The transition from pre-conventional to conventional moral development is changing one's view from selfishness to responsibility for others. The transition from conventional to post conventional development is from goodness to truth that "they are people, too." Gilligan's theory supports that there is more than one dimension to moral reasoning, whereas Kohlberg's theory is focused on a male-centered view.
An individual employing problem-focused coping strategies will target the cause of their stress and focus on the problem that is causing the stressful situation. People typically try to learn about the problem and develop skills to manage the situation. Problem-focused coping strategies work best in situations the individual can control, for example, studying for an exam and work-based stressors. In circumstances that are out of an individual's control, such as death and coping with loss, one can use emotion-focused coping strategies. Emotion-focused coping involves reducing stress that is coupled with negative emotional responses such as anxiety, embarrassment, and fear. Such strategies include keeping oneself busy to keep their mind occupied, releasing tension to other people, praying, avoiding the problem, and expecting the worse case scenario. Emotion-focused coping is best used when a situation is out of a person's control, such as disease and terrorist attacks.
Reciprocal socialization is a socialization process where one group complements another, and vice versa, and their exchanging interactions socializes both parties. Reciprocal socialization impacts the family of the adolescent as the parents socialize the adolescent, the adolescent also socializes the parents. Adolescents develop their sense of norms and functions in part by the socialization provided by their parents and family. Parents are impacted by the adolescent's socialization as it influences family decisions and discussions. In these situations, ideas of the adolescent are incorporated into the family dynamic.
A learning disability is a classification used to describe problems that affect the brain's ability to receive, process, analyze, or store information. Interventions to address learning disabilities in adolescence range from alterations with direct instruction and classroom adjustments, to special education. Intervention techniques include highly structured teaching environments and in small learning increments, assessing progress frequently, correcting mistakes immediately, modifying test procedures, alternative assignments to meet the adolescent's needs, educational therapy, and to link intervention activities with family activities.
A host of problems affect adolescents each day, as this a unique time for building world concepts and personal identity. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, four of the major problems affecting the greatest amount of adolescents in the United States are: adolescent pregnancy, substance abuse, runaway youth, and educational/employment deficits.
Approximately one million teenage women become pregnant each year, making it one of the most widespread and costly problems facing American youth. In recent decades, abstinence education has proven to be the least effective intervention method. The most effective intervention method for teen pregnancy involves a balance of sex education and the providing of accessible health and social support services.
Substance abuse among young people is quite significant, and includes the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, stimulants, sedatives, and other illicit drugs. An incredible 91% of adolescents have admitted to abusing alcohol alone. Intervention methods for adolescent substance abuse include improving self-image and increasing education regarding substance abuse. In addition, adolescents must be educated regarding peer pressure and resistance techniques.
In the U.S., approximately 1.2-1.5 million children and adolescents run away from home each year -- this figure does not reflect children running away from foster care or residential placements. According to the U.S. Department of Health, interventions programs have not been placed, and effective studies have not been conducted.
Education deficits are significant in the U.S. As minorities and those of poor economic status are concentrated in the bottom fifth tier of almost every standardized test. Drop out rates are highest in urban areas; in some cities the chances of a student completing their sophomore year of high school is 50%. Intervention techniques include focusing on reading and mathematics to improve standardized test scores. To reduce dropout rates, execution of youth employment and training programs have proven to be beneficial as they improve employability, and result in wages as a healthy incentive to remain in school.