Intelligence Analysis Essays Prompts

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Hunting the Jackal the Memoir

Hunting the Jackal: Reaction Paper

Format: The paper should be four to five pages in length. You may use MLA or APA format, but be consistent. Use the same format throughout. Consult the Chicago Manual of Style for any questions you may have. I expect you to cite specific passages from the book to support your points.

Grammar: Try to avoid passive sentences and write in the active voice. Be consistent in your use of tense, with either the past-tense or present-tense.

Approach: The essay should be your direct reaction to the book, not a mere summary of the book.

Referencing the textbook: You may reference the textbook to place Hunting the Jackal in the broader context of the Cold War, Vietnam and the war against terrorism.

Sample Questions: There are only suggestions on how to approach the reading You do not have to user either or any of these questions to form you response to the book.

What does Hunting the Jackal reveal about the ways in which the US responded to the Cold War? What does the book suggest about the evolution of the armed forces and the use of guerilla units during the Cold Warm the daily missions, struggles, and gangers if Special Forces units?

What does the book reveal about the evolution of warfare overt the past 50 years?
Consider groups such as SOG, ODA, CIDG, and JSOC.

How did the Cold War affect the rest of the world? Hawaii, Sudan, Libya, Vietnam. Afghanistan.

How are either of these events listed as microcosms of the Cold War? Bong Son Raid, Operation 35, Ba Kev, Khartoumm how he contextualized Osama bin Laden, Edwin Wilson

His take, a soldiers take, on politics? Vietnamization, the Church Committee, the Patton Formula, do-gooders, foot-draggers, lethal findings, Stockholm Syndrome

His take on certain administrations? Nixon, Clinton, Reagan, for example.

What does the book reveal about the conflict between the U.S State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency?

You may also mention the characters and their place in global diplomacy: Colonel Savuth, Colonel Simmons, Abdel Rahman, Hassan al-Turabi President Omar Hassan, Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, Edwin Wilson, and Osama bin Laden.

What, if anything, about Hunting the Jackal surprised you? Did the book contradict or support other depiction of the war such as the textbook, other books you have read, movies you may have seen?

Finally, you should also be critical and address anything about the book that you did or did not like. This is, however, a book written by a soldier, so try not to overburdened or dismay about the use if military jargon regarding such as weapons or aircrafts. Be sure, however, to use examples throughout the book, not just the beginning or the end.

America the World We Know

You are asked to write a paper showing a understanding of work in modern America. Included in this paper must be an analysis of positive and negative aspects of our relatively new service/knowledge based economy and out place in the global economy. You must also critically analyze the interconnectedness of immigration, globalization, democracy, and corporate power. At least 15% of the paper should be self-reflexive. In other words, you should discuss how the changes in the workplace, and increasing service orientation of our economy have affected your life. This paper is to be 8-9 pages in length, with proper formatting and citations. You must cite all of the following three films:

The High Cost of Low Prices - highlights the corporate practices and low price of Wal-Mart and how this impacts America and the world.

The Corporation - explores the nature and spectacular rise of the dominant institution of our time. Part film and part movement, The Corporation is transforming audiences and dazzling critics with its insightful and compelling analysis. Taking its status as a legal "person" to the logical conclusion, the film puts the corporation on the psychiatrist's couch to ask "What kind of person is it?" You can view the film in its entirety on YouTube here

This Is What Democracy Looks Like! - covers the protest at the World Economic Forum meeting of 11 September 2000 in Melbourne, Australia. You can view the film in its entirety on GoogleVideo here

International Trade - Inter- and

Dear Sir,

I would like the writer Serban Brebenel to complete the assignment in 3 days time, or please find another suitable good writer if Serban Brebenel can not finish it on time. Many thanks. (Here comes with the website for writer's reference: )


Distinguish between inter-industry and intra-industry trade. How does economic theory explain intra-industry trade? Can the Heckscher-Ohlin model of trade explain intra-industry trade?

Access the extent and the pattern of inter and intra-industry trade (a) with in the EU and (b) between an EU member state and China. What are the implications of your results for trade diversion and trade creation within the EU?

Can the recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) be attributed to the need for the expansion of intra-industry trade within the EU?

Note: The assignment should include an analysis of relevant international trade data using tables and graphs and a case study (if required), an in depth theoretical analysis using relevant literature to support discussion, and linking theory with evidence within a framework of a case study to arrive at a conclusion.


Part 1: This is the case history information.

CASE: Respondent: James Bondo

15 y.o. white male resides with divorced father and 10 year old brother; father works lengthy hours in construction field and abuses alcohol; father has physically abusive tendencies when he drinks; mother sexually abused both children and is not permitted visitation. She was removed from the household 2 years ago. James, the respondent, was sexually abused starting at age 6 and continuing through age 12.

The youth spends much of his free time watching violent movies and playing violent video games. He has stated that survival and revenge techniques needed for life can be learned from such movies and games.

James, in concert with 4 other juveniles, committed Rape 1; a knife was used; the victim was a white female age 14. He indicates that he was merely acting out a horror game he and his friends subscribe to and learned to play on the Internet. He and his friends indicate the victim was dressed provocatively and alone at the time of the incident. He denies his responsibility and argues there was no victim, the court has found otherwise. The youth also reports he and his peers felt highly motivated to commit this act when the victim happened by them in a poorly lit city park since this is how the scenario unfolds in the Internet game. The victim was on her way home from the public library at 9:00p.m. when she was confronted by the youth and dragged into a wooded area.

The respondent abuses alcohol and no other drugs; he regularly attends school but routinely cuts classes; he is verbally abusive toward teachers and peers.

Youth has 2 prior assaults: (1) age 11, a misdemeanor involving a female peer, he performed 25 hours community service work; (2) age 12, felony--he struck a female teacher with chukka sticks he was also charged for unlawful possession of a weapon in this latter case; he was placed on probation for 2 years, and given 50 hours community service work, counseling once a month and 10 day school suspension.

School officials labeled the respondent learning disabled and attention deficit disorder during the preceding year. The youth engages in self-mutilation by self-tattooing and body piercing with safety pins. The school psychiatrist has indicated an absence of proper social bonding and attachment to parental figures in the family, anger displacement and aggressive personality tendencies. An in-school, special education program is being designed. James is a below average student and is not involved in any sports, clubs or extra curricular activities.

In Part 1, state the theory or theories you intend to use to explain this youth's behavior.

Part 2: In part 2, provide a 3-4 page (900-1200 words), double-spaced, typed paper that provides: (A) a brief summary (1-2 paragraphs) of the legal and social background of the youth described above; (B) a theoretical analysis that explains why this youth may have evolved into the delinquent that is before the juvenile court, and (C) a viable intervention strategy that coincides with your theoretical explanation. Provide a reference page (bibliography) of sources used -- at least six sources must be used for your research and at least 3 different ones cited in the text of your response. Your reference page must be in APA style.

Instructions:This assignment is similar to a "Current Events" assignment you might have experienced in a High School Social Studies or World Geography course.

During this eight week course, there will be plenty of news pertaining to terrorism. Your assignment is to locate terrorist related events (operations, intelligence, media exposure, financial, etc.) and to record your thoughts about those events inside this exam.

Your responses should follow this format (example):

Who: Al Qaeda in Iraq
What: Suicide bomber at Mosque
Where: Najaf
When: 20 Mar 06 as reported by Reuters News Service.
How: Suicide bomber used vehicle born IED and drove car into front door of mosque.
Brief Analysis: AQIZ continues to strike at Shia holy sites in an attempt to create more chaos, undermind the government of national unity, and incite a civil war between Sunni and Shi sects. This isn't the first attack on holy sites credited to AQIZ and perhaps not the last (analysis should be 250 words max...short, pithy, succinct)
note: please write 150 words per question.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL: ** Does Birth Order Have a Major Influence On or Determine Personality Development? **
Must be a full fledged 10 page research proposal (minimun not counting title page or reference page). With a topic that is a well researched issue, a new path must be charted. This proposal must address a social science question and be based, at least in part, on qualitative methods. Papers must be doubled spaced, 12 Pt Times Roman font, appropriate margins (one inch), APA documentation, in-text citations. Numbers on text pages and a reference page.
-- A clearly written introduction which provides an overview and explores the context for the study;
-- An explanation of the rationale for the study;
-- Clearly stated research questions;
-- A thorough review of the literature on the issue/question;
-- A discussion of method, including your justification for why you selected it (and not another); method discussion will include research design, sampling, and all of the issues that are specific to method (i.e., overt/covert, gaining access, participant/observer, incentives, measurement instruments/questions asked, etc..)
-- How you will handle reliability, validity, objectivity or the equivalent
-- How you will approach data analysis
-- A thorough discussion of possible applications for (and limitations to) your research
** Also, the first three of the five phases of inquiry must be addressed:
-- The researcher as a multicultural subject;
-- Theoretical paradigms and perspectives;
-- Researh Strategies

Kudler Fine Foods is a gourmet grocery store that has experienced significant growth and is now focused on expanding its services, improving the efficiency of its operations, and increasing the consumer purchase cycle. Use the virtual organization information to access additional information on Kudler Fine Foods. Using Kudler Food's Marketing overview as a guide, prepare a 3 page paper in which you justify the importance of marketing research in the development of Kudler Fine Food's marketing startegy and tactics, and identify the areas where additional market research is needed. Also, analyze the importance of competitive intelligence and analysis in regards to the development of Kudler Fine Food's marketing strategy and tactics.
There are faxes for this order.

Disability in Society and Film

Disability in Society

These two assignments will allow students to analyze how society experiences disability as it is portrayed in film and as perceived and experienced by families in day-to-day situations with a child with a disability. Additional information on these two assignments is provided as attachments to this syllabi.

Film Analysis

Summary of film
Provide a full reference (APA style) for your film.
Provide a short summary of the plot and a description of the major disability issues addressed in the film.
Describe any character or role that that epitomizes the issue(s) being addressed?

