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Info should include the mission statement, what gives them their authority, their budget, rule making procedures, no bibliography needed it's a research paper
Customer is requesting that (Johnfitz44) completes this order.

Managers are very interested in how a consumer makes a choice among alternatives. In this exercise, we ask you to consider the amount of money you spend purchasing gasoline to operate your automobile for a month and any alternatives available to you assuming your net income available to make those purchases. Also assume gasoline prices for your auto rose 100% during one difficult summer as our time period for the purpose of discussion. Explain, then, the following effects in terms of the income effect, or the substitution effect, or both effects:

* You drove less and purchased less gasoline.
* You ate out less often.
* You spent less to maintain your automobile.
* You took public transportation more often.
* You bought a bicycle.
* You did not take a vacation away from home.
* You bought fewer clothes and made due with more around the home.

Construct a four-to-five page APA format paper based on the above issues. Use two external sources and demonstrate your understanding of the concepts by providing a graph of each effect as a figure in your paper.

We have discussed in class; Inventory and Credit Policies, financial Planning, Cash Flow, Tax Environment. Please find one of these topics for the Current Event.

Current issue Financial budgeting

Current Issue Paperarticle summary & analysis
Each student is to complete one (1) current issues summary and analysis (2-3 pages)

The article can be selected from the Los Angeles Times, Business Week, Wall Street Journal, Fortune, Harvard Business Review, Business Times, or similar business oriented publications. The event must have happened within the last year and be relevant to the material presented in the course. You must relate the article to at least one concept that we have discussed in class.
The 2-3 page summary and analysis (word-processed, in 12-point Times New Roman font, spell- and grammar checked)

MUST include the following at the top of the first page of your paper:
Your name
Title, author, journal name, publication date, and page number(s)
(1) Brief summary of the article (2) relationship to financial management/budgeting concepts (3) your critical analysis of the article. Please use these 3 areas as sub-headings for the paper.

Note: A sample of a Current Issue Paper is included under Assignments as a resource.

Name of Student
Two Birds, One Stone, by Ira Carnahan and Janet Novack
Forbes, March 4, 2002, Page 40

Current Issues Paper (SAMPLE)

The authors address a problem that is very much a concern with Americans, especially after the Enron incident. The question the authors ask is would companies inflate their earnings if the punishment were a bigger tax bill? They feel that it is time to find out.
After Enrons collapse due to secret findings in their accounting procedures, people wonder if it is a good idea to make public companies report the same profits to the IRS as they do to shareholders. Public companies currently report their book earnings to the Securities and Exchange Commission using Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Problem is that they use a separate set of rules to calculate their taxable income for the IRS. The question raised by the authors is if these policies should remain the same or it is time for some changes.
Carnahan and Novack say, In recent years accounting experts have studied whether more closely aligning book and tax accounting rules could curb abusive shelters. This might also limit the monkey business that currently goes on in book accounting. Although, they feel that incorporating a new policy will be met with some resistance as it has been tried in the past.
The way things are currently, allows companies to embellish their book earnings and diminish their taxable earnings. If the two were linked together, companies would not be able to have both options. John Buckley, Democratic Ways and Means Committee, adds: If you had greater book/tax conformity, Enron probably never would have happened.
The difference between the two systems is their treatment of stock options. Companies reduce their taxable income but not their book income-a big cause of the option boom. Even when the stock option effect is excluded, the spread between the higher income companies report to the SEC and the number they report to the IRS widened dramatically in the 1990s.
There are several other problems the authors speak about is that corporate tax shelters produce big artificial losses for tax purposes, without affecting book income. Consolidation is also a hot area for book/tax arbitrage. Companies are consolidating money-losing subsidiaries for tax purposes. They are also leaving it out of the balance sheet for book purposes.

Relationship to Organizational/Management Concepts

Accounting Principles

The article addresses issues of correct and accurate accounting principles and how they apply to large companies. Under current law, book earnings are reported to the SEC using GAAP. However, the problem is that the earnings can differ from the earnings reported to the IRS. The authors suggest that this is not necessarily good accounting principles just legal ones. It is very easy for companies to embellish their book earnings while at the same time reduce their taxable earnings. They suggest that just because it is okay by law, does not mean that it is ethical.

Business Ethics

The IRS, SEC, and the use of GAAP give companies guidelines for business accounting and bookkeeping. Carnahan and Novack suggest that the law needs to be changed to not just reflect the legality of corporate bookkeeping, but also incorporate ethical standards by which companies need to comply.
Economists are concerned that the same thing that happened to Enron could happen with other companies. The fall of Enron has had a dramatic affect on the economy. The impact could be greater if false accounting was discovered in other large corporations. The authors solution is to combine the two practices of reporting earnings.

Business Law
Congress last tackled conformity in the 1986 tax reform act. One provision imposed a complicated alternative minimum tax on half the difference between book income and tax income. Unfortunately, it subsided in 1989. A better provision forced companies who used accrual accounting for book purposes only to use it for tax purposes also instead of using cash accounting for taxes. This meant they could not accelerate the booking of revenue into a year that was ending without raising that years tax bill as well.
By adding a new law, book/tax conformity, it might help to reduce firms from booking revenue assertively. An accounting professor at the University of North Carolina studied the impact a book/tax conformity law would have. He predicts, You would have fewer cases of firms inflating their earnings and being very aggressive.

It seems that there is a double standard when it comes to accounting principles. What is acceptable for corporations is not for individuals. I think there needs to be new rules and regulations put into to place that more closely monitors companies accounting procedures. I know that there is already the GAAP by which companies look to for answers, but maybe there needs to be an addition of business ethics.
One of the main problems with companies today, in particular large corporations, is that they lose sight of ethical standards by which they should be operating. There are a growing number of classes and degrees in the area of Business Ethics. I think this is partly due to the increase in unethical business practiced being revealed due to unethical bookkeeping. I would have to agree with the authors, it is high time for some changes.

There are faxes for this order.

Fiscal Policy Federal Debt and

the paper must be 4-5 pages and relating to the fiscal policy. the questions that have to be answered are: Are large deficits or government debt a problem? Entitlement programs(social security and medicare) will cost trillions of dollars;how should they be reformed? there are to be two articles used and there must be a abstract written for each and hopefully the articles have divergent opinions realating to the fiscal policy
here are two articles that can be used:(1)deficits,Eisner,R.(1989)."Budget Deficits:Rhetoric and Reality." The Jornal of Economic Perspectives,3(2):73-93.Blanchard,O.Macroeconomics,4th edition,chapter 26.Wray,L.R.,"teaching the Fallacy of Composition:The Federal Budget Deficit."
(2)Social Security Reform. Feldstein,M."Structural Reform of Social Security."The Journal of Economic Perspectives,Spring 2005,Vol.19,No.2.Hines Jr.,J.and T.Taylor,"Shortfalls in the long Run:Predictions about the Social Security Trust Fund."The Journal of Economics Perspectives,Spring 2005,Vol.19,No.2.Wray,L.R.,"Social Security:Truthor Useful Fictions?"

this is my introduction following, so however the essay should correspond to the introduction.

Looking into macroeconomics you learn various things regarding the government and its role in the economy. The government deals which such things as transfer payments, unemployment benefits, Medicaid and social security. The government also plays a role in the fiscal policy. The fiscal policy is relating to taxation and government spending. So by changing tax laws, the government can effectively modify the amount of disposable income available to its tax payers. For example, if taxes were to increase, consumers would have less disposable income, and in turn would have less money to spend on goods and services. The difference in disposable income would go to the government instead of going to consumers, who would pass the money onto companies. Or, the government could choose to increase government spending by directly purchasing goods and services from private companies. Therefore, if the government spending is greater than what it collects in taxes, then that will result in a deficit. However, I will emphasis if large deficits or government debt is a problem, and also how should entitlement programs such as Medicare, and social security be reform knowing that they will cost trillions of dollars. I will use two articles that will give support in helping me obtain reasonable answers to the questions above, and incorporate more on the fiscal policy in regards to the government and taxes.

Final Paper. Each student will be required to complete a 5 to 7 page paper in APA style (excluding cover page, reference page, & appendix). This project will be comprised of researching a local nonprofit organization 501 (c) 3 (Public Charity) and research their mission, vision, year founded, board of directors, operating budget, strategic plan, FTE (Full-Time Employees), part-time employees, volunteers, geographic region served, number of individuals served annually, start & end of their fiscal year, and programs offered in complete detail. After conducting the initial research you will be required to develop a new technology or and existing product or service that could make your nonprofit organization more efficient and effective. There will be assignments and tutorials throughout the semester to prepare you to complete this assignment. You paper will be due on Wednesday September 16, 2009.

The company that I chose was guidestar. I also need to have an outline done for this as well

These are 501c3's I found in West VA

The subject matter is: A review of the immigration and naturalization service (INS). The purpose of the paper will be to discuss how the INS functions in its role. We will need to examine how do their street level bureaucrats play a critical role in the INS and their policies such as teachers, police and other law enforcement personnel, social workers, judges, public lawyers, ect. We'll need to examine scope and conflict such as budget restraints and how they deal with them. How they deal in situations too complex to fit into programs, and human dimensions. What are the differences between street level bureaucrats and managers(implying managers achieving results consistent with agency objectives)How do the managers lead,what do middle managers in gov. do,what are their conflicts,how do they interact with other depts.,why is public relations important,what are some of the critical issues facing INS, how will these impact policy and management. The text book being used is 2nd edition The Political Environment Of Public Management by Peter Kobrak. Instructor thinks this collection of papers is dead accurate. call me at 904-614-0000..Clarence Gooden

Tax Revenue Analysis for the

Please carefully read and follow each and every instruction mentioned in the word file uploaded to complete the work. If u have any questions let me know aspa...

Tax Revenue Analysis Project

You will select general fund tax revenue for a tax (property, sales, and income) and do research on that tax for a state of Pennsylvania and New York

Tax Revenue Analysis Ratios

Ratio: Operating Revenues/Population

Ratio: Cash + Short Term Investments/Current Liabilities (If cash position is less than 1, then determine if this is a temporary situation or whether causes such as receivables may persist leading to long term solvency issues

Ratio: If per capita operating tax revenues are decreasing, the government may not be able to maintain existing service levels unless it finds new sources of tax revenue.

If governmental revenues are decreasing, how and where do you cut the budget to balance expenditures with revenues and why?

Does the tax revenue meet the criteria of equity, simplicity, neutrality, competitiveness, and political accountability or the nine criteria of the National Conference of State Legislatures? How does the tax rank in comparison to other similar jurisdictions? Should the tax be changed, and if so how? Is the balance of taxes and fees appropriate?

There are faxes for this order.

Please choose option 1 if possible

Final Paper

Utilizing the concepts learned throughout the course, you will write a Final Paper on one of the following scenarios:

1. Option One: You are in the role of a consultant with ten years experience in the health care insurance industry. A group of 20 doctors are considering forming a new medical group and have asked you to prepare a report on whether they should build a facility in an area within 30 miles of the downtown center of your 500,000 population city for $100 million dollars. Prepare a report for the management team of the doctors group on your proposed $100 million expenditure plan reflecting on the key course objectives including the financial, legal, alternative health care models, reinforced by your knowledge of strategic planning and capital budgeting.

2. Option Two: You are in the role of a chief operating officer. A board of directors has requested that you prepare a summary of the issues involved in a $50 million expansion. Because of local political and uncertain national medical care policy, to be elected national officials they may have to scale the expansion back to $25 million. Prepare a report for the management team of the doctors group on your proposed $25 to $50 million dollar expenditure plan reflecting on the key course objectives including the financial, legal, alternative health care models, reinforced by your knowledge of strategic planning and capital budgeting.

3. Option Three: You are in the role of a chief operating officer for a for-profit insurance company. A board of directors has requested that you prepare a summary of the issues involved in a potential reduction in U. S. medical insurance reimbursement of 40%. Prepare a report for the board of directors on how to best meet the impacts of the proposed funding cuts while still being sensitive to the needs and health of the community and your patients. Reflect on the key course objectives including the financial, legal, alternative health care models, reinforced by your knowledge of strategic planning and capital budgeting in preparing your response.

4. Option Four: You are in the role of a chief administrative officer for a large nonprofit health relief organization. A board of directors has requested that you prepare a summary of the issues about how to solve the health needs of an African country. Your organization has limited funding and will need to obtain subsidized medicine from major pharmaceutical companies. They also have the opportunity to get non generic, non USDA approved, alternative stem cell derived medication from foreign sources. Prepare a report for the board of directors on how to best meet the impacts of the proposed funding limitations while still being sensitive to the needs and health of the African nation. Consider the various economic, political, moral and health impacts for both the United States citizens who may have some of the health medication diverted to the African nation. Reflect on the key course objectives including the financial, legal, alternative health care models, reinforced by your knowledge of strategic planning and capital budgeting in preparing your response.

5. Option Five: Your role is as a public official elected at the local city level; 50,000 to 250,000 population. You have a $10 million dollar budget allocated to you by the city manager and can get up to 100% matching federal funds if you meet the federal standards. You have been asked by the mayor to determine how to allocate the budget to best support the needs of the city. These could include but not be limited to supporting capital requirements, operational requirements, and subsidizing nonprofit organizations or used as economic incentives to bring new private concerns into the city. Prepare a report for the mayor and city council on your proposed expenditure plan reflecting on the key course objectives including the financial, legal, alternative health care models, reinforced by your knowledge of strategic planning and capital budgeting.

Your Final Paper must be 15 to 20 double-spaced pages (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Utilize a minimum of 10 to 12 scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources that were published within the past five years, including a minimum of five from the Ashford University Library databases.

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

Must be 15 to 20 double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must have a cover page that includes:

Title of paper
Students name
Course name and number
Instructors name
Date submitted
Must include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.
Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a concluding paragraph.
Must use at least of 10- to- 12 scholarly and /or peer-reviewed sources, including a minimum of five from the Ashford Online Library.
Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Need a 13-page political briefing/position paper/memo from a hypothetical political consultant to President Bush detailing HOW to address - attack, defend, ignore, or avoid - the SPECIFIC issues set forth below and providing the basis/reasons/WHY and strategy for doing so.

A. The Economy

1. Budget deficits
2. Tax cuts
3. Drugs for retirees
4. Weak dollar
5. Budget priorities like military, intelligence, and
homeland security
6. Job growth
7. Free trade

B. Security

1. War on terrorism and/or criminal action against
2. Weapons of mass destruction: Does it matter if Iraq
had them? What about Libya, North Korea and Iran?
3. Should the US require UN approval for preemptive

C. The Future

1. The future viewed from thye Vietnam era
2. The relevance of the Cold war
3. The role of oil
4. The future post - 9/11

D. Role of government

1. Protect and care for people
2. Hands off and incentives to succeed
3. Freedom of choice: Economic, social, or both

(The paper will be broken down into sections [i.e., Introduction, The Economy, Security, The Future, and The Role of Government] and each section will have subsections [e.g., like The Role of Government will have Protect and Care for People, Hands Off and Incentives to succeed, and Freedom of Choice: Economic, Social, or Both].) I WILL insert the section and subsection captions later myself.

Must be sure to articulate why and how each issue should be approached by President Bush (Oppose this issue because . . . avoid the issue and how . . . etc.

Will Cooperative Learning Have a Significantly Positive Impact on Smaller or Larger Classes?

(Here are my materials)- Everything can be chnaged EXCEPT th Action Research question.

Please feel free to call (516)807-4288 or email me at [email protected]

Table of Contents

I. Action Research Question..?????????.??

II. Abstract ???????????????????page

III. Introduction
Research Rationale ??????????????.. page

Background?????????????????.. page

Importance of Study.?????????????? page

Definition of Terms ??????????????. page

Statement of Problem ?????????????.. page

IV. Review of Literature????????????.?... page

V. Methods??????????????????.?page

VI. References?????????????????? page

Action Research Question

Will cooperative learning have a significantly positive impact on smaller or larger classes?


The purpose of this study was to investigate if cooperative learning will have a significantly positive impact on smaller or larger classes. In order to have valid results, I used both my largest and smallest classes as my sampling. I also incorporated a variety of teaching styles with cooperative learning to promote student participation and achievement. Results will be based on quiz and test scores, as well as cooperative assignments.

Introduction Research Rationale

As educators in middle school and high school classrooms, content specialty teachers often work with a variety of class sizes. Yet, with such an assortment of class sizes, there are also extraneous variables that each teacher must consider in order to foster individual achievement. Participation and achievement are variables of the individual students that weigh heavily on class success and are affected by class size. Educational mandates, as well as individual school district policies and requirements, are also influencing the class size and affecting individual achievement. The middle school and high school content specialty teachers are frequently searching for new ways to prevent individual achievement and participation from falling when class sizes rise. The varying number of students that content specialty teachers see from class to class, they are driven to seek out alternative methods to meet the needs of their learners in order to maintain individual success and achievement while promoting participation. Therefore, smaller class sizes may be an effective way to encourage students to participate and promote individual achievement.

