Theorists Essays (Examples)



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Describing How a Selected Learning Theory Impacts Curriculum Design

Words: 1786 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89200484

Learning theories play a large role in the cultivation of curriculum within the realm of education. The purpose of this discussion is to describe how a selected learning theory influences curriculum. For the purposes of this discussion, we will focus on Social learning theory. Our research will contain a discussion of the learning theory, a description of how it affects curriculum design, and thoughts on the use of the theory in the 21st century schools.

Discussion of Social Learning Theory

There are many different learning theories that exist and are used to shape what students learn in the classroom. According to an article in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, social learning theory asserts, "behaviors modeled by others may be imitated in other relationships. Specifically, behaviors of higher status individuals are more likely to be imitated by individuals of lower status (Reese-Weber, 2000)." In other words, this theory asserts that…… [Read More]

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Psychological Learning Theories There Are

Words: 1412 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98009598

Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.

Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.

With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…… [Read More]

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Suppression and Conflict Resolution the Issue of

Words: 1467 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38037510

Suppression and Conflict Resolution

The issue of conflict resolution is a topic that is a predominant aspect of our contemporary world. Conflict has become endemic and there are numerous wars and other forms of conflict of varying degrees and intensities taking place throughout the world. The processes and techniques of conflict resolution are therefore becoming increasingly important in dealing with these conflicts.

Conflict resolution includes a wide range of techniques as well as theoretical and practical procedures. Suppression, recognized as one of these techniques, is sometimes applied in extreme forms of conflict. While some argue that suppression is a legitimate resolution technique, others point out that the very definition of suppression is counter and antithetical to the conflict and spirit of conflict resolution.

Suppression as a conflict resolution technique is not an adequate resolution procedure for the following reasons. Firstly, by definition, it suppresses or denies the causes of conflict…… [Read More]

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Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein Is Particularly Interesting Because

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91565635


Ludwig Wittgenstein is particularly interesting because in Philosophical Investigations (PI) he repudiated all of his earlier work in logical positivism and the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP), along with much of what was traditionally thought of as philosophy, and took a radically new track in the last twenty years of his life. Young Wittgenstein was more certain that he had solved all major philosophical problems, while the older Wittgenstein had completely lost all such certainties. There were even hints in his earlier work of this later, more explicit existential despair, pessimism and even cynicism about the limits of philosophy, which certainly became more profound over the years. He was no longer able to view the world as consisting of facts that were logical representations of objects that really existed or at least had the potential to exist. Thoughts and ideas formed pictures that were models of reality, while everything outside of…… [Read More]

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Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli

Words: 1466 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88271345


Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince is one of the most controversial yet enduring political manifestos regarding the differing types of military affairs, principalities, and qualities of a great leader. The Prince has been referenced by academics, directors of corporations, and politicians for centuries, as it provides general, historically proven advice for principalities and republics on how to govern and maintain relations with their most important resource and the essential core of their power, i.e., individual citizens.

This paper is an ethical analysis of The Prince using the tobacco companies as an example. In Part I, the most critical, repulsive, and useful points of Machiavelli's The Prince will be analyzed and discussed. Part II examines the Machiavellian techniques the tobacco companies have employed in their business and reviews the effectiveness of such techniques. In Part III, the stakeholders the tobacco companies chose to placate or satisfy are discussed as…… [Read More]

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Work Skills and Deskilling

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96886665


Skills and Deskilling

The idea of scientific management in the business world is an attempt to apply the methods of science to the increasingly complex problems of the control of labor in rapidly growing capitalist enterprises (Braverman, 2005, p. 59). According to Grint (1998, p. 176), the notion of mixing human labor with raw materials is a concern that Marx had about the labor process itself being an adaptation in relation to the needs of capital. Two theorists that have contributed greatly to this field are Frederick Winslow Taylor and Harry Braverman.

Braverman believed that the dynamic and immanent process of deskilling and degradation underlay the progression towards monopoly capitalism (Grint, 1998, p. 177).