Critique of the film:
Answer the following questions (number each response) to report your analysis (your thoughts and reflections). Write each section heading and then fully answer in paragraph format.
1. Emotional Response: Describe your emotional, intellectual and behavioral responses. For example, how did this movie make you feel or think? What did you want to do after viewing the film?
2. Portrayal: Explain whether the person(s) with a disability was portrayed as ordinary people, as superhuman, or were they stereotyped. For example, were they viewed as
an object of pity (someone to feel sad or sorry for, less fortunate)
a burden or in need of charity (needing help)
a menace or an object of dread (feared, scary, made you/others anxious)
an object of ridicule (humorous, silly, laughable)
subhuman (less than human, a vegetable, animal like, defective)
sick (diseased, something wrong)
holy innocent (with a special protection from God, without the ability to understand evil)
sexual deviate (sexual pervert or asexual)
3. Filmmaking: What do you think the filmmaker was trying to say about people with disabilities? (Were there values or stereotypes that the filmmaker subtly or not so subtly, reinforced?) Give examples to support your interpretation of the filmmakers intention. If this film reported on historical discrimination, do you think this discrimination is still present today?
4. Images: Discuss how the story line included images in how the person(s) with a disability were portrayed. For example, were they portrayed as having
inherent strengths
expectations (Did they have dreams? Were they allowed or encouraged to dream? Were they supported in achieving these dreams?)
relationships (Did they have personal connections to others: friends, family, others in their lives
positive contribution (Did they contribute to their family, circle of friends, community, school, job, etc.?)
full citizenship (Were they seen as worthy and having the same rights and opportunities to participate in the American life as others?)
choices (Were they allowed / encouraged to have some direction in their own lives? Have and express preferences? Was self-determination promoted?)
5. Class discussion: What has been discussed in class about people who are different from the norm (or are at risk) that ties into this movie? What connection can you make to what you've experienced or learned?
Do you think other people (who have not had this class) would have a more positive attitude about people with disabilities after viewing this film? Why or why not?
6. Cultural Response: What did you learn about our culture's way of responding to people with differences?
Did you watch this movie with someone else? If so, who? What were their perceptions of the portrayal of diversity in this film?
To receive a high grade, your writing can have only minor errors in writing mechanics, including spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Good sentence and paragraph construction should be present. People first language should be used.
Do NOT submit your answers in Ariel narrow font. Thank you!

I am student of Master degree in Mechanical Engineering.
The title of the project is 'History of CNC' and CNC means Computer Numerical Control.

The aim of this project is to analysis a standard computer numerical control machine and research about the background and the historical development of these machines and the parts. On the other hand gathering ideas, suggestions and concepts for future of CNC machines, for instance, 3- and 5-axis CNC machines or spider-like machine whose spindle is suspended by six telescoping ball screw struts.
50% percent of the project should be about Historical part of CNC and other 50% of the project, which is the important one should be about the Futuristic information of CNC machines that considers ideas,concepts and suggestions.

Report should consist of:

1) An abstract
2) The main body of the text divided into sections (and possibly sub-sections) :
Introduction (usually without sub-headings)
Conclusions (this may be incorporated into the Discussion).
3) Acknowledgements (if any)
4) References
5) Tables
6) Figure captions
7) Figures
8) An appendix defining any symbols or abbreviations used in the text
9) Any other short appendices that may be necessary (you may not need any).

Write a paper in which you justify the importance of marketing research in the development of Kudler Fine Food?s marketing strategy and tactics, and identify the areas where additional market research is needed. Analyze the importance of competitive intelligence and analysis in regards to the development of Kudler Fine Food?s marketing strategy and tactics.
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

If you can find please use the following book as a reference "Basic Marketing: A Marketign strategy Planning Approach. 17 ed , Perreault, Cannon, McCarthy

This paper has to be an original work.

Article Summary & Critique

Choose an experimental research article in the area of Cognitive Psychology that is of interest to you. The article cannot be published before 1990. An empirical article consist of an Abstract, an Introduction, a Methods section (which indicates the intervention, the number of participants, etc), a result section, and a Discussion and Conclusion section. Write a summary (max. 3 pages) and critique (max. 3 pages) of this article. Guidelines for summarizing and critique are below (Paper should be in narrative format):

I. Review the study:
A. State the problem. what is the research question?
B. Describe background research studies addressing the problem. Why (and in what ways) does this research respond or not respond to the problem?
C. Give a brief overview of method, eg. Subjects, Instruments, analysis, and procedure.
D. Present the results and discussion. What did the author find? How does the author explain the results in relation to the research question?
E. Discuss the conclusions.

II. Critique the study
A. Did the author use background data that were approriate and useful? Do the authors establish a clear purpose fr the need of their study?
B. Is the sample size and diversity broad enough to obtain the necessary information in the study? is the method data collection appropriate? what, if any, methodological considerations would have made the study better?
C. Do the discussion and conclusion follow from the data obtained?
D. What are the underlying assumptions in this study?
E. What contributions does the study make to the field and to your personal understanding of the issues examined?

The order?s details:

1. First, you have to read the whole following book before starting your answer because the answer of first question must be from it with paying more attention to the bellow requirements.

2. Second, you have to answer the following question in three (4) pages length APA style:

 First question is: What were the main issues in dispute [both overt and on the ?hidden agendas?] and how did they change? Must be in (3) three pages. It must be from the following book:
Ottaway, M. (1993). South Africa: Struggle for a New Order. Washington, D. C.:
Brookings Institution.

 Second quetion is: Describe some of the most current issues in South Africa (up to date issues) or new issues. The references for this question only must be form news papers, TV news, documentaries, or formal interviews

Third, the following details are strongly required:

? APA format is required
? Publishable paper is highly wanted
? Quality, not quantity, is the watchword.
? Answers to questions posed in the assignments are rarely as simple as "yes" or "no.? The very nature of this question requires that analyses deal in shades of gray. Responses to this question need to reflect this reality. Your response should not only be certain to address the question, but also should be a logical argument designed to persuade. This requires marshalling evidence from the readings to provide authority to your responses.
? Proofread your work. Spell check your arnswer and run them through a grammar tool.
? Any ideas or critical analysis attributable to someone other than you or that cannot be construed as ?common knowledge? should have an appropriate citation in the body of the response and a corresponding entry at the end of the task. Such acknowledgments should follow APA style.
? Avoid overly general statements unless statements that clarify and provide supporting evidence follow them.
? Avoid overuse of passive voice in your writing.
? Write out, in full, the first identification of any person, organization, or object with acronyms, initialisms, or abbreviations. In the case of initialisms and acronyms, follow the first full identification of the term with the appropriate acronym, abbreviation, or initialism in parentheses as you plan on using them later in your task.
? Avoid excessive quotation.
? Avoid the over-use of simple listings in response to questions.
? Spell out contractions; contractions do not have a place in formal writing. Remember, ?it?s? is not a possessive. ?It?s? = ?it is.?
? Use appropriate diction: ?received? rather than ?got?; ?difficulty? rather than ?problem,? etc.
? Avoid the first person in most instances. The use of the first person is inappropriate in formal writing in that it gives the appearance of less objectivity.
? Avoid needless intensifiers. For example: ?very important?--either it is ?important? or it is not.
? Watch for split infinitives. For example, avoid: ?to merely serve,? or ?to formally advocate,? or ?to fully answer.?
? Observe the differences in the following terms: ?feel,? ?think,? and ?believe.? The distinctions among those words are important and misuse of them lends imprecision to your writing.

Delivering must be on time with expecting quality and originality

Any question must be directed to me before you start working

At least 750 word causal-analysis essay on "The effect of joining the military after high school rather than attending college." The essay should use the following criteria:

1. Begin with an attention-grabbing, interesting introductory paragraph.
2. The last sentence in the introduction is the Aristotelean thesis statement (including the topic and the 4 criteria for analysis).
3. Begin each body paragraph with a topic sentence that relates to the thesis statement (and is in the same order as the thesis).
4. Develop each body paragraph with specific, concrete examples.
5. Use transition to begin each body paragraph and to connect each example.
6. Use transitional words that indicate cause and effect relationships.
7. Use the conclusion to summarize the different causes and the various effects. State any conclusions that can be drawn from you analysis.

request for serban! no other writers take.


Report of approx 2000 words that shows the theoretical views on leadership applied to a practitioner context within an organisation.

This organisation can be (but dont have to be) one that Im involved in (photographic studio).

The structure

1. Examine a range of current theories and models of leadership and their applicability to different sub-divisions, organisations, industries and sectors

2. Investigate the current and future requirements of leadership within a sub-division, organisation, industry or sector

This basically means choosing several theories from recommended reading, e.g.

Organisational Behaviour (2006) Ian Brooks, FT Prentice Hall

and then applying them to an organisation and department(s) that was researched.

To justify and reference all aspects of the analysis and findings and explicitly draw on theoretical concepts and analysis.


Report of approximately 2000 words, detailing recommendation that show the theoretical views on leadership applied to a practitioner context within an organisation.

This organisation can be (but dont have to be) one that Im involved in (photographic studio).

The structure :

1. Make proposals for the development of leadership competences to meet current and predicted future requirements within a subdivision, organisation, industry or sector
a. make proposals that are designed to meet the specific requirements of an organisation
b. critically evaluate the use of a full range of methods of leadership development within the specified context
c. select and justify choices made

This basically means making recommendations to an organisation regarding the usage and development of leadership principles though out the organisation, the recommended textbook is a good starting point and then applying them to the organisation or department(s) that was have researched.

To justify and reference all aspects of your analysis and findings and explicitly draw on theoretical concepts and analysis.

Description 1. Not to exceed five (5) page essay (single-space, single-sided, 1" margins, Times New Roman 12 point font) completely answering the question. You have to turn in your answer no later than four (4) days (96 hrs) from the time you receive the test. Put your name and the page number in the footer. Do not use a cover sheet.
2. The critical part of this project is your analysis. While that analysis needs to be supported by course material, simply listing course material without adding your analysis will not be adequate.
3. This project is an open-book, open-notes effort. The purpose is to evaluate your understanding of course material and your ability to analyze course material. Therefore, you are encouraged to primarily rely on course material sources, but you certainly are allowed to incorporate relevant outside sources. However, all references must be adequately cited.
a. For course material references, include the author's name and page number (or location number) in brackets at the end of the statement [Gray, pg 17].
b. For other references, cite the articles at the end of the statement being referenced, for example: [Armstrong, pg. 32]. A full citation will be required in the reference section at the end of the essay. Use the Air University Style and Author Guide (Bibliography) to provide this full citation. The style guide is located on the Blackboard website
c. Include a reference section at the end of the essay (not to be counted as part of your essay for page count/length) which includes all the sources you used.
d. References (example):
o Gray, C. Lesson 1, Reading 2.
o Armstrong, D. M., "Effective Techniques in Completing Air War College Through Distance Learning," American Education Research Journal, February 2011, 48, pps. 4-38.
e. The use of direct quotations limits the amount of unique contribution from you (the objective of this exercise) and is discouraged. Be sure to correctly use quotation marks when including exact wording from the source.
f. Failure to properly quote and/or cite a reference will be considered plagiarism.
4. You are responsible for keeping the test and test question secured and you are not permitted to discuss the test with anyone. You may not allow anyone else to see the question or your answer (this includes spouse/family, co-workers, etc). Your answer must be your own work as this exam is an individual effort.
5. You will be allowed to keep the test question and your answer until six (6) days after receiving your grade. Six (6) days after receiving your grade, you are required to destroy all written material associated with the test. You will also be required to delete any electronic versions of the test and your answer, including deleting the files in your "Recycle Bin" on your hard drive or any other storage media, as well as the "Inbox," "Deleted Items," and "Sent Items" folders on your email program.
6. Use of previous tests or test material will be considered misrepresentation and pursued as a violation of academic integrity.
Instructions During your Joint Military Operations studies, you explored various capabilities and the joint application of military power. You will now apply these concepts to the Joint Operation Planning Process (JOPP), essentially developing options for the solution of a complex national security-related issue by answering the following questions. Your answers should be written from the combatant commanders perspective and incorporate analysis and synthesis of the situation and course concepts.
All answers must be based upon the included INTSUM, OPREP-3 and Warning Order. Each question will only address a portion of the JOPP process. Answer each question in full. Also, do not put your answer in all capital letters or "cut and paste" from the Scenario and/or Warning Order. Do not provide or define the JOPP process in your answers, it is assumed you know this information and the answers you will provide are derived from that understanding. Points will be subtracted for answers longer than five (5) pages.