Introduction Background
For the past two years, class sizes have gradually climbed within the school district in which I am currently working. The Long Island school district primarily includes students from low socio-economic backgrounds. Like many similar urban schools, my school district suffers from poverty, a large minority population, low test scores, a high number of discipline referrals, and many students who aren?t learning to read. Union contracts often stipulated maximum class sizes; however, even before the expansion of collective bargaining took place, there was wide spread agreement that having more than thirty students in a class is a heavy burden for a conscientious teacher - especially for a middle or high school teacher who has five or six classes. This is the first year that my district has no cap size on the number of students permitted in a classroom each period. Because of this new guideline, I see as many as thirty-two students one period and as few as twenty-one another period. Such numbers present difficulty in maintaining classroom management, teaching style, assessment, classroom configuration, and materials. But by far with classes as large as thirty-two students, a teacher?s concern is participation and individual achievement. The challenge is to hold the interest and promote achievement of thirty-two students in a classroom that is overcrowded at times and lacks sufficient seating.

Introduction Importance of Study
It is essential that all students receive individualized attention in some form. Whether it is via participating and sharing ideas, positive reinforcement, a conference, or working one-on-one, none of these are easily accomplished within a large or oversized class. It is essential for successful learning to maintain small class sizes in order to achieve individual student participation.

Introduction Definition of Terms
Cooperative learning is a term for representing a variety of interactive groups working toward a common goal. Each student in a cooperative group is individually accountable for the entire group?s success. Cooperative learning groups contain students of mixed abilities, different genders, as well as different cultural backgrounds.
The average class size within this particular school is 27 students. For research purposes within this study, a small class will consist of less than 25 students and a large class will consist of more than 30 students. Classes are heterogeneously mixed, containing students of mixed learning abilities, different genders, and cultural backgrounds.

Introduction Statement of Problem
This action research project investigates the influence of cooperative learning on class size. This study examines how cooperative learning impacts smaller and larger class sizes.

Review of Literature
The purpose of class size reduction is to raise student achievement. Classes of varying sizes have presented teachers with the challenge of providing appropriate opportunities for participation while attempting to maintain achievement.
A reduction in class size alone does not always lead to high student performance because the teacher is an essential part of the puzzle and he or she must practice effective teaching strategies.
There are three factors that determine teacher effectiveness and qualities of a less effective teacher: Instructional orientation, management style, and individualized focus. Instructional orientation includes the type of content that the teacher emphasized in his or her lessons and how they are taught. Management style encompasses how the teachers disciplined their students and organized their lessons.
The final factor, individualization, is comprised of how much time and energy the teachers spend on individual, one-to-one instruction. There are many research experiments nationally known for supporting a reduction in class size. The federal government and 20 states within the United States have launched programs to lower the average class size (Zahorik, Halbach, Ehrle, and Molnar 2003).
One well-known research project is Project STAR-Student Teacher Achievement Ratio was a controlled experiment done in Tennessee, and has been widely recognized and acknowledged by a variety of educational researchers, economists, and statisticians. It is assumed that small class sizes are more effective because there is an improvement in morale and enjoyment of teaching shared by teachers of small classes (Finn 2002). Project STAR has been used as a model by groups such as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the U.S. Department of Education as it was conducted in a complex setting represented by public schools.
SAGE, Wisconsin?s Student Achievement Guarantee in Education, is another well-recognized research project regarding class size. The SAGE findings are reviewed over a period of five years: Overall, SAGE students scored higher than did the comparison group on the reading, language arts, and mathematics subtests. These results showed a 25-30 percent higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in larger classes, which were maintained for three years or the length of the program.
A few major questions were raised, regardless of the fact that an overall pattern of research points to the positive effects of class-size reduction on student learning and on teaching behaviors. These questions include: 1) How big is the SAGE effect on achievement? 2) Does SAGE reduce the achievement gap between African Americans and whites? 3) Are the benefits of SAGE limited to disadvantaged students? 4) How much does SAGE benefit students with poor attendance? (Smith, Molnar, and Zahorik 2003).
SAGE affects student achievement. On the basis of the norm groups? predicted performance, the difference translates into a 25-30 percent of a year?s growth, a significant gain that supports SAGE?s claim to improving student achievement.
Class size reduction benefits all students, but its effects are especially powerful for African Americans. African Americans entering small classes had lower reading and math scores than African Americans entering larger classes in comparison schools. But by the end of the school year, their achievement scores were significantly higher than those of the African American students in larger classes. African American students seem to profit more from the SAGE experience than white students when compared with non-SAGE students. The achievement gap between African Americans and white students widens each year (Smith, 2003).
It has been noted that class size initiatives have enjoyed wide spread support from parents, teachers, and the general public. People will still believe that smaller class sizes are a good idea and teachers report experiencing lower levels of stress and job dissatisfaction with smaller classes. This is primarily because they are better engaged with each student, and therefore, student motivation increases and discipline problems decrease. Parents believe that a teacher?s individualized instruction leads to improvements in a child?s academic performance. This is apparent because teachers with smaller classes have more time to interact with parents, and their knowledge of their students strengthens within those interactions (Gilman and Kiger 2003). In some districts, the economy is the deciding factor in maintaining the status quo or increasing class size. The cost is often too high for school districts struggling with budget cuts, although the research supports reducing class size.
The decision to reduce class size does not assure that qualified teachers and appropriate classrooms will be available. Policymakers face serious challenges presented by America?s out-of-date school buildings and the growing shortage of superior teachers. State officials from California to New York have been threatening to cut back their substantial class size reduction programs in the face of declining state revenues. The National Governors Association (NGA) estimates that approximately 44 states currently face revenue deficits. In the past, declining revenues for elementary and secondary education certainly lead to fewer fully qualified teachers and larger class sizes. Congress weighed in on the issue of reducing class size in 1998 when it funded a down payment on a Class Size Reduction program that would reduce class size by hiring 100,000 new and qualified teachers over seven years. Calculating the cost of a statewide Class Size Reduction program involves considering a number of ingredients. Initial average class size needs to be considered. The larger the drop to ?small? classes, the greater the cost will be. Whether or not there is a rigid cap or flexibility in the number of students per teacher. A rigid cap will increase the cost by decreasing the final average class size. Schools will keep numbers down to ensure staying below the cap. Also to be considered in a budget for a CSR program is the cost of teachers hired. This depends on the salary scale of each district and the experience level of teachers hired. Teacher costs will increase with time as teachers move up the salary ladder. The costs of teacher support may also need to be factored in. In addition to these ingredients, in planning and creating a budget for a CSR program, one needs to consider the cost of facilities for providing new classrooms. The National Education Association currently supports a class size of 15 students in regular education programs and even smaller in programs for students with special needs. Teachers with small classes can spend time and energy helping each child succeed. Smaller classes also enhance safety, discipline and order within the classroom.
The American Federation of Teachers cites four necessary steps in order for class size reduction to be effective. The AFT suggests that the most effective classes should be between 15 and 19 students. Particular schools, especially those with low-achieving and low-income students, should be targeted. In order for class reduction to be most effective, it is essential that there is an adequate supply of qualified teachers and classroom supplies. In addition to increasing student achievement, the AFT recommends that smaller classes improve the classroom atmosphere so that students receive more individualized attention and teachers have flexibility to use different instructional approaches. With fewer students in a classroom, students are less probable to distract each other and there will be a lower level of noise. In addition to increasing student achievement, smaller classes enable teachers to know the students better and offer more extra help; recognizing learning problems, special educational needs and achievements. Smaller classes facilitate an increase in student achievement with fewer discipline problems. According to the American Federation of Teachers, by spending less time on discipline, teachers report spending more time on instruction.
The benefits of class reduction in the early grades last throughout a student?s educational career. In 4th, 6th, and 8th grade, students who attended small classes in the early grades were significantly ahead of their regular-class peers in all subjects. By 8th grade, they were still ahead almost a full year ahead of their peers. The Class Size Matters Organization believes that smaller classes are a very cost-effective strategy to lower the number of students who have to repeat grades. In the Tennessee STAR study, only 15 inner-city students placed in small classes in early grades were retained through the 9th grade, compared to 44% of those from similar backgrounds in regular size classes. In high school, students who had been in smaller classes in the early grades had significantly lower dropout rates, higher grades, and received higher scores on their college entrance exams.
The Class Size Matters Organization reiterates what many other studies have also stated: with smaller class sizes, behavior problems are significantly reduced. In New York City, a principal in East Harlem reported that disciplinary referrals dropped 60% in her school one year when they instituted smaller classes. In Burke County, North Carolina, disciplinary problems and interruptions declined by more than 25% after class sizes were reduced. Lower rates of disruption and behavior problems have also been reported in Indiana and California. A survey by Public Agenda shows that among teachers themselves, smaller class sizes are seen as the most effective way to increase the quality of instruction, far above raising salaries or providing more professional development. The Class Size Matters Organization mentions that reducing class size improves teacher morale because less time is spent on discipline and classroom management. This enables the teachers to focus more on learning and individualized instruction. Smaller classes also lead to improved teacher retention. However, smaller classes have been shown to have benefits that go far beyond higher test scores. Reduced class size also leads to more parent volunteers in the classroom, and more parent involvement overall. Teachers explain that with smaller classes they have the ability to get to know both their students and their parents. Also possible with small classes, teachers are able to keep closer communication with parents about their children?s

The setting for this action research is a public middle school in Nassau County, New York. This is a suburban school, which educates grades five through eight. This researcher has been employed within the district for four years and presently holds the position of a seventh and eighth grade social studies teacher, for both regular and inclusion classes. This researcher?s class sizes range from twenty-one to thirty-two students. It is this researcher?s objective to find out if class size has a significant effect on cooperative learning.
This study will incorporate two social studies classes, the largest and the smallest, and compare/contrast their results. The class will be using a cooperative learning model to engage student learning. Each member in the expert and home groups will be given assigned jobs to aid in the preparation and clean up. These jobs will be rotated daily. This teaching style will be done in an on/off rotation: Cooperative learning will take place on each Monday, Wednesday, and Friday during the ten-week cycle; the ?off? cycle days will be designated to other forms of learning such as technology based and teacher-centered. The students will be divided using the Jigsaw model of cooperative learning in which each cooperative group is divided into two groups: ?home? and ?expert,? both grouped heterogeneously by ability level and gender. Each home group will be given an assignment. All members of the home group are also being assigned a specific task; Students in the class with the same task will meet in their expert groups. When completed, the experts will return to their home group to share information. Members will be evaluated on the combined knowledge of expert and home groups.
Forms of assessment will include daily assignments as well as a weekly quiz/test given on Friday. The researcher will use varied types of questioning to elicit participation using Bloom?s Taxonomy during both ?on? and ?off? cycle days. During each day of cooperative learning, students will be responsible for handing in an independent assignment as well as a group assignment. These will be checked and graded for participation and assessment of material. Students will be responsible for completing weekly assignments and will be assessed in the form of a quiz or test each Friday.
This data will be collected and analyzed to create a graph demonstrating the participation and achievement levels of each class. The researcher will develop a rubric, which can then be used for future reference. As a teacher, class size usually has a great effect on teaching. By using the data analysis as a tool, it can not only help prepare one for classes to come, but perhaps also show others the positive and negative outcomes that class size has.
As compared to students in large classes, students in small classes are more engaged and experience more participatory, enriched, and hands-on work. Within smaller classes, teachers interact more with individual students, are able to give more feedback, spend more time instructing rather than disciplining, and enjoy higher morale (Deutsch, 2003). In order to bring this environment, I have chosen to implement a cooperative learning model.

Cooperative Learning Rules
1. Successful students outcome depends on other members of the group.
2. Students will show respect for individual differences (culture, academic ability, gender, etc.).
3. Individual students are responsible for a portion of the group?s task.
4. The teacher and student will evaluate accountability.
*Student?s will adhere to general classroom rules: staying on task, talking in indoor voices, raising their hands to get the teacher?s attention, etc.

Pre-Instructional Skills
Students will be able to accomplish the following:
? Form groups quietly
? Stay in groups
? Use quiet voices
? Speak clearly
? Listen actively
? Ask for help
? Address others by appropriate names
? Encouraging statements
? Praise others
? Be able to paraphrase
? Criticize ideas, not people
? Extend answers
? Check answers
? Ask questions

Roles of the Teacher
The teacher will do the following:
? Allow time for non-academic group activity
? Teach and model group skills
? Select content
? Plan and discuss rubrics for grading
? Assign the students groups and roles
? Facilitate, not dominate
? Plan learning environment


Student Jobs While in Cooperative Learning Groups

RECORDER = Will write down the group?s responses
RESEARCHER = Will research material via handouts, the Internet, and other available resources
MATERIALS COORDINATOR = Will gathers and return appropriate materials to and from the materials table
LEADER = Will read directions to the group and make sure that everyone is on task

?Missing the Mark? by Jeremy D. Finn; available in Phi Delta Kappan. November 2002: v.84, no.3
?Class Size Reduction: A Fresh Look at the Data? by Phil Smith, Alex Molnar and John Zahorik; available in Educational Leadership September 2003: v. 61, no.1
?Teaching Practices for Smaller Classes? by John Zahorik, Anke Halbach, Karen Ehrle, and Alex Molnar; available in Educational Leadership September 2003: v.61, no. 7
?Should We Try to Keep Class Sizes Small?? by David Alan Gilman and Susan Kiger; available in Educational Leadership April 2003: v.60, no.7
?How Small Classes Benefit High School Students? by Francine M. Deutsch; available in National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin June 2003: v.87
?Class Size Matters? available at
?Class Size Reduction: Success Stories Noted in New Report? available at
?Does Class Size Matter in Public Schools?? available at
?Smaller Class Sizes Help Blacks More, Study Says? available at
?Class Size Reduction? available at

Do you think being a financial manager is the best preparation for later becoming a CEO?

Write after reading the following
Article from Bureau of labor

A bachelor?s degree in finance, accounting, or related field is the minimum academic preparation, but many employers increasingly seek graduates with a master?s degree and a strong analytical background.

The continuing need for skilled financial managers will spur average employment growth.

Nature of the Work

Almost every firm, government agency, and organization has one or more financial managers who oversee the preparation of financial reports, direct investment activities, and implement cash management strategies. As computers are increasingly used to record and organize data, many financial managers are spending more time developing strategies and implementing the long-term goals of their organization.

The duties of financial managers vary with their specific titles, which include chief financial officer, vice president of finance, controller, treasurer, credit manager, and cash manager. Chief financial officers (CFOs), for example, are the top financial executives of an organization. They oversee all financial and accounting functions and formulate and administer the organization?s overall financial plans and policies. In small firms, CFOs usually handle all financial management functions. In large firms, they direct these activities through other financial managers who head each financial department.

Controllers direct the preparation of financial reports that summarize and forecast the organization?s financial position, such as income statements, balance sheets, and analysis of future earnings or expenses. Controllers are also in charge of preparing special reports required by regulatory authorities. Often, controllers oversee the accounting, audit, and budget departments. Treasurers and finance officers direct the organization?s financial goals, objectives, and budgets. They oversee the investment of funds and manage associated risks, supervise cash management activities, execute capital-raising strategies to support a firm?s expansion, and deal with mergers and acquisitions.

Cash managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements to meet the business and investment needs of the firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine whether loans must be obtained to meet cash requirements or whether surplus cash should be invested in interest-bearing instruments. Risk and insurance managers oversee programs to minimize risks and losses that may arise from financial transactions and business operations undertaken by the institution. They also manage the organization?s insurance budget. Credit managers oversee the firm?s issuance of credit. They establish credit rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor the collections of past due accounts. Managers specializing in international finance develop financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multinational organizations.

Financial institutions, such as commercial banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and mortgage and finance companies, employ additional financial managers, often with the title Vice President. These executives oversee various functions, such as lending, trusts, mortgages, and investments, or programs, including sales, operations, or electronic financial services. They may be required to solicit business, authorize loans, and direct the investment of funds, always adhering to Federal and State laws and regulations.

Branch managers of financial institutions administer and manage all the functions of a branch office, which may include hiring personnel, approving loans and lines of credit, establishing a rapport with the community to attract business, and assisting customers with account problems. Financial managers who work for financial institutions must keep abreast of the rapidly growing array of financial services and products.

In addition to the general duties described above, all financial managers perform tasks unique to their organization or industry. For example, government financial managers must be experts on the government appropriations and budgeting processes, whereas health care financial managers must be knowledgeable about issues surrounding health care financing. Moreover, financial managers must be aware of special tax laws and regulations that affect their industry.

Areas in which financial managers are playing an increasingly important role involve mergers and consolidations and global expansion and financing. These developments require extensive specialized knowledge on the part of the financial manager to reduce risks and maximize profit. Financial managers are increasingly hired on a temporary basis to advise senior managers on these and other matters. In fact, some firms contract out all accounting and financial functions to companies that provide these services.

