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The topic of the educational program for this Capstone project is Parenting Education for Teen Mothers. I would also like a section to be about identifying Postpartum Depression signs and symptoms, since this population has a high prevalence for depression. This assignment should be one that lends itself to an educational intervention with a particular population (The population that I am interested in is Hispanic Teen Mothers in Rio Grande Valley as this is the majority population in the area). Perform a thorough research of the topic and write a Literature Review. The Literature Review should consists of scholarly sources and contain the latest research on the topic. Through critical analysis of the literature, the student will identify key concepts that should be included in an educational intervention. The student will then develop a teaching plan/curriculum based on his or her research. This will be a very thorough plan, including a plan for evaluation.

Papers should be in APA format. Final papers must, at a minimum, include the following headings and related content:

1. Title page
2. Abstract?this should be on a separate page and follow APA guidelines for an abstract. The abstract is generally written last as it provides a synopsis of the entire paper.
3. Introduction?Introduce the reader to the topic you will be addressing. Include the rationale for an educational intervention with the target population.
4. Literature Review (see ?Literature Review Guidelines? for specific details)
5. Description of Education Project (see ?Education Project Guidelines? for specific details).
6. Conclusion/Closing Thoughts?Summarize how this intervention will benefit the identified population and the potential benefit to them as well as the field of health/wellness. This is the one section of the paper where you can provide some personal thoughts.
7. References
8. Tables (if applicable)
9. Appendices (if applicable)?this is a good place to put teaching materials or handouts to be used in the intervention. If you will use materials that you did not develop, be sure to provide full credit to the source. If you develop materials, be sure to provide a full reference list within handouts or other materials.


The Literature Review is an important first step in planning any health promotion program. Research related to health is constantly changing and health related interventions should be based on the most recent information. Health promotion interventions should also be based on fact and consider characteristics of the population being addressed.

Please use the following steps in completing the Literature Review:
1. Review all materials in the course addressing how to write a Literature Review
2. Use Liberty University?s research portal to find pertinent journal articles related to your topic and potential teaching project.
3. Obtain and review at least 20 articles based on the above search. At least 1 of the articles should come from a Christian- or Biblically-oriented journal.
4. Through a review of the literature, important themes or ideas should start to emerge. For example, if you research obesity, you?ll find that diet and exercise are key components of weight control. If you are addressing obesity in a certain population, you may find that issues of body image or cultural food preferences are also important themes to address. The identified themes can serve as headings in your paper. You may also choose to have sub-headings as well if you identify broad themes.
5. Identify key points from the literature and write your review based on these. Rather than reviewing each article one at a time, write based on topics or themes and integrate information from each source as needed.
6. Summarize what you?ve learned from the literature and how you will use it in developing a teaching project.

The Literature Review should be written in APA format and will be graded on the following elements:

1. Use of current, peer reviewed journals (published within the last 7 years)
2. Depth of analysis and identification of key elements of the literature
3. Quality and depth of writing
4. Grammar and Format
5. Application to teaching project
6. Application of a Christian worldview to the topic


Education is an important part of the health/wellness field. The Literature Review you?ve already written should serve as the foundation for an Education Program. Based on your identified topic and population to be educated, an Education Program should be developed. It should contain the following elements:

1. Rationale for education?why is it needed?
2. Target population characteristics
3. Program objectives?what do you want the students to know at the end of the educational intervention? Make them specific enough to measure. Your objectives can be knowledge or behavioral.
4. Number of sessions and timeline?how many weeks or months will the education last? How many times a week will you meet with participants?
5. Lesson plan and agenda for each session?Lessons should include specific elements you learned about in the Literature Review. You may want to utilize information from previous coursework, particularly health promotion models, as part of planning lessons. Be sure to address any cultural or developmental considerations (such as with children) in creating lessons plans and/or activities. Address how you would integrate a Biblical worldview into the lessons or activities.
6. Evaluation of learning?Describe how you will evaluate if participants have gained knowledge and/or modified behavior. You may describe short as well as long term evaluation methods, depending on your program.
7. Follow-up?Describe if there will be follow-up after the completion of the education and what it will entail.
8. Handouts?Include copies of handouts you will use if applicable. These should be placed in an appendix. Be sure to give credit if the handouts are obtained from a source such as the American Heart Association. You can reference the appendix when describing how and when handouts will be used.
9. References?provide a complete list of references used in planning the program utilizing APA format.

Have fun in creating your Education Plan. You are planning the education but can bring in guest speakers, plan group activities, field trips, multi-media presentations, or assign homework.

Will be faxing "verisimilar" previous study.
Unique specifications include instead of performing educational intervention, set up proposal/study to evaluate need for HIV education, not the actual educational intervention.
Survey to used to evaluate need for education (attitude survey)--CAPS---from the University of California at San Francisco.
Alternated survey to evaluate attitude---called GAPS.
Need explanation of rationale for using CAPS versus GAPS.
Using "faxed study" as a model, the following issues need to be addressed:
1) Discuss search for appropriate survey tool ie GAPS vs CAPS
2) Discusss why CAPS was chosen over GAPS.
3) What other methods are being used to reach teens regarding HIV prevention aside from educational programs?
4) What are some programs that are currently available to educate adolescents regarding HIV/AIDS?
5) Discuss if the results of the survey (CAPS) are going to be presented to the staff/administrators of the school.
6) Suggest other programs for educational interventions regarding HIV/AIDS.
7) How do adolescents learn about other potentially life compromising behaviors. This includes violence, smoking, drunk driving. Discuss learning styles.
8) The model that will be used for the proposed and not actual educational intervention is included in "Everybody Preventing HIV", by Deborah Schoberlein. Discuss this model, research attached to it. Pages of this text are being faxed.

Essentially, follow the outline of the faxed Table of Contents.
Also, include a research utilization model, in addition to the theoretical framework.
There are faxes for this order.

You are to write a 2-page paper. Do Not Use Outside Sources!

Assume for a moment that your company has recently been sued for an episode of sexual harassment in the workplace. The management has decided that some type of educational intervention is necessary. Discuss the Similarities and Differences in approach to such an educational intervention would take based upon whether you followed a Classical, Naturalistic, or Critical Approach to Program Planning.

There are faxes for this order.

Literature Review: Write a review (500-1,000 words) of the literature (peer-reviewed journals) regarding the impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans have on literacy development in elementary students

You are to write a 2-page paper. For Outside Sources, Use Internet Articles and Journal Articles. Do Not Use Book(s).

This is a 2-part paper...

Part 1

I want you to consider how ideology/philosophy impacts on approaches to program planning. Your company has recently been decided to offer professional development programs for mid-level managers in the agency. Consider the Similarities and Differences in approach to such an educational intervention based upon differing philosophical assumptions as held by the following four streams of education ideology:
a.liberal tradition
d.radical liberatory
**Be sure to use the Elias and Merriam definitions of the streams. **

Part 2

I want you to reflect upon your own personal philosophy of program planning, particularly regarding your basic assumption about human nature, role of the learners, role of the teacher, and purpose of adult education. Develop a summary of your position-be succinct.

There are faxes for this order.

Cultural Empowerment

Continuing with the same cultural group and health issue for the Session Long Project that you began in Module 2, please write a 2 - 3 page paper to address the following:

Describe the Cultural Empowerment of the group you chose. Specifically address how each of the PEN-3 model?s three factors within the dimension of cultural empowerment applies to your group. Be sure to provide examples.

Use subheadings to clearly show that you have addressed each of the three factors. Support your discussion with references from scholarly and professional references (not just your opinion).

The final dimension of the PEN-3 model is Cultural Empowerment. We always have to respect the cultural beliefs and practices of our intended audience. We strive to demonstrate cultural competence by promoting health within the context of the individual?s culture. The three factors in this dimension are:

P - Positive. These are the perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that may cause an individual, family, or community to engage in healthy practices. We want to encourage these healthy behaviors. An example is encouraging traditional dance as a form of exercise.

E - Existential. These are unfamiliar practices that may or may not be helpful, but are not harmful. We want to respect them and not try to change them. An example is wearing a religious medal to ward off evil spirits.

N - Negative. These are perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that may lead individuals, families, or communities to follow unhealthy practices. An example would be eating high fat, fried foods.

When planning a health promotion program, we should consider the positive (empowerment process) and the negative behaviors. As we begin to understand our intended audience we can assure the most culturally-appropriate educational intervention. In doing so, we are more likely to create partnerships that help people successfully achieve lasting change and truly promote health.

Assignment Expectations - In order to earn full credit, you must review all required background materials and make sure your paper meets these standards:

LENGTH: 2 - 3 pages typed, double-spaced, one inch margins, 12 point font

COVER PAGE: Copy the exact assignment onto your cover page (the actual questions or task).

REFERENCES: Be sure to cite your references in the text of all papers and on the reference list at the end. For examples you may review the way the references are listed in the modules and on the background reading list.

PRECISION: Each of the questions of the assignment is specifically addressed in the paper.

CLARITY: The paper reads clearly (i.e., it is not confusing) and is well-structured. Subheadings are used to guide the reader.

BREADTH: The paper presents appropriate breadth covering the questions of the assignment (multiple perspectives and references, multiple issues/factors considered, as appropriate).

DEPTH: The paper presents points that lead to a deeper understanding of the matters and/or issues being discussed and integrates several points into coherent conclusions.

EVIDENCE: Statements and points are well-supported with facts or statistics, and references.

CRITICAL THINKING: You set aside your own personal biases and instead approach the subject matter using available scholarly evidence. You consider the strengths and weaknesses of competing arguments/perspectives on this topic. Having read these scholarly sources, you make a judgment as to the merit of the arguments presented therein.

Research a prevention or treatment strategy concerning drug or alcohol use. You can write about educational interventions in various settings (schools, universities, worksites, communities) or about rehabilitation procedures/institutions. Included in the proposal will be a title of your paper, a paragraph describing your idea, and three references. Double spaced, and at least five (5) pages in length. The margins should be one (1) inch and the font not greater than 12 points. Use at least (5) current references from books, journals, newspapers, Internet, etc. List those references in your text (APA style) and on the reference page. Make sure that you have five (5) different references from a variety of sources. Post the paper on the Discussion Board.

Role of Diet in Weight


I need to send via attachment assignment instructions from my instructor in an attachment.

Here are my specific instructions along with my references:

The role of balanced diet in preventing weight gain in population of Severely Mentally Ill (SMI).

The title can be change.

? The definition of SMI (Colton & Manderscheid, 2006)
? Stress the high number of morbidity and mortality (Bushe & Holt, 2004; Chafetz, White, Collins-Bride, & Nickens, 2005; Colton & Manderscheid, 2006; Hannerz & Borga, 2000; Miller, Paschall, & Svendsen, 2006; Neeleman, 2001; Perese & Perese, 2003)
? All these problems can be combined to the one ?? metabolic syndrome (Kato, Currier, Gomez, Hall, & Gonzalez-Blanco, 2004; Toalson, Ahmed, Hardy, & Kabinoff, 2004)
? One of the causes is antipsychotic treatment (Ascher-Svanum, Stensland, Zhao, & Kinon, 2005; Chue & Cheung, 2004; Tirupati & Ling-Ern, 2007)
? Another cause is poor diet (Brown, Birtwistle, Roe, & Thompson, 1999)
The problem.
? How to help. The long-term educational program about dieting with clients with SMI and their families?? involvement. Nurses and dietitians will play the main roles.
? There are positive experiences of the long-term program in population of diabetes and weight loss (Albarran, Ballesteros, Morales, & Ortega, 2006; Boltri et al., 2007; Lang & Froelicher, 2006)
? Dietetic association is ready to participate (Hampl, Anderson, Mullis, & Mullis, 2002)
? The previous experiences in SMI weight gain were successful in the short-term and the necessity to provide this nursing implementation is vital (Centorrino et al., 2006; El-Mallakh, 2006; Houltram & Scanlan, 2004; Klam, McLay, & Grabke, 2006; Littrell, Hilligoss, Kirshner, Petty, & Johnson, 2003; Muir-Cochrane, 2006; O'Melia, Shaw, & Dickinson, 2004; Timmerman, Reifsnider, & Allan, 2000; Usher, Foster, & Park, 2006; Vreeland & Kim, 2004; Weber & Wyne, 2006)
The conclusion.
The importance such an intervention is to improve and expend the lives of SMI, to decrease number of diseases and expense for the treatment.