Use the linked Bangladesh scenario's INTSUM, OPREP-3, and Warning Order to answer the 6 test questions. Copy the 6 questions to a Word Document and type your answer below each question.
When you are finished, save the Word document and follow the directions for submitting the test in the Test menu item. Submitted tests must be in Word or text-based PDF format.
Question 1: Based upon the accompanying INTSUM, OPREP-3, and Warning Order for the Bangladesh scenario provide a Combatant Commander's revised mission statement. Ensure that this statement includes the elements of "who, what, when, where, and why".
Question 2: The commander's intent identifies the purpose of the campaign and the endstate. Based upon the INTSUM, OPREP-3 and Warning Order provide the Combatant Commander's intent.
Question 3: Based upon readings and lectures in this course (especially the Campaign Planning Primer: AY07 by The US Army War College and Center of Gravity, What Clausewitz Really Meant by Joseph L. Strange and Richard Iron), identify the strategic and operational centers of gravity for both the opposition and the friendly coalition. Explain your choices.
Question 4: Describe how you would employ and integrate the capabilities of landpower, seapower, airpower, spacepower, cyberpower, and/or special operations in the development of one friendly course of action (COA). Ensure that your COA summary is adequate, feasible, acceptable and complete.
Question 5: Describe the organizational command structure that you will use for this operation, including any coalition forces utilized. In your answer, also provide your recommendation for which service component should be the joint force commander. Fully explain the rationale behind each of your choices.
Question 6: This course began with a discussion of the challenges involved in planning for the full range of military operations. In recent years there has been significant discussion on how to balance the need to "win" the current war(s) with the need to be prepared for the next war. Using the concepts presented throughout this course, describe the key air, space and cyber capabilities required to support/execute the full range of military operations now and in the future. Explain in which capability area(s) the Air Force can best accept risk.

There are faxes for this order.

Need to write about to incorporate "Knowledge Management" into my organization (Army National Guard G6) or any military organization and what is the benefit of doing so? I have included our current strategic plan (Includes my jobs purpose and mission, etc) which may help personalize for some verbiage. We currently use Microsoft SharePoint 2003 and will be migrating all info on SharePoint sight to Microsoft 2010. But how can an organization incorporate Knowledge Management and what are the benefits of doing so?

Purpose: Develop a strategic plan to communicate to the States, NGB Leadership, Army CIO/G6, Department of Defense (DoD), Interagency partners and other stakeholders the focus of the Army National Guard (ARNG) CIO/G6 in accomplishing major initiatives within the ARNG in support of the Director Army National Guard (DARNG) and Chief National Guard Bureau (CNGB). Timeframe for these activities include October 2014 ??" September 2019.

Vision: An innovative, agile, and adaptable organization providing mission-critical information technology and communication resources and services to the ARNG in a dynamic operational environment committed to developing quality partnerships that foster effective communication and collaboration.

Mission: As the Executive Agent for the CNGBs Enterprise Network, the ARNG CIO/G6 will provide GuardNet to Joint Forces Headquarters (JFHQ) and ARNG operating and generating forces in support of State-based, information-enabled expeditionary and Defense Support to Civil Authority (DSCA) missions. The ARNG CIO/G6 will further provide integration, security and defense of the ARNG segment of the cyber domain while exploiting knowledge management capabilities, enabling the global collaborative environment for joint warfighting, first response, business systems, intelligence operations, cyber operations, and access to the Armys LandWarNet, all while providing the best value for America.

Strategic Priorities:
1. Efficient use of IT resources. (ITMR)
2. ARNG warfighter readiness.
3. Defense Support to Civil Authorities (DSCA) Support.
4. Cyberspace defense. (Provide Information Security)

Goals and Objectives:
1. Ensure the Efficient Use of IT resources
a. Integrate ARNG G6/CIO as part of a joint NGB IT Enterprise.
i. Continue to manage GuardNet and federate with DoD Joint Information Environment (JIE)
ii. Continue to modernize the network
b. Integrate IT Management into NGB Business Processes
i. Demand Management
ii. IT Portfolio Management (PfM)
iii. Leverage IT to enable integration of all business processes.
2. Realize IT Efficiencies and Improve Effectiveness
a. Information Technology Management Reform (ITMR)
i. Governance
ii. Consolidate multiple Data Centers to an Enterprise Data Center
iii. Eliminate and/or Regionalize State DOIMs
iv. Expect Army to request Congressional approval to re-appropriate ARNG IT funding to the Army for perceived
IT efficiency gains
b. Provide Responsible Financial Management
i. Leverage IT resources from the Army and Air National Guard
ii. Provide 37% of the Armys Operational Force with 10% of the total Army IT Budget, supporting 95% of the
Domestic Response capabilities.
iii. Support T-10/T-32 Soldiers, Technicians & JFHQ-S at 3002 facilities for less than $280m.
3. Enable ARNG readiness
a. Support warfighter readiness
i. Operationalize GuardNet
ii. Realize Armory as a Docking Station
iii. Federate with JIE to provide interoperability with Domestic Mission Partners
b. Develop Staff Officers to Ensure they are Value Added
i. Provide Joint qualified and experienced professionals
ii. Interchangeable between DoD, NGB, States and interagency
iii. Generalists who can perform functions across ARNG staff
iv. Set standards of excellence to develop resilient, confident and capable professionals in technology, cyber and leadership.
4. Enable Defense Support to Civil Authorities (DSCA).
a. Enable States, the Adjutant Generals (TAGs) to Services:
i. Training
ii. Mission Readiness
iii. Defense Support to Civil Authorities (DSCA)
iv. Support Army Mobilizations
v. Support TAG Mission Command
vi. Provide Information Security
vii. Value Proposition for all Stakeholders
b. Resource CNGB and Governors (TAGs) to Fulfill their Mission
i. Enable the statutory requirement that CNGB be the conduit of info to/from T-32 forces and AC USAF, AC Army and DoD
ii. Provide trusted flexible communication capabilities to meet National Guard dual use mission command requirements for CNGB, DARNG, DANG, TAGs, ARNG commanders and ANG commanders within the joint environment
5. Enable Cyberspace Defense
a. Protect and Defend ARNG Cyber Domain
i. Provide Information Security
ii. Continue to develop Continuity of Operations (COOP)
iii. Provide Knowledge Management
b. Support expanding role of ARNG operation in Cyberspace
i. Provide trained and experienced operators in defensive counter measures
ii. Provide cyber security assessment team guidance and training
6. Enterprise Architecture.

Human Resource Management

*I have chosen the Ford Motor Company*

You work for a HR consulting company and an organization has hired your firm to conduct

an HRM analysis and make recommendations to better align HR practices to the key business initiatives of the company. In order to accomplish the goal:

1. Analyze the organization and develop a set of HRM practices based upon textbook illustrations and figures. You will develop an 8-10 page research paper (not including the title and reference pages). Your paper should also:

Identify the firm?s history, strategy, market position, and specific area of alignment.

Provide job pricing and compensation package.

Describe and analyze the current and targeted work processes as well as the respective knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required to achieve the organization?s objectives.

Incorporate a discussion of relevant technology considerations to achieve work output in the context of the organization?s goals.

Provide a discussion of the labor market and the appropriate labor law context. Identification of companies that are preparing to address the changes.

Prescribe a set of HRM recommendations.

Describe other HRM issues as applicable.

Please let me know if you need any other information. Thank you in advance.

TOPIC: ---Discuss the importance of implementing data warehousing and mining system in an organization. How would you make sure that these systems don't become become more trouble than they are worth?"----

###REQUEST _INFOCEO_ OR __paulsolo3414__ AS WRITER###

Betancourt, L. How Companies are using your Social Media Data,

Greenfield, L. (2005) The Case for Data Warehousing

Greenfield, L.Greenfield, L. (2005) The Case Against Data Warehousing

Thearling, K. (2009) An Introduction to Data Mining


1. Ability to apply an understanding of complex issues involved in the case question.

2. Definition of data mining and discussion of how and when data mining can be used as a problem solving technique.

3. Description of the range of analytical tools used online or in other forms to extract meaning from the data.

4. Explanation of the role of data mining and warehousing in an organization's overall information technology strategy

5. Description of the main data warehouse concepts.

Write an essay in which you discuss the main points of this article and then agree/disagree with each. Agreeing/disagreeing will entail bringing in your own analysis of the work in question. This is not an either/ or issue though. You may agree with some points the author makes and not with others. But discuss WHY you agree or disagree and support your ideas with analysis and quotes from the text.
1. In the introduction, give us a brief overview of the article itself ? what it focuses on, its general orientation, position and point of view. Then, in a clear thesis, state whether you agree/disagree and why.
2. Take each major point of the article one by one and state what it is, summarize it, including how the author supports his/her points and then discuss your views of it. Do you agree/disagree and in either case why do you? Develop your arguments with in-depth explanation and examples/quotes from the original story.