The role of financial manager, particularly in business, is changing in response to technological advances that have significantly reduced the amount of time it takes to produce financial reports. Financial managers now perform more data analysis and use it to offer ideas to senior managers on how to maximize profits. They often work on teams acting as business advisors to top management. Financial managers need to keep abreast of the latest computer technology in order to increase the efficiency of their firm?s financial operations.

Working Conditions

Financial managers work in comfortable offices, often close to top managers and to departments that develop the financial data these managers need. They typically have direct access to state-of-the-art computer systems and information services. Financial managers commonly work long hours, often up to 50 or 60 per week. They are generally required to attend meetings of financial and economic associations and may travel to visit subsidiary firms or meet customers.

Employment []

Financial managers held about 693,000 jobs in 1998. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, more than a third were employed by services industries, including business, health, social, and management services. Nearly 3 out of 10 were employed by financial institutions, such as banks, savings institutions, finance companies, credit unions, insurance companies, securities dealers, and real estate firms.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A bachelor?s degree in finance, accounting, economics, or business administration is the minimum academic preparation for financial managers. However, many employers increasingly seek graduates with a master?s degree, preferably in business administration, economics, finance, or risk management. These academic programs develop analytical skills and provide knowledge of the latest financial analysis methods and technology.

Experience may be more important than formal education for some financial manager positions?notably branch managers in banks. Banks typically fill branch manager positions by promoting experienced loan officers and other professionals who excel at their jobs. Other financial managers may enter the profession through formal management trainee programs offered by the company.

Continuing education is vital for financial managers, reflecting the growing complexity of global trade, shifting Federal and State laws and regulations, and a proliferation of new, complex financial instruments. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledge and skills by encouraging employees to take graduate courses at colleges and universities or attending conferences related to their specialty. Financial management, banking, and credit union associations, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national and local training programs. Persons enrolled prepare extensively at home, then attend sessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget management, corporate cash management, financial analysis, international banking, and information systems. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for those who successfully complete courses. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by this type of special study.

In some cases, financial managers may also broaden their skills and exhibit their competency in specialized fields by attaining professional certification. For example, the Association for Investment Management and Research confers the Chartered Financial Analyst designation on investment professionals who have a bachelor?s degree, pass three test levels, and meet work experience requirements. The National Association of Credit Management administers a three-part certification program for business credit professionals. Through a combination of experience and examinations, these financial managers pass through the level of Credit Business Associate, to Credit Business Fellow, and finally to Certified Credit Executive. The Treasury Management Association confers the Certified Cash Manager credential on those who have 2 years of relevant experience and pass an exam, and the Certified Treasury Executive designation on those who meet more extensive experience and continuing education requirements. More recently, the Association of Government Accountants has begun to offer the Certified Government Financial Manager certification to those who have the appropriate education and experience and who pass three examinations. Financial managers who specialize in accounting may earn the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) or Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designations. (See the Handbook statement on accountants and auditors.)

Candidates for financial management positions need a broad range of skills. Interpersonal skills are increasingly important because these jobs involve managing people and working as part of a team to solve problems. Financial managers must have excellent communication skills to explain complex financial data. Because financial managers work extensively with various departments in their firm, a broad overview of the business is essential.

Financial managers should be creative thinkers and problem solvers, applying their analytical skills to business. They must be comfortable with computer technology. As financial operations are increasingly affected by the global economy, they must have knowledge of international finance; even a foreign language may be important.

Because financial management is critical for efficient business operations, well-trained, experienced financial managers who display a strong grasp of the operations of various departments within their organization are prime candidates for promotion to top management positions. Some financial managers transfer to closely related positions in other industries. Those with extensive experience and access to sufficient capital may start their own consulting firms.

Job Outlook []

The outlook for financial managers is good for those with the right skills. Expertise in accounting and finance is fundamental, and a master?s degree enhances one?s job prospects. Strong computer skills and knowledge of international finance are important, as are excellent communication skills as the job increasingly involves working on strategic planning teams. Mergers, acquisitions, and corporate downsizing will continue to adversely affect employment of financial managers, but growth of the economy and the need for financial expertise will keep the profession growing about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008.

The banking industry, which employs the most financial managers, is expected to continue to consolidate and reduce the number of financial managers. Employment of bank branch managers, in particular, will grow very little or not at all as banks open fewer branches and promote electronic and Internet banking to cut costs. In contrast, the securities and commodities industry will hire more financial managers to handle increasingly complex financial transactions and manage investments. Financial managers are being hired throughout industry to manage assets and investments, handle mergers and acquisitions, raise capital, and assess global financial transactions. Risk managers, who assess risks for insurance and investment purposes, are in especially great demand.

Some financial managers may be hired on a temporary basis to see a company through a short-term crisis or to offer suggestions for boosting profits. Other companies may contract out all accounting and financial operations. Even in these cases, however, financial managers may be needed to oversee the contracts.

Computer technology has reduced the time and staff required to produce financial reports. As a result, forecasting earnings, profits, and costs, and generating ideas and creative ways to increase profitability will become the major role of corporate financial managers over the next decade. Financial managers who are familiar with computer software and applications that can assist them in this role will be needed.

Earnings []

Median annual earnings of financial managers were $55,070 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $38,240 and $83,800. The lowest 10 percent had earnings of less than $27,680, while the top 10 percent earned over $118,950. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of financial managers in 1997 are shown below.

Security brokers and dealers
Computer and data processing
Management and public relations
Local government, excluding education and hospitals
Commercial banks
Savings institutions

According to a 1999 survey by Robert Half International, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, salaries of assistant controllers and treasurers varied from $42,700 in the smallest firms to $84,000 in the largest firms; corporate controllers earned between $47,500 and $141,000; and chief financial officers and treasurers earned from $65,000 to $319,200. Salaries are generally 10 percent higher for those with a graduate degree or Certified Public Accountant or Certified Management Accountant designation.

The results of the Treasury Management Association?s 1999 compensation survey are presented in table 1. The earnings listed in the table represent total compensation, including bonuses and deferred compensation.

Table 1. Average earnings for selected financial managers, 1999

Vice president of finance $165,400
Chief financial officer 150,100
Treasurer 129,800
Controller 109,700
Assistant treasurer 96,500
Director treasury/finance 93,200
Assistant controller 75,900
Senior analyst 63,000
Cash manager 56,600
Analyst 45,500

SOURCE: Treasury Management Association

Large organizations often pay more than small ones, and salary levels can also vary by the type of industry and location. Many financial managers in private industry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by size of firm. Deferred compensation in the form of stock options is also becoming more common.

Related Occupations

Financial managers combine formal education with experience in one or more areas of finance, such as asset management, lending, credit operations, securities investment, or insurance risk and loss control. Workers in other occupations requiring similar training and skills include accountants and auditors, budget officers, credit analysts, loan officers, insurance consultants, portfolio managers, pension consultants, real estate advisors, securities analysts, and underwriters.

Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Links to non-BLS Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

For information about financial management careers, contact:

American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036. Internet:

Financial Management Association International, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5500. Internet:
Financial Executives Institute, 10 Madison Ave., P.O. Box 1938, Morristown, NJ 07962-1938. Internet:
For information about financial careers in business credit management; the Credit Business Associate, Credit Business Fellow, and Certified Credit Executive programs; and institutions offering graduate courses in credit and financial management, contact:

National Association of Credit Management, Credit Research Foundation, 8840 Columbia 100 Parkway, Columbia, MD 21045-2158. Internet:
For information about careers in treasury and financial management and the Certified Cash Manager and Certified Treasury Executive programs, contact:

Association for Financial Professionals, 7315 Wisconsin Ave., Suite 600 West, Bethesda, MD 20814. Internet:
For information about the Chartered Financial Analyst program, contact:

Association for Investment Management and Research, P.O. Box 3668, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Internet:
For information about the Certified Government Financial Manager designation, contact:

Association for Government Accountants, 2208 Mount Vernon Ave., Alexandria, VA 22301-1314. Internet:

An industry employing financial managers that appears in the 2000-01 Career Guide to Industries: Banking

O*NET Codes: 13002A and 13002B

Financial managers who want to distinguish themselves and their organizations need to demonstrate their leadership ability. Because financial managers sometimes overlook the need for leadership skills, cultivating mentors who can teach them specific leadership skills, such as improved communications and entrepreneurship, may be necessary.

Health-care financial managers can sharpen their leadership skills by distinguishing between leadership and management, adopting a new mentoring model, evaluating the usefulness of new management techniques, understanding the connection between technology and leadership, looking for the solution beyond the problem, and being seen and heard within the organization.

Full Text:
Copyright Healthcare Financial Management Association Apr 2000

The increase in for-profit hospitals and consolidations, more stringent regulatory requirements, and declining reimbursement have increased the overall expectations of healthcare executives regarding the performance of their senior financial managers. Most financial managers recognize that educational credentials and experience in the healthcare industry are necessary to advance their careers. They also need technical skills to produce computer-generated financial reports for the healthcare organization.

More than technical expertise, however, today's senior financial managers need to demonstrate leadership skills to effect strategic and behavioral change. Some of the strategies healthcare financial managers can use to polish their leadership skills include distinguishing between leadership and management, employing a new mentoring model, seeing new management methods as more than fads, understanding the connection between technology and leadership, looking for the solution beyond the problem, and participating within the organization.

Distinguish between leadership and management. Although the skills required for leadership and management overlap to some extent, there also are distinctions. As shown in Exhibit 1, page 51, management tends to be task-oriented, whereas good leadership tends to emphasize the motivational aspects of accomplishing tasks and reaching goals. Because their jobs are technical in nature, many healthcare financial managers focus on developing their management skills, leaving the inspirational and consensus-building role that characterizes leadership to others. Demonstrating leadership, however, would help them achieve success for their department and the organization as a whole.

In particular, healthcare financial managers need to adopt a proactive leadership stance rather than react to change after their facilities are negatively affected by it. With the implementation of the ambulatory payment classification (APC) system, for example, healthcare financial managers should take the lead in assessing their coinsurance billing practices and their entire billing systems and processes. Waiting to see what will happen means deferring leadership to those outside the finance department.

Moreover, the Federal government's emphasis on regulatory compliance for the Medicare and Medicaid programs calls for teamwork and harmonious personal relations, particularly in the finance department. Financial managers need to assert leadership by creating a positive atmosphere in which employees feel free to inform management of compliance issues they believe should be addressed.

The ability to inspire loyalty also is more important than ever, due in part to the regulatory climate. Leaders who inspire loyalty can motivate employees to discuss their concerns internally first rather than report them to an outside agency. Employee loyalty has eroded in recent years in many industries, making employee turnover a significant problem in a thriving economy Employees recognize good leadership skills, however, and are more inclined to remain with an employer and maintain a cohesive work team if they respect their manager's leadership abilities.

Legislation continues to affect the payment healthcare organizations receive and operational changes they must implement. Healthcare financial managers realize that implementation of privacy standards mandated by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, for example, will be costly and operationally challenging. Good management recognizes that change is imperative, but only good leadership can effect change.

Employ a new mentoring model. Because employees tend to change jobs more frequently than they did in the past, less emphasis is being placed on traditional mentoring, whereby a seasoned manager would instruct a junior manager over time. A new approach to selecting a mentor that financial managers should consider adopting emphasizes specific skills acquisition over more generalized experience. To guide their selection of a mentor who will help them enhance their leadership skills under this new model, healthcare financial managers should take the following steps:

Determine their own strengths and weaknesses. Financial managers should identify specific leadership skills they wish to develop. These skills could range from public relations to information technology.

Identify individuals who have skills they want to develop. There may be many individuals in the financial manager's organization who have the desired skills and are willing to share their expertise. The CEO is a likely mentor, but marketers, public relations directors, physicians, and board members also may have a wide range of skills--particularly interpersonal and communications skills--that are important to developing as a leader. Develop relationships. Most people are flattered when others wish to learn from them and respond well to sincere solicitations of advice and expertise. Mentoring sessions can include informal lunchtime discussions; reviews of prepared material, including impact statements regarding various pending changes in payment and outlines for future presentations to industry groups; discussions of personnel issues, such as how to evaluate, motivate, and reward department members; and attendance at presentations by the mentor. It is particularly important to network with peers at HFMA programs and at meetings of other industry groups, where industry leaders are accessible and prepared to share their knowledge.

See new management methods as more than fads. Management methods come and go. New management methods, such as zero-based budgeting, management by objectives, continuous quality improvement, quality circles, and business process reengineering, often amount to mere fads that managers implement without eliciting their true value to the organization. A leader, however, knows how to recognize methods or aspects of methods that support the organization's progress, implement these programs, and discard programs that are not useful. Healthcare financial managers should not have unreasonably high or low expectations of new management methods or discard old methods simply because new ones have come along.

For example, many financial managers bought highlevel software programs to compute the impact of APCs on their facilities. Healthcare financial managers, however, cannot rely solely on software programs to obtain needed information. They also need to assess APC impact by initiating a detailed claims audit and a thorough review of office billing procedures.

Understand the connection between technology and leadership. Although healthcare financial managers do not have to be experts in information systems, telecommunications, or the Internet, they do need to understand the capabilities of these technologies and how the technologies should be applied to their organization. Computers will be handling an increasing amount of the work in healthcare finance, but healthcare financial managers need to know how to use the data that are generated to support the organization's strategic goals.

Look for the solution beyond the problem. Financial managers are trained to ensure that the organization's financial goals are met. This function can appear daunting when resources are limited, and financial managers are used to championing conservative financial positions. Leaders, however, view challenges as opportunities. To emerge as organization leaders, financial managers need to become greater risk takers. For example, several years ago the government proposed new rules on "hospitals within hospitals" (a wing or floor of a hospital licensed as a different hospital, often to secure cost-based payment for long-term patients). Many healthcare executives closed their facilities before the final rules were released. Other financial managers, however, spearheaded efforts to maintain their status. These efforts were rewarded when the new law grandfathered some facilities, allowing them to operate as before.

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Participate. Healthcare financial managers cannot lead an organization without actively participating in that organization. Activities that enhance leadership include attending meetings outside the finance department, participating on organizationwide committees, becoming involved in public relations events, sponsoring an achievement award and personally presenting it, attending a hospital-sponsored golf tournament or 10-kilometer run, and cultivating relationships with leaders from other departments or the community at large. Being seen and heard is an important facet of leadership.


Leadership opportunities abound for healthcare financial managers who wish to take advantage of them. By broadening their scope beyond management functions, healthcare financial managers help move their organizations forward while receiving recognition for their work. Developing leadership skills will increase their visibility throughout the organization and in the community, which, in turn, will help them advance in their career.

[Author note]

[Author note]
Robert B. Kowalski, MSHS, is health data director, Parkland Community Health Plan, Dallas, Texas, and a member of HFMA's Lone Star Chapter.

[Author note]
Manie W. Campbell is a principal, CampbellWilson, Dallas, Texas, and a member of HFMA's Lone Star Chapter


Strategic Management and Stakeholders
Prior to beginning work on this journal, review Chapter 3 in the textbook.

Many organizations within the field of criminal justice have begun utilizing techniques of strategic management in an effort to better address the needs of their stakeholders. The importance of strategic management and the careful and proper identification of stakeholder groups are never more salient than in law enforcement and correctional organizations. However, the tenets of strategic management are in use in nearly every facet of public and private enterprise.

After reviewing Chapter 3 in the textbook, think about your own current or previous place(s) of employment and examine the function of strategic management within the organization. In your journal, identify the organization and its stakeholders. Explain how the strategic management plan takes the needs and demands of those individuals and groups into consideration when preparing budgets. In addition, explain two ways that the identification of stakeholders has increased the effectiveness of the organization or improved public relations.

Seattle Homelessness Action Plan

Please this is a report writing. See the instructions below. Please dont forget about the executive summary and the powerpoint at the end if the report

REPORTS should be as long as necessary, but no longer. Grading will be based on content, grammar, and style (i.e., professional appearance/neatness counts; make sure you follow the report format screenshow). Typically, the report should contain at least 14-15 double-spaced pages of ?real substance? ? ?real substance? does not include regurgitation of case background or tables, graphs, or appendices. However, your report should include all necessary, well-designed, professional quality tables, graphs, and appendices that are needed to successfully support your arguments and convey information to your audience. The reports also should contain a professional quality Executive Summary (because it repeats the key points and recommendations made in the report, the Executive Summary does not count as ?real substance.?) Appropriate headers and/or footers and page numbering are part of any professional quality report.

PowerPoint presentations will be submitted to Sakai. You also need to provide a complete script of what you say about each slide. There are three ways this can be accomplished: ?Within PowerPoint, create a ?Notes? page with each PowerPoint slide with your script for that slide. ?Provide a Word document with the script. Clearly indicate the slide to which each section of your script refers. (Probably as an underscored, left-aligned paragraph before that segment.) ?If you really want to have fun, record your thoughts about each slide in a separate *.WAV file, and include your spoken comments on each slide.