Albarran, N. B., Ballesteros, M. N., Morales, G. G., & Ortega, M. I. (2006). Dietary behavior and type 2 diabetes care. Patient Education and Counseling, 61(2), 191-199.
Ascher-Svanum, H., Stensland, M., Zhao, Z., & Kinon, B. (2005). Acute weight gain, gender, and therapeutic response to antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry, 5(3), 1-13.
Boltri, J. M., Okosun, I., Davis-Smith, Y. M., Seale, J. P., Roman, P., & Tobin, B. W. (2007). A simple nurse-based prompt increases screening and prevention counseling for diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 75(1), 81-87.
Brown, S., Birtwistle, J., Roe, L., & Thompson, C. (1999). The unhealthy lifestyle of people with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 29(3), 697-701.
Bushe, C., & Holt, R. (2004). Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186(47), 67-71.
Centorrino, F., Wurtman, J., Duca, K., Fellman, V., Fogarty, K., Berry, J., et al. (2006). Weight loss in overweight patients maintained on atypical antipsychotic agents. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 1011-1016.
Chafetz, L., White, M. C., Collins-Bride, G., & Nickens, J. (2005). The poor general health of the severely mentally ill: impact of schizophrenic diagnosis. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(2), 169-184.
Chue, P., & Cheung, R. (2004). The impact of weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotics use in schizophrenia. Blackwell Munkgaard. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 16, 113-123.
Colton, C. W., & Manderscheid, R. W. (2006). Congruencies in increased mortality rates, years of potential life lost, and causes of death among public mental health clients in eight states, Preventing Chronic Disease (Vol. 3).
El-Mallakh, P. (2006). Evolving self-care in individuals with schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 20(2), 55-64.
Hampl, J. S., Anderson, J. V., Mullis, R., & Mullis, R. (2002). Position of the American Dietetic Association: the role of dietetics professionals in health promotion and disease prevention. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(11), 1680-1687.
Hannerz, H., & Borga, P. (2000). Mortality among persons with a history as psychiatric inpatients with functional psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35(8), 380-387.
Houltram, B., & Scanlan, M. (2004). Care map 1 : atypical antipsychotics. Weight gain. Nursing Standard, 18(37), 41-42.
Kato, M., Currier, M., Gomez, C., Hall, L., & Gonzalez-Blanco, M. (2004). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic patients with schizophrenia. Primary Care Companion Journal Clinical Psychiatry, 6(2), 74-77.
Klam, J., McLay, M., & Grabke, D. (2006). Personal empowerment program: addressing health concerns in people with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 44(8), 20-28.
Lang, A., & Froelicher, E. S. (2006). Management of overweight and obesity in adults: behavioral intervention for long-term weight loss and maintenance. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing : Journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology, 5(2), 102-114.
Littrell, K. H., Hilligoss, N. M., Kirshner, C. D., Petty, R. G., & Johnson, C. G. (2003). The effects of an educational intervention on antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Journal of Nursing Scholarship : an Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing / Sigma Theta Tau, 35(3), 237-241.
Miller, B., Paschall, B., & Svendsen, D. (2006). Mortality and medical comorbidity among patients with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 57(10), 1482-1487.
Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Medical co-morbidity risk factors and barriers to care for people with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 13(4), 447-452.
Neeleman, J. (2001). A continuum of premature death. Meta-analysis of competing mortality in the psychosocial vulnerable. International Epidemiological Association, 30, 154-162.
O'Melia, J., Shaw, P., & Dickinson, C. (2004). A Meaningful Day Group approach to weight gain from antipsychotic medication. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(1), 112-116.
Perese, E., & Perese, K. (2003). Health problem of women with sever mental illness. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 15(5), 212-219.
Timmerman, G., Reifsnider, E., & Allan, J. (2000). Weight management practice among primary care providers. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 12(4), 113-116.
Tirupati, S., & Ling-Ern, C. (2007). Obesity and metabolic syndrome in a psychiatric rehabilitation service. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(7), 606-610.
Toalson, P., Ahmed, S., Hardy, T., & Kabinoff, G. (2004). The metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illnesses. Prim Care Companion Journal Clinical Psychiatry, 6(4), 152-158.
Usher, K., Foster, K., & Park, T. (2006). The metabolic syndrome and schizophrenia: the latest evidence and nursing guidelines for management. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 13, 730-734.
Vreeland, B., & Kim, E. (2004). Managing the clinical consequences of psychiatric illness and antipsychotic treatment: a discussion of obesity, diabetes, and hyperprolactinemia. Journal of American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 10(3), S17-S24.
Weber, M., & Wyne, K. (2006). A cognitive/behavioral group intervention for weight loss in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Schizophrenia Research, 83(1), 95-101."

There are faxes for this order.

Caring for a Loved One with Dementia

Due Week 9 and worth 170 points
Design an educational intervention to prepare new and potential caregivers of dementia patients for what to expect in caring for an older loved one.
Refer to Dementia Websites or other quality recourses to complete this assignment.
Articles from Websites must be cited as articles.
Example: Alzheimer?s Association (n.d.) 10 early signs and symptoms of Alzheimer?s .
Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:
Identify a minimum of five (5) issues that are most important for caregivers to understand and address regarding the behavior of people with dementia.
Propose at least three (3) interventions for dealing with the issues identified in Criterion 1 of this assignment. Support your proposal.
Determine the possible outcomes of each intervention proposed in Criterion 2, including how effective the caregiver can expect them to be.
Discuss the importance of support for the caregiver and suggest three to five (3-5) strategies for the caregiver to take care of him- or herself.
Use at least four (4) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student?s name, the professor?s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.


Nursing Theory Is That it

Give a response to 1A and 1B on one page with one reference
1a What is the relevance of theory to practice
1b Describe the role of the DNP in narrowing the gap between theory and practice
And give a response to 1c that follows after references on a page no direct quotes
1A What is the relevance of theory to practice
Nursing theory is central to nursing practice. It is what helps to choose intervention. Kerlinger (1973) defined theory as a set of interrelated constructs, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena (as cited in Chism, 2010). Everything a nurse attempts to do is and or should be based on a grounded body of evidence that helps the nurse deliver the best possible care. That is where theory comes in. Theory can be used alongside decision making or integrated to teach decision making skills. The adult learning theory, reflective practice theory and problem based learning (Thompson & Stapley, 2011). Parse (1992) states that a nursing theory that assumes the existence of value for the patient regardless of any norms or expectations enables the nurse to practice in a holistic manner that does not attempt to change the patient or label him or her in any way (as cited in Cody, 2006). That is what nursing is all about, practicing holistically and doing what is best for the patient. That is what theory in nursing attempts to do.

1 B Describe the role of the DNP in narrowing the gap between theory and practice
The role of the DNP is to use the evidence that is gathered and constructed by theory which is in turn used to support their specific clinical practice (Zaccagnini & White, 2011). The DNP will essentially apply middle-range theories to practice, with the thought process being if one middle-ranged theory is learned and performed in practice, this will encourage the DNP to learn and acquire other mid-range theories (Magnan as cited by Chism, 2010). By doing this, it allows the DNP to practice with a greater knowledge base, and to effectively use theory in his or her practice. The AACN states that DNPs will use theories and concepts to detect and treat illness and improve health care delivery. They will also be able to describe the actions and advanced strategies to enhance, alleviate, and ameliorate health and health care delivery phenomena as appropriate; and evaluate outcomes (2006).


American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2006). The Essentials of Doctoral Education
for Advanced Nursing Practice. Retrieved from

Chism, L.A. (2010). The Doctor of Nursing Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Thompson, C. & Stapley, S. (2011). Do educational interventions improve nurses clinical decision making and judgment? A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.12.005

Zaccagnini, M. and White, K. (2011). The Doctor of Nursing Practice Essentials. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Give a 1 page response to 1c on one page no direct quotes 1 reference included
1 C Orems Theory of Self-Care Deficit
On a pulmonary unit the nurse must often teach patients with tracheostomies and ventilators how to communicate. Family members are often taught how to clean and care for tracheostomies when patients are discharged home with them. Many times patients are taught how to do nebulizer treatments and maintain oxygen therapy at home. Weakened patients are taught how to rebuild muscle strength in their arms and legs. Orems theory of self-care deficit is used numerous times throughout the day on this unit and has proven to be an asset to pulmonary nursing.
Orems theory of self-care deficit was formulated to teach patients how to care for themselves. The purpose for the theory is to enable patients to become more autonomous. The theory is based on the philosophy that all patients want to care for themselves. It is the responsibility of the nurse to identify deficits and define appropriate interventions. Through providing knowledge and tools the patient will be able to engage in self-care. Simmons (2009) believes the nurses goal should be to assist patients in becoming self-sufficient so they will be able to lead a more fulfilling life.
Banfield (2002) suggests in able to understand a theory the theoretical foundation should be known. The assumption of Orems theory is that a patient with a limitation or deficit that interferes with daily self-care requires assistance and maintenance in managing daily activities. This theory provides a structure and direction for nursing care on the belief that people have the capacity and want to care for themselves. Patients with deficits are in need of nursing strategies to assist them in becoming self-sufficient in managing deficits.
Orems theory is broadly used in nursing practice every day in a variety of situations. Most nurses are familiar with this theory and feel comfortable utilizing it. The nurse understands her role in providing assistance in helping the patient to achieve goals of daily living. Orems theory is one of the most applied and easily understood theories in nursing practice.
Orems theory is accessible through empirical, ethical, personal, aesthetic, and sociopolitical theories (Fawcett, 2002). This theory is accessible to nurses in a variety of settings and can aid patients throughout many stages of illness (Simmons, 2009). Much of Orems theory is common knowledge to the nurse. Upon assessment the nurse can identify needs and develop a plan of care specific to the patient. This theory is easily accessible and frequently used in nursing practice.
Orems self-care concepts enhance utilization of the self-care deficit in nursing theory, and serves as a guide in situations involving those who need health restoration. This theory provides guidance specific to the patient whether the patient is capable of self-care or needs compensation. The structure of Orems theory can take on many different forms throughout treatment and provides a specific plan of treatment that change with the patient. Kumar (2007) believes that the ability to provide self-care is empowering and enhances the quality of life.

Banfield, B. (2002). Philosophic position on nature of human beings foundational to Orems
Self-care deficit nursing theory, (pp.33-40). Retrieved from

Chinn, P.L., Kramer, M.K. (2008). Integrated theory and knowledge development in nursing.
St. Louis, MO. Mosby Publisher.

Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Sudbury, MA. Jones and
Bartlett Publishers.

Fawcett, J. (2002). Orems self-care deficit nursing theory: Actual and potential sources for
evidence-based practice. Self-Care, Dependent Care, and Nursing, (pp. 12016). University of
Massachusetts. Retrieved from

Kumar, P. (2009). Application of Orems self-care deficit theory and standardized nursing
Languages in a case study of a woman with diabetes. International Journal of Nursing
Terminologies and Classification, 18(3). Retrieved from

Simmons, L. (2009). Dorthea Orems self-care theory as related to nursing practice in
hemodialysis. Nephrology Nursing, 36(4). Retrieved from

White, K.W., Zaccagnini, M.E. (2011). The doctor of nursing practice essentials: A new model
For advanced practice nursing. Sudbury, MA. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Identifies at least four (4) levels of evidence, beginning the Evidence Review Matrix. (Attach Evidence Review Matrix). Critically evaluates recommendations from Users' Guide; Describes the relationship between levels of evidence and grades of recommendations
Resourse are the 16 below you do not need to find more resource just do the ones below
evaluate using the users guide above the following Matrix. example 4 studies contain all 4 validation recommendation 2 studies contain recommendation 1 and 2 etc so many have grade recomendation a that contains etc will down load an example paper only interested in the levels of grading recomendation and evidence

Users guide for the validation of health care recomendations

1. Do the recommendations consider all relevant patient groups, management options, and possible outcomes?

2. Is there a systematic review of evidence linking options to outcomes for each relevant question?

3. Is there an appropriate specification of values or preferences associated with outcomes?

4. Do the authors indicate the strength of their recommendations?


Author Title Year Question Design Sample Data Collection Findings Limitations Level of Evidence and grading

Gazmararian, J.,
Health Literacy Among Medicare Enrollees in Managed Care Organizations 1999 What is the level of functional health literacy among community dwelling Medicare enrollees. Cross-sectional survey. Four Prudential Healthcare plans; 3260 participants Used short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. 1/3 of English speaking and over Spanish speaking enrollees over age 65 had inadequate health literacy. One section of population (prudential), but use of bilingual surveys buttresses ability to extrapolate data. 1??" shows that elderly managed care individuals may not have the literacy necessary to adequately function in the modern health care environment. Grade A
Gulmans, J.,

Evaluating Quality of patient care communication in integrated care settings. 2007 Using the integrated care model of Cerebral Palsy, how effective is the communication approach in an integrated medical setting. Three step mixed design; patient questionnaire; interviews once gaps were established, final factors into focus group. Qualitative. 26 studies plus additional patient evaluation. Meta-analysis and individual qualitative approach.
Designed model minimizes communication difficulties when compared to single method approach. Limited group, lacks quantitative and statistical reliability. 1 ??" more quantitative and longer-term, longitudinal studies necessary to buttress argument prior to implementing model. Grade B
McCaffrey, R.,
An Educational Program to promote Positive Communication and Collaboration Between Nurses and Medical Staff 2011 Effect of enhanced educational program on doctor-nurse collaboration. Qualitative, meetings and seminars, then questions to ascertain efficacy. Smallish, 65 in one hospital. Survey and qualitative observation. Clear and effective communication goals were met using positive educational interventions. Longitudinal and sample size. 2, lacks lengthy literature review. Data may be extrapolated, but further work needs to be done using larger, more diverse sample. Grade C
Melnyk, B.,
Evidence based Practice: Step by Step Igniting a Spirit of Inquiry. 2009 What is the effectiveness of an evidence based practice format on collaborative inquiry. Meta-Analysis and presentation of package. None other than previous research. Literature review and meta-analysis. This is a presentation of a model approach suggested by an experienced nursing professor. None for type of study. 1 Shows nurses how to use knowledge and skills to implement EBP consistently as part of the best practices of contemporary nursing care. Grade A
Nadzan, D. and Westergaard, F.
Pediatric Safety in the Emergency Department 2008 What are the basic risk factors in contemporary neonatal medicine? Meta-Analysis and literature review. Thirteen studies and previous recommendations Commission update and policy recommendation Risk factors differ for children and adults; enhanced pediatric presence is important to mitigate this difference. Small meta-analysis, greater identification of problem and solution. 2 Developed for lay political audience, not as scientifically robust as one might expect or need.