Title: Hemingway's Hills Like White Elephants
Author(s): Paul Rankin
Source: The Explicator. 63.4 (Summer 2005): p234. From Literature Resource Center.
Document Type: Critical essay
Bookmark: Bookmark this Document

Although it would overstate the matter to suggest that a single critical consensus exists regarding the resolution of Ernest Hemingway's "Hills Like White Elephants," a summation of the majority opinion might produce something along these lines: in an impressive feat of dialogue-driven narrative prose, Hemingway's unnamed American male protagonist dominates the meeker, weaker-sexed Jig--the other in terms of her femaleness, her youth (she is the girl as opposed to the woman who tends bar), and her foreignness (because he receives the specific national identification, we may deduce that it's meant to distinguish his from hers)--until, broken, she submits to his will and consents to aborting the child. Frederick Busch phrases it most succinctly when he argues that Jig "buries her way of seeing as she will bury her child" (762). Other critics have suggested that "the male's language [of distance and control] overpowers [Jig]" (O'Brien 22-23) and that "Jig [...] knows that she will never bear the child she is carrying" (Abdoo 238). A closer look at what Janet Burroway refers to as the pattern of shifting power, however, reveals a more subversive current in the dialogue--one in which Jig, the xenofeminine, outwits her boorish American inamorato and manipulates both the conversation and the man at each turn to control the shared destiny of her and the unborn child (36). Read according to this pattern of subversion, the story emerges as a series of parries that demonstrate Jig's superiority in terms of her cognitive and conative intelligence, as well as her experience, her scathing wit, and her facility with ironic sarcasm, all of which culminate in the absolute straightforwardness of the last line, a line that incidentally coincides with Jig's own dramatic epiphany: There's nothing wrong with me. I feel fine.

In the economies of such notable theorists as Carl Gustav Jung and Karen Horney, the man's attempt to bully pregnant Jig, although certainly by no means justified, should come as no surprise. We need look no further than Jung's valuation of the mother "for whose sake everything that embraces, protects, nourishes, and helps assumes maternal form" (qtd. in Wilmer 40) to begin to comprehend the nature of the man's feelings of inadequacy and inferiority in the face of Jig's imminent transformation from "the girl" into motherhood. Horney goes Jung one step further, contending that man's fundamental lack of "life-creating power," with which woman is imbued, has motivated the creation of such historically masculine enterprises as "[s]tate, religion, art, and science" in man's attempt to compensate for that insurmountable deficiency (366-67). Unfortunately, however, "even the greatest [...] achievements [...] cannot fully make up for something for which we are not endowed by nature" (Horney 367). Thus we may expect to encounter, in extreme cases, such attitudes as the man's in "Hills," whose "notion of behaving 'reasonably'" cannot include "birth of any sort" (Busch 761).

As the man persists in opposing the continuance of Jig's maternity, he grossly oversimplifies the issue, even to the point of self-contradiction, calling the abortion first "an awfully simple operation," and then "not really an operation at all" (212). Here and elsewhere, the excessive modifiers like "awfully" and "really" indicate the man's awareness that this will not be an easy sale and belie his understanding, whether he would be willing to acknowledge this or not, of Jig's formidable intelligence and will. We perceive these attributes directly from Jig as well, as she demonstrates an increasing awareness not only of the gravity of the situation, but also of the man's self-centered and insecure motivation for pursuing the abortion. Consider, for example how Jig initiates the story's action by asking what they should drink, and also makes the first significant observation in the story, noting that the hills "look like white elephants" (211). At first glance, these details may appear unimportant in the context of the decision they are at odds over, but in a relationship where "all [they] do [is ...] look at things and try new drinks," these particular activities carry a substantial amount of weight. By way of contrast, the man's first three lines are entirely reactionary and essentially passive in nature. To Jig's question about drinks, he replies, "It's pretty hot" (when we have already learned in the opening paragraph that "It was very hot"); to her follow-up suggestion that they drink beer, he calls out, "two beers"; and to the bartender's question "Big ones?" he assents, "Yes. Two big ones" (211). At least initially, the man has nothing to offer, nothing to contribute to the story, just as he has nothing more to contribute to Jig's pregnancy now that he has invested his "minute share in creating new life" (Horney 367).

We encounter further evidence of the man's inferiority complex in his severe response to Jig's playful banter about the similarity between hills and elephants. Having already admitted that he has never seen white elephants, the man angrily berates Jig, saying, "Just because you say I wouldn't have doesn't prove anything" (211). In a story of exchanges, Jig's reaction here speaks volumes--she makes another observation and changes the subject. Jig's ability to take in her surroundings and find ways to diffuse the man's anger demonstrates her resourcefulness at the same time it raises the problematic question that drives the story: Is Jig merely ceding her will to the superior and dominant male's, or is she, rather, manipulating him (and the situation as a whole) to her advantage by giving him the illusion of the upper hand?

To answer this question, we must look backward and forward in the story and put this particular exchange in context. Our backward glance reveals that what set the man off was Jig's access to knowledge and experience that the man cannot have, the first-hand knowledge of what white elephants look like. Recognizing this truth as well as the bamboo curtain, Jig shifts the focus from something she knows that the man does not to something he knows that she does not. Even that ignorance of Anis del Toro, however, appears questionable when we arrive at the manifest sarcasm of her response to his blithe observation that "that's the way with everything," to which she replies, "Especially all the things you've waited so long for, like absinthe." Her awareness of the drink's composition indicates that she knew more than she let on when she inquired about the curtain, and thus we can conclude that something other than curiosity or ignorance motivated her question. Thus, we see Jig powerfully asserting her will, and doing so in such a way that she averts unnecessary confrontation several paragraphs before we encounter the discussion of the "operation."

As we do come to that discussion, as the confrontation becomes entirely necessary, the flurry of verbal punches only serves to intensify Jig's resistance as she grows more explicit in her refusal. "No, we can't," she repeats several times, ironically refuting his assent to her own sarcastic declaration that "we could have everything." Demonstrating his now-characteristic inability to understand her point of view, the man assumes that she is still referring to "the whole world" when she says, "It isn't ours any more." Still subversive, still subtle even as the exchange heats up, Jig corrects him once and for all, saying, "No it isn't. And once they take it away, you never get it back." When the man acknowledges that "they haven't taken it away" yet, perhaps without even realizing it, perhaps still imagining she means the world (and all it has come to signify in terms of their unfettered experience and his selfish desire to hang on to that), he proves Jig's point and effectively closes off any further negotiation (213).

What remains is primarily denouement, where the man and Jig return to their drinks and wait for the train. As he attempts to broach the subject, the girl shuts him down completely, and even though the point of view follows him as he passes through the bar, drinks more Anis, and returns, ultimately, Jig gets the last word: "There's nothing wrong with me" (214). The man has heretofore treated Jig's pregnancy like a burden or an illness, whereas Jig, in the cross-talk that emerges from the "no-we-can't" volley, equates the pregnancy, and by implication the child, with "the whole world."

In the final analysis, contenders on either side of the debate must acknowledge that, much like Frank Stockton's "The Lady or the Tiger," this story leaves us at the brink of enlightenment. Unlike Stockton's resolution, which hinges solely on the whims of chance, Hemingway has endowed us with sufficient elements of characterization--Jig's wit, resourcefulness, and strong will as opposed to the man's quick temper, self-centeredness, and irresponsibility--to make an educated guess as to the direction of their immediate future. In a story built on irony and sarcasm, it is almost paradoxical how sincere Jig's final declaration reads: "There's nothing wrong with me," she says, and we understand finally that the white elephant was never the abortion or even the unborn child itself--it was always the man.

--PAUL RANKIN, Hinds Community College


Abdoo, Sherlyn. "Hemingway's Hills Like White Elephants." Explicator 49.4 (1991): 238-40.

Burroway, Janet. Writing Fiction: A Guide to Narrative Craft. 6th ed. New York: Longman, 2003.

Busch, Frederick. "On Hills Like White Elephants." Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Ed. R. V. Cassill et al. 6th ed. New York: Norton, 2000, 761-62.

Hemingway, Ernest. "Hills Like White Elephants." The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Collier, 1987, 211-14.

Horney, Karen. "The Distrust Between the Sexes." A World of Ideas. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. 6th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's. 2002. 357-71.

O'Brien, Timothy D. "Allusion, World-Play, and the Central Conflict in Hemingway's 'Hills Like White Elephants.'" Hemingway Review 12.1 (1992): 19-26.

Stockton, Frank. "The Lady or the Tiger." 1882. Short Stories at East of the Web. 2003. Hyperfiction. 3 August 2005. .

The Lady or the Tiger and Other Stories. New York: Garrett Press, 1969.

Wilmer, Harry A. Practical Jung: Nuts and Bolts of Jungian Psychotherapy. Wilmette, IL: Chiron, 1987.

Rankin, Paul
Source Citation
Rankin, Paul. "Hemingway's Hills Like White Elephants." The Explicator 63.4 (2005): 234+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 17 May 2011.
Document URL

Gale Document Number: GALE##A137018186

HR System Design

As one of the program outcomes for the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology program, students must apply the principles of systems analysis and design to fundamental business systems within the organization.

Complete Section 2 of the Service Request SR-rm-022 paper. This week?s assignment incorporates the transition from analysis to design. Consider revising Section 1 based on faculty feedback.

Prepare a 4- to 6-page paper that includes the following:

? Describe the application architecture and process design. Include a high-level description of the security controls you recommend for the design of this HR system.

? Apply the tools of systems analysis to describe the information system?s architecture in terms of data, processes, interfaces, and network. You can use a Microsoft? Visio? diagram to draw examples of flow charts, data flow diagrams, and any other design tools.

? Cite and discuss 2 to 3 references, in addition to the required readings, that are relevant to the assignment. Include citations and references formatted consistent with APA

The assignment is to develop an information system for the HR dept of Riodan Manufacturing. Just answer the bullets and I will plug in all of the details specific to them later.

Please complete the research as indicated:

Metrics Do Not Necessarily Improve Security.
Please review, specifically, the concept that the use of various Metrics Intended to Improve Security DOES NOT, in and of itself, necessarily mean that security will be improved. MUST focus on TWO WELL-KNOWN METRICS of your own choosing.
TEN (10) pages of actual text are required (no bullets, diagrams, etc) and TEN PEER-REVIEWED REFERENCES to illustrate and support your analysis and conclusions. Please also include an introduction. Font size: 12 using, Times Roman.
The idea is to become familiar with the pitfalls of metrics to be avoided, as well as to discover current issues and trends in order to provide informed leadership in these matters.