The assignment is below.

The Assignment to be used is below. I have attached the case to be used in the uploaded file folder.

Today is June 2, 1998, and you are the advisor to Alan Painter, Director of the Community Services Division of the Department of Housing and Human Services; Alan has worked on the design and implementation of services and programs to assist homeless people for over a decade. You are just leaving the press conference in which the Mayor announced his ?ZERO HOMELESS FAMILY PLEDGE.? (Neither you nor Alan were6T aware of the content of the press conference before you heard it ?live?!)

You and Painter understand the political power of counting and publicly emphasizing the size of the homeless population in Seattle. Even so, the practice makes both of you uncomfortable. Schell?s pledge raises the stakes and the scrutiny of the homeless street count. You wonder what effect the pledge will have on the supply and demand for shelter space. Even if additional shelter space is developed, you fear that some of the target population still might choose the streets. Furthermore, factors beyond the City?s control have a significant impact on the number of homeless people.

According to the best estimates, of the 1,300 homeless people living on the streets without shelter on a given night, over 700 are homeless families with children or single women in Seattle, the categories described in Schell?s pledge. You wonder what it will take to bring that number down to zero. You also wonder who will be counting and how they will do so.

In this case your Report should propose (to Alan Painter) a detailed (and well justified) ?action plan,? that Alan will make to the Mayor, in which you/he will set forth your proposal for fulfilling the Mayor?s pledge. Make sure you address how you will resolve the several competing tensions in the case.

Obviously your Report also will need a timeline and project budget. (You may assume present technology and technology costs. For anything else, assume 1998.) The projected budget must be ?realistic? within the parameters set forth in the case ? don?t ?assume? that any sudden gigantic windfalls will come your way, or that the Mayor will throw open the purse strings to support his pledge (which is not to say you can?t weasel some additional funds out of him).

This is your chance to shine ? and to improve the situation for Seattle?s homeless in the near term, and, perhaps, the longer term as well.


A few hints I passed along to folks in prior semesters regarding the ?Homeless in Seattle? case. When ambiguous, you = you walking in Alan\'s shoes.

Make sure you are careful in constructing the problem statement?
How much money do you have to spend?
Not much. But exactly how much depends on Seattle?s fiscal year.
You can re-prioritize some proportion of Alan\'s budget (and Alan\'s effort), but not all of it. And much of what Alan/you are presently doing in your shop already is addressing the problem. But, see bullet above, do you have a full year?s budget to re-prioritize, or is a portion of it already spent.
Can you only spend ?your? money?
Your recommendation is to the Mayor. Thus, you can suggest he spend some of the money under his control. While he has more money, many of the same constraints above apply. Can he lay off all the police and firefighters to address his Homeless Pledge?
What about the grant?
Who was the grant awarded to?
What about the multi-year bond money?
What was the specific purpose of the bond?
Can the bond money help you without putting you behind bars? (You don?t want to go to jail do you?)
I didn?t say there was no money from these sources, but make sure you can justify what you want to use.
As Alan Painter, you care about the ?long term? solution to the homeless issue. But that is not the problem right now.
You would, however, like to do minimal harm to current efforts at long term solutions.
I said you didn?t have much money, but perhaps you have ?resources??
Perhaps the Mayor has resources?
Who are your friends in this battle? Your enemies?
How willing will the King County Exec and Council be to help Seattle\'s Mayor?
Think about what you know about the homeless from your knowledge and experience. Think about what you know about City/County/State politics from your experience.

Macroeconomics 2100:
You will be required to analyze a newspaper or magazine article related to the concepts and theories of macroeconomics that is covered in your text. The article must be current (2009 ~ Present) and from a reputable magazine or newspaper.

Each analysis will be graded on:

1. Quality of analysis of each article;
2. Selection of article and how well it demonstrates
macroeconomic concept(s);
3. Organization, originality and creativity.
4. Your grade will be based on the richness of your analysis and the power of your argument. Try to make every sentence count.
5. There should be a logical flow of ideas and be sure to either use quotation marks or cite the source if the words are not yours.

The analysis of each article should:

1. Indicate the specific concept(s) discussed in the article;
2. Completely explain the concept(s);
3. Analyze and explain how the article demonstrates
the macroeconomic concept(s).
4. Look for opportunities to show your understanding of the concepts and theories.
5. Be precise and focus on what is most important.

We have only covered basic Macroeconomics Theories:
-Nature of Economics
-Demand and Supply
-Extensions of demand and supply analysis
-Public spending and Public Choice
-Funding Public Sector
-Macroeconomy:Unemployment and Inflation
-Measuring the Economy's performance
-Global economic Growth and Development
-Real GDP, and price level in the long run
-Classical and Keynesian macro Analysis
-Consumption, Real GDP, and the Multiplier

Prepare a 1,400-1,750-word paper using APA format in which you select one of the following: Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA)as a health agency. Cover the following points in your paper:
a) Description of the agency and how it relates to other public health agencies, such as local, state, and national
b) Explanation of the agencys function, including the nature of any surveillance activities performed
c) Description of constituencies served by the agency
d) Structure of the agency
e) Funding source(s) for the agency
f) Description of source of regulatory control over the agency,

Grant Proposal the Saint Anselm's

This is a GRANT PROPOSAL TERM PAPER on Public Health issues. I do not have a specific topic, but I am looking at something related to minority health or health disparity. I will be sending you a word document consists of the components of the proposal. I will also include a list of some grant supporters, I hope that would be helpful.
The organization that I will be representing is Saint Anselm's Cross Cultural Community Center (please refer to the word document for the website). You will need this for the organziation information part of the proposal.
There are faxes for this order.

You are to write a 5-page paper. Write a Critique of a Peer Reviewed Journal. Do Not Use Outside Sources. Use Only the Journal Article that is provided (Below). Each Critique Element is to be answered Separately! State the Critique Element first and then continue to answer. Use APA format for Citing Sources Within Body of the Paper and for References.

Your review should Analyze and Critique the authors article in terms of...

a.Presentation, style and substance.
b.Strengths and Weaknesses.
c.Methodology employed and its appropriateness to the problem described.
d.Application of findings and recommendations through which to resolve or address the college and university problem raised.
e.Recommendations for how the article might provide the foundation for further research.
f.Who could benefit from reading the article?

Minor, J. T. (2004, Spring). Understanding faculty senates: Moving from mystery to models. Review of Higher Education,27(3), 343-363.

Undoubtedly faculty plays an integral role in the intellectual enterprise of colleges and universities (Barnett, 1994). Their role in governance and decision-making, however, is a point of contention on many campuses (Gerber, 2001). In the tradition of higher education, approximately 90% percent of four-year institutions have a faculty governing body that, for better or worse, participate in campus governance (Gilmour, 1991). Yet research and theoretical knowledge about their involvement in campus decision-making is limited (Kezar & Eckel, forthcoming). For example, functional and structural differences that exist among senates, within or across institutional types, are virtually unknown. As a result, litigious discussion about faculty governance continues in the absence of descriptive or theoretical understanding about how faculty senates participate in decision making.
Still, faculty participation in decision-making is ardently associated with institutional ineffectiveness (Burgan, 1998). Campus decision making, according to the American Association of University Professors' (1966) statement on governance requires the participation of all institutional components, although faculty, the president, and governing boards are referenced as primary caretakers of the university. Robert Birnbaum (1999) stresses that governance is a shared responsibility, a joint effort involving multiple constituencies with particular emphasis given to the participation of faculty. Faculty participation in governance is accepted as intrinsically desirable and as improving institutional effectiveness (Floyd, 1994). However, during a time when effective governance systems are becoming increasingly important for institutional success, faculty senates are often viewed as dysfunctional, underperforming, or impeding (Jordan, 2001; Trow, 1990).
Many higher education scholars point out the importance of effective governance systems for managing this era of change and innovation in the academy (Amacher & Meiners, 2002; Duderstadt, 2001a). Although government agencies, trustees, and university presidents will affect campus governance, faculty are often deemed the most conspicuous of internal governing bodies. They are structurally and culturally diverse and have varying levels of influence on multiple decisions (Minor, 2003). Additionally, increased institutional autonomy and lack of research limit theoretical understanding about the role senates play in governance. Consequently, many campus leaders struggle to make informed sustainable changes that improve the effectiveness of senates.
Although faculty can participate in decision making through multiple venues, such as academic departments or ad hoc committees, this study focuses on faculty senates as a primary location through which faculty are involved in campus governance. I argue that improving faculty senates depends on understanding the various roles they play in decision making. Various organizational structures, senate structures, and decision-making cultures can muddle assessments of senates and confuse understanding about their role in governance. This study augments the perennial debate on how to enhance faculty senates by advancing a conceptual frame to serve as a base for discussion and research. Doing so provides a construct for understanding senates and their role in governance across various institutional types. I offer four models of faculty senates: functional, influential, ceremonial, and subverted and discuss key variables important for comprehending them.
Based on 12 site visits and telephone interviews with 42 senate presidents, I provide these models of faculty senates in order to establish a taxonomy by which senates can be better understood and studied. To begin, I review the handful of studies on faculty governance. I then describe the study and introduce the models. Lastly, I discuss the parameters of these models and their use for understanding other aspects of faculty governance.
Faculty involvement in governance receives a good deal of scholarly attention (Collie & Chronister, 2001; Hollinger, 2001; Miller, 1996). Yet scholars tend to pay less attention to the function of faculty senates as the predominant organization whereby faculty participate in institutional governance. Most literature on faculty governance discusses the involvement of faculty broadly and from a variety of perspectives (Baldridge & Kemerer, 1976; Kolodny, 2000; Morphew, 1999; Schuster, Smith, Corak, & Yamada, 1994). For example, numerous articles discuss the importance of shared governance (Hardy, 1990), examine the impact of institutional change in relation to current governance structures (Benjamin & Carroll, 1999), or generally discuss the importance of faculty participation in governance (Miller, 1999). While these approaches to the challenges of governance are each helpful, they do not distinctly analyze the role of faculty senates. As a point of departure, I use the existing literature to understand the concept of faculty participation in governance and perceptions about the role of senates in decision making.
Democratic Participation
Much of the literature on faculty governance is based on the assumption that faculty participation is crucial to effective institutional decision-making (Birnbaum, 1988). This assertion is based on the view that increased employee participation in decision-making is associated with improved employee satisfaction and performance (Floyd, 1985). Several scholars call for more faculty involvement as a way to improve institutional effectiveness, noting that faculty serve as moral guides for institutions that would otherwise respond solely to market demands (Gerber et al., 1997; Richardson, 1999). In contrast, others claim that faculty's over-involvement in governance inhibits the institution's ability to make the fast-paced decisions necessary given the current environment (Association of Governing Boards, 1996; Duderstadt, 2001b). Even institutions that are able to move beyond the issue of democracy, or how much faculty should participate, still struggle with how to effectively involve them in governance.
More than a decade ago, David Dill and Karen Helm (1988) claimed that faculty participation in governance had gone through three different periods which they term faculty control, democratic participation, and strategic policy making. Whether most institutions have moved to strategic planning is questionable. Democratic participation appears to be a more accurate description of faculty involvement, as much of the literature still views governance as a democratic process into which faculty should be incorporated (Hardy, 1990; Mortimer & McConnell, 1978). In that vein, many scholars examine the effects of faculty involvement (or its lack) in specific institutional decisions such as fund raising, budget cuts, program discontinuance, strategic planning, and athletics (Dill & Helm, 1988; Dimond, 1991; Kissler, 1997; Newman & Bartee, 1999). The focus on democratic participation (for the sake of democracy) unfortunately overshadows discussions about how to efectively involve faculty in governance and to what extent more or less involvement improves the quality of decision-making.
Perceptions of Faculty Senates
Incessant concerns about governance and the effectiveness of faculty senates are difficult to address in the absence of models that explain senate involvement in governance. Concerning faculty senates, the majority of institutions operate without benchmarks or comparative perspectives to assess their own behavior. A recent survey (Tierney & Minor, 2003) found that the majority of campus constituents believe that shared governance is important but have little confidence in the senate's ability to influence important decisions. While these findings reveal cultural perceptions of the senate, the issue of effectiveness is more difficult to discern. Perceptions about the behavior of the senate need to be situated within a frame that explains senate involvement in governance. In other words, to simply say that a particular senate is "ineffective" or "successful" means little without benchmarks against which to evaluate behavior.
Although only a handful of studies directly addresses the role of faculty senates in governance (Baldridge & Kemerer, 1976; Birnbaum, 1991; Gilmour, 1991; Lee, 1991; Moore, 1975), even fewer provide a theoretical frame for understanding them. Birnbaum's (1989) study is probably the most widely accepted theoretical work on senates. In an attempt to explain "why senates do not work but will not go away," he offered a symbolic perspective claiming that senates, although ineffective organizationally, still perform symbolic or cultural functions that are purposive.
While Birnbaum's study is helpful, there is also a need to understand alternative senate types. For example, what are attributes of senates that are perceived as "working"? My study provides models of faculty senates across institutional types and across varying levels of involvement in decision making.
Three points help summarize the literature on faculty governance and senates. First, faculty involvement in governance remains a cornerstone of higher education and an institutional value for many campuses. Still, disagreement exists over the areas in which faculty should have decision-making authority and the extent of their involvement in campus governance. second, little is known about the structural, cultural, or functional qualities of faculty senates. Different senate types or variations in different institutional sectors have not been delineated. Third, the development of theory explaining the role faculty senates' play in governance is primitive. The limited theoretical understanding of senates impairs the ability of those in higher education to develop policies that more effectively involve faculty in governance. The lack of empirical and conceptual work specifically on senates leaves a distinct gap in the literature. This study, to the extent possible, intends to narrow that gap. Providing a contemporary conceptual frame to view senates is one way of doing so.
In general, theoretical models are intended as tentative descriptions that account for the known properties of a particular subject matter or object. My purpose in creating faculty senate models was to capture the essence of how senates operate in relation to campus governance but not to suggest that one is better than another or that one model is most appropriate for a particular institutional type. As prelude to such analysis, these models simply provide a way to comprehend faculty senates and their role in governance.