Title Year Question Design Sample Data Collection Findings Limitations Level of Evidence
Enhancing collaborative communication of nurse and physician leadership in two intensive care units. 2004 Will a specific intervention increase collaborative communication between nurse and physician leaders? pretest-posttest repeated measures Nurse and physician leaders in two diverse intensive care units Survey pre- and post-intervention Collaborative communication can be improved Small sample size, limited selection population 2 No systematic review specific does not consider all relevant patient groups
Grade c
A model for interdisciplinary collaboration 2003 Should/can a model for interdisciplinary collaboration with social workers be established? Theoretical, speculative N/A Review Model or framework hypothesized and described Entirely theoretical, no direct research 4 no systematic review no specification of outcomes or associate values grade D
Evidence-based health communication 2006 N/A (many) N/A (many) N/A (many) Review/many Multiple Individual to each study 2

Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses
2008 N/A (many) N/A (many) N/A (many) Review/many Multiple Individual to each recommendation 1

I. Principles and Practice of
Palliative Care. The IAHPC Manual of Palliative Care 2004 What are the basic needs and principles of palliative care? Multiple (theoretical and empirical) N/A (many) Review/many Identifies principles, needs, communication guidelines, and barriers to palliative care Individual to each study 2 B
Intensive Care Units, Communication
Between Nurses and Physicians, and Patients' Outcomes. 2009 What specific communication elements are correlated with adverse outcomes? Cross-sectional survey 462 nurses in 25 ICUs in SE Michigan Conditions for Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, Intensive Care Unit Nurse-Physician Questionnaire

Results were inconclusive Limited population sample, highly varied response rate 2 D
Author Title Year Question Design Sample Data Collection Findings Limitations Level of Evidence
McCaffrey, R.G., Hayes, R., Stuart, W., Cassel, A., Farrell, C., Miller-Reyes, S and Donaldson,

An Educational Program to Promote Positive Communication and
Collaboration Between Nurses and Medical Staff 2011 Can educational program for nurses and medial residents improve communication and collaboration? Intervention and analysis; experimental Nurses and medical residents in a single teaching hospital Observational study Effective education can enhance communication and collaboration Very limited population, lack of direct empiricism in educational design 3 D
Oliver, D.P., Wittenberg-Lyles, E.M. and Day, M. Measuring Interdisciplinary
Perceptions of Collaboration on Hospice Teams. American Journal of Hospice &
Palliative Medicine 2007 N/A (assertion made, not question posed) Question instrument N/A N/A Adjustments made to make instrument more inclusive; further research and testing recommended No testing whatsoever 4 D
Riesenberg, L.E., Leitzsch, J., Massucci, J.L., Jaeger, J., Rosenfeld, J.C., Patow, C. et al Residents' and Attending Physicians' Handoffs: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2009 What communication features of structured handoffs are most correlated with positive patient outcomes? Review N/A (many) N/A (many) Not enough research has been done as to best practices in handoffs. Information limited by existing empirical research 3 D
No net benefit
Thompson, J.E., Collett, L.W., Langbart, M.J., Purcell, N.J., Boyd, S.M, Yuminaga, Y. et al. Using the ISBAR Handover Tool in Junior Medical Officer Handover: A Study in an Australian Tertiary Hospital 2011 How effective is the ISBAR handover tool on junior medical officer (JMO) handover communication? Observation, survey, intervention 36 junior medical officers in a hospital in Australia Survey, recording devices Educational interventions improved perceived handover communication in 71% of participants Small and limited population, fairly inconclusive results 3D
Toll may be useful no appropriate set of values
Tschannen, D., Keenan, G., Aebersold, M.,Kocan, M.J., Lundy, F., Averhart, V. Implications of Nurse-physician Relations: Report of a Successful Intervention 2011 Will a collaborative intervention improve communication patterns between nurses and physicians? Survey, intervention Four nurses and four physicians from two separate unites Psychometric instruments, surveys Regular meetings to facilitate collaboration will improve collaboration Very small population, poorly defined intervention 3 D

Table A1

Grade of Recommendation:

A Good evidence to support the recommendation that the condition or intervention be specifically considered (clinical encounter, organizational policy, educational practice).

Balance Between Methodological Strength Implications
Risk & Benefits of Supporting Evidence
in Systematic Reviews

Clear RCTs without important Strong
limitations recommendations;
can apply to most pts
in most

B Fair evidence to support the recommendation that the condition or intervention be specifically considered (clinical encounter, organizational policy, educational practice).

Balance Between Methodological Strength Implications
Risk & Benefits of Supporting Evidence
in Systematic Reviews

Clear RCTs w/important Strong
limitations recommendations;
(inconsistent likely to apply
results, method flaws*) to most

Grade of Recommendation:

C Insufficient evidence to support the recommendation that the condition or intervention be specifically considered (clinical encounter, organizational policy, educational practice).

Balance Between Methodological Strength Implications
Risk & Benefits of Supporting Evidence
in Systematic Reviews

Clear No RCTs directly Strong
addressing the question, recommendations;
but results from closely can apply to
related RCTs can be most pts. in
unequivocally extracted, most
or evidence from circumstances
observational studies may
be overwhelming


Observational studies Intermediate- strength
may change
when stronger
evidence is

Grade of Recommendation:

D Fair evidence to support the recommendation that the condition or intervention be specifically excluded (clinical encounter, organizational policy, educational practice).

Balance Between Methodological Strength Implications
Risk & Benefits of Supporting Evidence
in Systematic Reviews

Unclear RCTs with Weak recommendations;
important alternative approaches
limitations likely to be better for
(inconsistent results, some patients under
methodological some circumstances

F Good evidence to support the recommendation that the condition or intervention be specifically excluded (clinical encounter, organizational policy, educational practice).

Balance Between Methodological Strength Implications
Risk & Benefits of Supporting Evidence
in Systematic Reviews

Unclear Observational studies Very weak recommendation;
Other alternative may be
Equally reasonable

Modified from:

DiCenso, A., Guyatt, G., & Ciliska, D. (2005). Evidence-based Nursing: A guide to clinical practice. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby, pg. 166.

Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care from Cancer: Systematic Reviews & Recommendation. For more detailed information about the most recent levels of evidence and grades of recommendations, refer to the CTFPHC website:

There are faxes for this order.

You are to write a 1-page paper, Do Not Use Outside Sources!

Your task:
Reflect upon an agencys approach to incorporating learning/program objectives into their learning program plans. What do you see to be the strengths and weaknesses of its approach and why?

Program, Priorities, Purposes, and Objectives
Priority often used to refer to what is more important to use to hear more broadly to mean having an earlier or antecedent claim to resources, including time, energy, money and so on. Determining current case involves placing all of the ideas/needs identify in an order that reflects the sequence in which they will be addressed or in which they will receive resources. If there are sufficient resources to address all ideas/needs, then there is no need to worry about determining priorities. But there are the few adult educators who have access to enough resources to respond to all ideas/needs that come to their attention.
Purpose a general statement indicating intentions. In the case of program planning and adult education, purpose usually refers to his statement that indicates what a program is designed to accomplish. It provides a rationale for the decision to put time and effort into planning. Purposes are often related to hierarchically two goals and objectives with goals usually being more specific than purposes but less specific than objectives.
Objective as used in program planning and objective is a detailed description of where learners should know or be able to do so as a result of their participation in an educational event. In most cases an objective describes an intended learning outcome as reflected in something that the learner is asked to do-that is, the learner is asked to perform a task that is considered good evidence that the desire learning has taken place. Because learning cannot be directly observed, objectives provide a basis of inferring the degree to which the intended learning has occurred. There may be multiple levels of objectives, which are related to one another in hierarchical fashion.
Determining priorities, purposes and objectives in program planning as part of the continuing challenge of using limited resources to achieve the most by able outcomes. Many adult education programs have their origins in vague or ill-defined needs, ideas, requests, or problems. In these situations the task of those involved in planning is to sharpen the focus of the program so that it can be communicated clearly to those who will have a role to play during instruction and to those who control the resources that will be necessary to offer the program. To be successful, but program planner must be able to design offerings that are consistent with the mission or mandate of the sponsor and are considered a value by the learners for whom they are designed. Although determining priorities, purposes and objectives in a systematic way require some technical knowledge and skills, he more fundamental capabilities require is understanding and, in some case, reconciling the conflicting values that are reflected in these decisions. In most systematic approaches to program planning, needs assessment is used as one means to justify the allocation of resources. Needs assessment is often described as a process in which present states of affairs are determined and judgments are made about more desirable states of affairs. The more desirable states of affairs are value judgment made by those who are in a position to articulate their own needs (and which cases they are felt or motivational needs) or to claim that others have needs (in which case they are ascribed or prescriptive needs). Needs are much more than list of topics are program ideas that come from various stakeholders in educational enterprise. Needs represent competing claims on limited educational resources. Planners can use them to demonstrate that such resources as money, personnel, equipment, facilities, and materials are being used on programs that stakeholders consider valuable. Program planning involves maintaining control over the allocation of scarce resources so that the maximum number of high-value programs can be offer to the sponsor's clients in a way that both sponsors and the other stakeholders like governments, boards, community groups, business and industry representatives, professional associations and so on are satisfied. If stakeholders are not satisfy that correct resource allocation decisions are being me, they will usually take steps to communicate their displeasure and to influence the process used to make these decisions in the future. For example in recent years there has been growing pressure on many public sectors provider of adult education programs to make money for their parent institutions. This pressure from the parent institutions has come in many forms including new, more strict mission statements, and requirements that the adult education unit began paying a share of or increase its contribution to, the sponsors overhead -- rent, utilities, support personnel, supplies come equipment, postage and so on. A natural and necessary response to this pressure is to focus limited resources on programs high and demand war on programs for learners who are both willing and able to pay higher fees to attend. A long-term consequence of this pressure is that the needs of adults who are able and willing to pay higher fees will receive greater attention than the needs of those who are unable or unwilling to pay higher fees. This sometimes subtle transition occurs in the needs assessment and priority setting phases of planning where resources allocation decisions are made. Although needs assessments logically precedes setting program per piece, purposes and objectives, and practicing purposes and objectives are often determined without a needs assessment having first been done. This is possible because, as Houle (1972) rightly points out needs assessment is only one of the many ways that program ideas are identified. Indeed, recent research by Sork (1994) indicates that decisions about what programs will be offered are influenced by dozens of factors, only some of which are related to learning needs.