Changes in the demand for skills are the consequence of changes either in the necessities associated with individual jobs or in the division of employment across jobs that have dissimilar skill requirements (Cappelli, 1993, p.…… [Read More]

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Incest Taboo Found in Every

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82477136

Moreover, in the war on drugs, the criminality associated with specific drugs is not necessarily linked to the physical threat to health posed by that drug, but by the socioeconomic groups that are more highly associated with those drugs. For example, crack cocaine offenses are subject to greater punishments than powder cocaine offenses, despite there being no logical distinction between the two different types of drugs. However, powder cocaine is more expensive and is considered an affluent drug, while crack cocaine is considered a lower-class drug. The war on drugs is deviant because it punishes some people for addiction, while there is no punishment for tobacco or alcohol addicts.

6. Does the death penalty serve as a deterrent to crime? If so, why are crime rates still so high in the U.S.

The death penalty, as applied in the United States, does not serve as a deterrent to crime. The…… [Read More]

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Has

Words: 9747 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 85462278

, 2010). This point is also made by Yehuda, Flory, Pratchett, Buxbaum, Ising and Holsboer (2010), who report that early life stress can also increase the risk of developing PTSD and there may even be a genetic component involved that predisposes some people to developing PTSD.

Studies of Vietnam combat veterans have shown that the type of exposure variables that were encountered (i.e., severe personal injury, perceived life threat, longer duration, intensity, complexity and exposure to the suffering of others), can adversely affect the symptomological course of the condition, meaning that the type of trauma that is experienced is also a risk factor in the development of PTSD (Cockram et al., 2010). Studies have also shown, though, that post-trauma factors such as stress management skills and social support systems can help to mitigate the development of PTSD as well as help facilitate recovery from the condition (Cockram et al., 2010).…… [Read More]

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Language Teaching and Learning Methods

Words: 3071 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98946947

Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.

In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…… [Read More]

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Human Nature How Do They

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37655691

Similarly, a married man, though he has a wife, can feel a sense of lack sexually. This sense of lack can lead him to rape a female subordinate at work.

Describe the core behavioral characteristics of the criminal psychopath. Name and describe any five instruments used to measure psychopathy. What is the difference between criminal psychopathy and mental disorder?

a. The core characteristics of the criminal psychopath are a lack of empathy, egocentricity, lack of shame or remorse, and tendency for lying and manipulation

b. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is a psycho-diagnostic tool used in tandem with the broader PCL-R inventory to measure a person's psychopathic profile.

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory is a self-report survey used to comprehensively index personality traits without explicitly referring to anti-social or criminal behaviors themselves.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures various components of person's personality with a self-report inventory. Each component is measured by…… [Read More]

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Psychology Take-Home Alan Alan's Quote Clearly Illustrates

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22326837

Psychology take-Home


Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.

Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…… [Read More]

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Anderson M Z Croteau J M Chung Y B &

Words: 2725 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 22373732

Anderson, M.Z., Croteau, J.M., Chung, Y.B., & DiStefano, T.M. (2001). Developing an assessment of sexual identity management for lesbian and gay workers. Journal of Career Assessment, 9(1), 243 -- 260.

As a sexual orientation is complex and multi-dimensional, some academics and researchers specialized in these studies, claim that this is a social and historical construct. In 1976 the historian Michel Foucault argued that homosexuality is not intended as an identity existed in the eighteenth century, people then spoke of "sodomy," referring to the mere act of sex. Sodomy was a crime that was often ignored but sometimes severely punished. The term homosexual is often used by European and American cultures to envelop the entire social identity of a person, including themselves and their personality.

The above reading implies that sexual orientation is an integral part of one's personality and may vary from person to person. According to the article, sexual…… [Read More]

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Is American Power Declining Are China and India the New World Superpowers

Words: 1938 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1936632

American Empire

Is There Room at the Top?