I developed these models of faculty senates based on data collected from 12 site visits and telephone interviews with 42 senate presidents. Based on the Carnegie Classification of Higher Education Institutions (2000), six of the sites were doctoral universities, two master's institutions, and four baccalaureate colleges. Nine were public and six private. I sampled seven of the institutions purposively and accepted recommendations about the remaining five from an advisory board composed of higher education association leaders, based on the institutions' emblematic and distinctive governance characteristics. The sample represents institutions across various sectors of higher education and campuses that employ varied methods of governance. These campuses also represent a cross-section of institutions where governance systems are perceived by internal and external constituents as more or less effective. In other words, some campuses have received national attention due to controversy over governance while others maintain a relatively satisfied constituency.
At each campus, I targeted approximately seven individuals for interviews, for a total of 86 participants during the site visits. To enhance the trustworthiness of the data, participants held diverse perspectives concerning the health of governance and the senate (Glesne & Peshkin, 1992). They included presidents, vice presidents for academic affairs (provosts), faculty senate presidents, senior academic officers, and faculty from various disciplines. Advocates, critics, long-time participants, newcomers, and observers were all included. The hour-long interviews focused on the institutional concept of shared governance and the involvement of faculty senates in decision making. Through a series of open-ended questions, I asked participants to provide examples of major institutional decision making.
In addition to the site visits, I conducted telephone interviews with 42 faculty senate presidents at doctoral institutions across the country. On average, these senate presidents had been affiliated with their institutions for 23 years. Thirty-one of the institutions were public and eleven were private. I used a set of 12 semi-structured questions, focusing on structural and cultural aspects of senates and factors that the interviewees perceived to be associated with senate effectiveness. Gaining additional insight from leaders of senates concerning perceptions about the role they play in governance served as the goal for conducting these interviews.
Analyzing the data from both the site visits and telephone interviews involved using a constant comparative method and axial coding techniques to establish models of faculty senate involvement in campus governance (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The constant comparative method allowed for simultaneous coding and analysis to develop general themes. I then used axial coding to reduce the data and refine the categories. Based on the themes, I initially identified six models of senates, which I subsequently reduced to four.
Through this analysis, I identified themes in relation to how faculty senates functioned in the overall context of institutional governance. Based on a review of the literature and these data, I offer the following four models of faculty senates. (By "faculty senate" I mean the formal faculty governing body on a campus, although terms such as "faculty council ,""academic senate," and "academic assembly" are alternatively used by some campuses. These models are intended to provide four conceptual frames within which to understand senate involvement in governance.
Functional Senates
Functional senates primarily operate to represent and protect the interest of faculty in university decision making. The structure of functional senates is relatively traditional. The senate membership is elected and representative, usually acting through a faculty-led executive committee. These senates can also involve deans or other administrators as members of the senate. Various committees have specific responsibilities and carry out the work of the senate. The senate's decisions or recommendations usually result from formal procedures and voting. Governing documents such as by-laws, a faculty handbook, a constitution, or statutes determine the extent of its authority. One senate president explains: "The involvement of our senate is dictated by state statutes that clearly spell out procedures and the extent of their power."
These senates usually maintain authority in areas that are traditionally the domain of the faculty such as curriculum, promotion, tenure, and academic standards. They usually influence decisions by way of making recommendations upon which the administration may either act or which it may dismiss. Such senates have minimal influence over "nonacademic" areas of university decision making. Often such influence is merely a matter of being consulted when the administration deems it necessary. The faculty senate president at a doctoral university claimed that " [the senate] engages in deliberations about campus decisions but ultimately we decide nothing."
In essence, these senates are somewhat perfunctory, given their limited authority. Even in academic decision making, these senates sometimes operate in only an advisory capacity because approving a curriculum change or new program rests with higher authorities (governing boards or trustees). A faculty member at a master's institution reported that "new courses and changes to a particular program although debated and proposed in the senate have to be approved by the board, and requests are sometimes rejected." One long-time faculty member at a doctoral university warned: "It is not uncommon for the administration to proceed with academic initiatives without the approval of the senate."
Functional senates are not particularly assertive and usually do not set their own agenda. Instead, they respond to the initiatives and actions of the administration or issues that arise from the environment. A faculty member at the same doctoral university remarked, "I can't think of anything significant that the senate has initiated. Their actions are often in response to administrative or circumstantial events." A newcomer at a baccalaureate college stated:
I've been amazed at how passive the faculty are. You would think that at the beginning of each academic year [the faculty] would set an agenda for what they might accomplish over the course of the year. There is no such thing. Instead [the senate] deals with the winds as they blow.
These senates do safeguard faculty rights against perceived administrative transgressions. In the event of contentious action by the administration, these senates can become a legitimate force that check and balance administrative authority. In these institutions, presidential and administrative authority is often strong. Overall these senates function as an association that represents faculty interests rather than a lateral partner in campus decision-making. "There are times when faculty feel threatened or there's something to be gained or lost. It is usually during those times when faculty will occasionally assert a role in decision-making," explained one assistant provost at a master's institution. Still, this form of participation is responsive and usually occurs to block an action rather than support an initiative.
These senates' limited role in decision making is often an accepted part of the organization's structure and culture. In other words, the role that functional senates play is important for maintaining the organizational status quo. "Everyone here knows that [the senate] makes decisions on academic matters; but for everything else and even some academic issues, we serve as an advisory body to the president," claimed one faculty member. The provost at a master's institution adds, "Our senate might not be the most powerful or energetic, but I think one advantage is that the relationship between faculty and administration is established." Generally these senates are viewed by the campus as "the place where faculty go to at least feel like they have some control of over the university, when in actuality that control is very limited."
Influential Senates
Influential faculty senates serve as a legitimate governing authority within the institution. They maintain a traditional structure that is electoral and representative of the faculty. However, they usually exist on campuses where the power center shifts between constituencies as the contextual circumstances change. Their authority usually stems from institutional cultural aspects which legitimate their power. Still, power can result from the formal provisions in governing documents. These senates are occupied exclusively by faculty, and the presence of the provost or president is usually ex officio. Overall, these senates represent the locus of faculty authority.
Like functional senates, influential senates maintain authority over curriculum, promotion, tenure, and academic standards. These senates also participate in and significantly influence decision making that encompasses a broader spectrum of the institution. Decisions involving athletics, development, budget priorities, and the selection of new senior administrators are a few areas where these senates are meaningfully involved. One faculty member from a baccalaureate institution explained that "most faculty recognize that creating change on this campus is usually done through work in the senate." Another added that "the senate really has been influential in shaping major decisions on this campus. [The senate] is very well organized to get information, analyze it, and provide direction on a wide range of issues."
Influential senates drive issues and promote policy changes that result from having an agenda concerned with the entire university, not just faculty issues. As one faculty senate president explained:
[The senate] has two issues that we're going to take up this year. The first is the issue of prioritizing athletics on this campus. The second is developing a same-sex benefits policy. I expect that, by the end of the year, we will have made significant progress on both.
While influential senates are responsive to the administration, the administration also responds to them as a result of being a recognizable governing body on the campus. These senates view themselves as responsible for the general welfare of the institution and assume responsibility for improving its overall quality.
The campus community views these senates as influential because they can create change and other decision-making bodies perceive them as a legitimate governing authority on the campus. The president of a baccalaureate college explained: "It is nearly impossible to get things done without the involvement of the senate." A faculty member from the same institution remarked, "I think the faculty are well respected because the senate has proven to be responsible, fair, and not only committed to issues that will improve the conditions of faculty." These senates usually maintain a collaborative, rather than a confrontational, relationship with administration. "The faculty and the administration have been able to maintain a respectful working relationship that allows us to focus on the things that matter," described one doctoral university president. Consequently, these senates can influence major decision making in a variety of areas. The provost at a master's institution claimed that "the faculty senate has a history of being effective at representing the faculty view as well as significantly shaping other important decisions such as institutional priorities, budget cuts, and redefining our student profile."
Ceremonial Senates
Faculty senates that are ceremonial are relatively inactive and inoperable, with low-level organization. In essence, they exist in name only and operate as symbolic artifacts. They seldom meet regularly, and faculty express little interest in governance. The structural power of the president and administration is correspondingly strong. Additionally, only modest communication takes place between faculty and administration concerning decisions under consideration.
On traditional academic issues, ceremonial senates are inactive as organizations. Decision-making authority over academic matters frequently rests with individual schools and colleges. The senate's agenda may consist of routine functions such as electing new officers. One long-time faculty member at a doctoral university described his senate as "a place where faculty go to discuss what they think is going on or talk about decisions after they have been made." One critic from the same campus asserted: "Nobody pays attention to the senate. It is inconsequential to anything that happens on this campus."
However, in line with Birnbaum's theory of faculty senates, these senates may perform latent functions that are not related to university governance. For example, the senate may serve as a scapegoat for the administration, provide status for particular faculty, or act as a screening device for future administrators (Birnbaum, 1989). Because campus constituents view these senates as dormant, organizationally they have no role in decision making.
When I asked one faculty member at a doctoral university what the senate had accomplished in the last two years, he laughed out loud. A dean from the same institution commented: "To be honest, nobody really takes the senate seriously. [The senate] is like a dinosaur. It used to be really powerful but now their impact is nonexistent. They are unimportant to life as we know it today." Others from the campus community explain ceremonial senates a result of faculty apathy or an institutional history of strong presidential authority. "For many years the president ignored the faculty, in some cases for good reason. The result has been that faculty are apathetic and the senate has died," explained a humanities professor of 28 years. A former member of the senate at a master's institution explained: "It didn't take me long to figure out that the senate was like a sad bird with no feathers; who wants to be a part of that?"

Subverted Senates
The fourth model is the subverted senate. Their role in governance is undermined by alternative venues of faculty participation, usually by informal decision-making processes that occur in place of, or in addition to, the senate's formal operations. These senates maintain operable structures that involve formal proceedings. However, the informal processes by which faculty participate in decision making are more effective in determining decision outcomes. For example, well-respected senior faculty may be able to influence decision making on a particular issue more than the formal proceedings of the senate.
Administrators on these campuses may employ "kitchen cabinets," a term referring to small groups of "trusted faculty" or individuals who influence major decisions through informal processes. One new faculty member at a baccalaureate institution claimed that "the president has a special committee that he appoints members to. Whenever he wants faculty perspectives, he consults that committee, not the senate." The disregard of decision-making protocol, weakened structure, or distrustful decision-making cultures can cause these senates to be incapacitated.
These senates maintain authority in areas of curriculum, tenure, promotion, and instruction. Members of the academic community, due to disagreements, occasionally challenge their authority. These senates are often accused of being narrow in focus, confrontational, and, in some cases, marred by a history of irresponsible decision making. Concerning issues of institutional improvement, the administration often views these senates as an obstacle to be avoided. As a provost at a master's institution put it, "Over the years the president has continually taken decisions out of the hands of faculty due to resistance and an inability to get things done."
Subverted senates usually suffer from negative cultural and communicative aspects that affect their role in campus decision making. Institutional history, rumination over past fall-outs, or confrontation between key players in the senate and administration can lead to senate subversion. The combination of personnel, type of decision, and poor communication affect, in varying degrees, the influence of these senates. "The faculty view the administration as oppressive, and administrators see faculty as disengaged," explained one former senate member at a master's institution. "The senate then serves as a battleground for perceived power rather than a playing field to make decisions." Distrust between constituents can lead to "deal-cutting" and other actions that circumvent the senate as an organization. In some cases, failed senates resulted in alternative decision-making processes. A provost from a master's institution emphasized, "I think the president only trusts the senate with issues that he can afford to lose on, which are usually things that he doesn't care much about."
Campus perceptions about these senates indicate a lack of confidence that they can or will make sound decisions as the chief reason for their being subverted. Others point to an inability of faculty and administration to work together. One former senate member at a doctoral university lamented: "For many years there has been a deep-rooted distrust between the faculty and the administration. I get the sense most people can't really point to the source of such animosity, yet holding on to it seems to be a part of the culture which inhibits faculty involvement in governance."

As a way to elaborate on these models, I now consider key variables for making better sense of them. Taking into account (a) what issues are under consideration, (b) personnel and culture, and (c) the ability of senates to shift from one model to another is important for understanding and using these models. I believe that these issues influence the role faculty senates play in campus governance.
Importance of Type of Decision
The roles that faculty senates play in campus decision making are affected, in part, by the type of decisions under consideration. The decisions to discontinue football, launch a new academic program, or set policy for distance education curriculum, for example, can affect how faculty senates operate. In other words, it is possible that a senate can function uncharacteristically when involved in a decision that holds extraordinary consequences. Given the unique nature of colleges and universities, it could be said that no decision is ordinary. However, these institutions show that while making high-stakes decisions or resolutions that carry negative consequences for faculty, senates tend to be more engaged. This pattern emerged at five of 12 sites visited and 13 of 42 cases from the telephone interviews. A faculty member from a campus with a functional senate reported, "Our senate is usually very modest; but every now and then, there is an issue that they feel strongly about. It is during these times when the senate can take on a more assertive character."

Based on the number of campuses that show differences in character during particular types of decision, it is therefore important to consider how decision types influence the senate's role. For example, functional senates showed greater levels of interest in decision making when faculty could potentially lose or gain authority in a particular area. A member of a ceremonial senate claimed, "When the university was considering instituting a post-tenure review policy, the senate was more alive than ever because everyone was worried about what would happen to them." Another added that "the only time the senate is really engaged is when decisions directly affect or threaten the comfort of faculty."
This insight raises questions about faculty participation in governance according to issue. Some scholars suggest that faculty are capable of constructive participation during "hard decisions" that may have negative consequences for their work conditions (Eckel, 2000). However, it is not clear which types of decisions generate more or less participation. Considering participation according to decision-type is also important for the number of new decision areas in higher education. For example, for-profit endeavors in which two institutions join their curricula to offer market-driven programs is one issue that will likely create questions about faculty involvement in decision making (Eckel, 2003; Slaughter & Leslie, 1997).
It is equally important to note that all senates did not show differences in character while making high-stakes decisions or in dealing with issues that directly affected faculty. Functional senates showed the most significant change during high-stakes decision making. Other senate types (influential, ceremonial, and subverted) were more stable across various decision types. These differences may be attributed to the fact that, culturally and structurally, the role of functional senates is continually negotiated while influential, ceremonial, and subverted senates have more stable roles.
For example, one functional senate at an urban doctoral school would not normally have been involved in budget issues, but when the university was deciding whether to build new dormitories on campus during a time of fiscal constraints, the senate took an unusually active role. Building new dormitories on this largely commuter campus would significantly improve the climate of teaching and learning, a point of particular interest to the faculty. However, the administration framed the proposal to build the dorms as a way of improving enrollment and thus increasing revenue. Because of the potential consequences for teaching and improved intellectual environment, the senate became uncharacteristically involved in a matter that the administration viewed as budgetary, an issue from which functional senates are normally excluded. One senate member explained, "Never would [the senate] be so involved in budget matters, but this issue of building new housing seems to be one of the few things both the faculty and administration want to do." A senate president from the same campus commented: "Our senates might be more or less involved in decision making depending on what's at stake. If there are no empires to build or money to be had, then we pretty much stay out of the way and mind our own business."
In short, the dynamics of particular decisions can involve faculty senates in ways that stretch the parameters of these models.
Personnel and Culture
Another variable that influences the role of senates is personnel-or the extent to which key governance personnel effectively communicate, cooperate, and collaborate. These persons include senate leaders, the president, the chief academic officer, and others who play key roles in campus decision making. Their interaction can significantly shape the role of faculty senates. The social and cultural aspects of campus governance influence decision making as much as structural characteristics. The majority of studies on governance tend to exaggerate the need to reform governance structures but pay little attention to the influence of communication and cultural aspects (Tierney & Minor, in press). This study provides an indication of how personnel affect the role of the senate. The configuration of personnel appeared to affect subverted senates most significantly and, to a degree, the role of functional senates.
Participants involved in governance can, through their interactions, influence the role of senates by continuing to operate within existing cultural norms or by creating new ones. For example, a faculty senate president from a doctoral institution with a functional senate explained: "Under our old president [the faculty] were never involved in governance. He just didn't believe in it; and as a result, we were shut out." A former faculty senate president from a master's institution with a subverted senate lamented:
Unfortunately, I don't believe anything the administration tells [the faculty]. For a long time they have shown an unwillingness to work with us on hard issues. In their minds it's much easier to bulldoze ahead, and maybe consult us along the way or at the end. The relationship between the old administration and the old senate wasn't that way.
One long-time faculty member at a baccalaureate institution with a functional senate stated:
It's hard for me to think that structural qualities are problematic for senates. We've had the same structure for 30 years and governance never worked. In the last five years we've gotten a new president and provost, and now it works but the structure hasn't changed a bit.
These quotations illustrate the influence that personnel and institutional culture can have on the role senates play in governance. Issues such as trust, preservation of cultural norms, or aversion among actors are important for developing a more complete picture of governance. Distrust, for example, was shown to interrupt communication on one campus. "We have an issue of screening," said one senate member. "In senate meetings there is the sense that you can't tell everything, and you can't trust that everything is being told." The senate on this campus invites the provost to meetings to establish communication between the administration and faculty, normally a helpful measure, but one that inadvertently resulted in self-censorship because many faculty did not trust the provost. In this case, cultural aspects of governance were more problematic than structural configuration of governing bodies.
Conflicting perceptions about authority also appeared to inhibit governance. Faculty usually had perceptions of authority that were somewhat different from the administrators' perceptions. For instance, faculty usually perceived administrators as more powerful than the administrators viewed themselves. Conversely, administrators viewed faculty as more powerful than faculty viewed themselves. On a campus with a subverted senate, a provost expressed discontent with the faculty: "I would like to see faculty take advantage of the authority they have been given to affect positive change." However, a member of that campus's senate commented, "I think the faculty would be more willing to participate in governance if the administration took us seriously and faculty felt [as if] their input mattered." Conflicting perceptions of governance can result in poor communication or a culture of distrust. More importantly, these dynamics are cultural elements that can significantly impact the role that senates play in governance.
Many efforts to improve governance focus on structural elements, probably because they are more tangible and easier to change. Cultural aspects of governance usually represent a more difficult task that involves the breaking down of established norms, sustained efforts that are focused, and, in some cases, personnel changes. Reform efforts and arguments that consider structural aspects of governance will benefit from cultural analyses that provide a more complete picture of campus decision making.
Ability to Shift Models
Throughout the study it became apparent that some senates had, over time, transitioned from one model to another or were currently in the process of shifting. Personnel and structure significantly impact senates' ability to shift. For example, hiring a new president or provost, or making definite structural changes that grant more or less authority to senates are issues that impact a senate's ability to shift. Cultural shifts that restore trust or improve the campus's perception of senates can also alter their role but seem to take much longer. Three senates from the sample (one from a master's institution and two doctoral institutions) had recently transformed or were in transition.
A provost from a small baccalaureate institution explained: "Historically I think that our senate has been inactive; however, in recent years, the president and I have really made a push to make the senate more responsible for dealing with issues they deem important." A faculty senate president from a doctoral institution stated:
I think right now [the senate] primarily exists to make recommendations and give advice, but we are moving toward becoming more critically involved in decision making. Recently we have been trying to get a voting seat on the top administrative committee and on the board. So far we have gotten the former, which has really made a difference in how the administration views us and how much power we have.
To betterunderstand these models, the assumption must be that they exist in a fluid environment. Different actors enter and exit from campus communities. Circumstances such as legal mandates can change the arrangement of formal governing bodies. A sudden drop in student enrollment or revenue can call for stronger presidential leadership. My point is that senates can shift from one model to another over the course of their existence. As a result, some senates might fall between models. Type of decisions, personnel and culture, and a senate's ability to shift are important variables in determining how senates participate in institutional governance. The four models of faculty senates (functional, influential, dormant, subverted) represent a protean construct. Taking these variables into account is important for better understanding the senate models. Figure 1 illustrates how decision-type and personnel might affect the role that senates play in governance.
As mentioned earlier, my purpose is not to say which model is more effective than another. Rather it is to offer a frame by which faculty senates can be better understood. These models thus provide a construct that makes a complex collection of senates more comprehensible. I am reminded of the early organizational models explaining institutions of higher education and the impact that they still have on how we think about universities (Kerr, 1963; Masland, 1985; Weick, 1976). Moreover, those models influenced approaches to research.
Those familiar with faculty senates will be able to say, to some degree, that their institution does not neatly fit into one of the models presented here. While this may be true, the usefulness of these models is as a conceptual frame to understand the role faculty senates play in governance across a variety of institutional types. A significant need for more research is evident. The questions that drive research on governance, however, are better focused on how university decision making can position institutions of higher education for success. After laying out these models, I now consider two aspects of faculty senates important for further research: the importance of structure and alternatives for faculty participation.
The Importance of Structure
During the conception of this study, I attempted to distinguish structural differences among faculty senates. I studied such structural variables such as the number of senate members, how often they met, committee structure, or who chaired the senate. However, in the course of this inquiry, it became apparent that, on the campuses in this study, structure did not necessarily distinguish the roles that senates played in governance. Senates can have distinctly different structures but serve similar roles with respect to their involvement in governance. Likewise, senates can have similar structures but serve significantly different roles.
Although structure can influence the role senates play, I do not consider it to be the most significant variable for determining models of senates. Senates are more accurately situated according to multiple aspects, including institutional context, decision-type, culture, and leadership. This is not to suggest that structure has no effect. I am, however, suggesting that the effect of structural qualities is not clear in relation to other aspects. The question then becomes: Which structural qualities significantly affect the role of senates in campus governance, and which do not?
As an example, many senate leaders view one-year terms for senate presidents as a structural flaw that inhibits effectiveness. However, on campuses where the culture of faculty participation represents the challenge, the structure of the senates may not necessarily be the most pressing problem. Cultural aspects such as trust or communication may be more serious. Research on other institutional and cultural dynamics is important in understanding of faculty senates. Also it is important to understand the interactions of cultural and structural variables.
Alternatives for Faculty Participation
Thus far, I have discussed faculty senates under the rubric of faculty involvement in governance. Senates are not, however, the only means by which faculty can significantly participate in campus decision making. Alternatives include ad hoc committees, individual advocacy, academic departments, schools, or possibly collective bargaining unions, to name a few. Such avenues for participation do not negate the importance of senates; instead, they are a simple reminder that other forms of participation exist and, more importantly, should be considered for their impact on the role of senates.
Are only certain types of faculty invited to participate in decision-making committees outside the senate? Do these alternative venues detract from senate effectiveness, or does senate ineffectiveness lead to the creation of alternative venues for faculty participation? For campus leaders attempting to make sense of decision making, understanding alternative venues for faculty participation is also important. Alternative venues can, depending on the context, enhance faculty participation by providing an opportunity for involvement or serve as a contending voice that diminishes the effect of a senate.