State of literature
There is a vast literature on the program planning process, but only some of it addresses the topics in this chapter. Determining priorities is often neglected in the leisure. Although most books that address program plan in adult education gives some attention to the needs assessment, only a few authors addressing priority setting as a distinct topic. The process of developing program purpose statement is hardly addressed at all. Most authors seem to assume that purposes are only temporary statements of intent that will be supplanted by more detail object is sold the development of objectives receives more tension. But some practitioners seem unsure of the merits of developing instructional or performance objectives to communicate intent. This may be due to the unfortunate association in some peoples minds between instructional objective's and behavior is some. It is an unfortunate association because objectives are useful planning tools even for those with totally reject behavior is them. Using instructional objectives is no way endorses behaviorism, but neither is using them inconsistent with behaviorism. This may seem like a paradox to some, but a review of the tenets of behaviorism followed by a look at the ways objectives have been used in planning quickly shows that objectives of simply one means of clarifying instructional intent regardless of the philosophical or theoretical position from which one is working. Questions like, what kind of objective should be developed? Who should be involved in developing objectives? And how should objective to be used to guide instructional design and evaluation? Are all quite relevant. However the question, should objectives be developed for this program? Is more properly answer based on the preferred planning style, time available and expectations of stakeholders than whether using object is violae the philosophical or theoretical position. One of the issues of object is, the most useful literature is not found readily in adult education but rather from other sectors of education. The best analyses of objectives as tools for planning-including reviews research on the use of objectives and discussion of the arguments for and against using objectives.

Priorities, purposes, and objectives
Determining priorities, purposes and objectives may be done more or less systematically, and it should not be assumed that approaches at a more systematic and of the continuum are either better or worse than those toward the last systematic end. However at again and sophisticated systematic approaches may seem, the real challenge in program planning is to pick a strategy that is suited to the task and to the resources available to the plan.

Determining program priorities
The processes of determining program parties have received on even attention in the program planning leisure. In failing to address the issues at all, some authors seem to assume that resources will be available to address all needs, program ideas, or problems that are brought to the attention of the planner. Such an assumption seems both nave and dangerous since there are always constraints on how resources are allocated and expectations about what kinds of programs and related outcomes that will be produced. Other authors have consider priority setting to be an essential element of planning and have offered detailed discussion of how the issues involved and processes that might be useful. For example, Boyle (1981) devoted an entire chapter to parity setting which he begins by observing that: continuing educators usually face the dilemma of too many problems to work on, too much content teach, and too much clientele groups to reach with the time and resources available. So we must make decisions of our program per case. Varity setting is a continuous process of decision making that takes place during all phases of programming including delineating needs, specifying goals, identifying target audience, defining available resources, and determining necessary actions. Caffarella (1994) also devoted a chapter to parity setting in which she observed that rarely can personnel involved with education programs designed programs for all the ideas identified as appropriate for educational programs... therefore, they must have a system for determining which ideas will take perky and planning of actual activities and events. She goes on to propose a process for determining priorities based on four steps: identify the people who should be involved in setting priorities, select or develop appropriate criteria, record the ideas, along with the criteria, on a perky rating chart and design weighting factors to each criterion, and apply each criterion to each idea use in the priority rating chart. Individual values calculated at each step may be and be combined to yield a total priority value for each idea. Developing a perky setting process that could be used by planners and agricultural extension who have decided each year how they will allocate limited resources to what often seems like unlimited needs of their clients. Others have woven the parity setting process into needs assessment so that when the process is completed a list of needs is priority border is produced. For example, proposed a needs assessment approach in which information about competence, relatives and motivation is gathered and can then be used to establish fair case. Gathering data like this during needs assessment saves time and results in a seamless process in which a prioritized list of needs is the final product. My own view of priority setting has shifted from a concerned with specific techniques to focus on more general ways of thinking about the task in making deliberate informed decisions about what factors or criteria should be used to make these important decisions. Following are four ways of approaching perky setting that range from familiar metaphors that can be used in almost any circumstances to more technically demanding and time consuming approaches that might be used and rare situations where every part of the process must be open to scrutiny by various stakeholders.

Filter Approach
Knowles (1980) suggestion using filters or screens to make decisions about priorities. In this case, all needs that are competing for resources are placed in the top of the filter. Does that make it through the three criteria are considered priority needs. Knowles uses a similar approach to determine priorities among program objectives. In his view all possible our objectives are identified and placed into the top of the filter that has three elements (criterion a, criterion b, and criterion c): institutional purposes, feasibility and interest of clientele. Objectives that are not of high perky are screened out by the filters and only high-priority objectives come out of the bottom. Although the three criteria were elements suggested by Knowles are sensible starting points, there could be dozens of other criteria or factors that might be used to sort out high-priority objectives from all those competing for limited resources. Forest and Mulcahy, writing from the context of agricultural extension do not specify criteria but indicate instead that they come from four sources: clientele, community and society, the extension of organization, and self. Criteria in their view can be objective or subjective and should carry different weights in priority decision because some criteria are simply more important than others. Boyle builds on the earlier works of Forest and Mulcahy by suggesting that need should be screened through six factors that influence what program perky should be: personnel, organizational, clientele, community, political, and resources. In Boyles view... tar cheese are what is important or by evil at the present time. Programming situations often have a number of priorities at any given time, so it is necessary to decide which priorities are most important. This commitment highlights one of the weaknesses of the filter or screening metaphors as a tool of for thinking about setting priorities and that is that filters and screens produce all or none outcomes. That is, when objectives, needs or program ideas are filtered or screened they either make it into the category of priority or they do not. This still leaves the planner with the potential problem of determining the relative importance of undifferentiated parity needs or objectives. But in most day-to-day priority setting situations the filter metaphor can be a useful tool for arriving at decisions about which competing objectives, needs or program ideas should be attended to first, second, third, and so on. Recent work by Sork 1994, suggests that it is not difficult for practitioners to identify the relative importance of the various criteria used to make priority decisions in their own organizations. Although the set of filter elements (criteria) may change from one priority setting to another the idea after dumping needs or objectives in the top of the filter and allocating resources to those that make it through the various filter elements is easy to apply. Rather using a filter metaphor or want all the other approaches mentioned below eight key task and parity setting is selecting criteria. No single set of criteria is suitable for all adult education settings. It is likely that most are two decisions are based on the few criteria considered important by the decision-makers. Sork and Fielding 1987 identified eight general criteria that they extracted from the literature. Some of these relate to the importance of meeting a need and others to the feasibility of meeting a need. Although most part you setting process is mentioned in the literature focus on par or tea among meets, the approaches could as easily be used to set parties among ideas or objectives. The eight criteria identified by Sork and Fielding are described below with updated descriptions.

Importance criteria
a. Number of people affected, this criterion can be used to establish parity based on the number of people who would potentially benefit if the idea/need was addressed. The greater number of people benefiting, the high on would be the parity of the need.
b. Contribution to goals, this criterion can be used to establish parity based on the degree to which responding to the ideas/needs would contribute to the attainment of organizational goals. It is quite possible to identify ideas/needs which are unrelated to the polls of the sponsoring organization. Such needs would be a much lower priority than needs which are directly related to the goals of the organization (or goals of the community).
c. Immediacy, this criterion can be used to establish priority based on the degree to which each idea/need requires immediate attention. Immediacy is determined by analyzing how the situation has been changing over time. If waiting to respond to the idea/need would increase hardship or represent an important loss opportunity then that idea/need would be higher priority than one where no increase in hardship or loss opportunity is expected.
d. Instrumental value, this criterion can be used to establish parity based on the degree to which responding to one idea/need to will have a positive or negative effect on responding to other ideas/needs. If responding to one idea/need will increase the likelihood that responses to other ideas/needs will be possible, then that idea/need would be high priority. An idea/need that, if response to, would make it more difficult to respond to other ideas/needs would be a very low priority.
e. Magnitude of discrepancy, this criterion can be used to establish parity based on the relative size of the gap for discrepancy between the present and desired capability suggests either program idea or need. This assumes that the basis for an adult education program is always some explicit or implicit gap between what people know and can do now and what they, or someone else, believe they should know or be able to do. Using this criteria places ideas/needs representing a big gap higher in the list of priorities than those with a smaller gap.

Feasibility criteria
1. Educational efficacy, this criterion can be used to establish parity based on the degree to which an educational intervention program or series of programs is the best response to the idea/need. Not all ideas/needs are best addressed by providing educational program. Using this criteria, ideas/needs judged to have a high educational efficacy are considered higher priorities since the told used by programs is education. Idea/needs judged to have low educational efficacy are lower priority and might well be referred to other agencies better able to address the idea/need or cooperative arrangements might be made to employ educational and other means concurrently to illuminate a need requiring more than one approach.
2. Availability of resources, this criterion can be used to establish priority based on the degree to which the resources necessary to develop a program would be available if it is decided that the idea/need should be addressed. Use of this criterion involves making a judgment about the potential availability of human, financial, physical, hardware and software resources necessary to organize a program. Idea/needs for which all or most of the required resources are potentially available or for which few or no resources are required to which be given higher priority than those for which the necessary resources would not be available.
3. Commitment to change, this criterion would be used to establish priority based on the degree to which stakeholders are committed to eliminating the ideas/need. Stakeholders are people who have a vested interest in the success or failure of the efforts to address the idea/needs; they are often in a position to help or hinder the programmers at first develop and implement programs. Using this criterion involves identifying stakeholders, deciding the relative importance of each stakeholders commitment, and accessing the commitment to change of each individual or group.
But these criteria are from the literature and may or may not reflect the criteria commonly used in practice. During the past five years I have surveyed 368 practitioners in Canada and Asia who work in a wide range of adult education settings in an effort to understand the relative importance of 48 different criteria that have been identified as influencing resource allocation decisions. Following is a listing of 10 most important criteria as identified by these practitioners: potential benefit to participants, availability of funding, contributions organization objectives, consistency with organizations philosophy, urgency of the need, potential demand for the program, contributions organization's productivity, previous success with the program, number of potential participants, and contribution to individual performance.

The list confirms that many different factors are taken into account before a decision is made to allocate scarce organizational resources to design and offer a program. Although the study reveals that something about the criteria that are used to established Archie's, it reveals nothing about how providers approach the task of resource allocations. In the practical world the today program planning decisions are resource allocations are most likely made continuously rather than only after a needs assessment for some other system process is completed. So it is more likely that the constant barrage of program ideas, needs, and objectives that planners encounter are figured we passed through a filter a minimum criteria before any resources would be allocated unless the ideas, needs or interest was consider within the mandate or mission of the organization or group in which the plan or work. There are many other similar minimum criteria used to make an initial assessment before any additional time or money is spent on planning. The metaphor of Sluice box may be a better fit with the realities of practice. A sluice box is a device used in placer mining to separate the valuable gold from the worthless sand, gravel, and dirt. Gold-bearing materials is placed in the sluice box through which a stream of water runs. The force of the water flushes the lighter worthless material out the end of the box while the heavier goldfish trapped by baffles placed in the bottom of the box. In a similar fashion a constant flow of program ideas and needs competing for attention become known to various adult education providers who then apply criteria to sort out those that will receive attention from those that will not. In effect providers of adult education become adept at selecting from the flow of ideas and needs those that are consistent in their mission and with the criteria they use to allocate resources. The key is to bring successful at this task is both to be aware of the program ideas and needs and to have a clear understanding of what criteria should be used to decide which will receive attention.

Importance-feasibility approach
In other relatively straightforward way of thinking of our current to setting is to consider only two broad dimensions of each need: importance and feasibility. Importance is not an empirically derived characteristic of ideas or needs but is a judgment made by people after considering such factors as the consequences of not taking any action the value that various stakeholders attached responding to the ideas or needs and so on. Feasibility is also a judgment that is made after considering such issues as whether the resources required to respond are available whether the effort to respond willing encounter active resistance or support the degree to which an educational intervention is the most suitable response and so on. These judgments are simply represented by the words low or high but they could just as easily be represented by the number on the scale with 1 representing very low importance and feasibility and 5 or 10 representing very hih importance and feasibility. The judgment for each needed are plotted on a graph and fall into one of the quadrants. Those falling in quadrant one are low in both importance and feasibility and therefore would not likely be allocated resources. Those falling in quadrant for our high in both importance and feasibility and would call for immediate and feral attention. Those in quadrants two and three falls somewhere in between. Needs that are low in feasibility but high in importance watcher and three could be addressed using an innovative but experimental approach requiring modest resources and low levels of political support. In other words a relatively risk-free pilot project would be suitable response because it would be consider an experiment and as such would not require a substantial commitment of resources and would be relatively nonthreatening to those who might otherwise be opposed to programming in that area. It may also be desirable to respond to the needs that are high in feasibility but low in importance Quadrant 2 if doing so would make it easier to respond to other needs now or in the future. Determining priorities using the two dimensional graphing approach is straightforward and easy to explain but is limited in that it results in decisions based only on the two broad dimensions of importance and feasibility. For some planners in some settings decisions using only two dimensions may not be defensible in which case a ranking or rating approach may be more useful.

Ranking approach
for planning situations require a more systematic approach to our Archie setting a ranking chart can be used simple ranking chart they can be used to establish parity among competing programs ideas or needs. Those making decisions about priorities would select criteria a, b, c and so on, would determine weighting of each criterion and then Rink each idea or need under each criterion. Weights are whole numbers like 1, 2, 3, and so on that are multiplied by ranking to give a weighted ranking for each need. A weight of 1 would be given to the criterion that should carry the least weight in priority setting while a higher number would give any proportionally more weight to a criterion in the final decision although it may be illogical to assign more important criteria higher numbers when the high-priority ideas or needs are assigned lower numbers the process has the desired effect of increasing the influence of the more heavily weighted criteria on the final priority ranking while maintaining the conventional of using #1 as the highest ranked. The best way to apply the weighting scheme is to first Rink each idea or need under criterion without considering the weightings and then go back to multiply the rankings by the weighting factors for each criterion. This technique works best with a limited number of needs since the chart and the task of ranking would get quite unmanageable with more than a dozen or so needs.

Rating approach
one of the weaknesses of using the ranking approach is that it is very difficult to apply if there are more than 10 or so ideas or needs under consideration. It is simply too difficult a task to wring more than this number of ideas or needs. A simple solution to this problem is to switch to a rating approach. The only difference between the two is that instead of ranking all the ideas or needs -- that is, assigning each idea or need a rank from 1 to n where n is the total number of ideas or needs -- each idea or need is rated on a scale from 1-5 or 1-10 in which the lower number represents more priority ideas or needs and the higher number represents the higher priority needs. Determining and using the weighting factors for the criteria would be the same as described above for the ranking approach. Ratings are then multiplied by weights and a sum of weighted rating is calculated. Each sum is then divided by the number of the criteria to yield a mean rating for each idea or need. The higher the mean rating, the higher the parity of that idea or need, idea/need #7 is the highest parity. The reason for this is the reserve of the ranking approach is that in ranking a lower number is considered high in rank and in rating a higher numbers considered higher rated. The four ways of thinking about setting priorities are certainly not the only ones available to adult educators. Those interested in other ways of approaching the task may wish to read work by Kemmerer 1984 who focus on setting priorities and community development work and who discusses a paired-comparisons approach to setting priorities in University extension work.

Determining program purposes and objectives
The objectives movement had a powerful influence on educating during the past 30 years but he has not been without its critics. Brookfield 1986 captured well the strong feelings held by some about and over emphasis on using specific objectives in adult education. He said that as both professor and student, nothing has proved more irksome to me than the insistence that for educational encounters to be valuable there must always be clearly specify learning objectives that are being assiduously pursued. Overzealous promoters of behavioral or performance objective share some of the blame for the backlash that has occurred in reaction to the objectives movement. This backlash has been so strong that some authors have rejected outright to use the objective to adult education because they are seen as instruments for undemocratic, institutionally base controlled educational experiences that serve only the interests of dominate groups. Unfortunately these critics have reached a verdict on objectives largely based on their misuse. Objectives are planning to switch like any tool can be used properly or improperly. There is nothing inherently undemocratic about objectives that there are certainly undemocratic issues of objectives. There is nothing inherently self-serving about using objectives although they can certainly be use and a self-serving fashion. And the matter of control in planning is a red herring since every effort to plan is an effort to control. The question is whether or not control will be exercise but who will be making the decisions influencing the direction of the education experience. If learners develop their own objectives or have substantial involvement in the development of program objectives then control is democratized. If an institution develops objectives that are rigidly pursued and nonnegotiable then control is centralized. Since the object movement has its origins in schools where learners have little to say about expected outcomes it is not surprising that there is a suspicion about any objectives which learners are not directly involved in developing. Objectives are useful planning tools because they clarify the intentions of those were involved in planning and can be used to communicate those intentions to potential participants, sponsors, instructors, and so on. When properly used they are also the most powerful tool available for clarifying the expected effects a learning experience will have on the capabilities of participants. When misused they become excuses for inflexible, teacher oriented, quarters of injection, and overly behavioral, quantitative evaluation approaches. Over the past 45 years many proposals have been made about what constitutes a useful objective. Following are brief summaries of several of the better-known proposals beginning with Tyler's formulation. Each of these proposals it should be noted was designed to overcome weaknesses that were thought to accompany earlier formulations.

Tyler's approach
Although Tyler 1949, was not the first to argue that clearly stated objectives were important tools and educational planning his curriculum planning framework with its emphasis on developing object instead decided expected changes in learners, was very influential. Tyler criticized objectives that describe what he teacher expected to do during instruction or that described in vague or imprecise fashion what students would learn and propose that the most useful objectives were those that describe significant changes in students and behaviors. He asserted that since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant change in the students patterns of behavior it becomes important to recognize that any statement that the objectives of the school should be a statement of change to take place in the student. He proposed the development of objectives that have two components: one component indicates the kind of behavior to be developed and the author describes the area of content or of life in which the behavior is to be applied. Although Tyler's framework was intended to guide curriculum development in the schools it has significant and lasting impact on adult education as well. The origins of many contemporary program planning models can be traced quite easy to what became known as the Tyler rationale.

Magers approach
In the early 1960s the behaviorism was still on the ascendancy Mager 1962, produced a thin volume which was designed to help educators-especially those developing program instructor materials -- prepare clear and unambiguous instructional objectives. Mager introduced the idea that useful objective should contain three elements. If any of these three elements was missing an objective was less useful than if it contained all three. Magers text itself a program instructed manual, use humor calmer clear writing and dozens of example to show how fuzzies-vagueness or ambiguous statements of intended outcomes -- could be converted into useful objectives. Three elements that Mager propose should be included in useful objective's are as follows: performance, and objective always say is what a learner is expected to be able to do, conditions and objective always describes the important conditions under which will performance is to occur, and criterion and objective describes criterion of acceptable performance by describing how well the learner must form in order to considered acceptable. Magers approach to writing objectives was attractive to educators because he provided an easy-to-follow formula to arrive at useful objective set will fit the current thinking about the importance of focusing on student performance. His approach also made it much easier to buy a waste of learning because the object is contained that only a distortion of what students would be expects to do but also the conditions under which they would do it and expectations about how well they would to it. Although Tyler's proposed using objectives as a basis for evaluating learning it was Mager who help educators develop such specific objectives that made evaluating student learning a much easier task. Developing Mager-style objective was not in any sense mindless work. He required precise language and careful selection of birds use to describe performance. He forced planners to be specific about outcomes much earlier in the curriculum development process than they had previously and this was considered an important advance over other approaches. I putting a great deal of energy into developing unambiguous objectives, the selection of instructional method and evaluation procedures became much less arduous.

Gronlunds approach
Gronlunds 1995 style of comparing objectives has advantage of being somewhat less mechanistic than Magers 1984 approach. He views objectives as descriptions of intended learning outcomes that emphasizes what students will be able to do following instruction. What makes Gronlunds approach different from the others is that he proposes using two types of statements to represent intended learning outcomes. The first aid and he calls a general instructional objective. The statements provide an overall view of the intended outcomes and the use language that Mager would consider fuzzy. For example a Gronlunds-style general instructional objective would be understands common terms used in adult education. Such a statement would not be acceptable to Mager because it does not describe performance, identify conditions, or secretary of for except will performance, although it would be likely to be considered acceptable to Tyler's approach. But Gronlunds suggested all general instructional objective should be accompanied by statements describing specific learning outcomes which would be more acceptable to Mager. Examples of specific learning outcomes related to the above general instructional objectives are: define each term as it is commonly used in the literature, distinguishes between similar terms, and a use each term accurately in an original sentence. Gronlunds emphasizes that specific learning outcomes are only samples of a vast array of statements that could represent evidence that the intended learning had occurred in the case of the sample objectives above the intended outcomes is understanding. In Gronlunds view verbs like defining, distinguishing and using represent students actions that provide evidence that understanding has been achieved. Gronlunds also argues that our objectives are less likely to limit the activities and choices of instructor if they do not contain conditions and centers. Although he recognizes the objectives which include conditions and stamps are very useful in programmed instruction and simple training programs he is concerned that such specific statements when used in more complex instructional settings can limit the options open to the instructor and reduced spontaneity and creativity.

Gagne, Briggs and Wagers approach
Gagne and his colleagues 1990 to suggest a five-component objective that they believe communicates instructional intent even more precisely than Mager or Gronlunds style objectives. In their view, and objective is precisely describe when he communicates to another person that would have to be done to observe that a stated lesson purpose has in fact been accomplished. The statement is imprecise if it does not enable the other person to think of how to carry out such an observation. In developing the case for precision in repairing objectives, they make an important point that seems to escape many critics of the objectives movement. Gagne and his colleagues are responding to the same concerned that Gronlunds head when he proposed using both general instructional objectives and specific learning outcomes to communicate intent. In both cases the authors are concerned that those reading objectives would confuse the Berg described performance intended learning. The five components of objective suggested by Gagne and his colleagues are as follows: situation the stimulus situation faced by the learner when asked to perform, learned capability verb one of nine birds used to indicate the type of learning expected, objective the content of the learner's performance, action verb a verb, other than a learned capability verb, that describes how the performance is to be completed, and tools, constraints, or special conditions a description of equipment/devices that will be use, performance standards, and other circumstances under which the learner must perform. Gagne et al., do not claim that all our objectives should have all five components. They state that if you can communicate unambiguously without all five components than do so. Many of their examples include all except the tools, constraints, and special condition components. While they approach to developing objectives may be considered too detail and mechanistic for some it does represent a powerful albeit time-consuming, tool for clarifying intended outcomes. In some program planning situation developing exquisite objectives may be neither necessary nor desirable. For example in cases where the role of the adult educator is to animate a group of adults sold that its members take responsibility for identifying what they want to learn, how they want to learn it and for organizing the resources necessary to support their learning, been developing objectives in advance may hinder the group more than it helps the group. Also in situationswith the learning outcomes cannot reasonably be anticipated or where the outcomes are sufficiently complex that they cannot be ethically represented in objectives, forcing the development of objectives may trivialize the nature of the program and mislead learners about the complexity of expected outcomes. In these cases it may be more useful to prepare a narrative description of the intended outcome free of the constraints imposed by more systematic approach is to prepare and objectives. The same price we paid when doing this however is that the planet may be accused of have any hidden agenda that they are not willing to rebuilt others, or that they have not thought carefully enough about intended outcome since if they hand they surely could prepare a list of objectives.

Alternative to objectives in program planning
It seems apparent from talking with dozens of practitioners and participating in planning meaning different kinds of programs that developing exquisite objectives is not necessary for the success in program planning. But what is necessary for the success is a relatively clear understanding of the intentions of those who are involved in planning. Objectives are one means to clarify intentions but there are other tools available that may be used individually or in combination to provide adequate clarity for many planning situations. Following are brief discussions of several alternative approaches which are not as powerful as objectives but that can be effective ways of clarifying intended outcomes if developing programs or instructional objectives is not considered the best use of limited planning time.

Purposes approach
This approach relies on description of the purpose of the program to communicate intended outcomes. Statement of purposes generally lack the precise language of objectives and cannot be used in the same
ways as objectives to guide instructional planning for evaluation. But a clear and concise purpose statement is a very good way to suggest that the program is designed to accomplish and can give potential participants and instructors a recently clear idea of why the program is being offered. Example: the purpose of this program is to encourage participants to adopt innovative approaches to competent resolution and to show how conflict resolution entities can be used to improve organizational effectiveness. This example of a purpose statement does not say anything directly about what participants will be capable of doing as result of the program but it does allow some inferences to be made about outcomes. From this statement it would be reasonable to conclude that participants will learn about innovative approaches to conflict resolution in organizations and that the program will help them develop the skills and knowledge necessary to use these approaches in their own work. In some cases, the word purpose may not be use at all but the statement can be prefaced with the phrase, the purpose of the program is... and it makes sense than the purpose approaches being used.

Processes approach
The processes approach relies on description or work will take place during the education program to communicate intended outcomes. Most descriptions of the process only hints at intended outcomes rather than describe them directly so it may only be possible to infer outcomes from descriptions of process. Example: this program will provide participants with an opportunity to assess their current assertiveness skills, to practice new assertiveness skills in simulated work situations, and to develop strategies to help them to apply assertiveness skills are perfectly in their work, family, and social lives. The three parts of the statement described what will be happening during the program, but it is not difficult to read into the statements what at least some of the intended outcomes are. For example, by the end of the program participants will understand that assertiveness skills they are ready possess will have developed the ability to apply new skills at work and will have learned how to develop a plan of action to use the current and new skills and in their lives. Again these outcomes must be inferred from the description of instructional processes, but this is not a difficult process.

