¶ … approved by an institutional ethics committee and designed to conform to the Helsinki Declaration (Zaman, Sheikh, Das, Zaman, & Pal, 2014). Informed consent was obtained after explaining that participant confidentiality would be protected. The risks were minimized by having the participants complete the questionnaires at home and the benefits maximized when visited by clinician/researchers during data collection. The purpose of the study was to identify demographic variables predicting delays between symptom onset and TB treatment-seeking behavior, so the gathering of demographic information through self-reports was appropriate and rigorous, but not the most rigorous. A more rigorous approach would be to validate collected information using family member interviews; therefore, key variables were not operationalized using the best possible method. Given the study design and purpose, a comparison group was not needed. Since the researchers were gathering demographic and symptom onset information, the risks to internal and construct validity was minimized. Socioeconomic variables were then identified that would allow clinicians to predict which groups were most likely to delay treatment following symptom onset, thereby maximizing external validity and providing congruency between the operational and conceptual definitions.
Since extensive demographic information was gathered, the population was described extensively...
Limiting participants to all smear positive patients identified in Assam, India during 2007 provided the best sampling strategy, maximized representativeness, and minimized sampling bias. Accordingly, sample size, statistical power, and sample bias considerations were irrelevant. The instrument was not described at all, except to declare that it was designed by the researchers with the help of experts. The data obtained was consistent with the findings of other published studies, thereby conferring validity and reliability to the findings.
The National Tuberculosis Control Program in Burundi approved of the study and nurses who agreed to be interviewed did so voluntarily and with informed consent; therefore, the recruitment approach was appropriate and ethical (Carlsson, Johansson, Eale, & Kaboru, 2014). Interview transcripts were coded and all recordings destroyed, so the risks were minimized; although, benefits were not obvious. The study design was descriptive and used qualitative semi-structured interviews, which was congruent. The researchers and trained interpreter travelled to clinics to conduct the interviews, which took between 15 and 40 minutes. Sufficient time was allowed in the field to collect data and saturation had been reached by the seventh interview, suggesting the best possible method of sampling had been used given the…
It is important that I am honest to anyone who I choose to be my mentor. Communication must be frank and honest, as learning is the key to research. Requirements for IRB Approval Institutional Review Boards (IRB) are the governing bodies that determine what research may be conducted at the university. This is the approving authority for future knowledge and must be treated with honor and respect. As a student under
[09 September 2006]. http://www.bartleby.com/63/28/228.html. A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103972372 Shamoo, Adil E., and David B. Resnik. Responsible Conduct of Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Stanford Human Research Protection Program Wins Highest Rating from Accrediting Group.," Business Wire, March 23, 2006. UNIVERSITY POLICY." University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, 2006. http://www.umdnj.edu/oppmweb/Policies/HTML/AcademicAff/00-01-2085_00.html. Yoder, Linda H.. "The basics of human subjects protection.(Cancer: Caring and Conquering)," MedSurg Nursing, April 1, 2006. Wechsler, Jill. "FDA to modernize BIMO activities:
When ordinary 'beat cops' act unethically, it immediately garners negative media attention because it affects the public in such a visceral and immediate fashion. Police officers are the average citizen's main source of contact with the justice system and so they are carefully watched. However, prosecutors may decide to proceed with a prosecution despite questionable evidence or act unethically in other ways, and unless it comes to the media's
Ethics The Institutional Review Board (IRB) was created to protect human rights in research studies. Prior to the creation of ethical standards in research individual rights were frequently violated without consequence for such actions. Extreme examples of ethical violations include the experiments conducted on individuals during the Nazi Concentration Camps and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. In both cases individuals were inflicted with significant harm without knowledge of the study or willing
Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social Responsibility OCED state-owned enterprises and Privatized companies In the past few decades, emerging economies have launched ambitious plans to privatize their state owned enterprises (SOEs). The volume of privatization in emerging economies has increased from $8 billion in 1990 to about $65 billion in 1997 (Dharwadkar, George, & Brandes, 2000). In privatization, ownership is transferred from the state to new private and public owners, which may
Business ethics is a division of ethics that pertains to the interaction of business and ethics and applies ethical analysis to the business area. It is both expressive and normal. The five activities within business ethics can be delineated as follows: 1. Using general ethical principles to specific practices in business. 2. The analysis of whether moral terms related to individuals' actions may be applied to combined entities such as firms. 3. Analysis