Faculty senates remain an integral part of campus governance. The role they play is the cause of much controversy, dissatisfaction, and debate. Yet, the amount of scholarship on senates leaves campus leaders interested in reform with little direction. Instead most literature on faculty governance is colored by arguments for more or less authority by particular constituencies. In my view, conversations that consider how granting more or less authority may influence institutional effectiveness are more useful. The turf wars that characterize the literature are like a tug-of-war in which the rope never moves far from the starting point. More scholarship that delineates good practice and provides better understanding of the dynamics involved with faculty senates is needed.
The models presented here are intended to lessen the mystery surrounding senates and to offer a model by which they can be understood. Secondarily, these models will, I hope, encourage additional research on senates. Descriptive research that provides a sense of how senates and other governing bodies, such as governing boards, are organized represents a useful start. Additionally, an increased focus on effective governance systems opposed to highlighting those that fail will help establish models that move campuses toward improvement. Campus leaders responsible for the development of governance policy should have the benefit of research rather than suspicion. Governance, the structure and processes by which campus decisions are made, has significant consequences for the health of institutions. The faculty senate represents just one important aspect of campus governance. However, the performance of faculty governing bodies can either promote or stymie the success of institutional initiatives.


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Your answer to each essay question should be complete and between 200 and 300 words.

1. In practice, the optimal capital structure cannot be found. Therefore, what is the logic of the optimal capital structure? What must managers do to take on additional debt financing?

2. Detail the process for issuing bonds. Describe the roles of the necessary individuals and the overall market making process.

3. Health care organizations compete for funds with other users of funds. What strategies should a hospital use to influence the market that they are capable of taking on more risk and are a good investment option?

4. Managers put together a cash budget on an annual basis. Once the budget is made, what steps must be taken to assure that it represents the financial picture for the health center during the next fiscal period.

5. You have just been chosen to implement a new purchasing and supply system within your organization. Present a convincing argument for the system that you would use, detailing why you did not use other systems that are in practice today.

6. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the four sources of short-term funds. Which is the preferable method and why?

7. Hospital budgeting techniques are difficult to apply and interpret. Explain in detail why the decisions are difficult and what can be done in the capital budgeting process to ameliorate these issues.

8. Many organizations use a leveraged buyout versus a merger or other type of acquisition strategy. Compare and contrast the different "purchasing" methods. Which is the best? Does one work better in a different situation than another? Explain your rationale.

9. The cynicism of a doctor showed when he said, "When you've seen one joint venture, you've seen one joint venture." What did the doctor mean by the comment? Compare and contrast different options as alternatives to mergers and acquisitions.

10. As the Chief Financial Officer for your hospital, you are charged with evaluating the latest managed care and capitation contracts. Explain the process in detail on how to evaluate the different contracts.

The email I sent and Sarah replied to, the format is much easier to read. If I need to send it to my specific writer, just email me and I will send it again.


Background Information

This is the Background Information that the paper needs to be based on

Your role is as an employee of Brightware Corporation, not a customer. Youre the vice president of sales and marketing for Brightware Corporation. Mr. Arnold Frost is president of the corporation. Your company supplies retail chains with a

line of stainless steel kitchenware. Brightware has developed a strong brand position and a sound reputation for products

that are of high quality and durability. Lately, however, sales have declined. Mr. Frost asks that you write a proposal for him, drawing conclusions from your investigation and making recommendations that can address the problem.

In your research, you find that employee morale has declined. Absenteeism has increased, and overall productivity has slipped about 20 percent.

This is the Process recommended: The only thing I need is an informal proposal.

1.Here are some questions to use as a starting point: Where is the company located? What departments make up the

organization? What are the marketing goals for the company as a whole and for the particular department(s) related to the scenario? How long has the company been in business? Who are the major competitors? How many employees work for the

company? Who are the ones with whom you will be working? What is your business/personal relationship

to them? Where do you fit in the power picture? How long have you worked there? You need to spend quite a bit of time at this step to develop a clear picture of the company or companies youre dealing with and/or employed at. If you don't

have experience in the type of business(es) represented in your scenario, you may need to read some journals

or magazines on related companies so you can provide realistic details to answer your questions.

Your work at this step will impact your entire proposal in various ways, but most particularly your Introduction,

Staffing, and Request for Authorization.

2. Brainstorm about the specifics of the companys problem, the department(s) involved, and your goals for solving

that problem. With Scenario A, for example, consider these questions: How did you conduct your research and how did it lead

you to the problem/goals you have identified? Why has employee morale declined and absenteeism increased?

How has this problem affected productivity and drop in sales? What can be done to reduce or reverse the down

trend? Is the problem part of an overall trend or a dramatic change for the company?

Go far beyond these questionstheyre merely to help you proceed.

Your effort at this stage will provide the meat of the Background and Proposal sections where you need to

describe the problem (show you have a command of whats involved in that problem), to establish specific

goals, and demonstrate a clear, thoughtful, detailed plan of action.

3. Brainstorm about the people and time needed to accomplish your plan. What type and level of experience does

each require for the job you have in mind? What exactly do you want each person to do? When? How? Are any of

the needed experts already employees of the company? Who oversees the entire project and reports on it?

Your work at this level will give you the basis for the Schedule and for the Staffing section.

4. List each aspect of the problem with its resolution. Under each resolution, list the individual components

required for the goal to be accomplished. For example, expanding a storeroom involves demolition, rewiring,

reconstruction of walls, new windows, lighting, flooring, and paint. Brainstorm and investigate the cost involved

in accomplishing each component. This section of preparation requires you to research current costs and types

of building materials, training programs, or research and development procedures. Searching the Internet or making

phone calls to representative companies in the Yellow Pages can provide useful information. Your figures

should be based on facts, not imaginary numbers. Ignore the budgetary categories in the sample. Instead,

create your own in terms of your proposal. Your budget should be more detailed and itemized. As a general rule

of thumb, if a component costs more than $1,000, you should itemize the costs that make up that section.

Make sure the numbers are realistic and based on your research. Itemizing is important to provide not only clear

support for your numbers but also to provide places where it can be scaled back if the total is too much for

the companys budget for the project.

5. Organize your brainstorming into a useable plan by

creating an informal outline using the following main

points. Subdivide the main points further as necessary.

Notice that Schedule has been added as a separate main

point instead of including it in the Proposal section. Also,

review the guidelines given in your study unit Organizing,

Researching, and Illustrating Your Material.

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. Proposal

IV. Schedule

V. Staffing

VI. Budget

VII. Request for Authorization

6. Using your outline, along with the material from your research and brainstorming, write a draft of your informal

proposal using the letter format. Use bold headings for Background, Proposal, Schedule, Staffing, Budget,

and Request for Authorization. If you include any subheadings beneath these main sections, use italics for

those headings.

7. Let your draft sit for several days before you reread and revise it according to the evaluation criteria. Then ask

someone else to review it for logical flow and clear information. Revise your draft based on their comments.

Make sure each word counts and reflects a tone fitting your audience. Your proposal should be at least two single-spaced pages (other than those places where the format requires more spacing) but no more than five pages.

8. Type your final proposal in the proper format using Times New Roman, font size 12, on standard 81/2-by-11-inch

white bond paper.

Below is a sample (Figure 3) of the format that needs to be used.


Plant 8

9167 Service Lane

Charlotte, NC 28202

Phone: (704) 555-1345

Fax: (704) 555-1291

September 7, 2005

Frank Reese


Jemco Company

2350 Industry Road

Roanoke, VA 24001

Dear Mr. Reese:

Until October 2004, Plant 8 epitomized our companys commitment to excellence through its team approach to production.

Unfortunately, as the senior management team knows from the biannual report of July 15, 2005, Plant 8s work output has

since dropped a dramatic 20 percent. The number of failed quality checks has increased an alarming 15 percent. In response

to this dire situation, I present you and the team the following proposal for returning Plant 8 to its former exemplary

position within Jemco.


In September 2004, Plant 8 employed 41 people on three production lines operating at 98 percent efficiency with 0.8 percent

failed quality checks, thus achieving the highest rating of Jemcos 12 plants. To discover the reason for Plant 8s current poor

performance, I spent five days at the plant observing the teams at work on each of the production lines, meeting with the

team leaders and with the shop supervisor, Joseph Cairns, and reviewing the weekly team reports from September 2, 2004,

through June 30, 2005. Through my investigation, I determined that the change in output is due to the unepected addition

of two production lines.

On September 20, 2005, Plant 8 was assigned overflow from Plant 3, which had been irreparably damaged by Hurricane Ivan.

Enough of Plant 3s manufacturing equipment was salvaged and moved to Plant 8 to establish two production lines. The

division of space to accommodate these lines resulted in one line being placed in the employee break room, blocking a fire

exit and making the restrooms difficult to access.

In addition, since only four employees from Plant 3 were willing to relocate to Plant 8, Mr. Cairns had to hire 20 employees,

all of whom had little experience with our product line. He therefore directed most of his attention toward training and

supervising these new employees. Despite Mr. Cairnss close attention and daily intervention, the work output and quality of

production from the two new teams increased only minimally in the first six months of 2005. Moreover, Mr. Cairns was not

able to provide needed direction and oversight for the three experienced teams. As a result, their production levels also fell.

According to Jemcos own standards and to the regulations of the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA),

Plant 8 should have no more than four regular production lines and no more than 50 employees. Therefore, the current number

of 67 employees and the additional equipment exceed the levels needed to maintain safety, efficiency, and quality.

Consequently, I am not surprised that Plant 8 now trails the other plants. Nonetheless, I am convinced that Plant 8 can

return to its stellar position by achieving the following objectives:

Dismantle one production line to meet safety standards

Add a second shift to accommodate increased output demand and number of employees

Restructure teams to balance experience level by team and by shift

Provide training for team leaders to assume a more supervisory role and for all employee teams toward more efficient,

quality production


To return Jemco Plant 8 to its former efficiency and quality level as well as enhance production output, I propose the

following plan.

Dismantlement. Since the plant can safely accommodate only four production lines, the line in the employee break room must

be dismantled. Any usable materials will be kept for maintenance and repair of the other lines. Removal of this line will eliminate

the current safety hazards and restore that space to its proper use. For safety purposes, the line immediately in front of

the break room should be halted. In this way, two teams can dismantle the line in the break room during regular work hours.

Second shift. Adding another time shift with two of the five teams is the most efficient way to resolve the safety and

production issues at Plant 8. The current shift for all employees is 7:30 A.M. to 4:00 P.M. I propose the first shift be held

from 6:00 A.M. to 2:30 P.M. and the second from 3:30 P.M. to 12:00 midnight. The second shift will require 24 employees

for production, 2 team leaders, and an assistant shop supervisor. By keeping four production lines instead of three and by

adding this second shift, Plant 8 will be able to plan for additional production opportunities.

This change will result in some increased costs for shift-differential pay for the second shift, for operation costs such as

heating and electrical, and for the addition of an assistant supervisory position for the second shift. Nonetheless, these

costs will be more than compensated for with increased, higher-quality production.

Team reorganization. Since the two new teams are clearly not functioning to standard, the five teams must be reorganized

to integrate the more experienced employees with the less experienced. To ensure employees feel they are treated fairly

and develop team unity, Mr. Cairns should work with a member of Jemcos Human Resources Department and the five

team leaders to establish the new teams.

Training. The necessary training must be a two-prong approach. First, the five team leaders and assistant shop supervisor

should be trained in Jemcos management approach, in strategies for team leading, and in maintenance of the production lines.

Second, each restructured team should be trained in operating equipment properly and in establishing a cooperative spirit.

The leadership training, which must be accomplished first, will require a total of four work days. The employee team training

will require three work days. Per Jemcos training requirements, there will also be a follow-up on team building for

both leaders and teams within 30 days of the last training period.

Training Schedule

Dismantlement of line October 10 to October 21

Establishment of two shifts October 17 to October 31

Reorganization of teams October 17 to October 31

Management training

Supervisory procedures November 1

Team leading November 2 and 3

Line maintenance November 7

Follow-up December 2

Employee training

Team building November 4

Production line operation November 8 and 9

Follow-up December 2


The current shop supervisor, Joseph Cairns, has a total of nine years experience at Plant 8: two years as quality controller,

five as production-line team leader, and two as shop supervisor. His knowledge of production requirements and the employees

will provide valuable insight for the director of Human Resources toward team restructuring.

Dillon Foster, Marion Conrad, and John Mandell are the experienced team leaders, each with at least eight years of experience

with Jemco and two or more years experience as a team leader. William Tonzent and Diane Lisko are the two newest

team leaders to Plant 8, both having recently relocated from Plant 3, where each had three years of experience as team

leader. Since team leaders have firsthand knowledge of the employees ability and personalities, they will also consult

on team restructuring.

As director of Human Resources for Jemco Company, Bernard Standler will appoint someone from his department to oversee

the team restructuring as well as both the leadership and employee training. Those appointees will work with Mr. Cairns to

organize the actual training periods. In addition, Mr. Standler will direct with Mr. Cairns the hiring efforts for an assistant

shop supervisor.


The following figures are estimates based on Jemcos projected salary schedule for 2006, Plant 8s current operating costs

with one shift, and the Companys 2005 travel allotments.