Content approach
This approach relies on listing and discussing program topics of content and often leaves it to the reader to infer intended outcomes from the listing. Example: this program will include an introduction to transformational learning; distinguishing transformational learning from other types of learning; recent research on transformational learning; facilitating transformational learning; evaluating the outcomes of transformational learning. This listing contains no direct statements about intended outcomes but by analyzing the topics it is possible to infer the outcomes. Potential participants reasonably expect some indication of program content before they decide to dissipate and many institutions and agencies seem to rely on the content approach exclusively. This practice is potentially dangerous because the inferences
that people make about outcomes can go far beyond the ability of the program to deliver. Listing topics to be covered can lead learners to believe that they will developing more than a superficial understanding of -- or will develop advanced skills related to -- those topics. When used as a planning tool the content approach can be useful because it helps to clarify what will be included in the program. But it use exclusively it leaves a great deal to interpretation and may lead to misunderstandings between planners and instructors and between programs from sponsors and participants.

Benefits approach
This approach involves describing an anticipated benefits to participants of attending the program. Example: by attending this program you will be able to have greater influence on people, at power and polished to your professional image, and handle difficult people. Statements such as these are similar to goals and objectives but they lack the specificity of well-written objectives. They communicate intended outcomes more directly than some of the other approaches because few inferences have to be made from them. However they are not as specific as objectives and since they often described in its related to a job or family life, are very difficult to use as a basis for program evaluation. In other words benefits are useful for communicating the focus of program and for marketing a program that they may create expectations that the program cannot fulfill.

Combined approaches
Combinations of these approaches are also used to clarify intended outcomes of programs. Some planners may prefer to clarify outcomes by beginning with the purpose approach then moved to a more specific description using an objective was processes, content or benefit approach. An analysis of program descriptions would likely reveal that combined approaches are the most frequent use means to clarify intended outcomes with clients. Regardless of the process use it is always important to keep in mind the relationship between the various elements of program planning. Clarifying outcomes were done using purposes, objectives, benefits or any other approach is one element in program planning that is related to many others. For example, clarifying outcomes is directly related to both instructional planning and evaluation. In conventional program planning outcomes are defined and been instruction is crafted to promote those outcomes. Evaluation is connected, in part, and determining the degree to which the program produces the expected outcomes. So the process of clarifying outcomes is never an end in itself but rather is one element in the complex process of program planning.

Read the following journal article "Gifted children with learning disabilities: Theoretical implications and instructional challenge", by Vaidya, Sheila R., Education,

Compose at least a one paragraph summary of the article.

Compose at least one paragraph describing your reactions, opinions, and/or beliefs about the article.

This paper addresses a specific group of children: the gifted children with learning disabilities. The paper describes innovative strategies for identifying such children, instructional approaches to address their strengths and weaknesses, and theoretical implications.

John W., a fifth grader in the learning support self contained class, sits in front of the room, his mind focusing on issues unrelated to the language arts lesson in the classroom. The teacher noticing his wandering look, asks him to focus on the task at hand. For awhile, he attends to the classroom lesson, only to drift back into his distraction. Whatever the cause of his in attention, he tends to spend a lot of time daydreaming, not engaged in the classroom and, is at risk for falling behind academically. However, in a one - to - one interaction with a peer or a teacher, he tends to be captured by ideas and demonstrates higher order thinking of a high quality.

Recent advances in our understanding of individual differences in learning make us aware of the importance of educational practices that consider how children learn while taking into consideration the quality of their thought. While educators have always noted differences among learners, and the current literature makes many references to learning differences and learning styles, classroom practices often assume that all children learn in similar ways. This assumption works out well for some students. However, there is a large group of students who may approach learning in ways that are so different that they do not mesh with the regular approaches. Some of these students are identified as "learning disabled." Others continue to function in the average range in the regular classroom. Those who are identified as learning disabled receive support for their learning disability, others are in the regular classroom and not quite motivated or highly involved in school work. Very few are in gifted programs. Because the learning disability may mask their giftedness, this is a group that is difficult to identify as gifted. Thus, although some of these students may receive instruction for their learning disability, they are rarely screened for giftedness.

Although the field has moved considerably from the point at which it was ten years ago when most professionals found it difficult to handle the idea that a child could be both gifted and learning disabled (Torrance, 1992) the concept is not yet universally clear and acceptable. Conventional methods of identification have been criticized as inappropriate for atypical gifted children (Minner, 1990). Baum and Owens (1988) conclude that while high ability/LD students seem to have characteristics in common with both learning disabled and the gifted populations, they may also have unique traits. They also conclude that high ability/LD students tend to have poor academic self-concepts and believe that they do not fit in well with their peers. Confusion about their mix of special abilities and sharp deficits may lead to feelings of helplessness and a general lack of motivation. Because of the limited research with these children, not much is known about such characteristics.

The paper will address a specific group of children: the gifted children with learning disabilities. Discussion will also include strategies for identifying such students, instructional approaches to address their strengths and weaknesses, and the theoretical implications.

How to Identify/Assess Gifted learning disabled Students
Underachievement in gifted children has many sources. However, systematic research involving the identification of and educational intervention with young gifted underachievers is scarce (Janos and Robinson, 1985). Often, the intelligence of creativity displayed by many of these children is noted in one-to-one learning situations with adults. The problem may be a mismatch between the school's curriculum and testing procedures and the children's learning styles, that is, a person - environment mismatch (Reading, 1989), or a mismatch between the teaching style and learning style. Failure to consider the relationship between the students' unique needs and the school environment has left learning disabled gifted underachievers misunderstood and poorly served within the educational system.

A typical gifted student with learning disabilities may suffer from an auditory processing problem, a visual perception problem or an attention deficit disorder or exhibit a deficit such as difficulty in following a sequence of verbal instructions. In any event, it is one of these disorders that has resulted in the learning "gaps" exhibited by the students in testing situations. Yet, many of these students may exhibit powerful imagination and higher order thinking or creativity as manifested in originality, novelty of thought or problem solving ability and motivation to learn, rarely measured by the tests. They may be described as potential which is buried treasure (Peterson, 1987) because their giftedness often goes unrecognized and uncherished.

Identification of the gifted students with learning disabilities might be accomplished better by portfolio type assessments and by creativity tests, supplemented by information from IQ and achievement tests. Additional supplementary information should be obtained from parents and teachers. Since awareness results in early identification, teacher preparation inservice and preservice programs should focus upon educating teachers about the gifted learning disabled. The following approaches to assessment are recommended.

1. Portfolio Assessments -

A portfolio consists of a student's assembled work. The steps or phases through which students pass in the course of developing a project are contained in the portfolio. The typical portfolio contains a record of ideas, drafts, critiques, journal entries, final drafts and teacher's suggestions, parent's suggestions or suggestions of those who influenced the project in a positive or negative way. Thus, portfolios provide an insight into the child's process of thought and uniqueness of ideas, from a developmental perspective.

2. Psychological Tests -

(1) We recommend the use of creativity tests which measure divergent thinking, such as the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Such a test measures divergent thinking areas such as originality , fluency, flexibility in thinking, and performance on such a test determines the nature of thinking rather than specific skills in performing at academic tasks. (2) IQ assessments should be used to determine learner's strengths and weaknesses, while achievement test scores may be used to determine giftedness in a specific subject area.

3. Information from parents and teachers.

(i) Parents- While many parents may recognize the high quality of their gifted child's intellectual ability, they may be focusing on addressing the difficulties posed by the child's learning disability and therefore, not nurture the giftedness. Hence, awareness on the part of the parents of such a combination of high quality talent and disability in their child, is necessary. Information obtained from parents should consist of behaviors such as the expression of curiosity, abstract thinking. Examples of these may consist of demonstration of the understanding of concepts such as time or the use of metaphors in language (ii) Teachers can be extensive sources of information with regard to school related performance of gifted learning disabled students. Some of this information is found in teacher's progress reports and anecdotal records about the children's learning and talents exhibited in the classroom.

How to Teach Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities
Two approaches exist in special education. They focus on the two extreme groups and are either designed to address a weakness or to develop superior abilities, such as giftedness. Typically, learning disabled gifted students are placed in classes to provide learning support. There are no enrichment programs to address their strengths. Because of the unusual mix of strengths and weaknesses within these children, the strategies typically used with the gifted or the learning disabled learner do not work. Although many educators have argued that gifted LD students require specialized programming to meet their unique needs (Baum, 1988; Whitmore & Maker, 1985) practical limitations make separate programming an unlikely administrative option, especially in the face of the move to integrate special education and regular education. Hence, the strategies recommended here are meant to address their needs in either a regular classroom, a learning support classroom or a classroom with gifted children.

We recommend that instructional needs be met along with psychological needs. What do theories of learning tell us about teaching gifted children with learning disabilities? To address children's instructional needs, it is recommended that the following aspects should be considered:

Theoretical Considerations
Individual Differences in Learning Styles
Understanding learning strategies used by gifted learning disabled students can help teachers improve effectiveness in all learners. An understanding of the child's style of learning, thinking and operating in the world, is essential. Children's styles of learning focus upon differences such as visual, auditory, kinesthetic-tactual (Dunn, 1984) or field dependent or field independent style (Witkin, 1977) or the many intelligences manifested by children (Gardner, 1990).

Styles of Attribution
Children's styles of attribution, (Seligman, 1990), used extensively in cognitive therapy approaches with adults and children, have not been studied with reference to their impact in the classroom. Attributional style is a habit of thinking that determines how people attribute success and failures in their lives. According to Seligman, the style of attribution often determines the degree of optimism or pessimism that characterizes an individual's personality. Typically, a person who attributes successful events in his/her life to their own abilities or effort while attributing failures to external circumstances, is likely to expect optimistic outcomes and therefore, operate in a more successful way. On the other hand, pessimistic or helpless persons attribute failure to their lack of ability or perseverance while attributing successful situations to events beyond their control. Hence, being "helpless" results in a style of operating in the world in which, events and situations are beyond a person's control. Seligman believes that a person's style of making attributions or explanatory style is a demonstrable risk factor for subsequent depression. Hence, cognitive therapy for depressed children is usually used to change their attributions. Attribution training emphasizes the direct relationships between strategies and effort, encouraging students to persist when they encounter failure.

When we meet a gifted learner who is confident of his capabilities, we may expect that such a child is well aware of his strengths and attributes his strengths and successes to himself and to his efforts. Attributional styles among learning disabled children are known to be outer directed, especially when they succeed, that is these children blame themselves for their failures and do not give themselves credit for their success. Therefore, awareness of their own strengths is minimal in such children. Because of failure experiences, they may pay more attention to their weaknesses, disregarding their strengths. Although gifted, they may be negatively affected and often confused by their mi of strengths and weaknesses. Hence, early awareness of the giftedness and nurturance of the giftedness is essential. Teaching approaches should focus upon making a child's attributions more "inner directed." This may be accomplished through metacognitive approaches, whereby children are instructed to pay attention to their success and consistent feedback from the teacher which draws attention to the success in a concrete manner, using approaches like written comments or verbal discussion.

Generic Influences on Learning
Reisman and Kauffman (1980) have proposed that there are generic factors that influence learning. They group these into four categories: Cognitive influences, psychomotor-influences, physical and sensory factors, social and emotional factors. Cognitive influences are described as those that relate to processing and retrieval of information such as, retention of information, ability to draw inferences, make decisions and judgments, ability to abstract and cope with complexity. Psychomotor influences are related to visual and auditory abilities such as visual perception, visual-sequential memory, auditory perception. Physical and sensory factors include those related to physical impairments or vitality versus fatigue. Social factors are related to an individual's ability to interact with others, using diplomacy, understanding another's point of view. Emotional factors relate to fears, moods such as happy or sad. (Reisman and Payne, 1987 p. 23, 23). The generic influences proposed by Reisman and Kaufman may be considered to be compatible with Garner's idea of multiple intelligences, implying that abilities vary along the dimensions of cognitive, emotional, social, physical and psychomotor aspects as do the different intelligences. This implies that if teachers become aware of the various factors that influence learning, in the extreme, these may represent handicaps or talents. Awareness through observations of these various factors and how they come into play with the learning situation is an important factor of consideration for teachers.

Personality Patterns and the Cultivation of the Gift
While most of the instructional approaches focus on the learning characteristics, personality characteristics are invaluable assets in developing intellectual talents. Personality characteristics such as a high level of competitiveness and a determination to do their best at all costs have begun to enter into the definitions of giftedness, especially as traits necessary to cultivate giftedness. Energy, enthusiasm, persistence, perseverance, striving are described as characteristics that are identified as especially important in the cultivation of early identified giftedness. The cultivation of the gift is a major concern when gifted children are handicapped because the handicapping condition or the disability interferes with the development of the gift.

Teaching Approaches
The teaching approaches should consider the cultivation of the gift and an awareness of the ways in which the disability interferes. There is no single approach that is likely to be satisfactory in meeting instructional needs with a wide disparity in giftedness and disability. However, a framework emerging from the above theoretical considerations and which considers psychological needs along with learning needs may specify direction for teachers and parents. Based on some of the described characteristics of gifted learning disabled children it appears that teaching approaches may emerge from a teacher's awareness of generic influences on the learner, multiple intelligences, learning style differences and differences in styles of attribution.