1. Write a 700-1050 word Position Paper on Time to kill ? Europe and the Politics of Leisure .
2. After you have read the article carefully, determine your "position" on the issue.
-Do you agree with the author?s argument?
-Why or why not?
-What salient points does the author make?
-What important points does the author seem to overlook?
-What is YOUR position on the issue?
3. A Position Paper is NOT an article report. You should not simply paraphrase the article in your paper. Instead, you are to articulate your views on the issue. You should briefly summarize the topic of the article, but this should constitute no more than ? a page of your paper. The rest of the paper should be your own thoughts on the issue and the rationale for those ideas. If you agree with the author of the article, discuss the reasons that you think he or she is right. If you disagree with the author?s position, point out the weaknesses in the article and describe the important points that you feel were either left out of the article or were misrepresented.
4. A Position Paper is NOT a research paper. Write it in the first person (use "I" and "my" to refer to yourself), and only include data from other sources if it is critical to the discussion of the issue and supports your position.
5. Your Position Papers should be typewritten, double-spaced, 12/Arial font. Use a cover page and number your pages according to APA format.

Title: Time to kill ? Europe and the Politics of Leisure
Subject(s): ECONOMIC history; COLD War -- Social aspects -- Europe
Source: National Interest, Summer97 Issue 48, p26, 11p, 1 chart
Author(s): Muller, Steven
Abstract: Focuses on the efforts made by Europe to reconstitute
it self after being liberated from the Cold War. Investigation into the
economic analysis of Europe; Description on reversal of social
functions; Information on type of labor used; Examination into the rate
of unemployment; Discussion on the political implications of Europe.
INSET: Sick leave.
AN: 9707224547
ISSN: 0884-9382
Full Text Word Count: 6498

EUROPE, NOW liberated from the Cold War, is seeking to recono stitute
itself, and in doing so fulfill the lofty integrationist expectations of
the early post-World War II era on a fully continental basis. Despite
minority undertones of skepticism both here and in Europe, the
prevailing expectation is that a new and better Europe is taking shape,
one that will be united, prosperous, stable, and democratic. But such
expectations mirror hopes, not reality. Europe as a whole is far more
likely to face a period of acute economic stagnation, the undermining
rather than the expansion of democracy, and serious social upheaval.

Conventional economic analysis and a few select sociological
observations suffice to account for most of Europe''s coming trouble-of
these more below. But it may be, too, that what would otherwise be
merely trouble will turn into a full-blown crisis for a reason that has
so far received little attention: that Europe is destined to bear the
initial brunt of a revolutionary change in the human condition. Such a
bold assertion naturally invites skepticism if not outright rejection.
Nonetheless, humanity may well be standing on the edge of a fundamental
reversal of the human condition: the elevation of work into a privilege
and the denigration of leisure into the burden of idleness.

Revolutionary is indeed the only way to describe the implications of
such a reversal of the social functions and values of work and leisure.
Throughout the ages, for all but a privileged minority that could
command servants, the need to labor has been accepted as an inescapable
burden. Only that same privileged minority had the luxury of true
leisure, meaning not merely time free from work but discretionary time
and energy uncontaminated by exhaustion or deprivation. Now we face a
future in which the need for human labor will rapidly diminish to the
point where there is no longer enough work to occupy the majority--let
alone the entirety--of the human talent and energy available. Leisure
will become ever more abundant, up to and indeed beyond the point of
idleness and boredom. Increasingly, those with meaningful work to
accomplish will constitute a privileged minority, while the majority
will consist of those burdened with idle "time to kill."

The origins of this transformation go back to the beginning of the
Industrial Revolution when, for the first time in history, machinery
began to replace heavy human and animal labor and also to provide
humanity with enormously increased mobility. The pace of that revolution
itself continuously accelerated, but since the arrival of electronic
technology it has been explosive. Smart machines, equipped with
increasingly sophisticated virtual intelligence, now more and more
perform the tasks of both production and service that human society
requires. The human home as well is far along in featuring autonomously
intelligent, comprehensively responsive technological enhancements of
human purpose-such as programmable environmental, communications,
cooking, cleaning, and security systems.

These developments are already so familiar as to require no further
elaboration to those living in the technologically most advanced
nations. Much of humanity, of course, finds itself in earlier stages of
industrial and technological development, but the more gradual pace of
the lateral extension of the industrial-technological revolution has not
retarded its headlong rush in the most highly developed countries. Nor
has the correlation between technological advance and the growth of
material prosperity broken step as this rush has continued. Up to the
present, too, the volume of work has remained sufficient to sustain more
or less acceptable levels of employment-and hence the consumption levels
required to keep a consumer society economically robust.

In the days ahead, however--and not so far ahead--there will be an
inexorable rise in unemployment in the societies already most
technologically advanced: the United States, Europe, and Japan. Much can
be done, and is being done, to share jobs between two or even more
people, to shorten worktime, increase holidays and vacations, and search
for other means to spread out employment opportunities more widely. But
despite such expedients, unemployment will increase as the need for work

Now there is a standard economic objection to this scenario, and it will
be just as well that it be made explicit. It may be argued that the
problem of absolute scarcity was already solved thirty or forty years
ago in much of the West. Certainly, to someone living a century or two
earlier it would have seemed so. But people tend progressively to
transform their definition of "want" into "need", and there seems to be
an infinite capacity to create new---critics would say
"artificial"--demands in a consumer society. It is not self-evident that
this process cannot continue indefinitely, or at least for a very long
time; if people are willing to spend money on some thing or some
service, there will be jobs to make whatever that thing is or that
service delivers. There may be more smart machines, but there will also
be more demands and hence more (if different) jobs created by that

What is wrong with this argument? It vastly underestimates the
revolutionary impact of information technology, which holds a future
where machines can make other machines, and where the overall
substitution of machine for human labor will progress exponentially.
Already, smart machines have polarized the labor market in the most
advanced countries. On the one hand we have the symbol manipulators and
the machinebuilders and caregivers, and on the other the McDonald''s and
hospital laundry workers. This itself is a truly explosive social issue,
and one that technological dynamism is likely to make much more acute
as, with the passing of time, jobs on the lower end of the
sophistication scale disappear much faster than those on the upper end.

Europe''s Handicaps

WHETHER ONE SEES the owth of leisure as a truly revolutionary phenomenon
or as a serious but still manageable social problem, its full effects
are likely to be experienced first in Western Europe. For of the three
economically advanced areas of the world--North America, Northeast Asia,
and Western Europe--the last will be the least able to respond
effectively to it. The fimdamental reason for this lies in the
structures of government economic policy that the exceedingly generous
welfare states of the continent have adopted. Rising unemployment
increases demand for compensatory public expenditures, and the states of
Western Europe are badly placed to afford such additional expenditures.
Their plight is due to a combination of external and internal
circumstances, both of which restrict their ability to avoid a social

As for the internal constraints, here we come to mostly conventional
economic considerations. While West European states are not all
alike--Britain after Thatcher, for example, has reduced the role and
cost of central government more than its Continental partners--they are
similar enough for present purposes. The Federal Republic of Germany
represents the quintessential and most acute example of the European
dilemma. The recent sharp rise in German unemployment suggests more than
merely cyclical adjustments and the costs of integrating the former
German Democratic Republic to the rune of nearly $2 billion per year; it
is almost certainly structural in nature. The current level exceeds 11
percent, one not experienced in the Federal Republic since the 1950s.
The current French unemployment level is even higher (12.8 percent) and
the Spanish much higher still (21.8 percent). Indeed, comparable
problems exist throughout the European Union today, suggesting not
random difficulties or mismanagement, but the result of something
embedded in Europe''s essential way of doing business.

The economic problems generated by generous welfare states are many, but
for Europe the implications for unemployment are the most graphic and
serious. The core of the problem is that the added costs of assisting
ever increasing numbers of unemployed require ever greater public
expenditures. Something has to give. Efforts to reduce the costs of the
welfare state and to increase tax revenues are predictably producing
heated controversy virtually everywhere in the EU countries. Governments
throughout Western Europe find themselves politically unable to cut
exceedingly generous benefits, and so they turn instead to efforts to
stimulate more economic growth in order to pay for it all. But
stimulating growth, if it is public sector growth--and that is the
easiest to bring about under current circumstances--only puts more
pressure on government budgets, which makes such forms of stimulation
too expensive even to contemplate for many countries today. If it is
private sector growth, on the other hand, that will only advance the
technological revolution that will breed still higher rates of
unemployment, which, of course, the state has obligated itself to
subsidize at still very generous levels. And private sector growth is
harder to stimulate precisely because the burdens of the welfare state
have made it prohibitively expensive to create such jobs.

Obviously, then, such "solutions" cannot work for long. Taken together
they resemble a sort of social welfare Ponzi scheme, where new growth is
used to pay past obligations, which in turn generates ever greater
future obligations. If indeed the world is entering a new era in which
work is becoming a privilege, then it no longer follows that increased
productivity and sales will increase employment. On the contrary, gains
in both productivity and sales may be dependent on greater reliance on
technology and consequent reductions in the use of human labor. If
European governments fail to understand this dynamic, they may manage
themselves straight into economic collapse.

NONETHELESS, it is inevitable that strenuous efforts will be undertaken
to find ways to avoid confronting the problem. One such effort will be
to allow human labor to remain cheaper than technology in performing
tasks at the lower end of a polarized labor market. At the moment, for
example, it is still possible for industries headquartered in
technologically advanced states to export production to parts of the
world where labor is cheaper than at home. It is also possible to
establish immigration policies that attract cheap labor. While both such
practices are now widespread, they create many problems. The former
often involves systematic violations of human rights: a vast amount of
apparel worn in the technologically most advanced nations, for example,
is manufactured in the Third World by child labor or prisoners. And
conclusive evidence of the extraordinarily high cost of German
labor--the most expensive in the world due in large part to the fact
that every Deutsche Mark of wages is nearly doubled by the cost of
mandatory social benefits--resides in the fact that German firms have
been driven to take advantage of lower labor costs in the United States
by establishing manufacturing plants there.

Exporting production is also significantly counterproductive in the
short run. Apart from the fact that it represents a kind of exploitative
neoncolonialism often involving human rights violations, it aggravates
unemployment at home and reduces domestic investment. In the long run,
economic growth and rising living standards are not only likely to raise
labor costs above present levels around the world, but will result
globally in continued reduction of the need for, and economic advantage
of, substantial human labor in all manufacturing, maintenance,
transportation, and clerical processes. There is no realistic prospect
that West European states can address their problems of rising
unemployment by lowering their cost of human labor sufficiently to
underprice technology-driven manufacture and production.

As for the second practice, that of encouraging immigration to supply
cheap labor, this is doubly injurious. The immediate effect is to
displace local labor, particularly local labor in unskilled and
semi-skilled jobs. Worse, as the forces of technology grind away lower
level jobs, immigrants end up disproportionately on the dole--as is
already the case in France, Italy, and Germany. This not only bloats
government financial responsibilities, but could introduce acute social
divisions, with the potential to undermine both civility and democracy
itself across the continent.

