Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem. Werner found that most individuals in a multiracial cohort of children who were exposed at an early age to environmental hazards became competent, caring adults. Werner used the term protective factors to explain her findings. (Rutter -- cited by Rew (2005) -- defined protective factors as those "influences that modify, ameliorate, or alter a person's response to some environmental hazard that predisposes to a maladaptive outcome" (p. 203). Some of the relevant protective factors are:
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited Rosenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity to social norms and increase delinquency.
Other research has linked low self-esteem to substance abuse, depression, and suicidal ideation (Donnellan et al., 2005; Rew, 2005).
Change in Self-Esteem and Rerouting of Possible Consequences
But what of adolescents who have authoritarian or neglectful parents and feel outside the "in-group"? Are they doomed to have low self-esteem and a higher probability of antisocial behavior?
The results of the study by Edwards and Romero (2008), described earlier, indicate otherwise. Adolescents who used direct coping strategies to deal with the stress of discrimination and thereby decreased the effect of discrimination on self-esteem did not follow the poor early environment-low self-esteem-negative outcome sequence. These children would be considered resilient. Rew (2005) identified resilient children as those whose coping mechanisms and cognitive styles protect them from adverse outcomes in spite of poor early environments (such as those with parental discord, criminality or psychiatric disorder). She also listed some of the qualities within the individual that make for resilience:
Temperament (affectionate, alert, responsive)
Sense of humor
Having self-care strategies
Internal locus of control
Religious beliefs and activities
Skills (athletic, artistic, ...
Caring adults (teachers, pastors, church members)
Those who exhibit prosocial values and behaviors
Value placed on individual's contributions to the community
Access to resources such as health-care facilities
Positive role-modeling by adults
Clear and consistent boundaries
Werner concluded her article with a sentence that seems appropriate here: "The individuals in our study who overcame the odds and grew into competent and caring adults . . . told their life stories . . . without rancor, but with a sense of compassion and, above all, with optimism and hopefulness."
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
Parker, J.G., Low, C.M., Walker, A.R., & Gamm, B.K. (2005). Friendship jealousy in young adolescents: Individual differences and links to sex, self-esteem, aggression, and social adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 41, 235 -- 250. doi: 10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.206
Rew, L. (2005). Adolescent health: A multidisciplinary approach to theory, research, and intervention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Robins, R.W. & Trzesniewski
http://cdp.sagepub.com/content/14/3/158.short l "aff-2," K.H. (2005). Self-esteem development across the lifespan. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 158-162. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00353
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent…
Werner found that most individuals in a multiracial cohort of children who were exposed at an early age to environmental hazards became competent, caring adults. Werner used the term protective factors to explain her findings. (Rutter -- cited by Rew (2005) -- defined protective factors as those "influences that modify, ameliorate, or alter a person's response to some environmental hazard that predisposes to a maladaptive outcome" (p. 203). Some of the relevant protective factors are:
These differences need to be explored and elucidated before drawing conclusions from a diverse sample size. A researcher would do well to investigate self-esteem among highly specific population samples to avoid confusion between variables. Gender is an important variable to consider in self-esteem research. Girls and boys are socialized to express their self-esteem differently. Therefore, it would be nearly impossible to research self-esteem among a pre-adolescent population without taking gender
Abstract for Gause, Simpson & Biggs (2009): "Within the United States, schools offer many opportunities for developing obesity-prevention strategies" (Paxson, Donahue, Orleans, & Grisso, 2006, pg. 9). Many programs are offered in the schools, but most are single faceted programs targeting obesity through reformed nutritional programs or increasing physical activity within the schools. Minimal program offerings and research are available that have a multi-faceted approach to addressing the self-esteem of children
Self-Esteem and Stress Life is a continuous journey, one that is filled with a rollercoaster of emotions and learning experiences. Throughout the journey of life, all individuals inevitably encounter potentially stressful situations, i.e., death of a parent, friend, or lover; divorce; drug and/or alcohol abuse; financial difficulties; traumatic breakup; unemployment; etc. Individuals generally react to stressful situations in one of two ways. First, some individuals use stressful situations as a motivator,
One criticism however is that while the information is informative, it is at times a bit too concise and inadequate in terms of the complexity and numerous variables related to self-esteem and self-image issues. The article also deals with important aspects such as the way that beliefs and patterns of thought can create low self-esteem. The most positive and enlightening aspect of the article is the attention that is
it's made me who I am, the reason is I have had to work so much harder. I would take it again, gladly. It has taught me to take good and bad, and to change the bad into good. It gives you a sense of motivation, fight for yourself, it gives you that perseverance to carry on. I have succeeded and am still succeeding" (Klompas & Ross, 2004, p.
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality