This also includes a deficiency in the selection of attainable social goals. When a person is confronted with challenging social situations, people with SAD shift their attention toward the anxiety. They view themselves negatively as a social object. In addition, they overestimate the negative consequences of a social encounter, believing that they…… [Read More]

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Social Factors Social Influences on

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79720058



This may explain why the Internet also has been shown an addictive capacity to focus viewer's attention for extended period of time even to the point of ignoring the user's other needs (Block 2008, p.308). Contrary to expectations an 'eye-tracking' research study found online readers read 77% of available content while broadsheet newspaper readers read an average of 62%, and tabloid readers about 57% (Goldsmith 2007). Online readers were less methodical in their approach to text, but although their eye jumped around more than their print counterparts, their less 'linear' approach to absorbing content heightened awareness and retention (Goldsmith 2007). This suggests that what we absorb online may make a viscerally strong impression, for good or for ill. Even students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder who have trouble with routine tasks of daily life show focused attention when confronted with many video games and computer applications, because, researchers believe, that…… [Read More]