As to the external sources of trouble, the burden on public expenditures
is further seriously increased by the pledge to establish the single
European currency. While in itself that currency requires no vast new
expenditures, its adoption greatly restricts the borrowing caparty of
member states. As a condition for entry, the European Monetary Union
demands limits on national deficits of 3 percent of GDP and on total
public debt of 60 percent of GDP. West European states are therefore
left with very little discretion and face a zero-sum game: spending in
relief of unemployment must come at the expense of other public
spending, and vice versa.

The conditions for sharing in the euro currency are uniquely devised to
achieve monetary stability, but they do not stand altogether alone.
Singular as their purpose may be, they also form part of a larger--and
looser--design to standardize social and economic conditions within the
European Union, and to do so at a high and expensive level.
Bureaucracies being what they are, it comes as no surprise that the
European one in Brussels is energetically pursuing the many little, and
occasionally larger, steps toward the common standards and measures that
lend substance to the concept of common EU citizenship. The European
bureaucracy operates formally under the authority of governmental
representatives from all of the member states, but in practice the
servants of the European Union possess a growing ability to play a
virtually unsupervised regulatory role within member states. The odds
are that this ability will complicate, inhibit, and even frustrate
national governments rather than provide them with assistance or relief
as they struggle with the rapidly expanding problem of unemployment.

In addition, for the near future there is the added burden that Western
Europe--and particularly its main economic engine, Germany-remains
committed to heading a major effort to assist the economic and social
recovery of Central and Eastern Europe. This commitment also extends
prudentially to the successor states of the former Soviet Union, because
it is feared that their instability would adversely affect the rest of
Europe. From 1990-95, the member states of the European Union
contributed over $50 billion to twelve Central and Eastern European
beneficiaries, and these contributions have been extended to 1999.

Europe''s Social Disadvantages

ECONOMIC FACTORS alone cannot account for the fact that Western Europe
is already experiencing serious unemployment while U.S. unemployment is
currently at a record low: 4.9 percent, less than half the rate in
France and Germany. After all, America is technologically as advanced as
Europe, if not more so, and American social welfare programs are also
very expensive, even if they are less comprehensive and expensive than
their European counterparts. The United States too, like Western Europe,
devotes public funds to overseas assistance, not only to Central and
Eastern Europe and the former Soviet states, but to developing economies
all over the globe. Beyond that, America maintains a costly military
establishment that, while reduced from Cold War levels, dwarfs its
European counterparts not only in absolute terms but proportionally. How
then to explain the differences? The crucial difference between the
American and Western European economies lies in three areas: the leisure
industry; the service industry; and the "charitable" or, better, the
not-for-profit sector. Of these, the leisure industry is the most

Human leisure creates economic demands as does any other human appetite.
One demand generated by leisure is perhaps best designated as diversion,
that is, relief from idleness or boredom. Diversion can take many forms,
among them entertainment, learning, cultural pursuits, physical
exercise, substance abuse, and sexual indulgence. In response to such
demand, leisure industries have already mushroomed throughout the
technologically most advanced economies. Is it possible then, that
employment in leisure industries can over time replace jobs lost in
production and manufacture? The still multiplying profusion of fitness
clubs, for instance, designed to furnish healthy exercise for those
whose lives no longer demand much bodily exertion, certainly offers new
employment opportunities. So does the gathering of great numbers of
people at entertainment and sporting events, where audiences need food,
drink, sanitary facilities, transportation, and so on. Unquestionably,
leisure industries will grow along with increased leisure, and they are
bound to generate new employment.

The question is how much new employment, and of what kind.

It may well be that the most significant capacity of the new technology
will turn out to be its ability to cater profitably to individual
tastes. People who crave exercise can purchase for home use the very
machines that fitness clubs deploy for their users, or perform aerobics
under direction by video cassette rather than a live instructor. Fast
food of limitless diversity can be machine-produced and purveyed with
limited human involvement. Electronic programming of literally infinite
abundance can be summoned from cyberspace to meet individual taste
anywhere, anytime.

As things stand today, employed people tend to make the most use of such
leisure products and services; the unemployed cannot so easily afford
them. In the future, however, should a way be constituted--or, rather,
as a way is constituted, for it will have to be done in order for
society to function--to distribute wealth even to those for whom there
is no necessary and meaningful work to do in an age of smart machines,
this would not be the case. A greatly increased demand for leisure
products and services can be anticipated, but comparable increases in
employment cannot, for the same technological dynamic will apply here as
elsewhere in the smart-machine economy now coming into being. Today an
increasing number of people are employed making, handling, shipping,
retailing, and invoicing video cassettes, computer games, and the like,
but, as in other domains, much of the low-skilled employment involved in
this activity is being "exported" to lower-wage economies, and in the
future that sort of employment is the most vulnerable to information
science-based automation.

Obviously, some new jobs will continue to be generated by such leisure
products and entertainment programming, but not only will the number of
such jobs be limited, the better ones will be concentrated in a
particular locale--America. The capacity for individuation does not
eliminate the tendency of individuals to share common taste and
preference: mass enthusiasm, or rejection, is still much in evidence,
and such mass reaction is of great significance to those who use
telecommunications for financial or political gain. Mass appeal by
definition requires vulgarization. Vulgus is the Latin term for the
people, and accurately connotes the lowest common denominator. It
follows that the software (i.e., content) of telecommunications is
dominated by the United States, where from its very beginnings it has
been a commercialized, as opposed to a pro bono publico, product and
industry. The American global dominance of telecommunications software
generates significant employment in the United States, and also inhibits
the growth of this type of employment in Europe. The commercially driven
exports of American software appeal strongly to European tastes and
samrate the European mass audience to the point of virtual monopoly. In
this sense, Europe has been colonized by America, and to an extent that
even Jacques Servan-Schreiber did not anticipate in his 1960s
description of le dgfi'' americain.

The service industry sector in the United States is equally
characterized by aggressive commercialism. Personal services of infinite
variety are part of the American market economy. Their European
counterparts are in general less profuse and varied, more extensively
regulated, and to great extent provided by public agencies rather than
for-profit entrepreneurs. The health care sector provides just one
example. Although more regulated than in the past, and dependent on
taxfinanced subsidies for the care of the elderly and indigent, health
care in the United States continues to function as a commercial
industry. The recent American fervor for cost control has not reduced
commercialism, only changed its shape. For-profit health maintenance
organizations now charge fees for their work to reduce the direct
expenses for health'' care providers and products. The savings that
result from lower costs for medical services themselves therefore must
be balanced against the new expenditures for the middleman role of the
cost containers. More generally, despite recent privatization efforts in
Britain and elsewhere, whole ranges of public services, transportation,
sanitation, communications, public safety, and so on tend to be public
enterprises in Europe but private enterprises in the United States. Even
the U.S. Postal Service has been organized since 1971 to operate on a
for-profit basis, and there are many and increasing examples of business
as well as residential communities policed and sanitized by commercial
contract, or of prisons operated by private contractors.

While European practice in the service industries obviously generates
employment, that employment is funded by government budgets. These
tax-supported service activities can only sustain or increase employment
at public expense. The result is disproportionate European vulnerability
to conditions of scarce employment and excessive leisure. To the extent
that it results in greater profit and higher employment in the
commercial service industries, excess leisure in the United States is
not an economic disaster but an opportunity. In Europe, however, the
consequence of excess leisure is greater demand for government-operated
public services, increasing the need for tax revenues, and adding to
employment only at greater public cost.

The U.S. economy also contains a large "third sector" (the first being
the for-profit, and the second the publicly-financed), which consists of
the charitably supported component. To a very pronounced extent the
religious, cultural, educational, and intellectual activities of
American society are in the hands of not-for-profit organizations. These
provide a great range of community social services at no direct cost to
the consumer. (True, this multibillion-dollar component of the American
economy is partially tax-supported: the private gifts that support it
are tax-deductible for the donor, and the organizations that deliver its
services are tax-exempt. Thus public support is derived from
taxation--but from taxation foregone rather than from tax-funded

The economic significance of this third sector is very considerable. Its
current annual operating expenditures, involving over a million
institutions, represent roughly 8 percent of gross domestic product, and
it utilizes over fifteen million people, composed of approximately ten
million full- and part-time employees and more than five million
volunteer equivalents of full-time employees. The sector''s share of
national income is nearly 7 percent, just under half the 15 percent
share of government. (The share of national income for for-profit
business is 78 percent.) A European counterpart of this not-for-profit
sector exists, but on a much reduced scale compared to the United

The Political Implications of Europe''s Troubles

THE PURPOSE OF these observations is not to compare the American and
European economies overall, but to identify specific economic
circumstances that to some degree delay and cushion both the rise and
cost of unemployment in the United States, while causing Europe to be
more immediately and severely exposed to them. But on both sides of the
Atlantic, these are early days.

The impact of the increasing lack of work and the concomitant growth of
demand for tax-supported relief on advanced societies will greatly
strain the fabric of European society, and do so sooner than in the
United States. No one can forecast how Europe will respond to the
unprecedented challenge that it is still only beginning to face, but
experience suggests that its response may pass through four phases:
denial, amelioration, crisis, and resolution.

Denial is the typical initial human reaction to an unexpected
confrontation with threatening circumstances that defy easy
comprehension. Individuals as well as societies cling to the familiar,
and deny that it may no longer apply. Policymakers are of necessity
focused on the issues of today and tomorrow--on the "in" tray, as the
saying goes--and thus tend naturally to reject the prospect that the day
after tomorrow will present radical change. At any given time
politicians in Europe''s democratic states, no less than those in
America, keep at least one eye trained on the next election, and incline
to defer identifying new problems so long as current ones provide
sufficient challenge. The press and the public refer indications of
trouble to traditional experts who prescribe traditional remedies. Any
analysis forecasting radical change is likely to meet not only
rejection, but irritated denial.

But contemporary Western Europe is approaching a degree of discomfort
that already renders denial difficult to sustain. The triple burden of
rising unemployment, assisting Central and Eastern Europe, and adjusting
to the harsh requirements of the euro currency is directing attention to
the early warning signals of a new economic and social era. Thus the
second phase of response, ameliorationrathe effort to improve the
situation by making the necessary adjustments-already seems to be in the
infant stage. The issue of whether or how best to proceed with the
single currency is not universally regarded as definitively settled;
even the German government now suggests that the 3 percent debt figure
is not holy writ, but only a general target. There is a rising European
chorus urging belt-tightening and drastic measures to reduce
unemployment--witness the French effort over the past two years to rein
in labor benefits. But the effort to ameliorate unavoidably produces a
clash between the emerging new era of work as privilege and the deeply
rooted European commitment to social justice--hence, not incidentally,
the long and bitter strikes that the French government''s efforts have
occasioned. Unless dramatically new methods are established to
distribute an abundance produced by a minority of able-bodied adults in
society, that clash seems bound to produce a general and mounting

On the surface, the technologically advanced societies of Western Europe
and the United States are much alike. Both exhibit the dominance of an
urbanized middle class whose value system sustains an essentially
free-market economy, as well as political democracy. Both prefer to
operate by compromise rather than command. Below the surface, however,
the legacy of centuries of class consciousness and class conflict still
remains part of the European social fabric. The open frontier spirit of
American society, ever optimistic and individualistic rather than
disciplined, ruthlessly self-centered and mobile rather than embedded in
a static communitarianism, sharply contrasts with the European
mentality. The sense that options are closed and that gain by one group
is made possible only by loss on the part of others, that expectations
should be restrained in the face of centuries of disappointment, still
prevails in European thinking.

One result of these differences is that political divisions in Europe
are far more deeply rooted than in the United States. The concept of
social justice, while wholly accepted in America as well as in Europe,
has connotations that are widely divergent from one side of the Atlantic
to the other. In the United States, it brings to mind human rights, the
individual freedoms of the Bill of Rights, a pragmatic need to protect
the public sensibility from intolerable affront, and a keen awareness
that even the indigent have economic potential. In Europe, however,
social justice has echoes of revolutionary struggle, of triumph over
past oppression, and of the ever present threat to "us"--who do the
work--by "them"--who rapaciously reap the profit. The fundamental
difference between the European welfare state and the American version
lies in the European conviction that it is the indispensable and
desirable role of the democratic state to promote and preserve social
justice, while for most Americans the state is at best a necessary but
dubious last resort. In theory at least, they continue to subscribe to
the Jeffersonian dictum that that government is best which governs

Differences as to the meaning of social justice between Europe and the
United States are further complicated by divergences in the role of
religion. As Peter Berger has shown in these pages, church membership
has declined throughout the technologically most advanced nations of
Europe.1 But in the United States religion survives as a serious force,
and in recent years a significant conservative religious Christian
movement with important political implications has arisen. What is
commonly called the "religious right" is explicitly committed to
traditional Christian values, but it is also vigorously and explicitly
hostile to "big government" and what its leaders decry as godless
betrayal of the sacred--such as the right to life when abridged by
legalized abortion.

The American religious right has been evoked by an opposition to the
dominant secular religion of the day--that stream of American social and
political liberalism that gained great strength from the mid-1950s to
the mid-1970s. As in Europe, American liberals maintained, and still
maintain, that it should be a primary obligation of government to
promote social justice. Clearly it would be impossible to explain the
origins of the American civil fights movement without reference to such
a phenomenon. On both sides of the Atlantic, this obligation has become
a canonic element in the Western civil religion--both in its diluted
Christian form, and in the do-goodism into which the once proud
tradition of classical libera[ism has now degenerated.

The key difference between Europe and the United States in this regard
is twofold: nothing comparable to the American religious right is in
evidence in Europe nowadays; and the liberal orthodoxy is
institutionalized far deeper in the structures of the welfare state-and
even inside the churches--in Europe than it is in America. This lay
orthodoxy is under attack in America; in Europe, with the partial
exception of Britain, it really is not.

These differences suggest that the outcome of large-scale enforced
leisure will be a new form of social conflict in Europe. One could
envisage in addition to classical "proletariat" style social upheaval a
kind of cultural chaos. Masses of basically sated but bored people are
less likely to man barricades than to debauch society generally. The
lack of self-definition and self-respect, and the consequent
demoralization that is bound to afflict so many, is likely to lead to a
sense of alienation and purposelessness so acute as to touch off any
number of morbid cultural trends. Indeed, we already see the beginnings
of such phenomena among unemployed and underemployed youth all over the
continent-and here urban North America is no exception--from self-styled
anarchists in Germany to skinheads and assorted "punks" in Britain,
France, Italy, the Netherlands, and beyond.

The growth of such essentially antisocial forces could be as corrosive
to normal life as any amount of proto-Marxist rabbleraising. Those who
believe that they are denied the right to work, as well as those who
fear losing the work they still have, are likely to perceive themselves
as an oppressed lower class--again, some in proletariat terms that we
would recognize from the past, but others in terms of an underclass
characterized by an angry cultural anomie rather than a specific
political ideology. ''The crisis of work is already a likely source of
the "many factors encouraging populist politics in Europe today", as
Anthony Hartley described it. "Economic despair and xenophobia bring
violence in their wake .... All countries need totems. Their destruction
by... a corrosive skepticism confuses peoples who require national
landmarks by which to navigate."2 And surely national social landmarks
will be destroyed wholesale when those who have work and intend to
retain it behave as an upper class committed to the preservation of its

As Hartley''s reference to xenophobia intimates, racism will also
inevitably play a role in future crises. Here, too, the European
experience may be more severe than that of the United States. That may
at first seem paradoxical, because the legacy of slavery, the partial
extermination and subsequent segregation of Native Americans, and
continuing eruptions of racial conflict are such well known aspects of
American society. However, despite all the problems involved, the United
States is well on the way to becoming a multiracial nation in which
Americans of European descent will-within the next century--become the
largest minority rather than, as in the past, the absolute majority of
the population. In the much more homogenous nations of Europe, however,
where the new era of work as a privilege will arrive first in full
severity, the priority certain to be claimed by the indigenous majority
in every country will inevitably produce racially discriminatory
treatment of foreign immigrants and residents, including demands for the
expulsion of foreigners. Already antiimmigration parties--the Italian
net-fascist movement, Le Pen''s National Front in France, and especially
Jorg Haider''s

Freedom Party in Austria--are gaining ground all over Europe. At
present, while the world in general and Europe in particular have yet to
recognize the key challenge lying ahead, and are busy treating seemingly
disconnected symptoms in lieu of recognizing their common cause, it is
impossible to be certain how the Continent will ultimately react to the
coming crisis. But there are reasons for believing that the responses to
the challenge are more likely to be authoritarian than democratic in
nature. Human beings are dependent on order and predictability in their
environment. A crisis that causes prolonged and acute disorder and
uncertainty therefore engenders an ever more urgent priority for the
most rapid and complete possible restoration of stability and
predictability. The quickest and most effective response to that
priority is authoritarianism.

Beyond the human need for order is the fact that the very technology
that is leading to the crisis of work and leisure augers in favor of
authoritarianism. The unprecedented surveillance and tracking
capabilities of the electronic communications technology are well known.
In the future it may become literally impossible for a human being to
escape surveillance. As for leisure as a burden, there is already
evidence that among the first human responses to an abundance of leisure
and unused energy is a craving for sedation. In part such sedation may
be the product of entertainment. In part it may also be the product of
what we have come to call substance abuse, be it alcohol, tobacco,
cocaine, or Prozac. In a society where no one can hide and in which any
malcontent can willingly or unwillingly submit to sedation, the
temptation to totalitarian control would appear to loom large.

The second and more important reason for anticipating an authoritarian
response is best termed civic. If huge numbers of adults never have to
take real responsibility for making their own way in the world, if their
education comes to consist entirely of tutorials in aesthetics and
leisure, if their families no longer serve as production units in every
traditional sense, then the very values and attitudes that undergird
democracy--independence of spirit, responsibility, resourcefulness,
honesty, moral integrity--will simply never develop. A majority of
people devoted to their own entertainment and idle-time management would
far more resemble H.G. Wells'' hapless Eloi in The Time Machine than the
robust practitioners of liberty and selfreliance captured in the
writings of Tocqueville, Locke, Montesquieu, and Mill.

This is not, of course, to maintain that the doom of European democracy
is certain. Indeed, democracy may well be a prerequisite for solving
social problems of the sort and magnitude described here, in the sense
that only with a broad political base willing to sacrifice and
experiment with new forms of social organization will leaders be able to
lead effectively. Neither can one ignore the power of historical memory
and political culture. Europe''s experience with authoritarianism in this
century may well serve to prevent its revival in the next. Democracy is
to some extent a habit, and habits, good and bad, are not easily broken.
Democracy is also part of Europe''s self-definition, and the exertions of
new democracies to the east may even have the surprising effect of
bolstering by example democracy''s prospects farther west.

The only certainties are that the transformation of a key aspect of the
human condition is challenging the technologically most advanced
nations; that Western Europe in particular is less able to cope with
this transformation than the United States; that the required
restructuring of society is so radical as to engender social conflict;
and that the manner in which Europe resolves this conflict, while
unpredictable, will be of utmost consequence to the human future.

1. Peter Berger, "Secularism in Retreat", The National Intevest
(Winter 1996/97).
2. Anthony Hartley, "Europe''s New Populism", The National Interest
(Winter 1992/93).

U.S. Japan France U.K. Neths.
GDP growt rate (%)
1996 2.4 3.6 1.3 2.1 2.7
1990 0.8 4.8* 2.5 0.4 3.9

Unemployment (%}
1996 5.4 3.3 12.4 7.5 7.6
1990 5.5 2.1 9.0 5.8 4.9
1985 7.2 2.6 10.2 11.3 15.7

Gov''t. subsidies and
tramfers (% of GDP)
1994 12.8 N/A 30.0 24.2 37.7
1980 11.9 9.9 24.5 20.2 38.6

Statutory vacation
allowance (clays)
1994 10+ 10 25 22* 20

Italy Spain Germany
GDP growt rate (%)
1996 0.7 2.2 1.4
1990 2.1 3.7 5.9

Unemployment (%}
1996 12.1 22.1 10.3
1990 11.0 16.3 7.2
1985 10.1 21.9 9.3

Gov''t. subsidies and
tramfers (% of GDP)
1994 29.4 16.3 22.6
1980 19.2 8.1 16.7

Statutory vacation
allowance (clays)
1994 25+ 22 24

Figure reflects GNP growth rate.

Typical allowance; no statutory minimum. U.S. figure, typically increase
to 15 days after 5 years work, and 20 days after 15 years work.

Compiled from: World Development Indicators (World Bank, 1997);
International Financial Statistics Yearbook (IMF 1996); Government
Finance Statistics Yearbook (IMF 1996); The Economist (December 23,
1995, p. 112); Employment Benefit Research Institute (Washington, DC);
Hewitt Associates (Illinois); Main Economic lndicators (OECD,
1988-1996); World Economic Outlook (IMF May 1996).




Source: Europe in Figures, 4th Edition (Brussels: Eurostat, 1995).