The question as to whether the United States is currently and will remain a superpower is the topic of much scholarly debate and in the general population around the dinner table. The follow up question to that, of course is, is there room at the top for another superpower, and if so which country or countries will rise to the occasion? Is America really finished as the world's superpower? There are respected intellectual, members of the elite media core, think tank theorists, and many in society at large that seem to think so. In many newspapers, magazines, and on reputable news programs around the world, learner authors announce the end of the American era and advise that the rise of China and India, the resurgence of Putin's Russia, and the noted expansion of the European Union signifies a significant and profound shit…… [Read More]

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Philosophy and Psychology of the Mind and

Words: 2274 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72047580

Philosophy and Psychology of the Mind and Body

Throughout human history, philosophers, doctors, and most recently, psychologists, have attempted to understand the relationship between the mind and body and how it results in human beings' awareness and perception of reality. At least since the golden age of Greek philosophy, thinkers have been aware of an ostensible distinction between the mind and body, a distinction that nonetheless allows for some intermingling such that physical issues affect the mental state just as mental issues may result in physical symptoms. Thus, if one desires to truly understand how contemporary Western psychologists and philosophers consider the nature of consciousness via the interaction between mind and body, one must trace the history of these concepts starting with the Greek philosophers, moving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and on to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when psychology first began to develop as a formal…… [Read More]

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English Class Topic- When Neil Armstrong Uttered

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49152405

english class. Topic- When Neil Armstrong uttered famous line,"s small step a men, giant leap mankind," referring "giant leap" mass deception? Did American astronauts make moon 1969, entire tale a mere slice blue cheese? Choose a position For Against authenticity moon landings.

Moon landings -- a hoax?

There is much controversy regarding moon landings, as even though most of the general public considers that people have actually landed on the moon, a series of individuals are skeptic regarding the topic. According to NASA and to the American Government, there have been a total of six manned landings on the moon. There are a series of factors that have come to be discussed over time concerning how man has never landed on the moon and how the whole matter was a hoax meant to boost the U.S.' image as leader of the world. Some people trust that technology has made it…… [Read More]

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Maturation and Why Is Piaget's Theory a

Words: 1726 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14338054

maturation, and why is Piaget's theory a good example of a maturational theory of children's cognitive development?"

Maturation is the way an infant gets to learn to become a proper individual by various maneuvers all through the early stages in life. The term maturation has different connotations in the theory of development if viewed from different angles. There are many theories of development that have links or are a part of the theory of maturation. The theories that try to explain the cognitive development are the behavioral theory propounded by Skinner which says that learning is a result of the environment. By creating a better environment, learning can be directed and shaped. Children introduced to a better environment learn to give better responses and the behavior theory seem to work where special education is required. Freud and Eriksson believed that children came with drives that had to be channeled in…… [Read More]

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Human Development Erikson's Eight Stages of Man

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74212699

Human Development

Erikson's "Eight Stages of Man"

Erik Erikson was a student of Sigmund Freud's who developed a theory of personality development. According to Erikson, there are eight psychosocial stages in which the individual faces a crisis or developmental task (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). If the individual successfully completes the developmental task, there is a positive outcome; if not, there is a negative outcome. The first stage, which is called trust vs. mistrust, occurs from birth to age 1 year. During this stage as a result of sensitive caregiving, the child develops a sense that the world is a safe and reliable place. The positive outcome of this stage is hope, while the negative outcomes are fear and mistrust of others. The second stage is autonomy vs. shame and doubt, which occurs from age 1 to 3. During this stage, the child uses his new mental and motor skills to…… [Read More]

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Theories Core Concepts Can Be Defined as

Words: 1923 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30255508


Core concepts can be defined as the main components of any theory on which the theory can be formulated or a model can be designed. There are certain concepts which help in the development of nursing theories. There are theories and models developed by different theorists but all of them have same core concepts. The aim of this assignment is to identify a core concept that is common to two or more contemporary nursing theories. Further we have compared and analyzed the concept definitions among the selected theories. After that, we have chosen one theory and discussed where and how it may be best applied to nursing practice. The core concept selected for the purpose of this assignment is obesity while the nursing models selected are Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory and Pender's Health Promotion Model.