Learner Diversity
Diversity among learners should be considered, especially from the standpoint of generic influences and multiple intelligences. This awareness enables teachers to address specific weaknesses in specific ways. For example, if a child has a cognitive difficulty in sequencing, Reisman and Kauffman (1980) recommend presenting small amounts of the sequence to be learned in an organized format in order to facilitate retrieval. To combat distractibility, Reisman and Kauffman (1980) recommend a structured environment and metacognitive self-instruction.

While remediation efforts are important, the gifted LD student's instruction must also address strengths. Hence, in instances of exceptional oral language abilities or exceptional analytical abilities, problem-solving skills should be addressed with enrichment activities. The child's ideas, thoughts, knowledge or theories and intuitions should be considered in developing an educational program, accompanied by evaluating strengths and weaknesses. For example, emphasis should be on developing the learner's strengths and becoming self-directed learners.

Metacognitive Strategies
Emphasizing the motivation to achieve, Heckhausen (1982), emphasizes that the child should attend to the outcome in a way that leaves no doubt that the outcome is recognized as "self-produced." This concept relates to the idea of locus of control and attributional style and metacognition. Assisting students in the development of metacognitive strategies is a useful general approach. Metacognitive understanding about the value of effort may be an important determinant of performance, particularly for Gifted/LD children. Metacognitive approaches involving self-assessment and reflection are essential strategies for teaching gifted/LD students and need to be investigated further. Because teachers sometimes are not explicit or detailed in providing strategy instruction, children are often left to their own devices in deciding when and how to use a strategy.

Psychological Needs
Senf (1983) suggests that gifted LD children are more often referred for assessment not because of academic deficits but rather because of non-academic reasons, such as the psychological distress resulting from the discrepancy in their abilities. Thus, their social and emotional needs are of major concern. Counseling and one - to - one mentoring may be useful approaches to help the child cope and manage his/her learning disability. Through enrichment activities in areas where the child shows strengths, develops strengths, children should be encouraged to take pride in their accomplishments and strengths, thereby encouraging students to compensate for their weaknesses by developing strengths. Instruction should focus upon making the child's attributional style more inner directed and thereby improving student's motivation to learn by circumventing difficulties emerging from psychological issues.

Future Implications
The developmental perspective of how knowledge is constructed by a child within the framework of this or her own perspective and personality is important.

More research is needed to investigate successful techniques of teaching for the gifted learning disabled students to learn in spite of their disabilities. Torrance (1992) refers to the use of "right brain" learning techniques, especially, the use of music and dance as a facilitator in teaching. Innovative methods are necessary and many of these will possibly be invented by creative efforts by children, teachers and parents.

The need for collaborative interventions between parents, teachers and school psychologists, to meet the needs of the students is necessary. Mentorship programs provide gifted learning disabled students with an opportunity to learn and experiment, develop their potential skills and gain competencies. These benefits and learner outcomes are what makes a valuable part of education for the gifted student with learning disabilities.

Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by persistent deficits in social interactions and communication across multiple contexts, including deficits in social reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, and skills in developing, maintaining and understanding relationships. In addition to the social communication deficits, the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder requires the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). While IDEA 2004 does not mandate inclusion in the legislation, there is accepted movement by families, professionals and advocacy groups such as Council for Exceptional Children-Division for Early Childhood (2001) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (Brendekamp and Copple 1997), to include young children with disabilities in early childhood programs. Young children with autism are being increasingly included in early childhood programs with typically developing peers. Early childhood educators have risen to face the challenge, and this has resulted in enhanced learning for young children autism in the regular classroom. As collaboration becomes more defined it changes the dynamics of teaching from one of working alone in the classroom to sharing duties such as planning, instruction, responsibility for students, assessment of student learning, problem solving, and classroom management (Ripley 1991).

This assignment focuses on the multiple roles of early childhood educators as they work with the diverse needs of young children with autism in their classrooms.

The following is a fictitious scenario which exemplifies the needs and services often encountered in today's early childhood public school setting. This vignette specifically identifies that service provision for children with disabilities must be a collaborative effort. Service provision is a team effort and must include everyone. "Everyone" is defined as early childhood educator, intervention specialist, related services/support personnel, administrators and parent(s).
Cody is a 4 year old child who attends preschool. The preschool teacher, Mrs. Benedetti, has observed that Cody is not demonstrating the skills typical and expected of a child of his age level. He repeats most of what was said to him, does not know his colors, and does not play with the other children. He makes little eye contact and his attention span is much shorter than that of his peers. He also has frequent temper tantrums when asked to transition from one activity to another. This is Cody's first experience in a preschool or child care setting. Mrs. Benedetti has observed these behaviors and expressed concerns to her building administrator within the first weeks of the school year. Nonetheless, she decided to wait for a couple of weeks to make sure that Cody was not just experiencing adjustment problems. Cody's behaviors did not change, so the administrator organized a meeting with Mrs. Benedetti, the speech and language therapist, the school psychologist, and Cody's mother, Katie, to discuss Cody's behaviors and plan strategies to support his learning.
The team decided to observe Cody in a variety of situations and use some basic strategies that might help with his language and socialization skills. These strategies included structured play in which language and social skills were embedded, positive behavioral supports and a weekly progress report to Cody's mother. The team suggested that Katie consider taking Cody for a comprehensive evaluation from a developmental pediatrician.
The team met again a month later. It was determined that the intervention they tried had not been successful and decided to proceed with individual psychological and speech and language evaluations. In the meantime, Cody's mother had also taken him to a developmental pediatrician who diagnosed Cody with autism. The results of these evaluations and with the recommendations of his team qualified him as eligible for special education services.
Cody displayed the following characteristics. in his interactions in the classroom. He often did not respond to oral communication, his speech was echolalic, where he repeated the last two words heard with little understanding, and he avoided eye contact. Cody's plan was extremely ritualistic and lacked imagination. he spent most of his time lining up toys or stacking blocks in a specific order. When other children entered his play area Cody immediately left the setting. He did not participate in group activities including circle time. Transitions were difficult and he had frequent tantrums.
Initially, Katie was reluctant to identify Cody as a student with special needs because had negative memories of special education and children being isolated in separate classrooms. Eventually, she agreed to the identification because Cody would be able to stay in his regular classroom. In this environment, he received speech and language therapy through a speech and language pathologist. In addition, he was provided with specific educational interventions for the development of his academic and social skills through the services of an itinerant early childhood intervention specialist. An IEP (Individual Education Program) was developed in order to document his level of functioning, needs and goals/objectives. Katie agreed to this IEP as a result of a successful team meeting with all stakeholders.

1. Develop an IEP for Cody.
One of the early steps to successful collaboration and effective practices, of which the parent is an active partner, is the implementation of the Individual Education Program (IEP).

Write an IEP to meet Cory's unique needs including identifying eligible special education services in the regular education setting with typically developing peers. Fill in the blank form provided to create Cody's IEP. DO NOT COMPLETE PAGE 6 OF THE IEP WHICH IS ABOUT STATE EXAMS. You will type into the IEP document all of the responses.

2. Collaborating with Cody's family.
Collaboration is the banding together of the team of practitioners and parents to better plan and meet the needs of their students (Friend and Bursuck 2009) It is the sharing of resources, skills and various perspectives of the team to enhance learning (Ripley 1997). The last several years has seen the role of teachers redefined to reflect issues such as inclusion which necessitates collaboration among professionals, students, families and community agencies (Salend 2008).

a) Describe how you can involve Cody's family in functional skills such as language, self-help, and social/behavioral skills.

b) Describe how you can create opportunities for Cody's parents to share their needs, expectations, and values, and for school personnel to listen.

3. Physical Environment.
As the suggestion of the itinerant early childhood intervention specialist, Mrs. Benedetti replaced the tube lights with softer lamps when natural lighting was insufficient. While Cody was impacted more light, certain sounds also bothered him at times. During those times Cody was allowed to wear headphones or earplugs to reduce distress caused by the noise.

Since Cody had significant qualitative differences with social interactions and language, the natural environment, the classroom, must include opportunities for Cody to use language and interact with his peers through materials and topics which are of high interest to him during play.

Describe how you would address these needs in the 3 sections below?
1. Daily routines.
2.Play activities.
3. Learning centers. Ex. Dramatic play, blocks, etc.

When done addressing on the three, How would you begin to transition the child into an activity set up for the child?

To the writer

After completing
Part 1: IEP forms then you will respond to
Part 2: The collaboration with parts a and b. Then you will respond to
Part 3: Physical environment of a preschool classroom with parts 1, 2, and 3.

The IEP is about 9 pages to fill in responses. The other questions in part 2 and 3 are about a page each.

I will email the IEP forms now.

Educational literature review under general concept of "Discipline with Dignity." Concentrating on how administrators can implement system with teachers and entire school, keeping High School students in the classroom and out of the deans office. Having teachers to have more "instructiional time" and less classroom behavior intervention time. Same for administrators having more time for school improvement and less time for behavior intervention. Relevant Research on "Best Practice." Can use theorists studies, can compare/contrast other theories, statistics on graduation rates or state testing, and experiences of example schools or leaders on topic.

Can provide other details upon request.

Write an essay that delineates your own supervisory platform. You should use the essential questions regarding beliefs about supervision on page 96 in the textbook as a basis for your platform. Your platform should also reflect one of the three educational super-philosophies discussed on pages 96 through 100.

I will be sending 2 resources. The other 2 you may choose.

I will also be sending pages 96-100

There are faxes for this order.

I live in Rural ND with a much older population and very limited resources for health care.

Educational plan to help improve the health and welfare needs of a vulnerable population in your community. In your plan, include the demographics of your community and the health care needs of the selected vulnerable population.

Competency 1: Evaluate scholarly nursing literature that supports evidence-based nursing practice
Explain appropriate evidence-based nursing interventions that will provide quality care to vulnerable populations.
Competency 2: Explain ways to promote safe, quality, evidence-based care to populations and communities in health care environments.
Describe health care resources that serve vulnerable populations.
Explain why a specific population in a community qualifies as at-risk.
Create an evidence-based plan to promote health and wellness in an at-risk population.
Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is consistent with expectations of nursing professionals.
Use a minimum of 4 references. (These must be recent, from within the past five years.)

Create a lesson plan for your selected population. Be sure you identify the population your lesson is meant for. As you develop your lesson plan, keep in mind the comprehension level of your target audience and the information you want them to take away. Include the following:

Explain why a specific population in your community qualifies as at-risk.
Recommend evidence-based strategies to improve health outcomes for this at-risk group.
Describe health care resources that serve this vulnerable population.
Explain appropriate nursing interventions that will provide quality care to this vulnerable population.
Create strategies to support plan implementation, addressing characteristics of culture, ethnicity, and social background that could affect the plan.

This essay is for the course: Research methodology in psychology.

The topic for this essay is educational psychology of children in schools. The paper should be written in APA consistant throughout. The main focus should be on the tests and measures associated with 3-5 theories on the topic. Main areas to include in the essay surrounding the topic should be the identification of 3-5 theories defining the research probelm, analyzing the research methodology behind each theory, identification of the nature and the sources of error in each reseach theory, critically evaluating each research theory.

NO internet resources are allowed for use in this essay, only refereed material such as substantiated journal articles and books. The essay should be based on 12 original journal articles in the particular field of interest.

INstructions from the prof:

The essay should NOT simply be an annotated bibliography of the papers you have read. The essay should be organized to present what is currently known about the topic and at the same time provide a good story line. Papers should not be text-book like summaries, or look like pamphlets from a medical or industrial company. They should also not be a series of personal anecdotes.

Analyze the topic. Depth of analysis is preferable to breadth. Tell the reader lots about something not a little about a lot of things. Try to develop some form of a theme. It may be helpful to think of the paper as an attempt to establish an argument or make a point. You don't need to formulate a specific hypothesis about your topic, but your paper should have some form of direction.

Avoid vague descriptive terms. For example, do not write "the performance of the rats in Lashley's early experiments provided significant steps in understanding behiouristic learning principles." (what does this sentence mean? Why were the experiments significant? Did they provide incentive to work harder? Who knows? Who cares? Also avoid rhetorical questions.

Begin the paper by introducing the topic and what the approach to the topic is going to involve. Start with broad concepts and work towards the specifics. Don't begin or conclude the paper with profound statements. Begin the arguments and when you have finished what you are going to say, stop. At the end of the paper provide whatever conclusions you have arrived at and then stop. Try to write clearly and precisely even at the risk of being a bit dull at times.