Assistant Shop Supervisor

Recruiting fees (maximum) $ 2,000

Salary (including benefits package) 36,000

Shift Differential (added to regular salary)

Assistant shop supervisor (1) 7,500

Team leaders (2) 7,000

Employees (24) 60,000

Operating Costs 125,000

Training Costs (travel and materials) 12,500

Total costs $ 250,000

Request for Authorization

High-quality products are what customers expect from Jemco Company. Although Plant 8 has recently fallen far short of

standards as a result of an unexpected increase in project assignments, the plant can recover once the management team

authorizes the propoed changes and budget. In fact, these recommendations do not represent a new direction for Jemco

or Plant 8. Instead, they will merely restore to Plant 8 the effectiveness of Jemcos unique team production system, an

approach Plant 8 itself has previously shown effective in increasing work output and decreasing failed quality checks. The

management teams approval of this plan will therefore reinforce to both customers and employees Jemcos commitment

to excellence.

I appreciate having the opportunity to investigate the problems at Plant 8. I am confident that after the team reviews my

proposal, I can expect authorization at our next management meeting on September 15.


Franklin S. Delacroix (The needs to be an Email Signature)

Franklin S. Delacroix

Vice President of Production


Locust Club -- "We Protect

Conduct an interview with a Labor Relations Officer/Manager within your own Human Resource department or outside your company, either private or public sector.

1. Write a 6-10 page paper (does not include title page or reference page/pages) providing a summary of the interview.
2. You will create the interview questions (do not submit the interview questions). It is your decision how many questions you use. You want to ask enough questions to gather substantive information about the Labor Relations Officer/Managers job and function. Ask follow-up questions as appropriate. Some questions might include:
a. What are the typical functions of your job?
b. What challenges do union (or non-union) environments face?
c. What have you found to be the highest volume of labor issues?
d. Why do you think that issue(s) is so high?
3. Follow APA format guidelines.
4. The paper should NOT be just a list of questions and answers. I am not looking for any quoted material from your interviewee. This should be your encapsulation of the information obtained through the interview. Consider the interviewees answers as raw data that now needs to be written in an academic content/format.
5. The paper should be your understanding of the information shared by the interviewee and what the information shared means.
6. The paper should include theory application. In other words, once you have conducted the interview and begin writing your summary, what theories link to the Labor Relations Officer/Managers processes/functions? For example, if your Labor Relations Officer/Manager states that he/she uses a specific grievance process, ask to see the process (theory) or find the process (theory) and review in your paper.

Pappadeaux Restaurants

The Pappadeaux chain of restaurants is a well-known and popular series of various restaurants located primarily in the Southwest (

Case Assignment Task:

Now assume the following hypothetical facts. Last year Pappadeaux opened a new seafood restaurant in San Diego to test that market. Gregory Gourmet has been the manager and has just completed his first year and is now undergoing his first annual review. Harry Hammerhead, the area manager, will determine Gregory?s bonus based on this review.

Below is the projected budget Gregory was given at the opening of the restaurant and the actual results for the first year.

Pappadeaux Restaurants - San Diego No. 1

Income Statement

For the Year Ended April 30, 2007





Supervisory Labor

Hourly Labor


Insurance and Taxes



Corporate Overhead

Total Expenses

Net Income

Harry reviewed the budget and said to Gregory "This was a terrible year for you. Your profits are $70,000 under budget and I am holding you responsible. Don?t even think about a bonus ? in fact, perhaps you should begin to think about some other line of work. But I am a generous man so you review this budget and then you tell me how you could have done better and I will give you another chance if your explanation shows you understand how you need to improve. Have a written report of 2 to 4 pages on my desk in 48 hours."

Gregory?s analysis revealed the following:

National corporate advertising was reduced by 20% nationally and 40% in the San Diego area. Sales are heavily dependent on national advertising.

All food, hourly labor and supplies are variable (dependent on sales). The other costs are fixed in nature.

All food is purchased by the central corporate office and billed to the restaurants. Food prices for the year were 10% above projected unit prices.

Gregory has reduced the number of hourly employees but increased their wage rates in the belief that better paid employees would work harder.

Supplies are purchased locally.

Supervisory labor was over budget because Harry granted all supervisors a mid-year raise.

Utility rates were increased by the Public Utility Commission although consumption was on budget.

Insurance costs were on budget but local business taxes were increased.

Rent is established by corporate headquarters because the building is company owned.

The corporate rate is allocated to all restaurants on the basis of revenue. The application rate was increased because of a new computer system installed in corporate headquarters.

Prepare the report that Gregory must give to Harry. Be sure to explain the concepts of variable and fixed costs, include a flexible budget, and concentrate on the concept of responsibility accounting. What recommendations would you make to change the system of accounting for the company? Why?

Case assignment expectations:

Use information from the modular background readings as well as any other reliable resources you use. Please cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of your paper.

LENGTH: 3-4 pages typed and double-spaced.

The following items will be evaluated in particular:

Analyze and evaluate the case of the Pappadeaux
Evaluate the different categories of costs such as direct costs, variable overhead, and fixed overhead for the case
Perform a variance analysis with a flexible budget and make a report of this restaurant?s performance
Show the calculations and accounting process that you used to support your recommendations


In 4-5 page research paper to identify and describe the problem within the context of my school. (My Name of mine school is Highbridge Day Care)and to descirbe what management
tasks would be important for the principal or the assistant
principal to do in response to resolving or rectifying this
problem in budgeting.

What Do Managers Do?

research project

what do managers do?

interviewing questionnaire

At least three different managers, preferably from three different organizations, should be interviewed for the purpose of this paper. The managers should have positions of as great authority as possible. Describe in the paper what their positions are, what their responses are to the questionnaire, how the three different managers compare in terms of their respective responses, and what you learned from doing the exercise. These papers will be discussed in class. ALL PAPERS SHALL BE TYPED!

Based on research managers have been shown to perform at least ten roles. Not every manager performs every role; not every role is equally important in each manager's job. There may be things managers do that are not included on this list. Indeed, there is an "Other" category for including those things which are not found in this exercise.

The object of this assignment is to provide an experience in which you can collect some information on what contributions managers make to achieving organizational goals. For purposes of this study, a manager is anyone whose job consists primarily of supervising other people in organizations.

Since so many of our students are using word processing to prepare their research papers, I strongly recommend students use the spelling checker option to reduce the number of spelling and typographical errors and the use of a Grammar Checker to check the grammar of all written work. Grammar and spelling will be a factor in the grade for all papers!


1. Find three managers and conduct the interviews, using the attached form as a guide. Obtain numerical answers, using the scale provided, for all of the questions, and place their answers in the suggested summary sheet at the end of this outline. Determine:

a. Which are the most important roles-those which contribute to effective performance on the job?

b. Which are the most time-consuming?

c. Ask the manager to give an example of the role in question.

2. Discuss the results with the manager. Ask: Were there any roles that you had expected to be more (or less) important before the interview? Were there any roles where the time consumed seemed disproportionate to the importance of the role?

3. Take notes on the interview and bring them with you to class for reference in the class discussion when the project is considered.

4. You do not need to supply the name of the manager interviewed. We are only interested in developing a sample of managerial views of their job. The responses will be anonymous, and you should treat the interview as a confidential communication.

The ten roles and the typical activities involved in them are listed below, together with a space for you to list items that may be important but not provided for. For each role, enter the appropriate numbers based upon the following scale.

For the category "Importance", enter a number reflecting how important the role is to effective job performance for the manager. The scale of values for this category are: 1 = of no importance; 2 = of minimal importance; 3 = of some importance; 4 = of considerable importance; 5 = of very high importance.

The next category, "Time", describes how time-consuming the role is for the manager. The scale values for this category are: 1 = no time consumed; 2 = minimal time consumed; 3 = some time consumed; 4 = considerable time consumed; 5 = a very high amount of time consumed.

Finally, in the category "Example" briefly note an example of the job duties performed in fulfilling this role. Complete each of these categories for the three managers even if examples are difficult.

1. Acts as legal and symbolic head; performs obligatory social, ceremonial, or legal duties (retirement dinner, luncheon for employees, plant dedication, annual dinner dance, civic affairs, signs contract on behalf of firm etc.)

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


2. Motivates, develops, and guides subordinates; staffing, training, and associated duties (management by objectives, provides challenging assignments, develops people, selects personnel, encourages subordinates, trains new employees)

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


3. Maintains a network of contacts and information sources outside own group to obtain information and assistance (attends staff meetings, takes customer to lunch, attends professional meetings, meets with manager of department X, keeps abreast of upcoming design changes etc.).

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


4. Seeks and obtains information to understand organization and environment. Acts as nerve center for organization (charts work flow, work-place meetings, audits expense control statements, reviews exception reports, reviews quotations, meets with production control)

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


5. Transmits information to subordinates within own organizational area of responsibility (workplace meetings, disseminates results of meetings, transmits policy letters, briefs subordinates, sends out copies of information, posts schedules and forecasts).

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


6. Transmits information to persons outside of organizational area of responsibility (works with product committee, prepares weekly status reports, participates in meetings, deals with customer's coordinator, field sales).

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


7. Searches organization and its environment for "improvement projects" to change products, processes, procedures, and organization. Supervises design and implementation of change projects as well (cost reduction program, plant trip to X Division, changes forecasting system, brings in subcontract work to level work load, reorganizes department.

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


8. Takes corrective action in time of disturbance or crisis (handles union grievances, negotiates sales problems, redistributes work during "crash programs," handles customer complaints, resolves personal conflicts, assigns engineers to problem jobs).

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


9. Allocates organizational resources by making or approving decisions. Scheduling, budgeting, planning, programming of subordinate's work, etc. (budgeting, program scheduling, assigns personnel, strategic planning, plans manpower load, sets objectives).

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


10. Represents organization in negotiating of sales, labor, or other agreements. Represents department or group negotiating with other functions within the organization (negotiates with suppliers, assists in quoting on new work, negotiates with union, hires, resolves jurisdictional dispute with department X, negotiates sales contract)

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


11. Other:

Importance ______ Time ______ Example ______________________


The Mintzberg roles are given - though not labeled - on the questionnaire in the following order:

Interpersonal Roles Information Roles Decisional Roles

1. Figurehead 4. Monitor 7. Entrepreneur

2. Leader ("Nerve Center" 8. Disturbance

3. Liaison in Mintzberg) Handler

5. Disseminator 9. Resource Allocator

6. Spokesperson 10. Negotiator

In the body of the paper compare and contrast the different managers in terms of the importance rating and time consumed for each of the management functions. Do this by function rather than by manager, i.e., compare all three managers' responses functionally. Use the examples they gave you to document your conclusions. Discuss any differences and the "other" category. Original methods of interpreting and analyzing your data are encouraged.

Summarize the report in terms of why you believe the managers agreed and disagreed on the importance rating and time consumed for the functions discussed. Be prepared to discuss your results in class.

Please use the following suggested Report Format for summarizing your interviews. Please average the importance and time categories for your three managers. This will provide an index of the most important and time consuming functions as well as giving an overall importance/time indicator.

report format

importance rating and time consumed

for managers interviewed by function

(i = importance rating

t = time consumed)


Average Avg. Ratio

Role Manager A Manager B Manager C Importance Time I / T

Interpersonal Roles

Figurehead I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Leader I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Liaison I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Interpersonal Role

Averages I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T


Monitor I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Disseminator I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Spokesman I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Informational Role

Averages I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

decisional role


Average Avg. Ratio

Role Manager A Manager B Manager C Importance Time I / T

Entrepreneur I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Disturbance Handler I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Resource Allocator I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Negotiator I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Decisional Role

Averages I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Total Average I T I T I T AVG. AVG. I / T

Manager I / T Ratio I / T I / T 1 /T

In the body of the paper compare and contrast the different managers in terms of the importance rating and time consumed for each of the management roles and functions. Use the examples they gave you to document your conclusions. All papers will include a research report as detailed above. Discuss any differences and utilize the "other" category. Do not simply itemize each manager. It is ESSENTIAL to compare and contrast all three managers functionally by incorporating the overall findings from your research report. What is required here is critical comparative thinking. Use the I / T ratio to compare the managers in terms of the importance they give to an individual function and the time they actually spend doing it.

Summarize the report in terms of why you believe the managers agreed and disagreed on the importance rating and time consumed for the functions discussed. Draw conclusions as to why the managers reached the judgments they did. Be prepared to discuss your results in class.

Leane Drazka
Organizational Behavior
Dr. Stephen W. Hartman
Summer, 2003

Research Project

What Do Managers Do?

Table of Contents

The topic of ?What Do Managers Do?? is of particular interest to me, since I am also a manager. It was fascinating to talk to other managers and hear their perspective on what it takes to be a manager. In addition to the managers I interviewed, I also completed the questionnaire. I was then able to compare what other managers do to what I do.
For this research, I interviewed three managers from three different companies and added myself as a fourth interviewee. Tracy is a Quality Assurance Manager for a large software manufacturing company; Suzanne is a Training Manager for a franchised software training company; John is a programming manager for a software consulting company; and I am a Manager of Design and Training at a software development company. All of the positions are comparable in level and all are in the software industry.
I used the questionnaire that was provided. It is based on Henry Mintzberg?s Roles of a Manager and is broken down into three main roles: Interpersonal, Informational and Decisional. These three main roles have been broken down into eleven roles, including one role called ?Other.? The ?other? category includes all those things that the first ten did not cover. For this research, I was looking to determine answers to the following three questions:
? Which are the most important roles that contribute to effective performance on the job?
? Which are the most time-consuming?
? What are some examples of the roles in question?
The questionnaire consists of two categories for the interviewee to rate: Importance and Time. The importance of the function, i.e.-how important the role is to effective job performance for the manager, is rated on a scale of 1 to 5. For this scale, 1 means ?not important? and 5 means ?very high importance?. Then, how time-consuming the role is for the manager is also rated on a scale of 1 to 5. The scale for this category is defined as 1 meaning ?no time is consumed? and 5 meaning ?a very high amount of time is consumed.? The ratio of Importance to Time is used to calculate the I/T Ratio.
Finally, the managers interviewed were asked to give an example to briefly describe the job duties performed in fulfilling each role. The results of the interviews are summarized below with the data and calculations following at the end.
Interpersonal Role
There are three functions defined in the Interpersonal Roles Category: Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison.
The Figurehead role was of no importance to all of the interviewed managers. All of the managers interviewed were active in the software industry. Because they were primarily responsible for day-to-day operations in a technical field, they all agreed that acting as legal and symbolic head, and performing ceremonial, social, and legal duties is not part of their daily jobs. Therefore, all of the interviewees also said that no time was spent on this role. The average importance was 1.0 and the managers averaged 1.0 on the time spent. The functional IT ratio was 1.0 for the Figurehead role.
Tracy, Suzanne, and I rated the Leader function with the highest importance, a 5. Only John rated this function slightly lower with a 4. The interviewed managers all felt that motivating, developing and guiding subordinates is an important part of their job. Some of the examples given were guiding their team to develop their skills, developing guidelines, processing issues, and providing a variety of tasks to maintain interest. The time spent was also rated very high with three 5?s and one 4. Both the average importance and the average time spent was the highest average on the survey: 4.75 for both. The functional IT ratio was 1.0.
The results for the Liaison function varied for each of the managers. As a liaison, the manager maintains information links and contacts outside of their immediate groups. John gave the importance rating a 5, while the rest of the managers gave it a 4. John tends to deal more with the clients, making decisions about the priority of the software being developed. He felt that since these relationships determined the workflow of his team, this is one of the most important parts of his job. The other managers have more of a support role and utilize relationships outside of their department for assistance and teamwork purposes. The average importance was still relatively high at 4.25. Time spent was slightly lower, receiving two 4?s and two 3?s. Average time spent was a 3.5. The IT ratio for the Liaison function was a 1.21.
Overall, the Interpersonal Role received average importance and time spent from all four managers. Since the Figurehead function was considered non-existent for all the managers, the average scores for this role decreased. If we analyzed the Interpersonal Role without the Figurehead function, the scores would have been much higher. However, all three functions make up this role, so all four managers scored a 3.33 for average importance and a 2.67, 3.00, 3.33, and 3.33 for time spent. The average importance across all the managers for this role was 3.33. The average time spent for all the managers was 3.08. Thereby, the IT ratio for the Interpersonal Role was 1.08.
Informational Role
The Informational Role is comprised of three functions: Monitor, Disseminator, and Spokesperson.
In the Monitor function, the manager seeks and receives information, scans periodicals and reports, and maintains personal contacts to understand the organization and environment. This function received average ratings from most of the managers. Suzanne, Tracy, and I gave the importance a 3. John, however, gave it a 4. Again, since John?s position guides his team?s workload more than the other managers (they receive their workload from other departments), he felt the monitor function was important. The other managers gave it an average rating as they felt it was an important part of their jobs, but not the most important part. The average important for this function was a 3.25. Appropriately, the time spent on this function also received an average rating. Most of the managers gave the Monitor function a 3 for time spent. Suzanne rated it slightly lower. She gave it a 2. The average time spent on this function was 2.75. The IT ratio was a 1.18.
Another fairly important function, as rated by these managers, is the Disseminator role. The Disseminator transmits information to subordinates within their own organizational area of responsibility. Most of the managers said they were responsible for creating the schedules for their team members, holding team meetings, and updating them on any organizational/departmental changes. This role received two 5s (from me and Suzanne), one 4 (from Tracy) and one 3 (from John). John rated this lower than the other managers because he has project managers that work for him who hold the meetings and schedule the resources. The other managers all handle this work themselves. The average importance of this function was 4.25. Again, the time spent on this function was appropriate based on its importance. Time spent received a 5 from Suzanne, a 4 from Tracy and me, and a 3 from John. Suzanne stated that the majority of her job was creating class schedules and assigning instructors to the appropriate classes. The average rating for time spent was a 3.75. The IT ratio was 1.13.
The last function in the Information Role is the Spokesperson function. The Spokesperson transmits information to persons outside of the organizational area of responsibility. For the most part, this function received slightly higher than average ratings for importance. It received three 4s and one 3, for an average importance rating of 3.75. Some of the examples cited were confirming details with clients and having project meetings across teams. However, the managers all spent minimal time in this function. This function received a 2 from everyone. Therefore, the average rating for time spent was 2.0. Even though this was a fairly important function, it did not take these managers much time to accomplish the necessary tasks. The IT ratio for the Spokesperson function was 1.88.
The importance rating for the Information Role was the highest on this survey. I gave this role the highest importance rating, with an average of 4.0. For me, communication is one of the essential parts of my position. Tracy and Suzanne also gave this role the highest importance on the survey, with an average of 3.67. John also had an average of 3.67, but this was not his highest scoring role for importance. Overall, the average importance for this role was 3.75. The time spent on this role, however, was lower than that of the interpersonal role. The overall rating for time spent was 2.83 for the informational role as compared to 3.17 for the interpersonal role. The average IT ratio was 1.32 because while this role is important, it does not take much time.
Decisional Role
The Decisional Role consists of four functions: Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, and Negotiator.
The Entrepreneur searches the organization and its environment for ?improvement projects? to change products, processes, procedures, and organization. This function?s importance received one 4, two 3s, and one 2 from the managers interviewed. Some of the examples given for this function were Y2K initiative, creation of a classes at risk report, and the creation of a new departmental website. The average importance was a 3.0. The average time spent was 2.75. The time spent rating from each of the managers correlated almost exactly to the importance. Only Suzanne gave a lower time spent rating than importance. The average IT ratio was a 1.09.
As a Disturbance Handler, the manager takes corrective action in time of disturbance or crisis. Personnel issues were the common theme in the examples given for this function. The ratings for importance of the disturbance handler function were all over the board. They ranged from 2 to 5. The average importance was a 3.25. Again, time spent was in exact proportion to the importance. The average time spent was a 3.25. The average IT ratio was a 1.0. Obviously, these managers were spending the appropriate time for this type of function.
A Resource Allocator makes or approves decisions to allocate organizational resources. This may include scheduling, budgeting, planning, or programming subordinates work. Most of the managers gave this an average importance rating of 3.0. John once again gave a higher rating of 4.0. In speaking to each of the managers, I found that all of the managers scheduled resources, but only John had direct control over budget information. The other managers were able to make suggestions about budget, but the final decision came from higher up in the organization. Time spent received a 3 from most of the managers. Oddly, John gave the time spent on this function a lower rating of 2.0. He felt this function was of great importance, but it did not require much of his time. The average importance was 3.25, but the average time spent was only 2.75. The IT ratio for this function was 1.18.
The last defined function is the Negotiator. This function received two 1s, one 2, and one 3 for importance. The highest rating came from John, the manager that also rated the liaison as one of the highest in importance. As he is often involved with other departments, he must negotiate time frames, scope of projects, and the deliverables involved. Suzanne gave the function a 2 because she felt that she negotiated with her subordinates when it came to ?prep days? or non-teaching days. Tracy and I both gave this a 1 because we do not handle any negotiations. The average importance was a 1.75. For time spent, the ratings were very similar. The average time spent was a 2.0. The IT ratio was .88. This was the only function with an IT ratio lower than 1.0 since John rated the importance as a 3, but he rated time spent as a 4. Perhaps he spends more time on this function than he would like.
Both the importance and time spent on the Decisional Role was the lowest average on the survey. The average importance for all of the functions in the decisional role was 2.81 and the average time spent was 2.69. John gave this role the highest importance on the survey and the most amount of time spent. Again, in John?s position, he negotiates more, handles customer complaints, assigns issues, etc. more than the other managers. Therefore, it seems appropriate that he gave this role the highest rating. Overall, the IT ratio was 1.05 for the Decisional Role.