Core Concept

Obesity in adults is one of the most serious problems of…… [Read More]

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Human Resource Management -- Employee Performance Human

Words: 2186 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56567523

Human Resource Management -- Employee Performance

Human resource management (HRM) has developed into a crucial component of the contemporary business organization and the professional business environment (Fyock, 2001; George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). Today, formal approaches, practices, and procedures dominate employee recruiting, hiring, training, supervision, appraisal, and advancement and only the smallest organizations still perform those functions in the informal ad-hoc manner that used to be common throughout workplace environments. Especially in difficult economic periods and perpetually within industries with characteristically narrow profit margins or intense competition among organizations, HRM functions can represent substantial cost savings and added value where they are administrated efficiently, or they can be the source of significant unnecessary costs and undermine competitive advantage (Fyock, 2001; George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009).

Within modern HRM component functions, employee performance appraisal has emerged as a crucial area, largely because it is often…… [Read More]

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Enterprise Info the Post Modern Era Has

Words: 1419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2295132

Enterprise Info

The post modern era has seen drastic improvements and rapid developments in the field of Information Technology. As a result of this rapid development of Information Technology and the increasing rate of Globalization and faster communication methods, business practices in the corporate world have evolved to a significant degree, and are consistently in the process of information. Only a few decades ago, corporate houses were oblivion to terms such as Management Information Systems, Organizational Information Management. Today, effective management of information systems within an organization and efficient incorporation of Information Technology is an integral part of any business strategy and have also become a center of attention for many researchers. It all started from telephones, telex and facsimile and today it has reached the level of video conferencing and hand held tablets.

Enterprise Architecture

The concept of Enterprise Architecture is a relatively new one and is still in…… [Read More]

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Government and Its Role and

Words: 1157 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45219640

In this case, individuals are entitled to produce goods and services to meet their human need instead of private profit (Wolff, 2012).

Prevention for Power and Privileges under Social Contract:

While social contract provides power and privileges to all members of the society, ordinary people are usually prevented from executing the power and privilege that they are entitled to through various ways. Some of these ways include the state's legitimacy claims and excess governmental control that interfere with certain rights of ordinary people. Through its claims of legitimate authority, a state enacts regulations that citizens must obey despite of their danger of disobeying.

The claims to legitimate authority are mainly based on the fact that governments are elected by the people they rule and act as people's voice. The claims to legitimate authority by states result in governmental control, which is the other way with which ordinary people are prevented…… [Read More]

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Organizational Change and Development the

Words: 2653 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2367003

Exploring the complex web of meaning and interpretation attached to concepts like nostalgia would illuminate aspects of resistance in ways that current rationality-based theories do not. Greater attention to affect, identity, symbolism, aesthetics, and related subjects would provide a useful balance to change and innovation research. It is important to acknowledge the many sides of human beings and consider how they may figure in starting, sustaining, and resisting change.

We shall now propose a process model for understanding institutional change at the organizational field level of analysis. This process model consists of five overlapping stages of institutional change: (1) pressures for change; (2) the sources of new practices from institutional entrepreneurs; (3) the processes of deinstitutionalization and reinstitutionalization; (4) the dynamics of deinstitutionalization and re- institutionalization; and (5) reinstitutionalization and stability. We see this process model as useful for integrating much of the literature on institutional change. While this literature…… [Read More]

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Lifespan Development Britney Spears Many

Words: 6197 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98696323

Of course, Spears is still very young, and may face numerous future changes. However, at this time, she appears to have found some stability.


While Spears spent much of her early life in the public spotlight, it is actually difficult to assess her early cognitive development. This should come as no surprise when one looks at various theories of cognitive development. For example, Piaget discusses cognitive development, but all of his significant stages occur prior to the time that Spears became a public figure, and, therefore, prior to the time that biographers have reliable information about her development. However, Piaget's conclusions "that cognitive development is the product of complex interactions between the maturation of the nervous system and that of language, and that this maturation depends on children's social and physical interactions with the world around them" allow the observer to draw conclusions about Spears' early life without having…… [Read More]

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Control Mechanisms

Words: 3190 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70762988

Control Mechanism: Advance Financial Management

Real corporate governance and financial control comprise of the utilization of monitoring and inducement mechanisms to bring into line different interests that are between managers and shareholders and urge the creation of shareholder value. Monitoring is not just a simple mistake, nor a conventional control, but founded on the control monitor. The United States, World, Com Enron, Lam Tin, China's Guangxia, came from magnificence into ashes, weak in-house financial control is one vital reason. ' Theoretically, China's accounting auditing and profession it seems that there is management and disrepairs the worth controlled by, or would like to state control of mistake to evade such a propensity of thinking' (CAI Chun 2001). It is this propensity exists, that makes surveillance and controls the activities that are within the company fundamentally stop at the levels of supervision, fail to have control of the height.