Write an essay that includes the following:
Part I: a discussion of the value, characteristics, and purpose of an RTI program to a professional educational environment.
Part II: selection of an educational environment to modify including a plan of action to accommodate a response to intervention.

Background for part 2 the environment is an inner city school in Trenton New Jersey with a high population of Hispanic and African American students with common challenges a tough inner city school faces. Many of challenges for Hispanics are language issues and low parent involvement. Many African American students are involved in gangs with also little parent involvement. There are little or no programs that grab the attention of our at risk students. We need to incorporate afterschool programs incorporated with some type intermural system (sports) to attract these students.

Just giving you a little background. You may choose any idea you would like.

There are faxes for this order.

Customer is requesting that (johnfitz44) completes this order.

The topic that I have selected for my research project is seeing if there is a correlation between the RTI program at the District I work for and the California Standardized Test (CST) results. The purpose of this research project is to evaluate if the RTI program is really working for students success. The students that are in the remedial program are the ones that score two grades below their grade level. The goal of this particular remedial program is to have students exit out of the RTI and enter back into the core curriculum. However students can only exit the program if they score ?proficient? on the CST, which is making it very hard for students to enter into the core curriculum because the CST is testing at a different level than these students are learning. There are so many problems with this set up, why not have these students in the RTI programs take a standardized test that tests what they are being taught? Why not give these students the CMA (modified version of the CST)? The system is set up for failure. RTI works only if it is implemented correctly, but even with proper implementation, they need to be tested on what they learn. How can students be expected to do well on a test that measures their ability for a certain grade when their remedial class is teaching them at a much-modified rate?

Please look at the Language! program in particular

Review of the Literature

Prepare a written literature review on a specific topic. The topic should be related to your major such as special education, educational administration, school counseling, or educational psychology. The review should include predominately primary sources. Use the guidelines in the text as you prepare the review.

Review relevant literature as appropriate for the topic you select. This should provide an interpretative summary of the topic. The purpose of the literature review is to provide the historical background for a study, theoretical framework, and current research developments. A good review critiques the research studies and shows how the findings relate to the problem under study. This provides the link between existing knowledge and the problem you might want to study. The major purpose of the literature review is to determine what has already been done that relates to a proposed study.

The review should provide an understanding and insight into the problem and provide a framework for a study. It should point out research strategies and specific data collection approaches that have and have not been found to be useful in investigating a similar topic. Differentiate between literature and research. Make sure you review at least 10-15 research articles published in the last 5 years or so. There should be smooth transitions into sections and from one paragraph to another.


A review of the literature should start with an introduction that is untitled. Provide an orientation to the purpose of a study and refer to the topics to be covered in the chapter. The order of topics is from the global view to the specific. Generally one paragraph is sufficient.

A second paragraph should include how the review was conducted, the search engines utilized, and key words used to locate material.

Use subheadings as appropriate. (refer to APA, 2010, pp. 62-63). Based on the literature you have gathered, identify the three or so ?big? ideas or concepts related to the topic. Describe the relationship between these ideas. Each of the big ideas you have identified in the literature will become a heading or section of the review. There are three samples presented here.

Historical Overview

The historical overview provides information and context for the topic.

Relevant Theoretical Literature

In this section discuss the theoretical framework(s) that are underpinning the topic. For example a specific behavioral theory could be the basis for an instructional strategy or behavior modification strategy. Describe the theory and the supporting research.

Relevant Research

Review of relevant research studies related to the project. Discuss the existing knowledge base and identify the gaps in knowledge and make a link to your study. Review research studies that have contributed to current understanding and contribute to the need for your study. You need to cover thoroughly the research from the last 5 years. Classic research from more than 5 years may be cited as appropriate. You may have several headings related to different educational strategies.

Implications for Practice

Discuss the implications for educational practice raised by the research and literature you have reviewed. Given what the research says, what does this mean for your school, classes, or other teachers, counselors, or administrators?

Implications for Inquiry

What implications for future research can you draw from the literature you have reviewed? What additional kinds of studies should be completed?


Provide a brief summary of the literature reviewed and be sure to link to the methodology of your project. Discuss existing scientific knowledge base for your problem and identify gaps in the knowledge base and make reference or link to your study and methodology.

This has to be a Point of View (POV) paper. The general subject is related to educational psychology. Among these are the theory of Multiple Intelligences and its use, standards and accountability, the brain and learning, globalization and learning as well as others. This Point of View Paper should take a position on one of these issues and discuss your impressions about them. Why are they issues related to education? What, exactly, are the differing viewpoints? How do they relate to educational psychology? What are the implications in everyday classroom practice?

You may select any topical issue around which to write this position paper. (I will list some topics below to choose from) Make sure you connect this issue both to educational psychology as well as classroom practice.

Here are some issues that Education Week lists as Hot topcis particulary important in education today. You might find this usefull for the topic. Topics are:
A Nation at Risk Adequate Yearly Progress
Accountability After-School Programs
Achievement Gap Alternate Teacher Certification
Assessment Character education
charter schools choice
class size College Access
Comprehensive school reform Desegregation
distance learning dropouts
english-language learners high school reform
Home Schooling Leadership
Low-Performing schools No child left behind
Parent Involvement Prekindergarten
Private schooling privatization of public educat.
professional development reading
religion in school rural education
school construction school finance
school-to-work social promotion
special education standards
student health student mobility
teacher quality technology in education
Title I Tracking
Violence and Safety Vouchers
year-round schooling

Make sure that you connect the issue to some theory in educational psychology. Some suggestions might be:
- does constructivism work in today's classrooms? (Vygotsky, Piaget, Bruner)
- What is intelligence? (Gardner)
- Should schools continue to "track" students ability?(Gardner)
- Should schools adopt manadatory bullying policies?(Kohlberg)
- Do single sex classrooms work?(Erikson)
- Do school uniforms policies work? (Erikson)
- What is the impact of standardized testing on student growth and motivation?

For this paper take one current educational issue that you can connect to educational psychology and discuss its meaning, importance and implication for the field.

The Position Paper should be structured as follows:
- Present the issue under review. Give some background so the reader understands the scope of the issue. Tell why you think it's important and why the reader should care about it.
- Discuss its relevance to educational psychology, or what you determine this relevance to be. How and why do you think it relates to educational psychology? Why should a teacher care about this issue in the context of his/her classroom? Why should parents care? Why should pre-service teachers care?
- Present your opinions, feelings and response to the issue. What do you think about it? How would you handle its resolution(if it needs one)?

3-5 Sources are to be used. Journals and Periodicals can be used.


Write a plan for an elementary school incorporating all the traits from the "7 Common Traits Observed in Successful Schools."

The 7 traits are:
1. Strong Leadership
2. Positive belief and teacher dedication
3. Data utilization and analysis
4. Effective scheduling
5. Professional development
6. Scientifically based intervention programs
7. Parent involvement

At the end of the plan include an overall reflection with at least three major points pertaining to the actions to be taken in the classroom to ensure that the students are receiving the instruction they need.

Just a few sentences on each of the 7 traits will be fine.

Please number the sentences as you write about each one.

Ethics Case Study Detail

Case # 37:

Fairness in punishment

Category: Academic ethics

On September 17, 1999 a fight broke out in the stands during a football game at Eisenhower High School in Decatur, Illinois. The fight disrupted the game. About half of the nearby spectators scattered to avoid getting hurt. The fight, however, involved no weapons and resulted in no serious injuries to anyone. Six Eisenhower students who had taken part in the fight (which had been recorded on videotape), all African American, were immediately suspended. Shortly thereafter a hearing took place at which the students were presented with the charges against them and given an opportunity to respond. In late October the Decatur School Board voted, with only one dissent, from the sole African American member of the School Board, to expel the six students for a period of two years.

In August of 1998 the Decatur School Board had adopted a resolution which declared a "no tolerance position on school violence." In most other school districts a two year expulsion would be imposed only in the most grave kinds of disciplinary infractions. For example, of the three students expelled for two years in the Chicago Public Schools during 1999, one was charged with attempted murder (with a gun) off campus, another charged with aggravated battery off campus, and the third allegedly threatened in school to cut a student's throat with a pair of scissors.

The decision of the Decatur School Board to expel the six students for two years generated immense controversy. Reverend Jesse Jackson, and other members of the Push/Rainbow Coalition, which he leads, came to Decatur to take up the students' cause. In early November Illinois Governor George Ryan and State Superintendent of Public Instruction Max McGee met with the Decatur School Board and Jesse Jackson in an effort to defuse the situation. Superintendent McGee proposed that the students be given an opportunity to receive alternative schooling while expelled (the Decatur School Board's expulsion order had made no such provision). He also suggested that the students be allowed to apply for readmission at the end of the fall semester contingent upon satisfactory academic work and conduct in the alternative school setting. Jesse Jackson, on behalf of the students, indicated that he considered Superintendent McGee's suggestions fair and reasonable. The Decatur School Board rejected them but, owing to intense persuasive efforts by Governor Ryan, reduced the expulsion order to one year, with provision of alternative schooling.

Jesse Jackson made it clear that the six students, their families, and their supporters in the community, which included many of the African American residents of Decatur, viewed the School Board's response as unacceptable. He denounced the "zero tolerance" position on school violence in Decatur as the latest in a series of vindictively harsh policies directed at young people throughout the United States. Jackson called attention to the fact that not long before the fight that took place on September 17, 1999, a student at Roosevelt Junior High School in Decatur, who had made a bomb threat, received a suspension of only a few days. Jackson also pointed to statistics indicating that of the last fifty seven students expelled from Decatur public schools, forty seven had been African American.

Push/Rainbow Coalition attorneys filed a lawsuit in federal court protesting the expulsion of the six students. On January 12, 2000 a federal judge in Urbana, Illinois issued a decision that upheld in every respect the action taken by the Decatur School Board.

Rubric: Analyze a case study of ethical dimensions and principles ath include: a minimum of two dimensions and two principles of ethics based on golden rule, the good of all is greater than self-interesrt, pubnlic or common welfare, equity and social justice applied to a specific educational orgainization setting.

Differentiations of ethical principles within a and across cultures.

Definitions: Dimensions of ethical thiking include situational , contextual, societal, education, and cultural.

Principles include utilitarian and deontological principles as well as the following: golden rule, common good over self interest, public values versus private values, equity, and social justice.

Essay must unclude:

1. Essay articulates a profund personal defintion/meaning of ethics.

2. It articultes more than two dimensions and two principles defined above.

3. Differentiates between intentions and deliberate, ethical actions.

4. applies more than two stated dimensions and principles to a high school setting.

5. Essay explicitly acknowledges ethical differences[in dimensions and principles] across cultures.

Response to Intervention RTI

This is not an informational paper, but a review of the literature. The literature will be gathered from peer-reviewed, scholarly journals and will be PRIMARY sources (original research). You may use secondary sources in your introduction; however, only primary sources will be used to write the actual review (results). This paper must be a minimum of 16 pages with 16 sources. It must be written in APA (6th ed.) format exclusively. Ensure the resources page is written correctly with the APA 6th ed. format. It is very important that these requirements are followed exactly. I will attach a rubric as a source material that must be followed under the "4-target" column. The requirements for the paper are: Introduction of Topic, Information and Evidence Presented, Support of Author's Ideas, Sequential Development of Ideas and Conclusion. It is important to ensure the proper use of standard English, the sources (as requested earlier) are reputable and APA Style Reference Citations & List, and APA-Style Manuscript Preparation. The attached rubric must be used to ensure the paper matches the requirements listed under "4-Target." For example, the conclusion should provide an "Excellent summary of topic and findings, followed by appropriate concluding remarks and recommendations that inspire the reader to further inquiry."

The topic is Response to Intervention (RTI). RTI is a huge part of the education world. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about RTI and see how it could affect children at the preschool level. Also, why dont they include preschool children? I hear mixed reactions about RTI. Is RTI working? Are all children getting the services needed or are they missing out?

I am concerned that all children do not receive the correct services that they need. It would be sad to see children missing out on services because they just miss the cut off. I hope to find some answers to these questions with this research.

I appreciate your work and look forward to a quality product.

Format or citation style: APA
Number of cited sources: 5
Will you be faxing any materials to us? No
Specific guidelines: This paper should explore research questions that you are able to draw conclusions about by the end of the paper (e.g., What strategies are most effective for building math self-effacy in girls and do the effectiveness of these strategies differ across aage and race/ethnicity? ) A minimum of 5 individual journals must be utilized and you should have these articles available to turn in with your paper upon request. references must be in APA style. 4 written page paper your refernces sheet will be number 5, don't count your signature sheet. 12 font double space
The class is Educational Psychology. My masters is in Counseling psychology.

could you on separate sheet
1.introduction question
1 research question
3-finding questions
1- conclusion question

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