Appendix A contains the actual survey data collected from the managers interviewed. The only instance where too much time seemed to be spent on a function was in the Negotiator role. Otherwise, the IT ratios were fairly close to 1.0. This clearly shows that these managers manage their own time well and spend more time on the more important functions. The overall Total functional IT Ratio was 1.13.
Appendix B summarizes the functions by average importance. Overall, the Leader function was rated the highest (4.75) among all the managers. The Liaison and the Disseminator were tied for second (4.25) and the Spokesperson came in third (3.75). Interestingly, the third function in the Interpersonal role, the Figurehead, rated of no importance to any of the managers. Tracy, Suzanne, and I all rated the Leader position highest in importance on the survey. Motivating, developing, and guiding subordinates is a major part of every good manager?s job. It is no surprise that this was the highest rated function. Because the Figurehead was not of importance to these managers, the Information Role ranked the highest overall in importance. This role received a 3.75 in importance as compared to a 3.33 for the Interpersonal role and a 2.81 for the Decisional role.
The functions are summarized by Average Time Spent in Appendix C. Appropriately, the Leader, Liaison, and Disseminator role were the three most time consuming functions. It was interesting to see the Spokesperson function (number four on the importance chart) appeared to take less time (2.0) and ranked number eight in average time spent. The fourth position was held by the Disturbance Handler, which ranked sixth in importance. This time, the Interpersonal Roles rated highest in Average Time Spent, with a 3.08 rating. The Information Role?s average was a 2.83 and the Decisional Role?s average was a 2.69. John spent the majority of his time in the Decisional Role, but the other managers spent the majority of their time in the Interpersonal Role.
Appendix D summarizes the functions by average functional IT ratio. The highest IT ratio was for the Spokesperson function with a 1.88. This means that this function is relatively important, but these managers spend less time on the function. The lowest IT ratio was for the Negotiator function with a 0.88. This function receives more time than appropriate based on the importance ranked by these managers. Overall, the Decisional and Interpersonal Roles received an IT ratio of 1.05 and the Information Role received a 1.32.
Each manager scored a slightly different IT ratio, but all were close. Tracy?s IT ratio was 1.15; Suzanne?s IT ratio was 1.14; John?s IT ratio was 1.16; and my IT ratio was 1.11. Even with the different job positions, responsibility levels, and personalities of the managers, it seems very clear that they have good Time Management Skills and are spending the appropriate time on the important functions.

Appendix A - Survey Data

Question 1
A) Suggest an idea that could turn into a business proposition using business competition chain. Word count: 400 words
B) Based on the idea produced in question 1 part A, explain the main difficulties/barriers? Word count: 400 words

Question 2
A) Reflect on the possibility to finance the new business. Note the case study ?Supporting new business start-ups? provides you with different ideas to be considered. Word count: 250 words
B) Illustrate on the types of risks when answering. (Refer to enterprise value-cycle.) Word count: 400 words

Question 3
List and clarify STEEP and seven P?s when introducing a business idea. Word count: 400 words

Question 4
Identify and explain what is meant by the market research cycle. Word count: 625 words

Guidance to Question 01
Keep in mind that this question is intended to test the ability of being innovative. Try to express your idea logically creatively using the business competitive chain. B) Each venture has its barriers; you should propose solutions to overcome these obstacles.
Guidance to Question 02
This questions aims to reflect various types of finance to start a business. B) Enterprise Value-cycle will help you identify those risks when applying the idea.
Guidance for Question 03
You should be able to connect STEEP and the 7P?s to the proposed ideas.
Guidance for Question 04
Enable the reader of your conscious of the seven stages of the market research cycle as to what each entails.

Case Study
Supporting new business start-ups
This case study looks at the challenges of setting up a new business. It looks at some of the decisions that must be made by a budding entrepreneur. It outlines some of the services and support that are offered to business start-ups by a financial institution like Barclays.
The business idea:
An obvious starting point is the business idea. Many people think that they might have spotted a business opportunity. Translating that thought into action is another matter. There are many ways of coming up with a bright idea.
Source of Ideas Examples of idea Example
Developing a hobby A gardening service
Using your skills A service creating and maintaining websites
A chance idea Producing a musical toothbrush
Combining two ideas Running an Internet caf?

Many people are inspired by existing businesses. Tim O?Neil runs T&T Vision, a business that sells spectacles through an online shop on eBay. Tim got the idea for his business in his first year at university. His father bought a pair of reading glasses online. This seemed a good idea for an e-commerce business.
Before setting up a new business, there are important questions to answer. This requires
market research to systematically gather, record and analyze data about the market for
the planned goods or services. This is an ongoing process as markets are always changing. However, some market research is essential before starting any new business.
Secondary (or desk-based) research will answer many of these questions. Secondary research involves scanning already published materials such as reports, patents and statistical data. This research will help a business to decide on its marketing mix. The marketing mix or/and the seven P?s
Types of business organization: If the initial market research suggests the idea is a good one, then the entrepreneur must consider the practicalities of setting up the business. There are three main types of business form:
1. A sole trader is simple to set up - there is no complicated paperwork. The owner of a
sole trader enterprise, such as plumbers, window cleaners and professional writers, has
complete control of the business. However, there is nothing to prevent a sole trader taking
on employees and many do. The sole trader takes all the profits (after tax) but is liable for
all debts the business incurs. This means that if the business makes a substantial loss, the
sole trader may be forced to sell personal assets such as their house to cover the business
debts. In worst cases, sole traders may face bankruptcy.
2. A partnership consists of between two and 20 partners. Partnerships are a common
form of business for many enterprises offering professional services, such as doctors?
surgeries, accountancy practices and design businesses. Partners can bring more capital
and a wider range of skills, work and ideas to the business. However, partners can and do
fall out. Like sole traders, most partnerships also have full liability for any business debts.
3. A limited company is a legal entity. This means, for example, that if a company owes
someone money, the creditor can take the company to court. Because of its legal status,
it is more complicated and more expensive to set up a limited company. Any new (or
small) business choosing this form of structure will become a private limited company. The entrepreneur setting up a new company is likely to retain a large shareholding but may offer shares to some investors in return for capital. However, unlike the public limited companies (PLCs) listed on the stock market, these shares cannot be sold to the general public.
A limited company is owned by its shareholders, who are entitled to a share of any profits and a say in the running of the business. The main advantage of this type of business ownership is that it offers shareholders limited liability. Shareholders are not responsible for the full amount of any debt incurred by the business. The liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount of capital they have invested in the business. This is why this form of business is attractive to many entrepreneurs.

Budgeting and business planning: Many businesses fail in their first year of trading. There are many reasons, but typical ones include: a) lack of understanding of the market ? a failure to carry out market research b) underestimating the strength of the competition c) failure to secure adequate finance d) inaccurate estimates in constructing budgets ? for example, revenue forecasts are too high and/or cost estimates too low.
A well-structured business plan, including budgets, can help a new business to avoid
such problems. A business plan provides a forecast of costs and revenues over the planning period. It sets out how sales will be achieved and how the business is to be financed. Banks expect to see a business plan before agreeing to any loan request. Many banks provide tools to help owners draw up business plans.
It is important for a new business to have clear budgets. A budget is based on the business objectives and identifies key factors, such as what money is needed, for what purpose and where it will come from.
A budget also considers the assumptions a business may need to make about variable
factors, such as interest rate changes or volume of sales. A detailed budget plan with clear
targets will help give a business control by: a) ensuring money is spent on the right activities b) drawing attention to waste or loss c) focusing on areas of the business that need review, for example, if revenue is not meeting target or if costs are rising.
A budget will also take into account expected cash flow so the business can assess if its
income will cover its expenditure. Difficulty with cash flow is common. It is unlikely that a new business will make a profit in its first few months of trading. It takes time to build up a business and win new customers. Many new businesses offer credit terms to customers so they must wait to be paid. The result is that the business is often short of cash.

Financing a new business
Some new businesses need little start-up capital. An online retail business like T&T Vision does not require substantial funds to buy premises or a large selection of stock for display. Other types of business require significant finance for premises, equipment and stock before they can start trading. The owners of any new business, whether sole trader, the partners in a partnership or the shareholders in a limited company will be expected to provide some capital. However, there are other sources of business finance available to meet day-to-day expenses or to buy more expensive capital items:
? An overdraft. This arrangement, agreed in advance with a bank, allows a business to
spend more than the funds available in its account up to an agreed limit. The business can
dip into this ?pot? as and when it needs to, for example, to pay a pressing bill. The
flexibility of an overdraft means the business can pay the bill immediately and the overdraft is automatically repaid once sufficient funds are deposited in the business? account. However, a business pays interest on the amount it owes. Interest rates on overdrafts can be higher than on other, less flexible, ways of borrowing.
? A business credit card enables a business to borrow flexible amounts quickly and for a
short period of time. Banks will usually place tight limits on the amount that a new
business can borrow on a credit card. If the amount borrowed is paid back in full at the
end of each month, the business does not pay any interest. However, interest is charged on any remaining balance until the amount is repaid. Like overdrafts, these interest rates can be higher than other ways of borrowing because of the flexibility of the arrangement.
? A bank loan. Most banks offer bank loans for business. They are useful for borrowing larger amounts, for example, to pay for set-up or expansion costs. For example, it may have to be located in an area of economic deprivation or the owner may have to be under a certain age. One avenue not usually open to business start-ups is venture capital. As the television program Dragons? Den shows, venture capitalists put money into an enterprise in exchange for a share of the business. They would always expect to see some evidence of business success before investing.
A new business is also likely to need financial advice. Banks recognize that a business has different needs to that of an employed person who has regular pay coming into a bank
? A business needs a means of handling payments from its customers, of making payments to its suppliers and of managing its cash flow.
Starting up in business is an exciting challenge. However, it is necessary to have a good idea, a clear understanding of the market and financial knowledge and skills to support the business? development. A detailed business plan will help a business avoid failure by:
a) Researching the market b) Assessing the competition c) Predicting revenue and costs accurately d) Securing adequate finance.

? Please to use the Times New Roman Font Size 12
? Line spacing should be 1.5
? All pages should be numbered
? Keep wide margins
? Align text to the left. Don?t justify leaving spaces between words
* Harvard Style Referencing.

The purpose of the Session Long Project is to give you the opportunity to explore the applicability of the Module to your own life, work, and place in space and time, and to experiment with the Module to see how the otherwise academically rigorous presentation of a topic may, with more or less work and/or trauma, become "up close and personal". This is done in a number of different ways -- sometimes cumulative papers, sometimes practical hands-on experimentation with a tool of some sort, sometimes reflections on a place of work or life. The common thread is personal application, aimed at demonstrating a cumulative knowledge and understanding of the course's material.

For this course, the Session Long Project will take the form of putting together background from each of the four perspectives for a balanced scorecard approach to an organization or organizational unit with which you are familiar. In the final module, you will have a go at strategy mapping. You?re not building a complete balanced scorecard -- that would be far beyond our current scope ? but you?ll have a chance to see what goes into it and how it gets put together into a coordinated whole. As in the cases, you?ll be drawing on your previous course work to help.

The Module 1 assignment has two parts. First, you need to identify an organization to which you have access to at least some information concerning financial data; staffing and human resource systems; marketing and customer relations; information systems; and operations. While most material on the Balanced Scorecard is written from the private, for-profit point of view, it?s perfectly possible to use this approach with public or non-profit organizations as well.

For the second part of this assignment, consider the organization's mission and strategy from the perspective of its financial operations (from your work on the case, your previous course work, and your background reading, you should be reasonably clear what such operations are). In this section of the assignment you?ll begin to identify objectives and measures relevant to that perspective. If you?re unclear on just what objectives and measures are, here is a presentation that describes what they are and how to write them.

Assignment Expectations:

When you have thought about it and made your selection, please specify (2-3 pages):
The name of your organization

What this organization does ? its mission, vision and overall strategy

The access you have to information about this organization -- remember, you?ll need information about its financial performance, marketing, internal operations, strategy, and management systems.

Once you?re reasonably clear on what?s involved, think about your organization and its finances, and then:
Identify at least three objectives for improving the organization's financial position, and show how they relate to the mission, vision and strategy of the organization.

For each objective, develop at least one meaningful performance measure (metric).

For each objective, identify at least one expected level of performance (target).

For each objective, identify at least one new action or program that needs to be developed to ensure successful implementation of the organization's strategy (initiative).

Here?s a table that you may wish to copy and fill in:

Objective Measure Target Action

Table has 3 boxes each header

When your assignment is ready, send it in to CourseNet

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