Company's in-house financial…… [Read More]

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Institutions Are Defined as the Existence of

Words: 2301 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63059807

Institutions are defined as the existence of formal rules, on the one hand, and informal conventions and norms (such as impolitic societal rules that constrain behavior and impose forms of conduct) on the other. A system of enforcement structures are set in place to ensure that society abides to both and the strength of that enforcement system generally determines the extent to which individuals of a particular society will abide by its rules and conventions.

Enforcement may be carried out by various means depending on the specific set of situations. It may be carried out by self-enforcement (such as when one imposes upon oneself dietary restrictions of eating in order to lose weight). Enforcement may also be carried out by a second party as retaliation (as, for instance, another refusing to cordially greet the other is impolitely dealt with). Thirdly, and most strongly linked to maintenance and support of institutions,…… [Read More]

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Business Cycle the Idea of the Business

Words: 1515 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42903355

Business Cycle

The idea of the business cycle goes back at least to Marx' description of capitalisms booms and busts in Das Kapital, and has been described in more detail by modern writers starting in the 1940s. Business cycles -- which do not occur at any sort of regular interval -- are generally understood in terms of when the direction of the economy changes (Romer, 2008). As Brad DeLong (2010) describes, Marx noted that business cycles occur when there is an overaccumulation of capital and overproduction of goods. In order to restore balance to the overheated economy, a crisis must follow. This crisis will create the depreciation of the value of assets. Marx further described what would happen to employment (it would go down). Real capital is destroyed, which means the equipment and factories must cease production, workers must be made unemployed and capital will inevitably sit on the sidelines…… [Read More]

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Sociocognitive Metaphors Constraints on Sociocognitive

Words: 2341 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81744552

Infants that are securely attached, then, expect their figures of attachment to be readily available and are quickly and easily comforted if upset. Conversely, those infants that are not securely attached do not share this level of expectation. Among adults, secure attachments provide a base for caregiving and compassion (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2005).


What then causes individuals to describe his or her reality in terms of noncommensurate physical qualities like cleanliness, verticality, weight or temperature? Landau et al. (2010) have provided a convincing argument that these kinds of sociocognitive metaphors are reflective of general basic processes that allow individuals to make the world make sense. However, when looking from the contextual framework of grounded cognition, the psychological importance of sociocognitive metaphors exceeds mental representation and even language. There are some sociocognitive metaphors that seem to provide greater universality that finds its foundation in bodily constraints and schemas that are…… [Read More]

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Adult Education Theories

Words: 3103 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30481466

Education - Theory

Adult Education Theories

Adult educations philosophies are fashioned in order to scope and characterize the process of individual educators. Teaching adults is way more sophisticated than teaching children due to a difference in life contexts. Consequently, adult education philosophies are essential in terms of directing and assisting both adult learners and educators. It conceptualizes and clarifies adult's behaviors and thoughts when they are in the learning environment. Adult learners learn based on their life circumstances and the change of awareness or viewpoint. Adult education philosophy is one of the good ways to recognize the best methods of teaching adult learners. Educators are divided into a variety of types of characteristics based on their viewpoint of adult education (Galbraith, 2004).

Adults learn better in a non-aggressive environment where they can work together with others and where they are in control of their learning course. They are more motivated…… [Read More]

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Human Development

Words: 1594 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63871949

Life Period

I have chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which too many conflicting and ambiguous statements are brought to bear. This may be due to the fact that the middle years contains too little regularity and too much diversity therefore many of the models that I have seen differ too in the age range given to the mid life years. To elaborate: Whilst most models define midlife as beginning at 40 and ending at 60, a ten-year range exists at either end with some theorists actually considering midlife as beginning at 30 and ending at 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, magnified by socio-historical and geographical elements, people are bound to indicate differences in their mid -- life period. It is for this reason possibly that Erickson's findings sound so quaint to many western ears,…… [Read More]

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Anomie Strain Theory and Race Introduction

Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72830131

e. money and tangible acquisitions) but in unconventional, deviant, or criminal ways (Schmalleger, 2009).