By Steven Muller

Steven Muller is president emeritus of The Johns Hopkins University.



Employees with 3 years of service are eligible for paid sick leave if
they present a medical certificate within 48 hours of getting sick. A
benefit of 90 percent of gross earnings for the first 30 days and
two-thirds of gross earnin s for an additional 30 days is payable after
a ten-day waiting period. (No waiting period is required in the event of
an occupational injury or disease.) An additional 10 days are added to
each period for each complete fiveyear period of continuous service over
three}rears, subject to a maximum oil80 days after 33 years of service.

The employer is reimbursed by the government for the portion of sick pay
that would be payable under social security. Moregenerous benefits may
be provided to employees under collective agreements.


Employers are required to pay full salary for the first 6 weeks of
illness, after which benefits are paid from the health fund.

The mother and father combined may claim up to 20 days off per year in
order to care for a sick child under 12 years of age. This increases to
50 days for families with more than one

child. During this period, the employer must continue paying full


For salaried employees, employers are required to pay fullsalary for
three months during illness. The national contracts for managerial staff
in industry and in commerce provide for 12 months of paid sick leave,
plus an additional 6 months of unpaid leave.

Source: Statutory Compensation and Benefits, 1996-7, Hewitt Associates
(Illinois). Information reflects statutory sick leave only. Personal
leave, maternity and parental leave, work accident leave, cash sickness
benefits, or other collectively-agreed arrangements are not included.


Copyright of National Interest is the property of National Interest and
its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to
a listserv without the copyright holder''s express written permission.
However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual
Source: National Interest, Summer97 Issue 48, p26, 11p

A Critical Review of Adult Education within Human Resource Development: Maximizing the Learning Outcomes at Work

1. Individual chapters:
? Abstract
? Introduction (Statement of the Problem)
? Literature Review
? Discussion
? Recommendations

2. Paper idea

As we move from industrial era to technology/information age, learning once reserved for the certain groups is increasingly available to men and women of all age and all levels. It results in the loosen boundaries of adult learning in terms of the format, location, and occasion. For adult learners, the purpose of learning is being changed from not just ?gaining formal qualifications but also to obtain and keep employment, develop expertise in a leisure activity, deal with changes on relationships, or manage personal finances? (Harrison et al, p.1, 2002). As a result, learning is now seen as a key feature of participation in the modern sociality and economy.

Adults learn in various formats. Holton & Baldwin (2003) state that when the learning occurs at the workplace, organizations concern about how to make positive connections between learning/training and human performance. However, they further point out that ?only 10 percent of learning transfer into job performance?, and reports from the field suggest that a substantial part of organizations? investment in HRD is wasted due to poor learning transfer? (p.4). Yet, the point we would like to investigate is what makes the deficiency. Is there a contradiction existing in adult education and learning at workplace?

Numbers of researchers argue that both Human Resource Development (HRD) and Adult Education view adult learning as being the central to their theory and practice (Knowles et al, 1998; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999; Merriam & Brockett, 1997). However, while the programs related to adult learning continue to expand in both formal and non-formal educational environments (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999), the purposes of them differ (Knowles et al, 1998). Knowles et al further explain that the core difference between these two concepts is that Adult Education is primarily focused on individual control, while HRD is typically controlled by organization.

HRD is an art of managing individuals and groups? changes through learning in organizations (Chalofsky and Lincoln, 1983). The purpose of HRD is to ?organize the learning activities within the organization in order to improve performance and/or personal growth for the purpose of improving the job, the individual, and/or the organization? (Gilley & Egglands, 1989, p.5). On the other hand, as Knowles et al (1998) state, ?for many, best adult education practices allow maximum individual control? (p115). From this perspective, we may notice the difference between Adult Education and HRD in terms of the goal of learning. As a result, it may be a challenge for professionals in the field of HRD to balance the nature of Adult Education and the practice of workplace learning.

In this study, we are trying to investigate the nature of these two fields in order to recognize the balance between individual learning and human performance at workplace. In other words, we aim to become conscious about how to integrate the principles of adult education with the practice of workplace learning and make the learning transfer to job performance successfully.

 Chalofsky, N., and Lincoln, C. (1983). Up the HRD Ladder: A Guide For Profesional Growth. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

 Gilley, J., & Eggland, S. (1989). Principles of Human Resource Development Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

 Harrison, R., Reeve, F., Hanson, A., & Clarke, J. (2002). Introduction - Perspectives on learning . In Harrison, R., Reeve, F., Hanson, A., & Clarke, J. (Eds.), Supporting Lifelong Learning Volume 1 (pp. 1-7). New York, NY: RoutledgeFalmer.

 Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (1998). The Adult Learner - The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development (5th ed.). Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company.

 Merriam, S., & Brockett, R. (1997). The profession and Practice of Adult Education - An Introduction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

 Merriam, S., & Caffarella, R. (1999). Learning in Adulthood - A Comprehensive Guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

 Holton, E., & Baldwin, T. (2003). Making Transfer Happen: An Action Perspective on Learning Transfer Systems. In Holton, E., & Baldwin, T. (Eds.), Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations (pp.3-15). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

The most important references:
? Swanson, R. & Holton, E. (2001). Foundstions of Human Resource Development. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
? Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (1998). The Adult Learner - The Definitive Classoc in Adult Education and Human Resource Development (5th ed.). Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company.
? Merriam, S., & Caffarella, R. (1999). Learning in Adulthood - A Comprehensive Guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
? Marchese, T.J. (1997). The New Conversations About Learning. [On-Line]. Available:
? Stein, D. Situated Learning in Adult Education. ERIC Digest. [On-Line]. Available:
? Watkins, K. E. and Marsick, V. J. (1992). Towards a theory of informal and incidental learning in organizations.International Journal of Lifelong Learning, 11 (4), 287-300.
? Enos, M. D., Kehrhahn, M. T., & Bell, A. (2003). Informal learning and the transfer of learning: How managers develop proficiency. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14 (4), 369-387
? Tennant, M. Is transfer of learning possible? In D. Boud and J. Garrick (Eds) Understanding workplace learning. London, Routledge. 1999, 165-179.
? Thompson, Brooks & Liza'rraga, Perceived Transfer of Learning: from the distance education classroom to the workplace. In Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, October 2003, v. 28, n. 5. (a short paper from the web is: )

Other references:
1. Short, D., Brandenburg, D., May, G., &Bierema, L. (2002). HRD: A Voice to Integrate the Demands of System Changes, People, Learning, and Performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(3), 237-241.

2. Kuchinke, P. (1999). Adult Development towards What End? A Philosophical Analysis of The Concept As Reflected in The Research, Theory, and Practice of Human Resource Development. Adult Education Quarterly, 49(4), 148-162.

3. Rossiter, M. (1999). A Narrative Approach to Development: Implications for Adult Education. American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, 50 (1), 56-71.

4. Reference: Kuchinke, P. (1999). Adult Development towards What End? A Philosophical Analysis of The Concept As Reflected in The Research, Theory, and Practice of Human Resource Development. Adult Education Quarterly, 49(4), 148-162.

5. Holmes, A. (1998). Performance-Based Approaches to Human Resource Development. New Directions for Students Services, no.84, Winter, 15-27.

Behavioral Genetics

The paper is a 7-10 page research paper. Your textbook, articles made available in class, and articles that you research yourself are to be used as reference materials for the paper. Papers must be completed in APA style.

A paper that is excellent, with no errors in grammar or syntax, refers to your textbook, and citing at least three articles which have been well integrated into the text of the paper using critical analysis, and real life associations, written concisely to respond to the assignment, and shows significant intellect and ability will receive an A grade.

Be sure to cite all the sources you use for any assignment in the text of the paper and to include the sources on the reference page.

3 Essay Questions (Two pages for each essay)

There are three essay questions for this.

The length of each essay should be one to two double-spaced pages (excluding title and reference pages). Use 12-point font and format your paper with regular 1-inch margins.

Essay 1
A group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which vaccine is more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested two different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To test the effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomly selected with 500 people getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420 did not. Of the people who were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people developed the flu and 380 did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The proportion of people who were treated with the shot who developed the flu = .16, and the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was .24. The calculated p value = .0008.
For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identify the hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from a research study. Interpret the statistical results and examine the limitations of the statistical methods. Finally, evaluate the research study as a whole and apply what you have learned about hypothesis testing and inferential statistics by discussing how you might conduct a follow-up study.
Your essay must address the following points:
Describe the research question for this experiment.
o What were the null and alternative hypotheses?
o Were the results of this test statistically significant?
o If so, why were they significant?
Would the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?
Do the results provide sufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis?
Was the sample appropriate for this study? Explain your answer.
What are some possible limitations to this study?
Discuss how you would conduct a follow up study to this one. Explain your answer.
Describe the difference between practical and statistical significance.

Essay 2
A researcher has investigated the relationship between IQ and grade point average (GPA) and found the correlation to be .75.
For this essay, critique the results and interpretation of a correlational study.
Evaluate the correlational result and identify the strength of the correlation.
Examine the assumptions and limitations of the possible connection between the researchers chosen variables.
Identify and describe other statistical tests that could be used to study this relationship.
Your essay response must address the following questions:
How strong is this correlation?
o Is this a positive or negative correlation?
o What does this correlation mean?
Does this correlation imply that individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQ) have high Grade Point Averages (GPA)?
Does this correlation provide evidence that high IQ causes GPA to go higher?
o What other variables might be influencing this relationship?
What is the connection between correlation and causation?
What are some of the factors that affect the size of this correlation?
Is correlation a good test for predicting GPA?
o If not, what statistical tests should a researcher use, and why?

Essay 3
A researcher has recorded the reaction times of 20 individuals on a memory assessment. The following table indicates the individual times:

2.2 4.7 7.3 4.1
9.5 15.2 4.3 9.5
2.7 3.1 9.2 2.9
8.2 7.6 3.5 2.5
9.3 4.8 8.5 8.1

In this essay, demonstrate your ability to organize data into meaningful sets, calculate basic descriptive statistics, interpret the results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in the variables. You may use Excel, one of the many free online descriptive statistics calculators, or calculate the values by hand and/or with a calculator.
Next, separate the data into two groups of 10; one group will be the lower reaction times, and the second group will be the higher reaction times. Then, address the following points in your essay response:

Calculate the sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis for each group.
How do the two groups differ?
Are there any outliers in either data group?
What effect does an outlier have on a sample?

Lastly, double each sample by repeating the same 10 data points in each group. You will have a total of 20 data points for each group. After completing this, address the following in your essay response:

Calculate the following for the new data groups: sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis.
Did any of the values change?
How does sample size affect those values?

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