The other significant finding of the empirical literature is that racism also relates to Strain Theory in that social ostracism and oppression are noxious stimuli that contribute to the strain experienced by individuals (Agnew, 1992; Broidy, 2001). In that regard members of racial minority communities who are mistreated and subjected to negative messages from the predominant social groups typically identify less with the norms, values, and expectations of the predominant society. Alternatively, they may still seek the same goals promoted by the predominant society but resort to deviant and criminal methods to achieve them, partly as a result of perceived necessity and partly as a manifestation of resentment and hostility over the injustice inherent in racism and in the oppression of racial minority groups (Macionis, 2007).

Racism also contributes to Anomie and strain perceived by the…… [Read More]

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Importance of Setting Boundaries for Children

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64032101

Boundaries for Children

Rules and norms are an expected way of social living. They are predictable and part of our lives, and, therefore, we rarely stop to question their roots. We accept them as part of our routine, as demonstrative of our progressiveness as a nation, and are comfortable in their security. When children don't have boundaries, their lives take a much different turn than parents ever plan. Even if parents don't start out setting boundaries for children, it is never too late to start. The older the child the harder it gets, but the importance of setting boundaries never declines. Setting boundaries for children is important for all who come into contact with them from educators to child care givers to parents, of course, themselves.

Whilst some parents inculcate parenting styles from their own parents, either deliberately, in which intent they may seek to transmit inculcated patterns, or, at…… [Read More]

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Behaviorism History Development and Current

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76771147

Skinner also proposed a full social model of an ideal society based on his principles of behaviorism.

The growth of cognitive psychology (aided in no small part by advances in neuroscience and medicine) has served to both discredit many behaviorist claims and to bolster the theory in the eyes of some through an incorporation of cognitive theories (Graham 2010; Mills 1998). Focusing explicitly on how the mind processes, stores, and retrieves information -- exactly the kind of "mental states" rejected by early behaviorists -- cognitive psychology at first seemed directly opposed to behaviorism (Graham 2010). There has actually been an incorporation of the two theories by some, however, where cognitive processes join other influences on behavior (Mills 1998).

In modern applications of behavioral theory, certain philosophical elements and conclusions have become especially important. In one emerging view of behaviorism, the concept of a teleological view is increasing important, and a…… [Read More]

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Technology Has Evolved a Great

Words: 13130 Length: 43 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 42093143

Again, Mc Donald's has managed to deal with competitive threats posed by both these market players due to the fact that the prices that Burger King, Starbucks and Costa Coffee charge are much higher than that charged by Mc Donald's. The primary reason behind higher prices of Costa Coffee and Starbucks is the fact that their target market is much stronger and niche as compared to that of Mc Donald's. The recent economic crunch however, has benefitted Mc Donald's as many people who prefer sophisticated ambience, due to their lower purchasing power and increased inflationary pressures now prefer Mc Donald's over the likes of Starbucks and Costa Coffee. As a result, Mc Donald's is the strongest market player in the Global region today.

Mc Donald's target market includes all the people who travel for leisure and/or business purposes and prefer to have a luxurious accommodation. The cafe provides best possible…… [Read More]

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Beast in the Jungle by

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69018493

Even in Sedgwick's iconoclastic, homoerotic reading, however, it is possible to argue that the moral of The Beast in the Jungle is the same: living in fear of disaster leads to a life without love, whether life is spent separating one's self from others because of fear of losing them, or fear of social censure. The story takes the form of a psychological narrative more than a conventional marriage plot: since it is about a man opting out of conventional social norms, rather than engaging in them. It features Marcher deciding to ignore May's obliquely expressed interest, a few dinners enjoyed by the two of them, and then her eventual demise. Marcher's "imaginative concrete image" of the beast, a metaphor made real, is the most dramatic aspect of the novel (Gottschalk 43).

While it is possible to use the still-unknown reasons for James' unmarried existence to interpret The Beast in…… [Read More]

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International Conflict Analysis Nations Have

Words: 3628 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3926225

The correlation between cooperative initiation and receptive tendencies, however, is much weaker" (p. 32).

The overriding theme that emerges from all of the foregoing analytical models is the fact that although international conflicts and be effectively modeled and deconstructed in order to gain a better understanding of the precipitating factors and how they play out in real-world settings, they do not necessarily provide the insights needed to develop resolutions to these conflicts nor do they provide preemptive alternatives that could stop the conflict from starting in the first place. Indeed, epidemiologists use comparable techniques to understanding how disease processes evolve and spread throughout a human population, but different techniques are required to develop corresponding cures and treatments for their diseases. Similarly, the analysis of international conflicts that is needed to help decision-makers identify viable solutions will require an additional and supplemental type of analytical methodology.

Given the potential for death…… [Read More]

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Women's Spirituality and Women's Experience at Midlife

Words: 800 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 40317367

Gleanings: Readings at the Intersection of Culture and Faith

Women, Midlife, and Leadership.

In Gleanings: Readings at the Intersection of Culture and Faith, Catherine Wallace suggests that several factors in contemporary society combine to make midlife a pivotal period in the lives of women today, much more so than in previous generations. First, Wallace points out that increases in human health and life expectancy in the last century have added so much time to the average life span that it amounts to the equivalent of an entire second adulthood. For example, she recalls her thoughts at her son's college graduation that she is thirty years older than her son but that much younger than her mother, who is herself, active and vibrant in her eighties.

Second, Wallace argues that simultaneous social changes in the way that women are perceived and in the rights and norms that typically shape their adult…… [Read More]

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Family Violence as a Criminal

Words: 2039 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3224324

One could turn out to be a lawyer defending individuals caught up being under these situations, while the other could end up in prison for committing the same violent crimes against their family that they saw while growing up. It is this resilience in one, but influence in the other, that makes this theory the most interesting one of all, while at the same time, making it the most debatable.

Just as a criminal learns from observing and from experiencing the bad behavior how to participate and metabolize that bad deviant behavior, this same theory could be used as rehabilitation methods. The best part of this theory is that it emphasizes learning as the main component for the development of criminal cognitive behavior, especially when it comes to family violence (Piquero et al. 2006). Learning how to be violent in one's family setting could just as easily be reversed if…… [Read More]

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Carl Rogers Theory of Personality

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14289883

Carl Rogers Theory of Personality

Introduction to the Personality Theory of Carl Rogers

Twentieth Century psychologists Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a founder of the Humanistic approach to human psychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). His theories were derivative of earlier phenomenological theorists and were predicated largely on the proposition that the natural state of every individual is to seek continual, life-long psychological development. However, whereas other schools of psychology defined the process of psychological growth in terms of chronological stages of development, Rogers suggested principles of self-actualization that were not linked directly to chronological age in the manner of some of his contemporaries in other schools of psychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; McWilliams, 2004).

Two of the most important elements of Rogers' contribution to the field of client-centered psychology are his nineteen fundamental propositions through which he defined the progressive psychological development of the individuals and his list of seven behavioral…… [Read More]

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Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Model of Nursing Care Theory

Words: 1739 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99679628

Dorothea Orem and her Self-Care Model of Nursing Theory

Born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1914, Dorothea Orem went on to become a much-revered nursing leader in the United States, innovating, developing and teaching her self-care model up until her death in 2007. Her self-care model is in great use today and is the subject of this paper. Orem received her nursing diploma in 1939 (from Providence Hospital) and in 1945 she received her M.S. In nursing education from Catholic University of America (Sitzman, et al., 2010, p. 93). During her career, Orem worked as a staff nurse, a private duty nurse, a faculty member in a nursing college, a consultant and an administrator, Sitzman explains on page 93.

Orem's Self-Care Model

"Communication is the key to positive health results, particularly for patients with low literacy skills, yet few studies have examined patients' ability to converse about healthy information taught to…… [Read More]

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United States Has the Highest Rate of

Words: 13726 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23718315

United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.

The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. Russia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…… [Read More]